Grammar - Learning Community Charter School

Grammar - Learning Community Charter School

Grammar Grammar 45 Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________ Unit 1: Subjects, Predicate...

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Grammar

Grammar

45

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 1: Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences Lesson 1

Kinds of Sentences: Declarative and Interrogative A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. All sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a punctuation mark. Different kinds of sentences have different purposes. Grammar

A declarative sentence makes a statement. It ends with a period. Last summer I went on a long trip. An interrogative sentence asks a question. It ends with a question mark. Where did you go on your vacation?

 Exercise 1 Insert a period if the sentence is declarative. Insert a question mark if it is interrogative. My family and I went to Alaska . 1. Have you ever been that far north ? 2. Alaska is a wonderful and wild state . 3. Isn’t it the largest state in the union ?

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4. Was the weather hotter than you expected ? 5. Some days were so warm that I wore shorts . 6. In some parts of Alaska, the sun never sets in summer . 7. Summers in Alaska don’t last very long . 8. Are Alaskan winters as cold as they say ? 9. The ground under much of Alaska is permanently frozen . 10. How can animals live in such a cold climate ? 11. All the animals in Alaska are equipped for the cold . 12. Did you see any bears in Alaska ? 13. We saw a lot of brown bears at Katmai National Monument .

Unit 1, Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. Male brown bears can be as tall as ten feet . 15. Can an animal that big move very fast ? 16. A brown bear can run as fast as twenty-five miles per hour . 17. Do you think you’d be afraid of a brown bear ? 18. Did you know that the highest mountain in North America is in Alaska ? 19. The mountain is called Denali .

21. Denali is a Native American word that means “the great one” . 22. At one time only Native Americans lived in Alaska . 23. Who were the first white settlers in Alaska ? 24. Russians built a settlement on Kodiak Island in 1784 . 25. Why did the Russians want to settle in Alaska ? 26. They went there to look for furs . 27. Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867 . 28. How much did the United States pay for Alaska ? 29. Alaska cost the United States $7.2 million . 30. Does that seem like a lot of money to you ? 31. When did Americans begin going to Alaska ? 32. Americans began going to Alaska during the 1890s and 1900s . 33. They went there to look for gold . 34. Large amounts of “black gold” were discovered in Alaska in 1968 . 35. What is “black gold” ? 36. “Black gold” is another name for oil . 37. Alaska also has coal, platinum, copper, and uranium . 38. Did you take many pictures during your trip ? 39. I took a great shot of an eagle catching a salmon . 40. Do you want to see some other pictures I took ?

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Grammar

20. What does Denali mean ?

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 2

Kinds of Sentences: Exclamatory and Imperative In addition to declarative and interrogative sentences, there are two other types of sentences. An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation point. I never saw so much traffic!

Grammar

An imperative sentence commands someone to do something. The subject you is understood. An imperative sentence can end with either a period or an exclamation point. (You) Look both ways before crossing the street. (You) Look out!

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 Exercise 1 Write exc. in the blank before each exclamatory sentence and imp. before each imperative sentence. exc.

That alarm clock is too loud!

imp.

1. Give the orange juice to Cecilia.

exc.

2. How sleepy I am!

exc.

3. What a funny dream I had last night!

exc.

4. I can hardly wait for the dance!

imp.

5. Please don’t talk so loudly.

imp.

6. Tell Kwasi that it’s time to get up.

imp.

7. Put the timer where you’ll be sure to see it.

exc.

8. I love peanut butter sandwiches!

exc.

9. The toast is burning!

imp.

10. Give this bottle to the baby.

exc.

11. Becky spilled all her cereal!

imp.

12. Mop it up with a paper towel.

imp.

13. Help me set the table.

exc.

14. I’m in trouble if I’m late for school!

exc.

15. Jan forgot to do her math homework! Unit 1, Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences

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imp.

16. Please take these books back to the library.

imp.

17. Pour some more milk for Ricardo.

exc.

18. How I would love to be a rock star!

imp.

19. Get that cat off the table!

exc.

20. The puppy chewed a hole in my sock!

imp.

21. Pull up the anchor so we can be on our way.

exc.

22. Gordo is such a cute puppy!

imp.

23. Take these old magazines to your art teacher.

imp.

24. Be careful not to drop the plates.

exc.

25. My new sneakers are covered with mud!

imp.

26. Comb Tina’s hair and put a ribbon in it.

exc.

27. I wish Dad would drive us to school!

exc.

28. I can’t believe you ate all of that!

exc.

29. Oh, no, the car won’t start!

imp.

30. Make sure you have enough air in your bike tires.

imp.

31. Put your dishes in the sink before you leave.

imp.

32. Don’t forget to call me when you get home.

exc.

33. I dropped my ring into the sink!

exc.

34. You spilled juice on the floor!

imp.

35. Make sure you tie your shoes before jogging.

imp.

36. Put this apple in your pocket.

 Writing Link Write a paragraph explaining how to play a game. Use exclamatory and imperative sentences.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 3

Subjects and Predicates: Simple and Complete Every sentence has two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject part of a sentence names whom or what the sentence is about. The predicate part of a sentence tells what the subject does or has. It can also describe what the subject is or is like. SUBJECT PART The mountain climbers

PREDICATE PART reached the peak. Grammar

The complete subject is all of the words in the subject part of a sentence. The complete predicate is all of the words in the predicate part of a sentence. COMPLETE SUBJECT The horse’s black mane

COMPLETE PREDICATE was blowing in the wind.

The simple subject is the main person or thing in the subject part of a sentence. The simple predicate is the main word or group of words in the predicate part of a sentence. SIMPLE SUBJECT The horse’s black mane

SIMPLE PREDICATE was blowing in the wind.

 Exercise 1 Draw one line under each complete subject and two lines under each complete predicate.

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The bottle of milk is in the refrigerator. 1. That little dog is following us to school. 2. Brian forgot his flute. 3. The yellow canary fell in love with the shiny mirror. 4. Those plaid slacks are much too long for me. 5. Kisha hated the movie. 6. The big, shaggy animals in the pen are yaks. 7. The girl’s long red hair shone in the sun. 8. The Yellow Hornets won the softball game. 9. My cousin Diana hit the ball right over the fence. 10. A sudden rainstorm ended the game.

Unit 1, Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

11. He spilled the popcorn on the person in front of him. 12. Franco walked home alone. 13. The fire engine raced by on the way to a fire. 14. Dad’s tie was ruined by the gooey mess. 15. The red construction paper is in the cabinet. 16. Captain Kidd was a fearsome pirate.

18. The small boat sank in the big waves. 19. The brave soldier was rescued. 20. Alison’s stepmother teaches English at the high school.  Exercise 2 Draw one line under each simple subject and two lines under each simple predicate. I am twelve years old today. 1. Marco was born in Venice, Italy. 2. Chanel’s father traded his used car for a new one. 3. He traveled all the way to China by himself. 4. Those two were the first to cross the finish line. 5. In March, I returned all of my library books. 6. At least one hundred people waited in line. 7. He told his little sister a bedtime story. 8. Scott’s cousin lost his favorite jacket. 9. The diagram showed three secret passageways. 10. Chen’s nickname was “Louisville Slugger.” 11. Marina never told people her secret. 12. The musician strummed the guitar quietly. 13. Christopher read every book by his favorite author. 14. The red skirt cost more than the blue skirt. 15. The Buckeroos made Gary an honorary member of the team.

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Grammar

17. The band played for two hours.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 4

Subjects and Predicates: Compound Some sentences have more than one simple subject or simple predicate. A compound subject is two or more simple subjects that have the same predicate. The simple subjects are joined by and, or, or but. Mummies and art objects are found in Egyptian tombs.

Grammar

A compound predicate is two or more simple predicates that have the same subject. The simple predicates are connected by and, or, or but. The archaeologists excavated the tomb and discovered the treasure. Some sentences have both a compound subject and a compound predicate. The pharaoh and his wife loved the people and did many good works.

 Exercise 1 Draw one line under the compound subject and two lines under the simple predicate that they share. Volcanoes and earthquakes cause great destruction. 1. Rome and Florence are two cities in Italy. 2. Both Sara and Caroline were chosen for the team. 3. Cinders and ashes rose from the fire.

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4. People and animals mingle at the zoo. 5. Historians, archaeologists, and tourists love to explore ancient ruins. 6. Paintings and other objects were on display at the museum. 7. Smoke and car exhaust pollute the air. 8. Hot dogs and hamburgers sizzled on the grill. 9. In Egypt mummies and pyramids are favorite subjects of study. 10. My uncle and brother visited me in the hospital. 11. In the summer Shama and I swim every day. 12. Gold and silver cost more than copper. 13. Food and dishes filled the table. 14. The doctor and her nurse waited for the next patient. Unit 1, Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. Teeth and bones need calcium for strength. 16. Emily and Bill met Ron at the movies. 17. The lion and cheetah are predators. 18. The Ohio River and the Missouri River flow into the Mississippi River. 19. The librarian and their teacher helped them.

 Exercise 2 Draw one line under each simple or compound subject and two lines under each compound predicate. LaToya opened her book and raised her hand. 1. Farmers raise crops and sell them to food companies. 2. Mom and Juan made a casserole and put it in the oven. 3. They left the party and headed home. 4. We changed our clothes and went out for dinner. 5. Both Ahmed and Tanika study hard and get good grades. 6. The cat opened its mouth and yawned. 7. Shawn ignored the television and did his homework. 8. Mom and Dad built a doghouse and painted it. 9. My stepbrother opened the door and ran into the yard. 10. The dog followed him and barked. 11. At night we sit on the front porch and tell stories. 12. Our team scored a run and won the game. 13. Sarah will turn on the light and close the curtain. 14. Alicia and Consuelo went to the store and bought milk. 15. The thunder and lightning scared the campers and kept them awake. 16. Kevin likes hamsters and keeps them as pets. 17. I will wash the dishes and put them away. 18. The 4-H Club raises animals and shows them at fairs.

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Grammar

20. Most men and women exercise to stay in shape.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 5

Simple and Compound Sentences A simple sentence has one subject and one predicate. SUBJECT Natalie Bill and Edward The runners

PREDICATE won the marbles tournament. signed up for the paper drive. lined up and waited for the starting signal. Grammar

A compound sentence contains two or more simple sentences joined by a comma and and, but, or or. They can also be joined by a semicolon (;). Jessica’s cake won first prize, and Katherine won the sack race. Jessica’s cake won first prize; Katherine won the sack race.

 Exercise 1 Write S in the blank before each simple sentence and C before each compound sentence.

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S

You and I should go to the fair and see the sights.

S

1. Both adults and kids love to go to the fair.

C

2. You buy the tickets, and I’ll get the popcorn.

C

3. The animals are over there, and the crafts are down this way.

S

4. Julieta won a blue ribbon for her painting.

S

5. The games and contests are along the crowded fairway.

S

6. The bubble gum contest and the juggling contest are almost over.

C

7. Al blew a huge bubble, but Fernanda’s bubble was bigger.

C

8. Jack’s pig is groomed well; it’s friendly, too.

S

9. The pig got away and escaped into the crowd.

C

10. I want a hot dog, but Mom says to wait.

C

11. Mrs. Collins bakes wonderful pies, and her children eat them.

C

12. I want to ride the Ferris wheel, but Ted is afraid.

S

13. The roller coaster and the spaceship are the most popular rides.

C

14. Give the calf’s rope to me, or tie it to the post.

C

15. Anita won first prize; Franco came in second. Unit 1, Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences

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S

16. My frog, Big Nell, had the longest legs and jumped farthest.

C

17. You can put the trophy on the mantel, or you can put it on the shelf.

C

18. The cats slept in their cages, and their owners waited nervously.

C

19. Puff was the prettiest cat, but she didn’t win.

C

20. I’d like to take a kitten home, but we already have too many cats.

S

21. The goat ate its blue ribbon and took a nap.

C

22. Anita raised the champion cow; her brother showed it at the fair.

S

23. The chicken and the rooster stood side by side.

C

24. Randi raises rabbits, and Shelly shears sheep.

S

25. The biggest pumpkin and the biggest tomato are on that table.

C

26. Dad picked the lettuce; I made a prizewinning salad.

C

27. Jenny feeds the rabbits, and Andy brushes them.

S

28. My sister and her friends made that quilt.

C

29. She made the squares for the quilt, and Mandy sewed them together.

S

30. At the dog show, two terriers got into a fight.

S

31. The grape jelly and the orange marmalade taste wonderful on toast.

C

32. Give the chickens some corn, and fill their water dish.

S

33. The ponies and the horses are in the barn.

C

34. My sister found a wallet, and I took it to the lost-and-found.

C

35. Throw a table tennis ball into the goldfish bowl, and win a prize.

C

36. Herbie won a stuffed gorilla; Alma won a stuffed tiger.

 Writing Link Write a paragraph that explains how to prepare your favorite food. Use at least two compound sentences.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 6

Sentence Fragments A sentence must have both a subject and a predicate to express a complete thought. A group of words that lacks a subject, a predicate, or both is a sentence fragment. A fragment does not express a complete thought and should be avoided in writing.

Grammar

Almost stopped them. (lacks a subject) The three explorers. (lacks a predicate) Almost to the top. (lacks a subject and a predicate)

 Exercise 1 Draw one line under the complete subject and two lines under the complete predicate of each complete sentence. If a sentence is not complete, write F (fragment) in the blank. F

Of brave explorers. 1. History tells tales of brave explorers.

F

2. Christopher Columbus.

F

3. Sailed in three ships. 4. Christopher Columbus and his men sailed in three ships. 5. Their long voyage brought them to the New World.

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F

6. The explorer Amerigo Vespucci. 7. America was named for the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. 8. Sir Edmund Hillary was the first to climb Mt. Everest.

F

9. A very high mountain. 10. Everest is a high mountain in Nepal. 11. Hillary and his group almost died in the cold.

F

12. Hard to breathe. 13. It is hard to breathe on extremely high mountains. 14. Oxygen is very thin that high up. 15. Peary reached the North Pole first. 16. His dogs pulled him on a sled. Unit 1, Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

F

17. Arrived there before him. 18. Captain Cook, might have arrived there before him. 19. Other explorers found the Northwest Passage.

F

20. Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 21. This watery passage joins the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

F

22. Many of today’s explorers.

Grammar

23. Many of today’s explorers look to the skies. 24. Others explore the deep oceans. 25. You can also explore without leaving your room. 26. You can explore with your mind. 27. Some scientific discoveries are based on theories. 28. Johannes Kepler discovered the cause of tides. 29. Few people believed him. 30. Isaac Newton made many important scientific discoveries. F

31. Without these people. 32. These people made a difference in our world. 33. Modern astronauts depend on their discoveries.

F

35. Much different from today’s. 36. Tomorrow’s world will be much different. 37. Space travel may be common.

F

38. The world tomorrow.

 Writing Link Write two complete sentences about a process you would like to learn more about.

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34. Today’s scientists are still exploring new ideas.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 7

Run-On Sentences A run-on sentence is two or more sentences incorrectly written as one sentence. Correct a run-on sentence by writing separate sentences or by combining the sentences with a semicolon (;) or with a comma and and, or, or but. RUN-ON SENTENCE Bill won the race, the crowd cheered.

Grammar

CORRECTED SENTENCE Bill won the race. The crowd cheered. Bill won the race; the crowd cheered. Bill won the race, and the crowd cheered.

 Exercise 1 Write R next to each run-on sentence. R R

You took a chance you lost the game. 1. Architects design buildings, their buildings can take years to complete. 2. Lionel took the subway and then transferred to a bus. 3. The colors in his painting are quite striking. 4. I ordered a small sweatshirt, but I received a large one.

R

5. Preheat the oven, bake for one hour.

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6. The tower cleared the runway, but the plane still could not take off. R

7. Yori took an aspirin, there was only one left.

R

8. The bill comes to almost twenty dollars, are you going to pay it? 9. Of all the birds at the pet store, we liked the parrots best. 10. Subtract ten from twelve for the answer. 11. Here is your present, but don’t open it until your birthday.

R

12. Clean your room first and then we can go to the movie.

R

13. Daryl’s first test was too easy, his second test was much more difficult. 14. Go to the first street; then turn left. 15. The first store had the best selection, but the second store had the album I wanted.

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

R

16. Look at all the people at the parade I wonder where we can sit. 17. Susie is planning a surprise party; Karen doesn’t suspect a thing.

R

18. The night sky was clear many stars could be seen.

R

19. George and Hernando are walking to the park, I am riding my bicycle. 20. Saturday’s softball game will have to be postponed if it rains.

R

21. Tonight we are going to see a skating competition I hope it is like the

Grammar

Olympics. 22. Cynthia wrote a letter to Cousin Jane, and Dad mailed it for her. 23. Mike is reading The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, but Jamie is reading The Prince and the Pauper. R

24. The actors are sewing their own costumes it is quite a challenge. 25. Scott’s jacket is colorful; it is also very warm.

R

26. The new bridge has several special features one of them is a carving of a ship. 27. We can eat first, or we can start the tour. 28. Buy the seeds this week, and plant them next week.

 Exercise 2 Underline each run-on sentence in the paragraph. If you’re looking for something to do with your free time, you might think about starting

cards, some people collect the autographs of famous people, did you know there are even some people who collect colorful shopping bags from different stores? If you have a special interest in sports or music, you might decide to collect baseball caps or photos of musicians. If you like nature, you could collect seashells, fossils, or wooden carvings of ducks. Collecting is fun, collecting can be profitable. The items you collect can double or even triple in value over the years, stamps and coins are good examples of this. Most people enjoy collecting because they like looking for new items to add to their collection. Finding a rare shell or discovering a one-of-a-kind baseball card in your grandmother’s attic is a real thrill for most collectors.

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a collection. There are millions of collectors in the world. Some people collect baseball

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 1 Review  Exercise 1 Write dec. in the blank before each declarative sentence, int. before each interrogative sentence, exc. before each exclamatory sentence, and imp. before each imperative sentence. exc.

What a great skateboard this is! 1. Should I bring an umbrella?

dec.

2. It’s been raining for three days.

imp.

3. Come with me to the store.

int.

4. Are your shoes too tight?

exc.

5. My library card is ruined!

Grammar

int.

 Exercise 2 Write S before each simple sentence, C before each compound sentence, and F before each sentence fragment.

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S

The oldest zoo in the United States is in Philadelphia.

S

1. Washington and Jefferson liked to fish.

C

2. I want to get a cat, but my sister wants a dog.

F

3. In the doghouse behind the garage.

C

4. The horses are in the barn; the cows are in the field.

S

5. Bring it here, please.

 Exercise 3 Draw one line under each simple subject. Draw two lines under each simple predicate. Separate the complete subject and complete predicate with a vertical line (|). Many children|love animals. 1. Big dogs need lots of space. 2. Kendall made a valentine for his stepmother and gave it to her. 3. The postcard from Eliza is on the table. 4. The dog and cat chased the squirrel up the tree. 5. The red book belongs to Eliza and Ted. Unit 1, Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Unit 1  Exercise 1 Write dec. if the sentence is declarative, int. if it is interrogative, exc. if it is exclamatory, or imp. if it is imperative. Is Bobby home?

dec.

1. The lightbulb is burned out.

int.

2. Will you help me shovel the driveway?

exc.

3. Wow, that was a fantastic movie!

imp.

4. Please give Miss Kitty some milk.

dec.

5. Your red shirt is in the dryer.

exc.

6. What a cold day it is!

int.

7. Did you wear your boots today?

dec.

8. The cat is chasing the dog.

imp.

9. Don’t drop these eggs.

int.

10. Is it my turn now?

 Exercise 2 Draw one line under each simple subject. Draw two lines under each simple predicate. Separate the complete subject from the complete predicate with a vertical line (|). The pirates|sailed down the coast. 1. Alma and Phil swam laps together. 2. My mom found the money. 3. My friend’s dog and my neighbor’s cat growl at each other. 4. The third pig’s house was made of brick. 5. The straw basket was full of apples and nuts. 6. The small boy led the way to the castle and opened the door. 7. The tired soldiers charged up the hill. 8. The pizza and drinks were eight dollars. 9. Cara and Tim closed their eyes during the scary movie. 10. Cora’s aunt knitted her a sweater and a hat.

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Grammar

int.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 2: Nouns Lesson 8

Nouns: Proper and Common A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. There are two basic kinds of nouns: common nouns and proper nouns. A common noun names any person, place, thing, or idea. Grammar

A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. It may consist of one or more words. Always begin a proper noun with a capital letter. If a proper noun has more than one word, capitalize the first word and all the important words. People: Places:

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Things:

COMMON NOUN student police officer school park poem painting

PROPER NOUN Jan Lopez Captain Michael Millay Dewey Middle School Central Park “Jabberwocky” Mona Lisa

 Exercise 1 Write com. above each common noun and prop. above each proper noun. com. com. com. My stepfather bought me blue slacks and a red jacket. prop. prop. com. 1. Uncle Lloyd, Aunt June, and I went to a movie. prop. com. com. 2. The Cubs won the first game of the season. prop. com. com. prop. 3. Felicia scored ten points in the game against Davis School. prop. prop. prop. 4. The Americans fought the British in the Battle of New Orleans. prop. com. com. 5. Brenda is a new student in our class. prop. com. com. prop. 6. Jaime got a good grade on his paper about Albert Einstein. com. com. prop. 7. We left our bags at the station in Pittsburgh. prop. com. 8. In Philadelphia we visited many historical places. com. prop. prop. 9. Does this book on Egypt belong to Maria? com. prop. com. 10. May we have a picnic at Lincoln Park this weekend? Unit 2, Nouns

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com. com. com. 11. I could see the fear in the eyes of the little dog. com. com. com. 12. My mother is a supervisor at the factory. com. com. prop. 13. The water in the pool at Shelby Park is nice and warm. com. prop. 14. Many boats sail on the Charles River. prop. com. 15. Superman is my hero. com. prop. 16. The pink and green skateboard belongs to Akimi. com. com. com. com. 17. The rain and snow kept the children inside for the day. prop. prop. 18. Have you read Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll? prop. com. 19. Jack says this book is the funniest he has ever read. prop. com. com. 20. Gordo, my puppy, ate all the meat. com. com. com. com. 21. Put your guitar on the chair and your coat in the closet. prop. com. prop. 22. Broadway is a famous street in New York City. prop. prop. com. 23. We’re going to Texas and Louisiana to visit my cousins. prop. com. prop. 24. Uncle Antoine keeps his boat on Lake Pontchartrain. prop. com. 25. Ask Mr. Capozza if he knows where my mitt is. com. prop. 26. Last winter we skated on Walden Pond. prop. com. prop. prop. 27. Jo is a character in Little Women by Louisa May Alcott. com. prop. prop. 28. My father was born in Dublin, Ireland. com. com. com. 29. Put more sauce on this plate of spaghetti. com. com. prop. 30. The car got all dirty on the long drive from Omaha. com. com. com. 31. The apples for the pie came from our own trees. prop. com. prop. 32. Nance left the house before Louisa did. com. com. prop. 33. That building across the street is the Empire State Building. prop. prop. 34. I’ve seen the Atlantic, but I haven’t seen the Pacific. com. com. prop. 35. There are many schools and colleges in and around Boston. com. prop. 36. This bus will take you to Park Street.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 9

Nouns: Singular and Plural A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea. A plural noun names more than one. Most plural nouns are formed by adding -s or -es to the singular form of the noun. To write the plural forms of some nouns, however, you need to know special rules.

NOUNS ENDING WITH s, z, -zz, ch, sh, x

TO FORM PLURAL Add -es.

EXAMPLE church, churches

o preceded by a vowel

Add -s.

patio, patios

o preceded by a consonant

Usually add -es. Sometimes add -s.

echo, echoes piano, pianos

y preceded by a vowel

Add -s.

monkey, monkeys

y preceded by a consonant

Usually change y to i and add -es.

fly, flies

f or fe

Usually change f to v and add -es. Sometimes add -s.

knife, knives

Grammar

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FORMING PLURAL NOUNS

earmuff, earmuffs

 Exercise 1 Write S above each singular noun. Write P above each plural noun. P P P My parents want us children to do the dishes. P S S 1. The paintings were in the old wing of the museum. P P 2. The donkeys ran through the fields. P S P 3. All the books in the library have special numbers. S S 4. Did you see the cat run down the alley? S S 5. The game Josh is playing is the hardest. S P 6. That sailor has several medals. P P 7. The calves stood calmly beside their mothers. P P 8. Scientists work on many serious problems. S P 9. This store sells supplies for school. P P 10. Do you have any autographs of famous singers? P S S 11. The cliffs of Dover in England are white. Unit 2, Nouns

65

S S 12. I wonder if the astronaut was afraid as he floated in space. S S 13. We shouted into the cave and heard an echo. P 14. There are not enough forks to go around. S S S 15. Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. S S P 16. The baby has outgrown his coat and mittens. P S 17. I have to go to two birthday parties this weekend. P S P S 18. Lions live on the plain, and tigers live in the jungle. S P 19. The car has four flat tires. S P P 20. Jamie has read several books of historical fiction.  Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by writing the correct form of the noun in parentheses. Use a dictionary if necessary. heroes

Mom says that all the soldiers are [

bunches

1. The little boy was carrying three [

roof

2. The squirrel is sitting on the [

4. Is it very sunny on the [

to come in. (fly)

patio

? (patio)

5. Ami and Cyndi played a duet on two [ 6. Three [

ladies

pianos

valley

8. The yodeler’s cry rang through the [ 9. Yvonne has lived in several large [

cities

10. I just finished raking up that huge pile of [ trenches

11. The campers dug [

12. I never saw so many [

photos

13. Did you boil enough [

potatoes

bus

. (piano)

were ahead of us in line. (lady)

7. The submarine was sunk by the enemy’s [

14. The [

of flowers. (bunch)

of the house. (roof)

flies

3. The torn screen allowed [

. (hero)

torpedo

. (torpedo)

. (valley) . (city) leaves

. (leaf)

to keep water out of their tents. (trench) of one cat. (photo) for the salad? (potato)

going downtown is usually crowded. (bus)

15. Maddie found three [

pennies

66 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

on the sidewalk. (penny)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 10

Nouns: Collective Words that name a group of people or things, such as crowd and team, are called collective nouns. A collective noun can take either a singular or a plural verb. Make the verb singular when the group acts as a unit. Make it plural when each member of the group acts separately. The crowd was excited by the close game. The crowd were pushing each other to get through the gate.

S The class is putting on a musical this year. P 1. The audience were shifting restlessly in their seats. S 2. All of a sudden the crowd rose to its feet. S 3. The construction crew works at night. S 4. The herd of cattle is grazing peacefully on the hillside. S 5. The jury is glad to take a break.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

S 6. Carla’s family is going to visit relatives in Mexico. P 7. The jury are carefully discussing the evidence. S 8. A scientific team is searching for a cure. S 9. The public is unhappy with the politicians. P 10. The group of students were talking and laughing. P 11. My family disagree with each other about the movie. S 12. The club I belong to does fund-raising for charity. P 13. The baseball team take their positions on the field. S 14. The committee has finally reached a decision. Unit 2, Nouns

67

Grammar

 Exercise 1 Underline each collective noun. Above it write S if it is singular and P if it is plural.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

S 15. The swarm of bees was following the queen bee. P 16. My class are taking turns watering the plants. S 17. The band is playing at the dance. S 18. The class is about equally divided between girls and boys.

S 20. The orchestra plays in the park on Sundays.  Exercise 2 Draw a line under the verb in parentheses that best completes the sentence. The committee (is, are) unanimous in its decision. 1. My family (is, are) spending the weekend at Grandma’s house. 2. The class (has, have) different ideas on how to decorate the gym. 3. The big crowd (was, were) surprisingly quiet. 4. Jessica’s family (is, are) taking vacations in different places. 5. The Spanish club (is, are) raising money for a trip to Mexico. 6. The group (has, have) followers from all over the world. 7. The team (is, are) running in all directions. 8. The audience (was, were) reading or chatting before the show started. 9. A flock of geese (is, are) flying overhead. 10. The public (is, are) very happy with the new mayor. 11. The office staff (is, are) having a picnic on Saturday. 12. Our team (is, are) ahead by one point. 13. The band of cowhands (is, are) herding the horses across the river. 14. The orchestra (was, were) all playing the wrong notes. 15. The staff (is, are) all members of different health clubs. 16. Only the best team (is, are) going to the playoffs. 17. Do you know if the senate (is, are) meeting today? 18. The crowd (is, are) on its feet.

68 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

S 19. The flock of pigeons flew to the top of the building.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 11

Nouns: Possessives A noun that shows ownership of things or qualities is a possessive noun. The lion’s mane is shaggy. All of the clowns’ costumes are bright and colorful. The children’s tickets to the circus are in my pocket. FORMING POSSESSIVE NOUNS

Singular nouns ending in -s Plural nouns ending in -s

TO FORM POSSESSIVE Add an apostrophe and -s (’s). Add an apostrophe and -s (’s). Add an apostrophe (’).

Plural nouns not ending in -s

Add an apostrophe and -s (’s).

EXAMPLES The seal’s ball is red. Chris’s ticket got lost. The tigers’ trainer is brave. The people’s faces are happy.

Grammar

NOUNS Most singular nouns

Remember that possessive nouns always contain apostrophes. Plural nouns do not. The acrobats have capes.

Where are the acrobats’ capes?

 Exercise 1 Underline each possessive noun. Above it write S if it is singular and P if it is plural.

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P The clowns’ red noses look like cherries. S 1. Do you think the human cannonball’s trick is dangerous? S 2. The ringmaster’s voice has to be very loud. P 3. The lions’ roars don’t seem to scare the trainer. P 4. Someone must carefully check the trapeze artists’ ropes. S 5. Please don’t eat all of your sister’s popcorn. S 6. The trainer is putting his head in the lion’s mouth! P 7. I dare you to count the zebras’ stripes. S 8. The rider stood on the horse’s back. Unit 2, Nouns

69

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

S 9. The audience’s applause rang through the arena. S 10. The trainer’s belief is that lions can be trained but not tamed. P 11. The big cats’ tempers can be very fierce. P 12. The baby elephants grabbed their mothers’ tails.

S P 14. The woman’s costume is the same color as her poodles’ fur. P 15. The acrobats’ legs must be very strong.  Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by writing the possessive form of the word in parentheses. horse’s

The worker braided the [ 1. The [

Ringling Brothers’

3. The [

cannon’s

5. The [

clowns’

6. The [

explosion’s

8. The [

antics delight everyone. (clowns)

children’s

9. The circus [

noise is frightful. (explosion)

11. The circus [

acts dangerous? (performers)

smiles lit up the arena. (children)

animals’

10. Look! That [

12. The [

bravery is amazing. (trainer)

performers’

7. Are most [

coats are sleek and shiny. (animals)

dog’s

toenails are painted red. (dog)

band’s

tiger’s

conductor raised her baton. (band) fangs are long and sharp. (tiger)

13. This is supposed to be the [ 14. The toddler pulled the [ 15. The [

act is next. (cannonball)

fuse is about to be lit. (cannon)

trainer’s

4. The lion [

circus was one of the most famous. (Ringling Brothers)

cannonball’s

2. The human [

mane. (horse)

performers’

world’s monkey’s

biggest circus. (world) tail. (monkey)

capes are made of silk. (performers)

70 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

S 13. The circus’s winter home is in Florida.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 2 Review  Exercise 1 Write prop. above each proper noun, com. above each common noun, and col. above each collective noun.

1.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Grammar

2.

prop. prop. com. Jamie and Pat live in the same neighborhood. com. prop. Have you seen my copy of Jem’s Island? prop. prop. col. Sharon and Akira belong to the club. com. com. prop. The balloons sailed through the sky above Walker Stadium. col. com. Watch out for that swarm of bees. com. prop. The clothing at Frederico’s Department Store is very expensive. com. prop. com. All the middle schools in Newton have large libraries. col. com. Our family is trying to spend more time together. prop. com. The red Ford belongs to my sister. col. com. com. The crowd of runners is almost at the line. col. com. Do you think the audience liked the play?

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

 Exercise 2 Write S above each singular noun and P above each plural noun. Draw a line under each singular or plural noun that is also a possessive noun. S S That is Steve’s black truck. P S 1. Your shirts are in this drawer. S P S 2. Alma’s shoes are under the bed. P S 3. Look at the books in this library! S P 4. This town has two newspapers. S S P 5. Is this the librarian’s list of books? S P P 6. The team needs new bats and gloves.

Unit 2, Nouns

71

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–2  Exercise 1 Write dec. beside each declarative sentence, int. beside each interrogative sentence, exc. beside each exclamatory sentence, and imp. beside each imperative sentence. That was a spectacular hit!

imp.

1. Bring us our check, please.

int.

2. Are you nervous about giving your speech?

dec.

3. The live butterfly exhibit at the park is worth seeing.

dec.

4. Fifteen skiers are competing in the downhill race.

exc.

5. Help! I think I’m going to fall!

int.

6. Will you give me a hand with my science project?

imp.

7. Take the Main Street bus to Mulberry.

dec.

8. I wanted the blue hat, but the green one will have to do.

int.

9. May I borrow your tape player for the party?

exc.

10. Congratulations, you take first place!

 Exercise 2 Write S beside each simple sentence, C beside each compound sentence, and F beside each sentence fragment. F

The road through the orchards and valleys.

C

1. Mom will bake a cake, and Bill will frost it.

S

2. The teacher and the principal are laughing.

C

3. You can take a nap, or you can read a book.

F

4. All that work.

C

5. Fish have scales, and birds have feathers.

C

6. Maizie will turn on the light, and you can unlock the door.

S

7. The dog and the cat are sleeping on the porch.

C

8. Alicia wrote the paper, and Jaime drew the pictures.

S

9. I’m glad you are here.

F

10. Mountains and mountains of ice cream.

72 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

exc.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 3 Write prop. above each proper noun and com. above each common noun. Draw a line under each possessive noun. prop. com. prop. prop. Neil plays soccer with David and Justin. prop. prop. prop. 1. Allen and Margaret live on Kenmore Street. com. com. 2. The butterflies’ wings are orange. com. com. com. 3. The hospital is on the other side of town. Grammar

prop. com. 4. Mom wants to use the telephone. com. com. 5. I’ll meet you at the doctor’s office. prop. com. com. 6. Officer D’Amico is giving a talk on safety today. com. com. 7. It was too noisy to hear the singers’ voices. com. com. com. 8. The driver’s jacket is on the chair. com. com. 9. Can you see the cars’ headlights? prop. com. com. com. 10. Kerry’s aunt sent her a box of chocolates.  Exercise 4 Complete each sentence by writing the plural form of the noun in parentheses.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

The 72girls

took medicine for their allergies. (girl)

1. I like everything in my salad except [ 2. Oil [

paints

tomatoes

dry more slowly than other paints. (paint)

3. Please get a book from the library about the [ 4. The music department has three grand [ 5. Their tool [

benches

donkeys

7. She applied for a few [ jojobs classes

pianos

of people in early Rome. (life)

. (piano)

into the Grand Canyon. (donkey)

last week. (job)

are on your schedule? (class)

9. Part of her salary will go toward state [ 10. There aren’t enough [

lives

were covered with wood shavings. (bench)

6. Jason and his sister rode [

8. How many [

. (tomato)

dictionaries

taxes

. (tax)

to go around. (dictionary) Unit 2, Nouns

73

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 5 Draw a line under the verb in parentheses that best completes the sentence. A school of fish (swims, swim) past the shark. 1. The class (begins, begin) their book reports tomorrow. 2. The committee (argues, argue) among themselves. 3. Raphael’s family (lives, live) next to the school on Mound Street. 4. The audience (applauds, applaud) when the performance is over.

6. The jazz band (plays, play) in the park on Sundays. 7. The senate (reads, read) each bill out loud. 8. The stage crew (moves, move) the scenery off the stage. 9. The crowd (cheers, cheer) the team. 10. A gaggle of geese (visits, visit) our pond every winter.  Exercise 6 Complete each sentence by writing the possessive form of the word in parentheses. cars’

The [

engines were fast enough to win the race. (cars)

1. The crowd cheered the [

referee’s

call. (referee)

2. He groaned when he realized he had backed into his [ 3. I found my dad’s tie in the [

men’s

4. Zachary delivers papers to all the [ 5. My [

sister’s

6. Mystery [ 7. Which [ 8. Mr. [

Jones’s

9. The [

cowhands’

car. (boss)

department. (men) neighbors’

homes. (neighbors)

team is in fourth place this year. (sister)

writers’ child’s

boss’s

books usually keep the reader in suspense. (writers) toy is best for this age group? (child)

watch has an alarm that wakes him for work. (Jones) horses were trained to herd cattle. (cowhands)

10. Who is the president of the [

women’s

74 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

club this year? (women)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

5. Our team (has, have) different ideas on how to win the volleyball tournament.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 3: Verbs Lesson 12

Action Verbs and Direct Objects An action verb is a word that describes what someone or something does. An action verb names an action, although not always a physical action. Some action verbs describe mental action. Grammar

Tyler swam faster than anyone else at camp. (The action verb swam describes a physical action.) Alicia calculated the score in her head. (The verb calculated describes a mental action.) Sometimes an action verb is followed by a direct object. A direct object receives the action of the verb. It answers the question what or whom? after an action verb. Kelsey’s soccer team won yesterday’s game. (The action verb, won, is followed by the direct object, game, which answers the question what?)

 Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the action verb in each sentence. Yellowstone National Park attracts many visitors. 1. Yellowstone covers more than two million acres of land.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. Its boundaries reach into three states. 3. The park features thousands of hot springs. 4. Some hot springs shoot columns of water and steam into the air. 5. We call them geysers. 6. Yellowstone’s geysers attract visitors from all over the world. 7. Nearly two hundred geysers dot the park’s landscape. 8. Old Faithful, the largest, erupts almost hourly. 9. It shoots water more than one hundred feet into the air. 10. Enormous crowds gather beside it. 11. Yellowstone National Park contains many other attractions. 12. The Yellowstone River divides the park north to south. Unit 3, Verbs

75

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. It carves a canyon through the mountains. 14. In several places, the river falls from steep cliffs. 15. Visitors to Yellowstone observe a variety of wildlife. 16. Many species of wildflowers grow in the Rocky Mountains. 17. Moose roam the area. 18. Herds of bison graze in the park.

20. Yellowstone’s famous bears sometimes frighten campers.  Exercise 2 Draw two lines under the action verb in each sentence. If the action verb has a direct object, circle the direct object. The Grand Canyon attracts millions of visitors each year. 1. Millions more catch glimpses of the canyon though airplane windows. 2. Grand Canyon National Park contains the most spectacular sections of the gorge. 3. The park encompasses more than one million acres. 4. At visitor centers, people study maps of the park. 5. They learn interesting facts about the area’s geology. 6. An enormous sea once covered this part of North America. 7. The Colorado River carved the canyon over many years. 8. Many visitors hike the park’s trails. 9. Trails lead hikers down from the canyon’s rim and back up. 10. Some people ride mules instead of hiking. 11. Visitors notice fossils in the canyon walls. 12. Sandstone, limestone, and shale form multicolored layers. 13. Weather constantly changes the rock formations. 14. Wind and rain erode the soft rock. 15. Sometimes big chunks of rock fall. 16. Changing light constantly alters the canyon’s appearance.

76 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

19. Both grizzlies and black bears live in the park.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 13

Action Verbs and Indirect Objects An indirect object can appear only in a sentence that has a direct object. Just as a direct object answers the question whom? or what? after an action verb, an indirect object answers the question to whom? or for whom? An indirect object always comes before the direct object. James bought Corey a cold drink. (The indirect object Corey answers the question, James bought a cold drink for whom?) Grammar

Naomi gives the class red pencils. (The indirect object class answers the question Naomi gives red pencils to whom?)

 Exercise 1 Write DO in the blank if the italicized word is a direct object or IO if it is an indirect object.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

IO

The doctor gave Maya a vision test.

IO

1. My cousin Rita brought us fresh-picked vegetables.

DO

2. Loud music gives my mother headaches.

DO

3. Janelle baked her family double-chocolate brownies.

IO

4. Louie’s sister made the team a pitcher of lemonade.

IO

5. Ezra read us the newspaper from Mexico City.

DO

6. Colleen showed her father her new gymnastics routine.

IO

7. Camille loaned us her tent.

DO

8. He offered my mother a ride to her office.

IO

9. My sister gave the dog a dish of water.

DO

10. The president gave me his autograph.

IO

11. Carmen sewed her new niece a crib quilt.

IO

12. My father prepared us a feast.

IO

13. The middle school sent the shelter more than five hundred cans of food.

DO

14. Oma gave Carl three dollars.

DO

15. Mr. Alvarez told me the new teacher’s name.

Unit 3, Verbs

77

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

IO

16. Carlos showed me his baseball card collection.

DO

17. Peter played us three new songs.

IO

18. Kristi made everyone a handcrafted gift.

DO

19. My Uncle Randall gave me his old computer.

DO

20. I will give Tyler some gum.

The Wildcats baked their coach a birthday cake. 1. The tour guide gives each visitor a map. 2. My sister lent me her new magazine. 3. Oleg’s father bought him a leather jacket. 4. Ms. Kumin read the class the last chapter. 5. My grandmother mailed me seventeen postcards. 6. We cooked Carol dinner. 7. Clayton built his sisters a playhouse. 8. The class gave Officer Wallace its full attention. 9. Someone sent Kim a dozen roses. 10. The hotel offered its guests free breakfast. 11. I ordered my mother a silver necklace. 12. Julia told the children a funny story. 13. My mother ordered Uncle Rob a cup of coffee. 14. Chris paid his brother five dollars. 15. Louisa sings the baby a song. 16. I bought my friend some basketball cards. 17. She read Raul the directions. 18. Aaron left Gabriel a doughnut. 19. Charlie made his family lasagna. 20. Amy gave her sister three old books.

78 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

 Exercise 2 Circle each direct object. Underline each indirect object.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 14

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs An action verb that is followed by a direct object is called a transitive verb. An action verb that is not followed by a direct object is called an intransitive verb. Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on the words that follow them. Remember that a direct object answers the question what? or whom? The polar bears eat slowly. Grammar

The word slowly tells how the bears eat. It does not answer the question what? or whom? In this sentence, the action verb eat is intransitive because it is not followed by a direct object. The polar bears eat fish. The word fish answers the question what? In this sentence, the action verb eat is transitive because it is followed by the direct object fish.

 Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the action verb in each sentence. Write T in the blank if the verb is transitive. Write I if the verb is intransitive.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

T

Mitchell repaired the computer.

I

1. The baby cried loudly.

I

2. Marta finished early.

T

3. We climbed three flights of stairs.

I

4. Carly sings better than I do.

T

5. My brother pedaled his bike down the sidewalk.

I

6. The peanut butter cookies burned.

T

7. My aunt called me yesterday.

I

8. The pet store opened late.

I

9. Peter’s goldfish eats in the morning.

T

10. Jen sank the ball through the hoop.

T

11. After school, Zach ate two apples.

T

12. The alarm woke Ethan at seven.

I

13. The bathtub overflowed. Unit 3, Verbs

79

I

14. Aisha practiced every day.

T

15. The city closed our street during the construction.

I

16. My neighbor’s dog barked all night.

T

17. Tamara washed her mother’s car on Saturday.

T

18. William found the doctor’s phone number.

I

19. The upstairs phone rang.

T

20. Ingrid packed her sister’s lunch.

I

21. Heavy snow fell during the night.

T

22. Ruby starts piano lessons tomorrow.

T

23. We watched a video in class.

I

24. Our elaborate plans failed.

T

25. Jamie’s father grows prize-winning pumpkins.

I

26. My grandfather snores loudly.

I

27. Maureen and Sarah skated for two hours.

T

28. I dropped my key.

T

29. Gordon borrowed nine books from the library.

T

30. The track team broke three records.

I

31. Kaitlin scored in the second inning.

T

32. Gilberto asked the librarian.

I

33. She painted more carefully than ever.

T

34. A kitten followed me home.

I

35. The hall door slammed.

I

36. The doctor’s office closes at five.

T

37. A wave knocked Cameron off his feet.

I

38. Andy and Jorge’s boat sailed swiftly across the pond.

T

39. The band played only jazz.

I

40. The class decorated for the fall festival.

80 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 15

Linking Verbs and Predicate Words A linking verb connects a sentence’s subject with a noun or an adjective in the predicate. The predicate word tells what a sentence’s subject is or is like. An avocado is a fruit. (The linking verb is connects the subject avocado with fruit.)

Grammar

In the sentence above, fruit is a predicate noun. It tells what the subject, avocado, is. Some sentences have a predicate adjective, an adjective that follows a linking verb and tells what the subject is like. This avocado is ripe. (Ripe is a predicate adjective. It tells what the subject avocado is like.) COMMON LINKING VERBS appear am, is, are, was, were

become feel

grow look

seem taste

 Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the verb in each sentence. Write AV in the blank if the verb is an action verb. Write LV if it is a linking verb.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

LV

Dogs are popular pets.

AV

1. Many dogs use their tails for communication.

AV

2. A dog’s tail expresses playfulness or fear.

LV

3. Some dogs’ tails are long and thin.

AV

4. Other dogs have fluffy or curly tails.

LV

5. Dogs are very good smellers.

LV

6. Their noses are extremely sensitive.

LV

7. Certain dogs actually become detectives.

AV

8. They search with their noses.

LV

9. A dog’s hearing is also very strong.

AV

10. Dogs hear many things.

AV

11. Dogs’ ears move in different directions.

LV

12. Dogs seem sensitive to sounds. Unit 3, Verbs

81

AV

13. Most dogs have forty-two teeth.

AV

14. Different types of teeth serve different purposes.

LV

15. Some dogs are web-footed.

AV

16. Webbed feet make dogs good swimmers.

LV

17. Canine eyesight is different from human eyesight.

LV

18. Small details look fuzzy to dogs.

LV

19. Most colors appear gray to them.

AV

20. In the dark, dogs see better than humans.

 Exercise 2 Draw two lines under the linking verb in each sentence. Write PA in the blank if the verb is followed by a predicate adjective. Write PN if it is followed by a predicate noun. PN

Snakes are very interesting animals.

PA

1. Not all of them are poisonous.

PN

2. Earth is home to more than two thousand species of snakes.

PA

3. About a dozen snake species are rare.

PN

4. One endangered snake is the indigo.

PA

5. Indigos seem very friendly.

PA

6. They are native to Florida and Georgia.

PA

7. Some snakes grow extremely long.

PA

8. A few become longer than thirty feet.

PN

9. The South American anaconda is a large snake.

PA

10. Some anacondas are thick.

PN

11. Thread snakes are the smallest snakes.

PA

12. Some of them appear tiny.

PA

13. A snake’s scaly skin looks slippery.

PA

14. Its skin is only temporary.

PA

15. Some snakes are poisonous.

PN

16. All snakes are carnivores.

82 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 16

Verb Tenses: Present, Past, and Future A verb’s tense tells when an action takes place. The present tense describes an action that happens regularly. We visit my grandmother on Sundays. It can also express a general truth. We visit many relatives. Grammar

The past tense describes an action that has already taken place. The past tense is most often formed by adding -ed to the verb. We visited my aunt last weekend. The future tense describes an action that will take place in the future. The future tense is formed by adding the helping verb will (or shall) to the verb. We will visit my grandmother next Sunday.

 Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the verb in each sentence. Write the tense in the blank: past, present, or future. present past

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

present future present past

Jimmy loves to fish. 1. We traveled to Ontario last summer. 2. My father makes the best whole wheat rolls. 3. I will be there by six o’clock. 4. Mr. Glazer’s class recycles the most paper. 5. India shared her ideas for after-school activities.

future

6. The karate class will begin promptly at three.

future

7. My brother will paint the mural.

past present future past future

8. No one unlocked the storage room. 9. We always plant pumpkins behind the garage. 10. The club will sell cookbooks. 11. George returned his library books on time. 12. Each student will contribute one poem to the book. Unit 3, Verbs

83

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Grammar

present

13. The band practiced for weeks. 14. Amy watches her younger brother on weekends.

past

15. We discussed the Brazilian rain forest.

past

16. Carol walked ten blocks in the rain.

present

17. André lives next door to Mr. Batten.

future

18. Sharla’s mother will pick her up after practice.

future

19. Indira will call for a taxi.

present

20. Stephen waits for a ride.

past present future

21. I locked my bike to the fence. 22. Louis helps me with my algebra. 23. The newspaper will list the score from last night’s game.

past

24. Three girls studied together for the geography test.

past

25. We hiked to the top of the ridge.

future present future present future present past future present future past present

26. Clarence will audition for the spring play. 27. I usually wear jeans on Saturday. 28. We will order pizza for everyone in the group. 29. Ms. Tapp teaches social studies and history. 30. Our new yard will be smaller than our old one. 31. Barry listens to classical music. 32. Pat skated around the sink. 33. I will keep the key in my backpack. 34. Ezra washes the dishes on Wednesday. 35. They will hold the first meeting in the library. 36. I watched The Yearling last year. 37. The museum closes early on Sunday.

past

38. Rami called each person on the list.

future

39. Perry will use his sister’s computer.

past

40. Together we cleaned the whole apartment in two hours.

84 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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past

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 17

Main Verbs: Principal Parts Verbs have four principal parts: the base form, the present participle, the past form, and the past participle. These principal parts are often combined with helping verbs to form verb phrases. The main verb is always the last verb in a verb phrase.

Grammar

Base Form: I learn at least one new song every week. Present Participle: I am learning how to play guitar. (The main verb, learning, is the last verb in the verb phrase.) Past Form: I learned two songs last week. Past Participle: I have learned fourteen songs so far. (The main verb, learned, is the last verb in the verb phrase.)

 Exercise 1 Draw one line under the entire verb phrase. Draw two lines under the main verb. Her uncle was bringing the soft drinks. 1. Darnel is selling me his skateboard. 2. Kelsa has donated her old soccer ball. 3. Travis is playing a tape for the class. 4. I have written my grandmother several poems.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

5. The jeweler is repairing Allyson’s necklace. 6. People have walked in the flower bed. 7. Carin was learning the history of ballet. 8. NASA is postponing the shuttle mission. 9. Throughout history, people have valued gold. 10. Troy has flown in a 747. 11. We were hoping for a first-place trophy. 12. Craig’s grandmother is coming to the game tonight. 13. The dictionary is sitting on the windowsill. 14. Ms. Chang had opened the door for the children. 15. The bus driver was waiting for Kerwin. Unit 3, Verbs

85

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

pres.

Mira’s family is camping this summer.

past

1. They have planned their trip carefully.

past

2. Mira’s mother has selected the destination.

past

3. She has decided on an isolated island.

pres.

4. Now everyone is preparing for the trip.

past

5. Mira’s brother has formed a list of supplies.

pres.

6. He is borrowing as many items as he can.

pres.

7. Mira is reading books and magazines about wilderness camping.

past

8. She had hoped for a different sort of vacation.

pres.

9. She was dreaming of a swimming pool and a new bathing suit.

past

10. She had imagined air-conditioned restaurants and hotel rooms.

pres.

11. Now she is learning about fishing bait and camp stoves.

past

12. Mira had wanted to send postcards to her friends.

past

13. Her mother has reminded her that there is no post office.

pres.

14. Mira is trying hard to be positive.

past

15. She has decided to make the best of this trip.

 Writing Link Write a short paragraph about a trip you have taken. Use at least one present participle and one past participle. Circle the main verbs.

86 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

 Exercise 2 Draw two lines under the main verb. Write past in the blank if it is a past participle. Write pres. if it is a present participle.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 18

Helping Verbs A helping verb is a verb that helps the main verb express an action or make a statement. Forms of the helping verb be are used with the present participle. PLURAL We are memorizing our lines. You are memorizing your lines. They are memorizing their lines. We were memorizing our lines. You were memorizing your lines. They were memorizing their lines.

Grammar

SINGULAR I am memorizing my lines. You are memorizing your lines. She is memorizing her lines. I was memorizing my lines. You were memorizing your lines. He was memorizing his lines.

Forms of the helping verb have are used with the past participle of a main verb. SINGULAR I have visited Florida. You have visited Florida. He has visited Florida. I had visited Florida. You had visited Florida. She had visited Florida.

PLURAL We have visited Florida. You have visited Florida. They have visited Florida. We had visited Florida. You had visited Florida. They had visited Florida.

 Exercise 1 Underline the helping verb in each sentence. Lenore and her father are watching the basketball game. Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. Carol has helped her brother with his homework. 2. The three friends were pedaling uphill slowly. 3. Steven had started a new project. 4. Lee is steering the orange canoe. 5. Both girls are riding red bicycles. 6. Lisa had removed her helmet. 7. Andrew was sliding into home plate. 8. No one had practiced. 9. She is hoping to set a new record. 10. Carlos was wearing a blue jacket.

Unit 3, Verbs

87

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

11. Loren had tried to call three times. 12. He has waited all week for this moment. 13. Tova’s father is watching from the car. 14. The three of them were meeting for pizza. 15. Nadim has trained the puppy to sit. 16. Each player had hit the tennis ball twice.

18. Tom had cleaned all the windows before lunch. 19. We have seen this movie twice. 20. Anna has kept her opinion a secret.  Exercise 2 Draw one line under the helping verb and two lines under the main verb in each sentence. My great-aunt Marta is learning about herbs. 1. She has loved cooking for many years. 2. She has used herbs in her recipes. 3. She has grown parsley and chives on windowsills. 4. Now she is starting an herb garden. 5. Her garden is expanding slowly. 6. Every spring, she has added two or three plants. 7. Marta’s neighbor, Irene, was teaching her what to plant where. 8. Irene has shared many plants from her own garden. 9. Now Marta has planted a dozen or so different herbs. 10. Mint has appeared near the water faucet. 11. Garlic is growing by the fence. 12. Marta had arranged her garden by color. 13. Violet flowers are blooming right now. 14. Bees are hovering over the chives. 15. Lavender is filling the air with a sweet scent.

88 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

17. My mother is helping us with the new song.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 19

Verb Forms: Present Progressive and Past Progressive Verbs in the progressive form describe action that continues. The present progressive form of a verb describes an action that is continuing at the present time. The present progressive form consists of a helping verb (am, are, or is) plus the present participle of the main verb. PLURAL We are laughing. You are laughing. They are laughing.

Grammar

SINGULAR I am laughing. You are laughing. She, he, or it is laughing.

The past progressive form of a verb describes an action that was continuing at an earlier time. The past progressive form consists of a helping verb (was or were) plus the present participle of the main verb. SINGULAR I was laughing. You were laughing. She, he, or it was laughing.

PLURAL We were laughing. You were laughing. They were laughing.

Notice that verbs in the progressive form always end in -ing.

 Exercise 1 Fill in the blank with the progressive form of the verb in parentheses. Change present tense verbs to the present progressive form and past tense verbs to the past progressive form. is studying

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mr. Ling’s class [

were watching

1. The students [

are looking

2. Now they [

is listening

3. Jacob [ 4. Mr. Ling [ 5. Tamara [ 6. She [

] everyone to give a report. (requires) ] to talk about horses. (plans)

] a stable to do research. (visits) was working

7. The entire class [

9. Ved [

] to a recording of whale sounds. (listens)

is planning is visiting

] a video about opossums. (watched)

] up facts about other animals. (look)

is requiring

8. The librarian [

] mammals. (studies)

is helping

is showing

] at the library today. (worked)

] Charlie find information. (helps)

] Molly where the books about mammals are. (shows)

Unit 3, Verbs

89

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. Molly [

was hoping

11. Jacob’s parents [ 12. They [

] to read about Labrador retrievers. (hoped)

are studying

are coming

] to talk to the class on Thursday. (come)

was planning

13. Mr. Ling [

16. Mr. Ling [

is postponing

17. The class [

is adopting

is moving

19. Derek [ 20. Everyone [

is helping

] his plans, however. (changed)

] babies. (had) ] the visit until next week. (postpones) ] a guinea pig named Greta. (adopts) was donating

] it. (donated)

] to England next month. (moves) ] to prepare Greta’s new home. (helps)

 Exercise 2 Draw two lines under the verb phrase. Write pres. prog. in the blank if the verb is in the present progressive form. Write past prog. if the verb is in the past progressive form. pres. prog.

Peter’s swimming skills are improving.

pres. prog.

1. Raul is listening to the game on the radio.

past prog.

2. My mother was driving home in the storm.

past prog.

3. The boys were waiting forty-five minutes.

pres. prog.

4. I am reading a book about Houdini.

past prog.

5. Tim was watching a cardinal.

past prog.

6. The dishwasher was leaking all over the kitchen floor.

pres. prog.

7. The Ecology Club is meeting on Tuesday.

pres. prog.

8. She is eating dinner with us.

past prog.

9. My bike tire was losing air.

pres. prog.

10. You are looking at an aerial view.

past prog.

11. The newspaper was blowing away.

past prog.

12. The teachers were planning a field trip.

90 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

was having

18. Molly’s cousin Derek [

] to bring his rabbit on Friday. (planned)

was changing

14. Thursday night, he [ 15. The rabbit [

] veterinary medicine. (study)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 20

Perfect Tenses: Present and Past The present perfect tense of a verb is used to describe an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past. It is also used to describe something that happened in the past and is still going on. The present perfect tense is formed by combining the helping verb have or has with the past participle of the main verb. Ms. Taylor has recycled glass jars for years. Grammar

The past perfect tense of a verb describes an action that happened before another action or event in the past. The past perfect tense is formed by combining the helping verb had with the past participle of the main verb. Until she started collecting cans, Marella had recycled only newspapers.

 Exercise 1 Complete each sentence by changing the verb in parentheses to the tense indicated. Darrell’s family [ 1. They [

stayed

traveled

] to Washington, D.C., last summer. (past/travel)

] with his aunt in nearby Virginia. (past/stay) had visited

2. Darrell and his father [

] some attractions on previous trips. (past

perfect/visit) 3. His stepsister Emily [

had wanted

] to see the Air and Space Museum. (past

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

perfect/want) 4. Darrell [

has visited

5. Space travel [ 6. He [

agreed

] the Air and Space Museum twice. (present perfect/visit)

fascinates

] Darrell’s father. (present/fascinate)

] to visit the museum with Emily. (past/agree)

7. Darrell and his stepmother [

had decided

] earlier to visit monuments. (past

perfect/decide) 8. They [

had planned

9. Both of them [

] to see the Washington Monument first. (past perfect/plan)

have wanted

] to ride the elevator to the top. (present perfect/want)

10. Before they even reached the monument, rain [

had started

] to fall. (past

perfect/start)

Unit 3, Verbs

91

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

11. The rain [

lasted

] for only a few minutes, however. (past/last) had purchased

12. The sun reappeared before the two [

] their tickets. (past

perfect/purchase) 13. They [

had believed

] they would be able to see a great distance from the top, but

the fog was too dense. (past perfect/believe) had walked

14. By the time they [

] down all 898 steps, both of them needed a rest.

carries

15. When Darrell is sightseeing, he always [

] a bottle of drinking water in

his backpack. (present/carry) had packed

16. That day, his stepmother [ 17. They [

looked

] a drink too. (past perfect/pack)

] for a shady spot. (past/look)

18. After their rest, Darrell’s stepmother [

had wanted

] to visit the Vietnam Veterans

Memorial. (past perfect/want) 19. He [

looked

prefers

20. Darrell [ 21. They [

] at his watch. (past/look)

had planned believed

22. Darrell [

23. That morning, he [ 24. They [

] walking if there is enough time. (present/prefer) ] to meet the others for lunch. (past perfect/plan) ] they had plenty of time. (past/believe) had asked

had determined

] his father for directions. (past perfect/ask)

] that the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was not far from the

Washington Monument. (past perfect/determine) 25. Darrell [

has studied

] the Vietnam War in school. (present perfect/study) wanted

26. Families of veterans [

] a monument to honor Americans lost in the war.

(past/want) 27. Darrell [

has read

] a book about the sculptor who designed the memorial.

(present perfect/read) 28. Maya Lin [

had entered

] her design in a national competition. (past perfect/enter)

92 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

(past perfect/walk)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 21

Irregular Verbs I Verbs that do not form their past and past participle by adding the ending -ed are called irregular verbs. With some irregular verbs, one vowel changes in the past form and past participle. PAST FORM began drank sang swam

PAST PARTICIPLE begun drunk sung swum

Grammar

BASE FORM begin drink sing swim

With other irregular verbs, the past form and the past participle are the same.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

BASE FORM bring buy catch feel lay leave make sit sleep teach think

PAST FORM brought bought caught felt laid left made sat slept taught thought

PAST PARTICIPLE brought bought caught felt laid left made sat slept taught thought

 Exercise 1 Write in the blank the past form of the verb in parentheses. After school, Lisa [ 1. Jack [ 2. Martin [ 3. She [

slept won taught

left

in the green tent. (sleep) the essay contest. (win) me how to do a cartwheel. (teach) made

4. Each cast member [ 5. We [

swam

6. The telephone [ 7. Thomas [

sold

her books in the library. (leave)

a costume. (make)

the length of the pool twice. (swim) rang

while I was in the shower. (ring)

his old skateboard. (sell)

8. After ten minutes, we [

caught

up. (catch) Unit 3, Verbs

93

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. Paul [

lost

10. Carla [

felt

his watch somewhere at school. (lose) ready for the math test. (feel)

paid

11. José [

for two tickets. (pay) lent

me two dollars. (lend)

13. She [

kept

14. Carl [

brought

the yellow poster board. (bring)

15. Tara [

bought

one book for each child. (buy)

her rock collection on the top shelf. (keep)

began

16. The demonstration [

at precisely two o’clock. (begin)

 Exercise 2 Write in the blank the past participle of the verb in parentheses. Enzo’s team has [

won swum

1. My mother has [ shrunk

2. I have [

4. This phone hasn’t [ thought

7. She had [

10. Zoe has [

rung

at all today. (ring)

it would be sunny on Saturday. (think)

felt

three umbrellas this year. (lose) it was the best choice. (feel) caught

8. Kim’s father has [ 9. Gina had [

me a new song. (teach)

lost

6. Andrew has [

across the lake several times. (swim)

my favorite sweater. (shrink) taught

3. Carmela has [

5. I had [

three games. (win)

laid made

a bigger trout. (catch)

her clean clothes in the suitcase. (lay) sure that someone will be home. (make) slept

11. She believed the dog had [ 12. A new baseball season has [ 13. Nathan has [

sat

16. Jan has [

brought

begun

. (begin)

in the back seat all day. (sit)

14. Courtney’s grandmother had [ 15. The screen door has [

all day. (sleep)

swung

kept

all of her artwork. (keep)

open three times today. (swing)

us some delicious oatmeal raisin cookies. (bring)

94 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

12. My mother [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 22

Irregular Verbs II With some irregular verbs, the past form ends in -ew, and the past participle ends in -wn. PAST FORM blew drew flew grew knew

PAST PARTICIPLE blown drawn flown grown known

Grammar

BASE FORM blow draw fly grow know

With other irregular verbs, the base form, past form, and past participle are all the same. BASE FORM cut let

PAST FORM cut let

PAST PARTICIPLE cut let

With others, the past form and the past participle do not follow any pattern. BASE FORM be do go wear

PAST FORM was, were did went wore

PAST PARTICIPLE been done gone worn

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

 Exercise 1 Write in the blank the past form of the irregular verb in parentheses. Ms. Chandra’s class [

my hair last night. (cut)

blew

down four trees. (blow)

wore

3. She [

her hair in a braid. (wear) let

4. My mother [

tore

6. Tom [ 7. Damon [

8. My brother [ 9. I [

cut

me spend the night at Sandra’s house. (let)

knew

5. Miriam [

tomatoes. (grow)

cut

1. Aunt Karin [ 2. The wind [

grew

all the answers. (know) up lettuce for the salad. (tear)

was

the first to eat all the berries he picked. (be) grew

five inches last year. (grow)

out only recent photos. (cut) Unit 3, Verbs

95

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. She [

let

me borrow her necklace. (let) went

11. All three of us [ 12. Kareem’s mother [

tore

13. His baby sister [ wore

14. Melinda [ 15. I [

knew

went did

20. He [

cut

my green dress to the wedding. (wear)

blew

up a balloon for the experiment. (blow)

swimming on Saturday. (go) the same problem twice. (do)

wore

19. Mikki [

a page out of the book. (tear)

a wool sweater over her blouse. (wear) his finger making lunch. (cut)

 Exercise 2 Underline the word in parentheses that best completes each sentence. Charlie has (drew, drawn) a line down the middle of the driveway. 1. We have (blew, blown) out the candles. 2. I wish I had (did, done) that last year. 3. We (knew, known) most of the answers. 4. She has (drew, drawn) a name out of the hat. 5. David (wore, worn) his favorite sweatshirt twice this week. 6. Jim has (wore, worn) his new boots before. 7. Kelly has (tore, torn) open all her presents. 8. Katie had (drew, drawn) two other pictures. 9. She (did, done) a spectacular job. 10. Our class has (went, gone) to the art museum before. 11. She has (knew, known) my parents for a long time. 12. He had (threw, thrown) the boomerang across the park. 13. My father had (went, gone) grocery shopping on Thursday. 14. This plant has (grew, grown) an inch since yesterday.

96 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

18. He [

to Los Angeles on business. (fly)

the name of the main character. (know)

16. Ms. Pritchard [ 17. Keith [

flew

to the same doctor. (go)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 23

Irregular Verbs III With some irregular verbs, the base form and the past participle are the same. BASE FORM become come run

PAST FORM became came ran

PAST PARTICIPLE become come run

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

BASE FORM bite break choose drive eat fall give ride rise see speak steal take write

PAST FORM bit broke chose drove ate fell gave rode rose saw spoke stole took wrote

Grammar

With other irregular verbs, the past participle ends in -en. PAST PARTICIPLE bitten or bit broken chosen driven eaten fallen given ridden risen seen spoken stolen taken written

 Exercise 1 Write in the blank the past participle of the irregular verb in parentheses. With the snow melting, mud has [ spoken

1. Wayne had [ 2. We had [

run

3. Ted had [

come

a problem. (become)

loud enough for everyone to hear. (speak)

around the track twice. (run) home on the late bus. (come) become

4. My uncle has [ 5. My mother had [ 6. Keisha has [

become

a vegetarian. (become)

driven

seen

most of the way. (drive)

a deer in her yard. (see)

7. The temperature has [

risen

8. At camp, Diana had [

ridden

this afternoon. (rise) a horse for the first time. (ride) Unit 3, Verbs

97

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. Someone has [

broken

the popcorn popper. (break)

10. Michelle has [

spoken

to Mr. Dietz about the science fair. (speak)

11. We have [

eaten

12. Tom has [

chosen

all the potato salad. (eat) the music for the program. (choose) fallen

13. Most of the leaves have [ written

14. Hannah has [

a letter to her great-grandmother. (write) bit or bitten

given

him twice. (bite)

the server our order half an hour before the food arrived. (give)

 Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by changing the verb in parentheses to the form indicated. rose

Smoke [

from the chimney. (past/rise) grew

1. The kitten [

faster than I expected. (past/grow) fallen

2. Three inches of rain have [ blew

3. The whistle [

did

5. Maria [

at noon and six o’clock. (past/blow)

chosen

4. We have [

our classes for next semester. (past participle/choose)

more work than anyone else. (past/do)

done

6. She has [

that every week. (past participle/do)

flew

7. The geese [

away. (past/fly) eaten

8. The Lightfoots have [ 9. I [

came

12. Phil [

grown

chosen

saw

pumpkins to sell. (past participle/grow) a class president. (past participle/choose)

a moon rock at the museum. (past/see)

13. The president [ 14. We have [

dinner. (past participle/eat)

ten minutes early. (past/come)

10. Abraham has [ 11. We have [

. (past participle/fall)

threw

driven

15. In art class, we [

out the first ball. (past/throw)

through two states today. (past participle/drive) drew

16. Perry and Daniel have [

pictures of dragons. (past/draw) become

98 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

excellent athletes. (past participle/become)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

15. Marc’s new puppy has [ 16. We had [

off my poinsettia. (fall)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 24

More Practice with Verb Forms

 Exercise 1 Write AV in the blank if the verb is an action verb or LV if it is a linking verb. Above each italicized word write DO for direct object, IO for indirect object, PN for predicate noun, or PA for predicate adjective.

AV

1.

AV

2.

LV

3.

LV

4.

AV

5.

AV

6.

AV

7.

LV

8.

AV

9.

LV

10.

AV

11.

AV

12.

LV

13.

AV

14.

AV

15.

AV

16.

LV

17.

AV

18.

AV

19.

LV

20.

PN Balto was a sled dog in Alaska. IO He brought miners food and tools. DO In February 1925, he saved the town of Nome. PN Nome was a remote frontier town. PA Some people in Nome became very sick. DO They caught a disease called diphtheria. DO Nome had only one doctor. DO The doctor needed special medicine. PA The medicine was scarce. IO A hospital 800 miles away sent the doctor some medicine by train. PA The train soon became stuck in deep snow. DO Dog sleds carried the medicine the rest of the way. DO Balto led one of those teams. PA The February weather was brutal. DO A blizzard blew snow in the sled dogs’ eyes. DO Deep snowdrifts blocked the trail. DO The dogs crossed frozen rivers. PA PA They grew very tired and weak. DO Balto led his team for twenty continuous hours. DO The sick people received the medicine. PN Balto was a hero.

Unit 3, Verbs

Grammar

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

LV

99

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by changing the verb in parentheses to the form indicated. printed

Newspapers everywhere [ paid

tribute to Balto with parades. (past/pay)

caught 2. Balto had [ participle/catch)

the attention of people around the world. (past stands

Grammar

3. A statue of Balto still [ (present/stand)

in New York City’s Central Park. forgotten

4. By 1927, however, many people had [ participle/forget) put

5. A greedy man had [ grown

6. Balto had [

Balto in a traveling show. (past participle/put) very thin and frail. (past participle/grow) became

7. Some concerned people [ sold

8. The man [

went

collected

gave

15. Balto [

fifteen thousand people. (past/draw) took

found lived

17. The people [ grew

19. Today Balto [ 20. Balto’s story has [

Balto to a zoo. (past/take) him a safe place to live. (past participle/find )

out his days at the zoo. (past/live) saw

16. Thousands of people [

18. Balto [

him another parade. (past/give)

drew

13. Then the people [ 14. They had [

much of the money to save Balto. (past

to Cleveland, Ohio. (past/go)

11. The people there [ 12. The parade [

alarmed. (past/become)

Balto to them for two thousand dollars. (past/sell)

9. Schoolchildren had [ participle/collect) 10. Balto [

about Balto. (past

took

him there. (past/see)

good care of him. (past/take) to be eleven years old. (past/grow)

stands taught

in a museum. (present/stand ) many people about bravery. (past participle/teach)

100 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. People [

stories about Balto. (past/print )

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 3 Review  Exercise 1 Draw two lines under each action verb. Circle each direct object. Write each indirect object in the blank. If there is no indirect object, write none. student us

1. Mareka read us an article about pesticides. 2. My mother marked the appointment on her calendar.

Tory

3. Mr. Kalish paid Tory three dollars for washing his car.

sister

4. Pat showed her sister the old silver necklace.

father

5. Cora painted her father a picture of his dog.

none

6. The students wrote a weekly newsletter. 7. My grandfather brought me an autographed baseball.

friends

8. Carlos sent his friends two postcards each.

family

9. Elizabeth baked her family a special dessert.

none

10. We measure the plants every morning.

none

11. Tannie’s family visited two museums on Saturday.

friend

12. I made my friend a bracelet with turquoise beads.

Mrs. Domingo

13. We bring Mrs. Domingo library books every week.

stranger van grandmother

Grammar

none

me

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mr. Rosenblum gave each student a poetry notebook.

14. I gave the stranger a suspicious look. 15. My brother gave the van a coat of wax. 16. Clyde brought his grandmother some daffodils.

none

17. We always eat pizza on Saturday night.

puppy

18. I threw the puppy a tennis ball. Unit 3, Verbs

101

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–3  Exercise 1 Draw one line under each simple subject and two lines under each simple predicate. Aunt Margie is cooking chicken parmigiana for dinner. 1. The cottage lies just beyond the river.

3. A new adventure movie opens at the local theater tonight. 4. Carlos and Tyler are learning the game of rugby. 5. The Fishers will vacation in Arizona this year. 6. Myra located Tanzania on a world map. 7. Some lemonade would taste wonderful right now. 8. Greta and her parents saw a production of Sunday in the Park with George. 9. Mark received a telescope for his birthday. 10. The wind blew Simone’s kite into a tree. 11. Manuella wanted a view of the Caribbean Sea. 12. The farmer sold his best milk cow to a friend. 13. One coat in the store window was purple. 14. Cheryl is making a guest list for the party. 15. Everyone held his or her breath during the aerialist’s daring jump. 16. The telephone company prints new directories every year. 17. Airplanes from Cleveland land three times each day. 18. These library shelves hold many books. 19. A pagoda is a type of tower with many levels. 20. Lenny is fishing for trout and bass. 21. Lydia plays silly songs on the piano. 22. Colorful leaves fall from every tree on the street.

102 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

2. My necklace is made of gold and silver.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 2 Write prop. above each proper noun (except possessives), col. above each collective noun, and poss. above each possessive noun.

1. 2. 3. 4.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

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15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Grammar

5.

poss. prop. Abbey’s jacket came from China. prop. poss. The Goldenrod Restaurant is featuring Sally’s pot roast. col. prop. Our team voted to give Coach Howard a plaque. prop. poss. Mrs. Clark sent Tina’s homework to her so that she wouldn’t fall behind. col. The famous singer thrilled the crowd with her soulful singing. poss. col. Gillian’s favorite game is chess, but our class prefers checkers. poss. prop. Damian’s father has been appointed ambassador to Haiti. prop. prop. The Lincoln Memorial is located in Washington, D.C. col. prop. My church group took a tour of Jerusalem last spring. prop. col. Judge Lucas waited for the jury to reach a verdict. prop. prop. Turn left at Taylor Avenue and look for Monroe Middle School on the right. col. The choir performed three selections at the festival. poss. Dr. Callahan’s first patient was early, so I did not have to wait long. col. My entire family enjoys the game of croquet. prop. prop. prop. Lorna and Meg have tickets to Cats. poss. The airplane’s seats were unusually comfortable. col. The student body elected to have a holiday party. poss. We knew we were in trouble when the car’s engine sputtered and stopped. prop. prop. The capital of California is Sacramento. poss. prop. Ivan’s grandparents, who are from Russia, are coming for a visit. col. The finance committee submitted its report to the president.

 Exercise 3 Write the tense of each italicized verb in the blank: pres. (present), past, pres. prog. (present progressive), past prog. (past progressive), pres. perf. (present perfect), or past perf. (past perfect). past past

The story involved an opera singer and her ambition to become a star. 1. My little sister climbed a tree and scraped her arm.

Unit 3, Verbs

103

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

past perf.

2. The teachers had hoped for perfect attendance.

pres. prog.

3. Two women are loading the moving van.

pres.

4. Dylan wants to name the kittens after planets.

pres. prog.

5. Her uncle is going to drive us home from the game.

pres. perf.

6. The preschoolers have gone on a field trip to the fire station.

past prog.

7. Because the temperature was dropping, the rain was freezing on the

pres. prog.

8. Jim’s father is attending classes at the university.

past perf.

9. Our pets had waited long enough to be fed.

past prog.

10. Aunt Joan was painting her kitchen peach.

past

11. Roberto made a birdfeeder for his mother’s yard.

past perf.

12. The movie had begun five minutes late.

pres. perf.

13. Both girls have sung solos in previous concerts.

pres. prog.

14. Kylee is drinking an entire bottle of juice.

pres.

15. Not everyone who enters the contest wins a prize.

pres. perf.

16. Josh has paid for his uniform already.

past perf.

17. The phone had rung four times before I could get to it.

past

18. Marta’s directions led us to a dead-end street.

pres. prog.

19. Aaron is making plans for the weekend.

pres.

20. We keep the seedlings warm with lights.

past

21. Kelly caught three fly balls in the first inning.

past prog.

22. Mary was sleeping when the storm began.

104 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

sidewalks.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 4: Pronouns Lesson 25

Personal Pronouns

Grammar

A pronoun takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun. A personal pronoun refers to a person or thing. A personal pronoun that is the subject of a sentence is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, you, and they. A personal pronoun that is the direct or indirect object of a verb is an object pronoun. Object pronouns are me, you, him, her, it, us, you, and them. He has a paper route. (The subject pronoun he is the subject of the sentence.) Paula asked him for help. (The object pronoun him is the object of the verb asked.)

 Exercise 1 Circle each personal pronoun. I walk one mile to school every day. 1. Helen gave him a schedule of the club’s meetings. 2. After swimming for hours, he was very tired. 3. Have you seen them lately?

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4. Gary is not sure if he wants to go to the museum with us. 5. We taught them the new computer game. 6. I will happily call you tomorrow morning. 7. They waited excitedly for the parade to reach them. 8. When the power went out, we lit candles and played charades. 9. He watched the sun as it sank in a blaze of orange and red. 10. We nervously watched the big, brown dog approach us. 11. She enjoyed reading The Secret Garden. 12. I watched a show about the great grizzly bear. 13. The trained dog calmly guided him to the bus stop.

Unit 4, Pronouns

105

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. The eagle soared higher and higher until it disappeared behind a cloud.

 Exercise 2 Replace each italicized word or group of words with a personal pronoun. Write the pronoun above the words. Write subj. in the blank if the pronoun is a subject and obj. if it is an object. us obj. Mrs. Yoshida drove Kay, Don, and me to the movie. She subj. 1. Consuela fishes almost every weekend. her obj. 2. Dad asked Mindy to the game. it obj. 3. Give the eraser to Meagan so she can erase the chalkboard. They subj. 4. Hiroshi and Ray had been playing chess for hours. It subj. 5. The sun always rises in the east. it obj. 6. Did you taste the kiwifruit? him obj. 7. Kenji told Jack a funny joke. She subj. 8. Cheryl proudly opened a bank account with money earned from baby-sitting. them obj. 9. Mom took Tom and Mitch with her. We subj. 10. Sumi and I sang the duet in perfect harmony. she subj. 11. With great care, Pam chose a gift for her best friend. He subj. 12. The little boy pushed the shopping cart for his grandmother. They subj. 13. The powerful horses thundered across the prairie. us obj. 14. Mrs. Cuevas quietly told Janie and me the sad news. them obj. 15. Have you seen Terry and Rachel?  Writing Link Write a few sentences about a make-believe awards program you would give for your friends or family. Use at least four pronouns besides the pronoun I.

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Grammar

15. After eating the cake, I told Mom that I really enjoyed it.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 26

Using Pronouns Correctly Use a subject pronoun as the subject of a sentence. Use an object pronoun as the object of a verb. Be sure to use a subject pronoun in a compound subject and an object pronoun in a compound object. Jamal and I fly model planes. (compound subject) Debra met Jamal and me in the park. (compound object)

The last one in line was he.

Grammar

In formal writing and speaking, always use a subject pronoun after a linking verb. Yes, this is she.

 Exercise 1 Underline the pronoun in parentheses that best completes each sentence. The baby-sitter and (I, me) watched the squirrels play in the yard. 1. Mom called (we, us) in for supper. 2. (He, Him) and Derek will get to school early. 3. Byron lent (I, me) this video. 4. Are (they, them) ever going to arrive? 5. Who is (he, him)? 6. Aunt Cara brought (she, her) for a visit. Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

7. Roger and (I, me) rode our new bikes. 8. (We, Us) were late for our appointment. 9. Please tell (I, me) the answer? 10. Uncle Clyde told my sisters and (I, me) a story. 11. We took out the eggs and boiled (they, them) in water. 12. My mom drove Eloise and (she, her) to the concert. 13. The rain really soaked (he, him). 14. No one asked (I, me) about it. 15. (They, Them) mow lawns during summer vacation. 16. Todd bought (they, them) sodas.

Unit 4, Pronouns

107

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

17. Evelyn and (she, her) never run out of things to talk about. 18. Julie, Jennifer, and (I, me) made toys for the kindergarten class. 19. Scott and Carl helped (we, us). 20. (They, them) took Emily to the zoo last Saturday.  Exercise 2 Write C in the blank if the pronoun in italics is correct. If it is incorrect, write the correct pronoun in the blank. Susan and him love that new album by the Trees.

C

1. Karen and she took the bus.

I

2. Bill and me saw the movie.

C

3. Ahmed called Carol and me.

he

4. Mom and him are in the room.

she

5. The best artist is her.

I

6. Marla and me saw the Renoir painting.

C

7. Sally wrote Ted and me letters from camp.

I

8. Wendy and me read about Chief Joseph.

me him

9. Mom gave Akira and I a job for the afternoon. 10. Sharks interest Patti and he.

C

11. The tallest student is he.

I

12. Jim and me think that natural resources are important.

C

13. Darla and we agreed about the picnic.

we

14. Carl and us saw the ballet Swan Lake.

them 15. The coach showed Nat and they a few tricks. us

16. Wayne invited we to the golf tournament.

C

17. Charlotte and I sang a duet at the festival.

me

18. Barbara bought Vicki and I souvenirs.

him

19. Linda gave he a pumpkin from her garden.

he

20. She and him fish in the pond behind their house.

108 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

he

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 27

Pronouns and Antecedents The word or group of words that a pronoun refers to is its antecedent. The pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number and gender. The girl in the blue dress is my sister. She is my sister. (Girl is the antecedent of the pronoun she). The students wear gym clothes on Friday. They have gym for one hour. (Students is the antecedent of the pronoun they.)

It

The word Renaissance is a French word. [

means rebirth. They

1. The Middle Ages came before the Renaissance. [

lasted from about A.D.

500 to A.D. 1500. It

2. The Renaissance took place in Europe. [

lasted from the fourteenth century

to the sixteenth century. 3. Achievements in art and literature shaped the Renaissance. [

They

made it a

special time in history.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. Modern science also began during the Renaissance. [

It

traces its beginnings to

this time period. 5. The Renaissance started in Europe. [

It

began with the study of the ancient

history of Italy. 6. Many great thinkers shaped the Renaissance. [

They

held different opinions

about many different things. 7. Petrarch headed the study of Italy’s history. [ 8. Gifted artists lived during this time. [

They

He

was an Italian.

were Raphael, Titian, Michelangelo,

and Leonardo da Vinci. 9. People called “patrons” supported these artists. They gave [

them

money and

other things to pay for their work. Unit 4, Pronouns

109

Grammar

 Exercise 1 Fill in the blank with the correct pronoun. Then circle the antecedent of the pronoun.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. The Sistine Chapel is in Rome. Michelangelo painted [

it

.

11. Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. He began painting [

it

in 1508. 12. Pope Julius II gave Michelangelo the job of painting the chapel. Julius II supported [

him

while he worked.

13. Music also flourished during the Renaissance. [

It

developed a specific style. them

.

 Exercise 2 Write C in the blank if the italicized pronoun in the second sentence agrees with its antecedent in the first sentence. Circle the antecedent. If it does not agree with its antecedent, write the correct pronoun in the blank. C

The Mona Lisa hangs in the Louvre in Paris. It is one of the best-known paintings in the world.

C

1. Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa. He is famous for achievements in both art and science.

he

2. Born in 1452, da Vinci lived during a period of great artistic expression. Early in his career it was an art apprentice.

It

3. Da Vinci met Michelangelo in Florence, Italy. He was a city where many artists lived.

him

4. Da Vinci and Michelangelo worked together. Da Vinci taught her how to show movement in art.

They

5. Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. It are two of his most famous paintings.

C

6. Da Vinci’s paintings hang in many museums. People come from faraway places to see them.

C

7. Da Vinci created breathtaking paintings, and he also crafted great sculptures.

They

8. Two notebooks written by da Vinci were found in 1965. Them revealed many of da Vinci’s plans and ideas.

110 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

14. Renaissance buildings were also unusual. Architects of today often imitate [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 28

Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns are another kind of personal pronoun. A possessive pronoun takes the place of a person or thing that owns or possesses something. It can come before the noun that is possessed or it can stand alone in a sentence. Dan’s father is a doctor. His father is a doctor. (His comes before the noun father.)

USED BEFORE NOUNS Singular: my, your, her, his, its Plural: our, your, their

Grammar

The lunch bag on the table belongs to Donna. The lunch bag on the table is hers. (Hers stands alone.) USED ALONE mine, yours, hers, his, its ours, yours, theirs

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

 Exercise 1 Circle each possessive pronoun. Write in the blank SA for “stands alone” or BN for “before a noun.” SA

The yellow skateboard is his.

BN

1. Mia left her notebook on the bus.

SA

2. Is this house key mine?

SA

3. The colorful picture of the flowers is mine.

BN

4. The proud parents brought home their new baby girl.

BN

5. Will strummed his guitar and invited everyone to sing.

SA

6. The red house on the corner is ours.

BN

7. The computer quickly stores information in its huge memory.

BN

8. These warm chocolate chip cookies melt in your mouth.

BN

9. The cheetah lay in the tall grass, planning its attack.

BN

10. Her hand shot up when the teacher asked for volunteers.

SA

11. I didn’t get a cheeseburger, so I tasted hers.

BN

12. Is your seat belt always fastened?

SA

13. The fluffy, brown puppy is theirs.

SA

14. Yours is the third seat in the first row. Unit 4, Pronouns

111

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

BN

15. My cousin from Nebraska is staying with us.

 Exercise 2 Write the correct possessive pronoun above each italicized word or words.

1. 2.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

brothers and sisters. his 10. John dreams of flying high in the clouds in John’s own plane one day. hers 11. Chloe claimed that the purse was Chloe’s. theirs 12. The telescope is not mine. It is Billy’s, Tim’s, and Jane’s. our 13. My family looked everywhere for my family’s dog. his 14. The biggest fish caught that day was Juan’s. mine 15. This yellow parka looks similar to my parka.  Writing Link Write a few sentences describing your classroom and the things in it. Use as many possessive pronouns as possible.

112 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

3.

Her Karen’s friend showed us her new game. its The hungry dog pushed the dog’s dish with its nose across the kitchen floor. its The bird flapped the bird’s long wings and flew away. her Dave gladly carried Shari’s backpack for her. her Tonya grabbed my notebook by mistake, and I took Tonya’s notebook. theirs The clever idea was Jim’s and Akira’s. His Greg’s sister is graceful and smart. mine Robert’s style of skating is different from my style of skating. Her My aunt’s smile is full of love and warmth. its The young chimpanzee spends many happy hours playing with the young chimpanzee’s

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 29

Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, or thing in a more general way than a personal pronoun does. If the indefinite pronoun is singular, it takes a singular verb. If it is plural, it takes a plural verb. Some indefinite pronouns—all, any, most, none, and some—may take either a singular or a plural verb, depending on the context of the sentence. Grammar

Everybody knows the answer. Many know the answer. Some of the pie is gone. Some of the neighbors are gone. Singular Indefinite Pronouns: another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, something Plural Indefinite Pronouns: both, few, many, others, several

 Exercise 1 Underline the word in parentheses that best completes each sentence. Everybody (has, have) a chance to win the contest. 1. Everyone (likes, like) the pizza in the cafeteria. 2. One of the answers (is, are) correct. 3. Everybody (crowds, crowd) around the stage.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. (Is, Are) anyone allowed to borrow books from the library? 5. No one (lives, live) in the middle of the desert. 6. All of the frightened sheep (tries, try) to run away from the snarling wolf. 7. Most of the neighbors (was, were) enjoying the cool summer breeze. 8. Either of the songs (seems, seem) perfect for the party. 9. Both of the girls (plays, play) soccer well. 10. Several of the club members (meets, meet) in the library each week. 11. Both of the movies (was, were) good. 12. Neither of the boys (is, are) able to ski. 13. Nothing (smells, smell) as good as Aunt Velda’s roast beef. 14. Much of the work (was, were) done by the time we joined the group. Unit 4, Pronouns

113

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. Each (has, have) its own water dish. 16. Few of the puppies (knows, know) how to fetch a ball. 17. (Is, Are) anything as good as a chocolate ice-cream cone on a hot day? 18. Everything (was, were) calm and quiet after the rainstorm. 19. No one (calls, call) after 11:00 P.M. 20. Anybody (is, are) welcome to write a poem for the contest.

22. The others (flies, fly) behind the lead goose. 23. (Has, Have) someone checked the answering machine for messages? 24. Each (chirps, chirp) happily when the mother returns to the nest. 25. Nobody (has, have) a better sense of humor than Jen. 26. Many (visits, visit) Mrs. Cruz in the hospital. 27. (Does, Do) any of the printers in the computer lab work? 28. (Is, Are) everyone allowed to go on the field trip tomorrow? 29. No one (lives, live) in the house next to ours. 30. All of us (tries, try) our best to get good grades. 31. Everyone (watches, watch) in awe as the space shuttle lifts off. 32. Many of the firefighters (is, are) willing to go into the burning building. 33. Much of the movie (remains, remain) to be watched. 34. Some of the stars (shines, shine) more brightly than others. 35. Several (has, have) tried to beat Amad at checkers, but few (has, have) succeeded. 36. Few (hits, hit) the ball over the ballpark fence. 37. Some of the popsicles (has, have) melted. 38. Most of the turkey (was, were) eaten. 39. Everybody in this choir (sings, sing) off-key. 40. Several of those teenagers (visits, visit) this nursing home.

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Grammar

21. Both (takes, take) dancing lessons.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 4 Review  Exercise 1 Fill in the blank with the pronoun that best completes each sentence. He

John F. Kennedy was the thirty-fifth president of the United States. [ the youngest president ever elected. 1. Anthropology is the study of humans and [ cultures.

their

beginnings, development, and belongs. them

3. When the birds fluttered around the birdhouse, Jessie ran to feed [ 4. After Hannah and Roberto finished their homework, [ she

they

me

went to the movie.

of home.

joined [

she

7. Carla waved to her mother in the crowd as [ teammates on the court.

her it

8. When my pencil broke, I asked the teacher if I could sharpen [ 9. When Kristen and I dug the garden, my mother gave [ 10. The test questions were not as difficult as [

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

they he

11. Sam was running late this morning, and [

us

she

seeds to plant.

missed his bus. it

.

has worn a helmet.

14. I finished my math homework quickly because my sister helped [ out the hard problems. we

18. Ariel and [

I

me

figure

could clean the garage ourselves.

16. Our school uniforms are much more comfortable than [ 17. Miss Darnell asked the students if [

.

looked.

12. After searching for his wallet for an hour, Brian found [

15. Victor and I told mother that [

.

hasn’t received them yet.

6. At the beach, I picked up a seashell that reminded [

13. Ever since Kari had a bike accident, [

Grammar

it

2. Mother told Ahmed to put away each toy in the place were [

5. Valerie ordered three books, but [

was

they

they

used to be.

would mind helping Mr. Lenox.

sometimes do our homework together.

19. As I was leaving, Mrs. Dillman gave [

me

a big hug.

20. “Is this Marsha?” asked the voice on the phone. “Yes,” said Marsha, “this is [ she .”

Unit 4, Pronouns

115

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1– 4

int.

The schools closed because of the snowstorm.

tr.

1. Renee bought a CD with her baby-sitting money.

int.

2. My mother’s plane arrived late.

tr.

3. Fish have gills instead of lungs.

tr.

4. Crowds of people attended the concert.

int.

5. My grandfather’s health improved slowly.

int.

6. We sat on my porch for at least an hour.

tr.

7. The Stevensons keep horses on their small farm.

int.

8. Nigan and I walk to the practice field together.

int.

9. The fireworks went off with a bang and a burst of color.

tr.

10. Our neighbor rescued an injured bird.

tr.

11. My sister and I play tennis with our dad.

int.

12. Ariel writes to her pen pal every Saturday.

tr.

13. The choir sang the song in perfect unison.

tr.

14. Miguel corrected his mistakes before handing in his paper.

int.

15. We jogged to school and back for our morning exercise.

 Exercise 2 Write pers. for personal pronoun (subject or object), poss. for possessive, or ind. for indefinite above each pronoun.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ind. Someone spilled juice on the table. pers. poss. Tell them about your favorite book. pers. poss. When the travelers arrived, they were weary from their journey. pers. poss. She will present her report to the class. poss. Is this flute yours? ind. No one thinks the quiz will be today.

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Grammar

 Exercise 1 Draw one line under each direct object and two lines under each verb. Write in the blank tr. if the verb is transitive or int. if it is intransitive.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Grammar

poss. 6. The spelling bee participants carefully studied their long word lists. ind. 7. Somebody forgot to turn off the light. pers. 8. Although the girl is often sick, she is always cheerful. poss. 9. Allison said the idea for the project was hers. ind. 10. Is anyone responsible for taking attendance today? poss. 11. Rayna pulled her desk closer to Judy’s. ind. poss. 12. Few knew of her change in plans. poss. poss. 13. For their birthday, Sabra gave her twin daughters matching sweaters. pers. pers. ind. poss. poss. 14. We will tell you several of our objections to their program. ind. pers. pers. 15. Neither of us had heard of him before.  Exercise 3 Draw a line under the simple subject of the sentence. Draw two lines under the simple predicate. She called me at six o’clock this morning. 1. In three giant leaps, the cat crossed the busy highway. 2. I read that story, too! 3. Emily sang in the chorus.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. The bicycle chain rattled against the wheel. 5. The buses chugged noisily through the school parking lot. 6. Sally and he told us that silly joke again. 7. Henry painted a watercolor portrait of Camilla. 8. They laughed through the entire play. 9. This old movie makes my sister cry. 10. Have Ali and you written the postcards yet? 11. We laughed at the clowns. 12. The homework is still not done. 13. Will it never rain? 14. Kevin and the varsity team played really hard.

Unit 4, Pronouns

117

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 4 Write the correct possessive pronouns above the words in italics. His Dad’s car is new. Her 1. Mary’s foul shot won the game. Its 2. The tree’s color is a beautiful red-gold. His 3. Ted’s book is missing. Our 4. Bill’s and my bikes both need new tires. Their 5. Monica and Alina’s project is finished. your 6. Renee, is this Renee’s notebook? her 7. This ring looks like Cathy’s ring. His 8. George Washington’s military skill and daring helped win America’s independence from Britain. our 9. Priscilla, where are your and my new jackets? yours 10. Trina, is this magazine Trina’s? Her 11. Queen Victoria’s long reign is known as the Victorian Age. theirs 12. Are these concert tickets Patti’s and Carla’s? ours 13. Those tennis rackets are Terri’s and mine! yours 14. Ricardo and Larry, I’m pretty sure these baseball cards are Ricardo’s and Larry’s. His 15. Baron Karl Friedrich Hieronymus von Münchhausen’s wild stories are unbelievable but very funny. their 16. Unfortunately, the books’ covers were torn during the move. Her 17. Tricia’s new home is in a lovely small town. its 18. The drama club’s members were excited about the spring play. theirs 19. This telescope is Pedro’s and Jeff’s. his 20. I love this spaghetti; may I eat my brother’s?

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Grammar

15. Can you find Lake Erie on the map?

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 5: Adjectives Lesson 30

Adjectives and Proper Adjectives A word that describes persons, places, or things is an adjective. An adjective usually answers one of three questions about the noun or pronoun it modifies. Please use the drawing paper. Wanda had three sisters. That seat is taken.

Grammar

What kind? How many? Which one?

Usually the adjective comes just before the noun it modifies. However, when the noun is the subject followed by a linking verb, its adjective follows the linking verb as part of the predicate. These adjectives are called predicate adjectives. The puppy became frisky. A proper adjective is an adjective formed from a proper noun. Sometimes the proper adjective is the same word as the noun that forms it. At other times it has a special ending. All proper adjectives begin with a capital letter. the Wyoming foothills

Chinese checkers

 Exercise 1 Draw an arrow from each adjective in italics to the noun or pronoun it modifies.

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The first robots were built in the Middle Ages. 1. Some early robots can still be seen today. 2. In Venice, Italy, two human-sized robots dressed in medieval clothing strike the clock tower bell every hour. 3. In Germany, figures dance and play musical instruments under a church clock. 4. Although their movements are simple, they are entertaining. 5. These robots get their power from clock parts. 6. Today robots work on land, in outer space, or on the ocean floor. 7. Japanese scientists are creating a crablike robot to work underwater. Unit 5, Adjectives

119

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. This robot can take a great deal of underwater pressure. 9. The abilities of this robot are awesome. 10. Robots are important to space exploration. 11. American spacecraft landed robots on Mars in 1977. 12. These robots tested Martian soil and atmosphere.

14. The pictures showed rust-colored rocks and an orange sky. 15. The pictures were truly breathtaking.  Exercise 2 Underline each adjective. Robots with human shape are called “androids” or “humanoids.” 1. Many androids or humanoids are run by remote control. 2. True robots run on computer power. 3. Some robots perform household chores. 4. However, household robots are rare. 5. Household robots are also expensive. 6. Household robots could easily cost as much as new houses. 7. Future robots will answer doorbells, clear the dinner table, and keep the kitchen cupboard full. 8. Industrial robots are already quite common. 9. In automobile factories, robots paint cars. 10. On assembly lines, robots are run by computers. 11. Large companies often use these robots to deliver mail. 12. Industrial robots are usually strong. 13. They can use various tools. 14. In one Japanese factory, robots are building other robots. 15. One advantage of robots is that they never become tired.

120 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

13. The Soviet Union used robots in 1978 to take the first pictures of the surface of Venus.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 31

Articles and Demonstratives An article is a special kind of adjective. There are three articles, the words a, an, and the. The describes one specific item or items. The program was canceled because of the snowstorm. A and an refer to any one item of a group. Use a before words that begin with a consonant sound. Use an before words that begin with a vowel sound. Grammar

A giraffe is an elegant animal. Demonstrative adjectives are used to point out something. The words this, that, these, and those are demonstrative adjectives. This and that are singular. These and those are plural. This and these refer to things that are close. That and those refer to things that are at a distance. Read this book. Take that train.

He washed these apples. (close to the speaker) Those boys are on the other team. (at a distance from the speaker)

Demonstratives often appear before the nouns they modify, but they can stand alone. When a demonstrative is used by itself, it is a demonstrative pronoun. Give this to your sister. I like those the best.

 Exercise 1 Write in the blank the article that best completes each sentence.

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1. [

The

ticket for [

a

Do you have [

a

calculator. the

3. My dad keeps maps in [ The

car glove compartment.

field hockey team has a match after school.

5. Sara hopes to get [

a

bicycle for her birthday.

6. My father thinks ordering pizza is [

an

7. I read my little sister a story about [

a

8. [

An

class play?

moon is really bright tonight.

2. It is helpful to have [

4. [

the

excellent idea. unicorn.

index of street names appears on most maps.

9. I will be attending [

a or the

school on Maple Street.

Unit 5, Adjectives

121

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. My mom wants to buy [

a

sports car. the

11. Please put your backpack on [

kitchen table. a

12. The Metropolitan Museum of Art is [ 13. [

The

closest parks are across town.

14. Jeff went shopping for [ 15. Many of my friends have [

a

baseball mitt. an

interest in astronomy.

 Exercise 2 Draw a line under the demonstrative in parentheses that best completes each sentence. Write P in the blank if it is a pronoun or A if it is an adjective. P

(That, These) is the biggest pumpkin I’ve ever seen!

A

1. (This, Those) baby’s skin is as smooth as silk.

A

2. Miriam told (those, that) same joke yesterday.

A

3. (Those, That) elephants are sleeping in the shade of the tree.

P

4. (This, These) takes two solid hours to complete.

P

5. Is (those, this) your favorite song?

A

6. (That, Those) icicles look like long, jagged teeth.

P

7. (This, Those) is the worst I have seen!

A

8. (This, These) ants are busy at work.

P

9. (That, These) are the best days of our lives.

A

10. I have climbed (those, that) tree a hundred times.

A

11. The pilot calmly steered us through (that, these) big cloud.

P

12. (This, Those) makes a high, piercing noise.

A

13. Her eyes shining, the little girl pointed to (those, that) piece of candy.

P

14. May I buy five of (that, those), please?

A

15. (Those, That) students want to transfer to our school.

P

16. (Those, That) sounds like an interesting movie.

P

17. (This, These) is what we bought for Dad.

P

18. Liam, take (this, these) and put it over there.

122 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

huge museum.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 32

Adjectives That Compare Some kinds of adjectives compare two or more nouns or pronouns. The comparative form of an adjective compares two things or people. It is usually formed by adding -er to an adjective that has only one syllable. If an adjective has more than one syllable, the comparative is usually formed by adding the word more before the adjective. Grammar

Pedro is older than his brother Carlos. The long coat is more expensive than the short one. The superlative form of an adjective compares more than two people or things. It is usually formed by adding -est to an adjective that has only one syllable. If the adjective has more than one syllable, the superlative is usually formed by adding most before the adjective. Pedro is the oldest of the three Castino children. The long coat is the most expensive of all the coats.

 Exercise 1 Underline the adjective in parentheses that best completes each sentence. Brian is (taller, tallest) than his brother. 1. The park by the ocean is the (peacefulest, most peaceful) place I have ever been. 2. Jimmy Carter is a (more recent, recentest) president than John F. Kennedy. Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

3. Granite is the (most hard, hardest) rock nature makes. 4. Mt. Shasta is the (higher, highest) mountain I have ever seen. 5. An airplane moves at (greater, more great) speed than a car. 6. The (most big, biggest) problem we have is reading the German book. 7. My brother thinks New York is the (most exciting, excitingest) city in the world. 8. Joseph was (later, more late) than Juan. 9. The English test was (more difficult, difficultest) than the math test. 10. Yellow is the (most light, lightest) color on Brenda’s painting. 11. We had the (thrillingest, most thrilling) time at the amusement park! 12. Apples have (most smooth, smoother) skin than cantaloupes.

Unit 5, Adjectives

123

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. The bananas were the (more ripe, ripest) fruit in the store. 14. The (most short, shortest) path is the one through the parking lot. 15. The newspaper is (more current, currenter) than the magazine.  Exercise 2 Write in the blank the correct form of the adjective in parentheses. A sweater was the [

warmest

] thing she had to wear. (warm)

nicest

1. I think this is the [

] shirt I own. (nice) most likely

3. Gasoline is [

more explosive

] than water. (explosive)

highest

4. Mount Everest is the [

] mountain in the world. (high) fresher

5. The salad bar lettuce seems [ 6. This is the [

greenest

] to happen. (likely)

] today than yesterday. (fresh)

] forest I have ever seen! (green) more fragrant

7. The flowers outside are much [

] than the ones in the vase.

(fragrant) thickest

8. We walked barefoot through the [ 9. The kitten was [

more adorable

11. This song is far [

more popular

12. The cushion was [

] than I remember. (adorable)

strongest

10. The shortstop has the [

older

13. I think the lamb is the [ 14. Spider webs are among the [ 15. This grammar test is the [

] grass imaginable. (thick)

] arm on the team. (strong) ] than the one they just played. (popular)

] than the chair. (old) gentlest

] of our farm animals. (gentle)

most delicate hardest

] things in nature. (delicate)

] one so far. (hard)

 Writing Link Write three sentences about your favorite story. Use adjectives to compare it with others you have read.

124 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

2. Of all the ideas, Emily’s was the [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 33

Special Adjectives That Compare The comparative and superlative forms of some adjectives are not formed in the regular way. Never add more or most before these adjectives. COMPARATIVE better worse more less

SUPERLATIVE best worst most least

Grammar

ADJECTIVE good bad much, many little (amount)

 Exercise 1 Write in the blank the correct form of the adjective in parentheses. less

There is [

corn than spinach in the pantry. (little)

worse

1. My cold is [

today than it was yesterday. (bad) good

2. Many old books are very [ less

3. Felicia had [

money in her pocket than she thought. (little) least

4. Nelson did the [

more

6. Baking bread has the [

best better

7. That movie was the [ Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

amount of work possible. (little)

5. A computer costs far [

worst

8. That was the [ 9. The score was far [ little

10. There is [

worse

14. While [ 15. Is it [

smell in the world. (good) one of the two. (good)

than the last time we lost. (bad)

help we can give her. (little)

12. All the apples in that bag were [ More

money than a typewriter. (much)

team we played all year. (bad)

11. The creamy chocolate pie is [

13. [

. (good)

better bad

than the apple pie. (good) . (bad)

glazed doughnuts were left than plain doughnuts. (many) most better

16. Our team has [

students preferred spring, a few preferred summer. (many) to coach softball than to play it? (good) better

players than theirs. (good)

Unit 5, Adjectives

125

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

17. Not [

much

paint is left. (much)

18. Shana likes [ 19. We have had [

most

movies she sees. (much)

less

snow than usual. (little) more

20. The museum had [

paintings by French artists than by German artists.

(many) good

21. The potato soup is very [ better

at skiing than at football. (good) least

23. Our team had the [

number of players of any team in the tournament.

(little) 24. Today’s weather was [ 25. The magician’s act was [ 26. There are [ 27. We waited a [

more little

worse

than yesterday’s. (bad)

better

than the comedian’s. (good)

trees in Blendon Woods than in Houston Woods. (much) while and then went home. (little)

28. Which of the three plans will cause the [ 29. After the bike was painted, it looked [ 30. That was the [

worst

least better

trouble? (little) than ever. (good)

movie I had ever seen. (bad)

 Writing Link Write a short paragraph that describes your neighborhood or a favorite place. Include comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives good, bad, much, and little.

126 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

22. I am [

. (good)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 5 Review  Exercise 1 Draw one line under each article and two lines under each comparative or superlative adjective. Circle all other adjectives. That mouse scooted across the most slippery part of the floor. 1. The Victorian house is closer than the modern house. Grammar

2. The Constitution guarantees free speech. 3. There was a dark spot on the carpet. 4. The little dog barked at the letter carrier. 5. More people attended the concert this year than last year. 6. Here is the ripest pear I could find. 7. The slowest way to get there is by boat. 8. Thanksgiving is the busiest time of year for airports. 9. In the spring, red roses grow in the park.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. In 1994 we had the worst winter in five years. 11. The heavy box held a new sewing machine. 12. Please pass those delicious chocolates. 13. Aleta was the earliest arrival. 14. The old oak tree was taller than the house. 15. Rashad thinks Chinese food is better than Mexican food. 16. This bucket is full of soapy water.

Unit 5, Adjectives

127

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1– 5  Exercise 1 Draw one line under each simple subject. Draw two lines under each simple predicate. The clown brought a pony to the birthday party. 1. Mother rented a good movie for us.

3. Cody and Brian have a new game. 4. They ran to the park. 5. Over and over they threw and caught the ball. 6. Maria and Juan baked chocolate cookies this afternoon. 7. Harve built a small robot, and Kelly painted it for him. 8. His older sister took him to the store. 9. The Morgans and the Morenos are our new neighbors. 10. Jamie wants hot dogs, but Simon prefers hamburgers.  Exercise 2 Write in the blank the past tense for each verb. sit

sat

1. run

ran

2. go

went smiled

3. smile 4. eat

ate called

5. call 6. do

did left

7. leave

took

12. take 13. let

let

14. write

wrote

15. speak

spoke

16. croak

croaked

17. smell

smelled

8. ask

asked

18. fall

9. buy

brought

19. squeak

10. watch

watched

128 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

squawked

11. squawk

fell

20. laugh

squeaked laughed

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Grammar

2. The book is called The Lion King.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 3 Draw two lines under each verb or verb phrase. Write its tense in the blank: present, past, future, pres. prog. (present progressive), past prog. (past progressive), pres. perf. (present perfect), or past perf. (past perfect.) past prog. future past perf. present prog. past

present past prog.

1. My dad and I will bake brownies tonight. 2. I had already heard the rumor. 3. The snow is falling in big flakes. 4. The editor of the school paper wrote an editorial. Grammar

present perf.

The principal was speaking to the student.

5. You have made my day! 6. Fiona enjoys computer games. 7. My sister was riding the exercise bike.

past

8. Charles Schulz created the “Peanuts” comic strip.

future

9. Our dog will stay in a kennel during our vacation.

present prog.

10. Our class is studying endangered species.

past perf.

11. Rebecca had hurried to the mall.

past prog.

12. Everyone was cheering for the home team.

present perf. past

13. Mrs. Santos has discovered the missing workbooks. 14. General Sherman commanded the Union army in the Civil

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

War. past perf.

15. The light had burned out in the kitchen.

 Exercise 4 Replace the word or words in parentheses with an appropriate pronoun. She They

(Glenda) practiced playing the piano every night. 1. (The squirrels) scampered up the tree.

it

2. I have seen (the movie) five times.

He

3. (Samuel) gets up every morning at 6:00.

We

4. (Mark and I) played catch in the summer sun.

his

5. My sister borrowed (Kyle’s) bike yesterday.

you

6. Mrs. Simpson wants to call (you and your sister) about raking her leaves.

Unit 5, Adjectives

129

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

7. We can’t find (Betty, Kai, and Marillu) anywhere.

Our

8. (Levi’s and my) model airplane is red.

her

9. We saw (your aunt) at the shopping mall.

Its

10. (The fish’s) gills moved quickly in and out.

they

11. Do you know if (the Gonzaleses) are coming?

her

12. We all applauded Carlos and (Maria).

she

13. Does (Julie) know her sweater is on backwards?

it

14. My dad carried (the luggage) upstairs.

us

15. Tricia lent (Jules and me) her library card.

 Exercise 5 Draw one line under each regular adjective and two lines under each predicate adjective. Circle all proper adjectives. The Pennsylvania mountains seem large and rugged. 1. The big barn appears spacious and roomy. 2. The heavy sea thundered against the black basalt rock of the cliffs. 3. A cousin of mine owns a Belgian horse. 4. This new flavor of strawberry sherbet tastes delicious. 5. The outdated steamship became a popular attraction for tourists. 6. Did you see that Italian sports car in front of the old house? 7. I saw the science book on the antique table and the French grammar book on the kitchen counter. 8. Are those beach houses in greater danger from hurricanes than these tall hotels? 9. The English mystery movie interests me more than this Japanese cartoon. 10. June was the driest month on record. 11. The scarlet cardinal sounds happy on this sunny day. 12. The mighty battleship sits quietly at anchor these days, and many people visit it. 13. Glorious sunlight reflects warmly off the brick walls. 14. I like Irish setters; what dog breed do you like?

130 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

them

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 6: Adverbs Lesson 34

Adverbs Modifying Verbs An adverb modifies, or describes, a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An adverb tells how, when, or where about the word it modifies. An adverb that modifies a verb may appear in different positions in a sentence. Grammar

Chan happily plays ball. (The adverb happily tells how Chan plays ball.) Often the team travels on a bus. (The adverb often tells when the team travels.) My sister ran downstairs. (The adverb downstairs tells where my sister ran.) Most, but not all, words that end in -ly are adverbs. This type of adverb is usually formed by adding -ly to an adjective. Adjective: graceful

Adverb: gracefully

Some adverbs that do not end in -ly are soon, after, now, later, hard, not, fast, often, today, always, very, and here.

 Exercise 1 Underline each adverb. Draw an arrow to the verb it modifies. The custom of wearing wigs has varied greatly over the centuries.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. For many centuries both men and women frequently wore wigs. 2. As time passed, wigs gradually became the mark of high fashion. 3. In many countries people grandly dressed their wigs with gold and jewels. 4. Queen Elizabeth I of England dearly loved clothes and jewelry. 5. She soon revived the style of wearing fancy wigs. 6. In France, Queen Marie Antoinette gracefully hid her hair loss with a wig. 7. All of her subjects eagerly followed her style. 8. In the New World many ministers preached energetically against wigs, while other ministers wore them proudly.

Unit 6, Adverbs

131

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. Just before the American Revolution, colonists heavily powdered their high, puffy wigs. 10. In those days George Washington surely considered his wig high fashion. 11. People later stopped wearing wigs. 12. Wigs were obviously part of the old world. 13. The new Americans certainly wanted freedom in style as well as in government.

15. They soaked their hair heavily in oil to hold the powder.  Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by writing an appropriate adverb in the blank. Answers will vary. proudly

In many ancient lands people [ 1. People were [

often

grew long hair as a mark of honor.

punished by having their hair cut.

2. When Julius Caesar conquered a new country, he [

usually

forced the people

to cut their hair. 3. Many people [

firmly

believed that long hair increased strength. clearly

4. The story of Samson and Delilah [

illustrates how many people felt

about hair. 5. On the other hand, the Greeks shaved their heads and [

respectfully

offered the

hair to the gods. 6. In return, they [

politely

asked for great strength in battle.

7. Peoples like the Anglo-Saxons [ 8. They [

greatly

happily

dyed their hair in bright colors.

admired hair dyed in bright green, blue, or orange.

9. Ancient Germans, on the other hand, [

often

preferred hair dyed in bright

red. 10. Instead of hair spray, they [

commonly

in place.

132 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

used goat’s grease to make their hair stay

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

14. Even so, they powdered their hair and tied it tightly at the back of the neck.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 35

Adverbs Modifying Adjectives and Adverbs An adverb can also modify an adjective or another adverb. An adverb that modifies an adjective or another adverb tells how, when, or where about the word it modifies. An adverb that modifies an adjective or another adverb almost always appears immediately before the word it modifies.

Grammar

Kai is an unusually good skater. (The adverb unusually tells how about the adjective good.) Marta almost always sings. (The adverb almost tells when about the adverb always.) ADVERBS OFTEN USED TO MODIFY ADJECTIVES AND OTHER ADVERBS very so rather just

too extremely nearly somewhat

almost really barely totally

quite partly unusually hardly

 Exercise 1 Circle each adverb that modifies an adjective or an adverb. In the blank, write adj. if the adverb modifies an adjective. Write adv. if the adverb modifies another adverb.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

adj.

I was barely awake when the phone rang.

adj.

1. A very nice bowl of flowers arrived in the mail.

adj.

2. We call my grandmother nearly every day.

adj.

3. Pierre is the most popular player on the team.

adv.

4. He almost always turns off the light.

adj.

5. The floor was marked with totally black lines.

adv.

6. We set the eggs on the counter very carefully.

adj.

7. The circus clown had an unusually big, false nose.

adv.

8. The elderly man walked rather slowly.

adj.

9. My shirt is old and somewhat gray.

adv.

10. My best friend, Tanya, sings quite sweetly.

adj.

11. Bill spends so much time working that he has little time for other things.

Unit 6, Adverbs

133

adj.

12. Suela’s idea was just right.

adj.

13. We had a really good pizza last night.

adj.

14. Mother is especially successful in her work.

adv.

15. They were surprised when the car stopped so suddenly.

adj.

16. Jody was really happy to see her cousins.

adv.

17. We quite happily fed the ducks.

adj.

18. We rode our nearly new bicycles to the park.

adj.

19. Bill is extremely eager to race Joel on Saturday.

adv.

20. Joel is smaller and faster and can very easily win the race.

adj.

21. We all followed the ice cream truck, but Nora was barely able to keep up.

adv.

22. Even though she is slow, she hardly ever falls.

adj.

23. The unexpected visit from my aunt was too good to be true.

adj.

24. Balance is extremely important when riding a bicycle.

adv.

25. Pedro almost never eats popcorn in the evening.

 Writing Link Write about one of your favorite things to do. Use adverbs to modify adjectives and other adverbs.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

134 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 36

Adverbs That Compare The comparative form of an adverb compares two actions. The superlative form of an adverb compares more than two actions. Adverbs that have only one syllable form the comparative by adding -er and form the superlative by adding -est. Adverbs that have more than one syllable or that end in -ly use the word more to form the comparative and the word most to form the superlative. Grammar

Comparative: The little clown ran faster than the big one. The little clown ran more quickly than the big one. Superlative: The little clown ran the fastest of all of them. The little clown ran the most quickly of all of them.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

 Exercise 1 Write in the blank the missing form of the adverb. ADVERB

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

easily

more easily

most easily

1. fast

faster

fastest

2. firmly

more firmly

most firmly

3. rarely

more rarely

most rarely

4. simply

more simply

most simply

5. hard

harder

hardest

6. regularly

more regularly

most regularly

7. actively

more actively

most actively

8. long

longer

longest

9. soon

sooner

soonest

10. high

higher

highest

11. clearly

more clearly

most clearly

12. close

closer

closest

13. frequently

more frequently

most frequently

14. plainly

more plainly

most plainly

15. truly

more truly

most truly Unit 6, Adverbs

135

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 2 Underline the correct form of the adverb in parentheses. It took us (longer, longest) to get to the museum than to the park. 1. Mark ran the (faster, fastest) of all the boys. 2. Mika worked (more hard, harder) than Roger. 3. Maria speaks the (intelligentliest, most intelligently) of all the candidates. 4. He wins (more frequently, most frequently) than his brother.

6. We arrived (more soon, sooner) than we thought we would. 7. We play tennis (more often, oftener) now that the weather is warmer. 8. An eagle can fly (more high, higher) than a sparrow. 9. Some animals act (more mean, meaner) than they actually are. 10. Cole plays (more noisier, more noisily) on his electric guitar now that he has a new amplifier. 11. Fred sat (closer, closest) to the door than Shelly did. 12. Mary always eats (faster, fastest) than her brother does. 13. The owl can screech (louder, loudest) than any other bird I know. 14. Tad wrote his report (neatlier, more neatly) the second time. 15. She answered (sooner, soonest) of the ten people asked. 16. In sports, Ruth always tries (more hard, harder) than Susan. 17. The cheetah runs (more swiftly, most swiftly) than any other animal. 18. The gold medal winner skated the (more skillfully, most skillfully) of the ten contestants. 19. Mrs. Roth explained the problem (more clearly, most clearly) than Mrs. Groves did. 20. The prize will go to the ballplayer who attends practice (more regularly, most regularly).

136 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

5. Sarah is studying (more long, longer) than usual because she has a test tomorrow.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 37

Irregular Comparative Forms Some adverbs have irregular forms of the comparative and the superlative. IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE FORMS COMPARATIVE better worse less farther further

SUPERLATIVE best worst least farthest furthest

Grammar

ADVERB well badly little (amount) far (distance) far (degree)

 Exercise 1 Underline the correct form of the irregular adverb in parentheses. Robby fixed his stereo (better, best) the second time. 1. I was worried that I did (more badly, worse) on the test. 2. Emilio ate (less, least) quickly than Tom did. 3. Mario could see much (more far, farther) with his new glasses. 4. I don’t want to listen any (further, farther). 5. Ariel does (bestest, best) in school after a good night’s sleep.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. I hope they repair the bridge (better, best) this time than last time. 7. The metal fence is (badly, worst) rusted from all the rain. 8. I would like to contribute to my community (better, best) than I have in the past. 9. Pearl is (less, least) clever than her sister. 10. Raoul enjoys baby-sitting (better, best) than he enjoys mowing lawns. 11. Friday I played the (worse, worst) of anyone on the team. 12. Humming is the (less, least) annoying of all your habits. 13. Monarch butterflies migrate the (farther, farthest) of all the butterflies. 14. Always do your (better, best), and you will succeed in life. 15. Julius did (worse, worst) in the 500-meter dash than in the 100-meter dash.

Unit 6, Adverbs

137

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 2 Complete the sentence by writing in the blank the correct form of the irregular adverb in parentheses. less

Vivian traveled [

this year than last year. (little) far

1. Last year on vacation we drove as [ better

2. Kayla’s sister drew animals [ further

3. I will think about it [

as Mexico. (far) than she drew people. (well)

before next week. (far) worst

on opening night.

(badly) farther

5. My dad can throw a football [

farther

6. In our pet contest, the frog jumped [ better

7. Lisa performed [

than I can. (far) than the grasshopper. (far)

in today’s volleyball game than in yesterday’s.

(well) least

8. This video game was the [

enjoyable of the three. (little) further

9. Can you explain the problem [

? (far)

further

10. The teacher and the students will [

refine the class goals. (far)

11. When choosing pretzels, popcorn, or potato chips, remember that potato chips are the [

least

healthful of the three. (little) farthest

12. Atlanta is the [ 13. I like the country [

better

14. I like the ocean [

best

south I have ever been. (far) than the city. (well) of all. (well) best

15. Micah performed his violin solo the [ less

16. Martin enjoys swimming [ 17. Juan does [

worse

he ever had. (well)

than I do. (little)

in science than in English. (badly) worse

18. Do you think my big brother dances [ 19. The little girl can speak much [

better

than I do? (badly) than she could six months ago.

(well) 20. Of any time of day, Jenny sings [

worst

138 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

in the morning. (badly)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

4. Of all the performances, our school play went [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 38

Telling Adjectives and Adverbs Apart I Some adjectives and adverbs are easy to identify within sentences. An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. When they follow a verb, however, they can be confusing. A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and an adverb follows an action verb. A leopard is fast. (Fast is a predicate adjective.) A leopard runs fast. (Fast is an adverb.)

Which of the two movies did you like better? 1. The king was a just ruler. 2. I have just started this assignment. 3. Everyone worked hard on the projects for the science fair. 4. The toast had become hard and cold. 5. We have less homework than usual tonight. 6. I enjoyed the stage play less than the movie.

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7. Jess skates better than Tony. 8. This book seems better than that one. 9. Peggy can swim faster than Carol. 10. The jockey wanted a faster horse. 11. The explorers climbed a high mountain. 12. The plane flew high overhead. 13. Linda took a long drink of water. 14. How long have you waited here? 15. Come close, and I’ll tell you a secret. 16.The referee made a close call.

Unit 6, Adverbs

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Grammar

 Exercise 1 Draw one line under each italicized word that is an adjective. Draw two lines under each italicized word that is an adverb.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

17. Only one person arrived late. 18. The Changs ate a late dinner. 19. This is the most popular restaurant in town. 20. Most people look forward to weekends.  Exercise 2 Underline the adjective or adverb in parentheses that best completes each sentence.

1. Juanita is a (great, greatly) chess player and a good sport. 2. Mom and Dad appeared (great, greatly) pleased with their anniversary gift. 3. Mitzi (near, nearly) collided with Tim in the doorway. 4. A (near, nearly) miss does not count in basketball. 5. Myra looked (sad, sadly) at her friend’s broken glasses. 6. The little puppy looked (sad, sadly) and lonely. 7. The rain came down (sudden, suddenly). 8. There was a (sudden, suddenly) shower this afternoon. 9. What is the (probable, probably) cause of the disease? 10. We have (probable, probably) waited too long. 11. It is (unusual, unusually) cold today. 12. A temperature of seventy seems (unusual, unusually) for February in Iowa. 13. It was an absolutely (perfect, perfectly) summer day. 14. Mr. Murphy told us a (perfect, perfectly) ridiculous joke! 15. Could you (possible, possibly) help me with this math problem? 16. Well, that is one (possible, possibly) solution to the problem. 17. The long white envelope looked quite (ordinary, ordinarily). 18. I would not (ordinary, ordinarily) read a book about computer technology. 19. Jake grew (gloomy, gloomily) toward the end of the day. 20. The picknickers watched the dark clouds (gloomy, gloomily).

140 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

Mr. Denton (usual, usually) arrives before seven o’clock.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 39

Telling Adjectives and Adverbs Apart II

ADJECTIVES The choir sounds bad. The grapes are good. The roses are real. We are sure to win. Most people like music.

Grammar

Some adjectives and adverbs demand special attention because they can be confusing. Bad and good are adjectives. They are used after linking verbs. Badly and well are adverbs. They modify action verbs. When well is used after a linking verb to describe a person’s health, it is an adjective. Real and sure are adjectives. They describe nouns or pronouns. Really and surely are adverbs. Most is usually an adjective. When it is part of a superlative, it is an adverb. Almost is usually an adverb. When it is followed by an indefinite pronoun, it is an adjective. ADVERBS She sings badly. Grapes keep well. The roses are really pretty. We will surely win. The song is almost too loud.

 Exercise 1 Underline the word in parentheses that best completes each sentence. Our cat is (real, really) fuzzy. 1. We will (sure, surely) beat the Lions tomorrow! 2. Does this milk taste (good, well) or is it sour? 3. We (most, almost) always have salad with dinner. Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. The wrestler had a (sure, surely) hold on his opponent. 5. Alex didn’t feel (good, well), so he stayed home from school. 6. The boxer who landed the (most, almost) punches won the fight. 7. (Most, Almost) everyone in our class was excited about the basketball play-offs. 8. Bagels don’t fit (good, well) in our toaster. 9. Don and Maria had a (real, really) good time at the party. 10. I go to (most, almost) every football game. 11. My sister and I behave (good, well) when our grandparents visit. 12. We saw a (real, really) whale when we vacationed at Cape Cod! 13. Are you (sure, surely) you are right about the time of the movie?

Unit 6, Adverbs

141

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. The CD sounds (good, well) on our new disc player. 15. (Most, Almost) plants need sun and water.  Exercise 2 Write in the blank the correct form of the word in italics. If the word is correct, write C in the blank. Sheila did good on her English grammar test.

good

1. The baseball cap looked well on Neal’s head.

really

2. The Mexican food was real spicy.

C almost well

3. Jazz is surely popular in New Orleans! 4. Joel most never watches TV on school nights. 5. With the help of my calculator, I did good on my math homework.

surely

6. We will sure go to the mall this weekend.

Most

7. Almost politicians have degrees in either political science or law.

C

8. The sound system in our school auditorium works badly.

really

9. The soccer match was real exciting!

well

10. Jasmine’s grandma knits very good.

bad

11. Your messy room looks badly.

good

12. The pepperoni pizza tastes well.

sure

13. Mr. Valdez is surely about the results.

C badly

14. Dolphins are really smart mammals. 15. The old car rattled bad.

 Writing Link Write one or two sentences comparing your ability to do something this year with your ability to do it last year.

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Grammar

well

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 40

Avoiding Double Negatives Negative words express the idea of not or no. The adverb not often appears in the form of a contraction. is + not = isn’t was + not = wasn’t were + not = weren’t

do + not = don’t did + not = didn’t can + not = can’t

will + not = won’t have + not = haven’t could + not = couldn’t

NEGATIVE never nothing

AFFIRMATIVE ever, always something, anything

NEGATIVE nobody nowhere

Grammar

Negative words are the opposite of affirmative words. Affirmative words show the idea of yes. Each negative will have several opposite affirmatives. AFFIRMATIVE somebody, anybody somewhere, anywhere

Using two negatives in a sentence creates a double negative. Avoid using more than one negative in a sentence. Correct a double negative by using an affirmative word in place of one of the negative words. Incorrect: The teacher didn’t grade no papers. Correct: The teacher graded no papers. The teacher didn’t grade any papers.

 Exercise 1 Underline the word in parentheses that best completes each sentence. We didn’t see (none, any).

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1. My father doesn’t (never, ever) want to vacation in Florida. 2. Bill doesn’t think (nothing, anything) is as much fun as mountain climbing. 3. My mother says she isn’t (no, a) swimmer. 4. There weren’t (no, any) apples on the tree. 5. There isn’t (no, any) easy way to decide where to go. 6. Aaron wasn’t (never, ever) able to keep up with the older boys. 7. We didn’t see (nothing, anything) interesting at the flea market. 8. The book can’t be kept (no, any) longer. 9. My brother didn’t break (no, any) windows. 10. The band didn’t play (nowhere, anywhere) last week.

Unit 6, Adverbs

143

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

11. Did you say you don’t (never, ever) make a mistake? 12. Marcy hasn’t (no, any) money for the book. 13. We looked for the treasure, but we didn’t find (nothing, anything). 14. The pirates didn’t intend for (no one, anyone) to find it. 15. Mr. Allen didn’t mean (nothing, anything) by his comment. 16. After the picnic there weren’t (no, any) potato chips left.

18. We won’t (never, ever) visit that theater again. 19. The police officer yelled, “Don’t (nobody, anybody) move!” 20. There wasn’t (no, any) popcorn for the movie.  Exercise 2 Write a negative in the blank for each of the following affirmative words. Use contractions when possible. ever

never

1. will

won’t

11. can

2. one

none, no one

12. some

none

13. could

couldn’t

3. anywhere nowhere didn’t

4. did

haven’t

5. have 6. should 7. any 8. is 9. do

shouldn’t

none isn’t

wasn’t

15. someone 16. would

never

144 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

no one

wouldn’t

17. were weren’t 18. anything

don’t

10. always

14. was

can’t

19. has 20. does

nothing

hasn’t doesn’t

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Grammar

17. The broken glass wasn’t (no one’s, anyone’s) fault.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 6 Review  Exercise 1 Underline each adverb. Draw an arrow to the word it modifies. We practiced eagerly for two hours. 1. Rob kicked the ball well. Grammar

2. Marlo closed the door quickly. 3. The actors performed the play badly. 4. The music was really beautiful. 5. We arrived late to the movie. 6. The pool will open soon. 7. We always swim in the summer. 8. Alma cheerfully taught her little sister the game. 9. They walk to school nearly every day.

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10. Their mother regularly calls them at home.  Exercise 2 Complete each sentence with the correct comparative or superlative form of the adverb in parentheses. Our dog obeys [

better

1. The play will be held [

than he used to. (well) sooner

than expected. (soon)

2. Of all the animals in the world, the cheetah runs [ 3. This writing can be read because you pressed [ 4. Of all the bikers, Ralph climbed the slope [ 5. Kendra plays checkers [ 6. My brother plays the guitar [

better worse

fastest

more firmly

most easily

. (fast) than before. (firmly) . (easily)

than anyone else. (well) than he thinks. (badly)

Unit 6, Adverbs

145

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1– 6  Exercise 1 For each complete sentence draw one line under each simple subject and two lines under each simple predicate. In each blank write S for simple sentence, C for compound sentence, or F for sentence fragment. Our dog chased the squirrel, and the squirrel chased the mouse.

S

1. Our trip during spring break was a lovely cruise.

S

2. The weather became cool and cloudy.

C

3. We were unhappy with the stove, and we returned it to the store.

F

4. Common errors by the teacher in art class.

S

5. Most of the time we didn’t swim in the ocean water.

S

6. Marcia and I went to the movie and walked to the mall.

F

7. Celebrating her birthday.

C

8. Pedro and Marta practiced their song, and they sang it for Mother and me.

S

9. Akeem loved the trip to the desert in Arizona.

F

10. For some groceries for our Thanksgiving dinner at Granddad’s house.

S

11. Tomorrow Lance will come to the meeting.

C

12. Rona ate before the movie, but her brother ate afterward.

F

13. Angry at those rude and noisy people in the first few rows.

S

14. Carl sang a solo in choir last week.

S

15. As a child, Mark always seemed happy.

F

16. Susana with her father to the game.

C

17. The cheerleaders are planning the pep rally, but they need more help.

S

18. The space shuttle carried our science experiment on its last flight.

F

19. The contest during the last week of band practice.

C

20. I am looking forward to a career in space, and my brother plans as career as a teacher.

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Grammar

C

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 2 Write in the blank the plural of each noun. pianos

piano 1. team

teams

11. donkey

2. sister

sisters

12. puppy

birthdays

3. birthday

donkeys puppies

bees

13. bee

potatoes

14. boss

5. visitor

visitors

15. toy

toys

6. church

churches

16. fly

flies

17. fox

foxes

dogs

7. dog 8. wish

wishes

9. library libraries 10. market

markets

bosses

18. dress

dresses

19. bush

bushes

20. lunch

Grammar

4. potato

lunches

 Exercise 3 Write adj. in the blank if the word in italics is an adjective. Write adv. if it is an adverb.

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adj.

What a lovely tulip!

adj.

1. The baby has curly brown hair.

adv.

2. At almost any moment, the phone may ring with the news.

adj.

3. The school band will perform at the game.

adj.

4. There was little truth to her statement.

adj.

5. What is your favorite show on television?

adv.

6. Grace carefully braided her hair.

adv.

7. Aunt Beth has nearly twenty varieties of house plants.

adv.

8. Keith moved rapidly through the grocery store.

adv.

9. The reporter followed events closely.

adj.

10. I like my new home very much.

adv.

11. My father works hard for a living.

adj.

12. The new student is very friendly.

Unit 6, Adverbs

147

adv.

13. Please cut the cake quickly!

adj.

14. The hardest part of redecorating my room was choosing the wallpaper.

adv.

15. A kangaroo jumps higher than a rabbit.

adv.

16. We almost always are involved in community service.

adj.

17. My sister works long hours delivering newspapers.

adv.

18. Abdul tiptoed sneakily through the house.

adv.

19. I sometimes curl up on the couch for a nap.

adj.

20. Juanita enjoys most kinds of music.

adj.

21. My mom becomes very sleepy after nine o’clock.

adv.

22. My family often goes to baseball games.

adj.

23. The jet pilot had perfect vision.

adv.

24. The plumber worked long and hard on the broken pipe.

adj.

25. Josh looked handsome in his new suit.

adj.

26. The backhoe dug a deep hole.

adv.

27. A gray seagull soared effortlessly in the sunny sky.

adj.

28. In a short while we’ll be ready to go.

adv.

29. The flag fluttered wildly on its broken rope.

adv.

30. I hurried downstairs.

adj.

31. That is a hilarious story.

adv.

32. Elizabeth cares deeply about her patients.

adv.

33. This program ends soon.

adj.

34. That antique chair is fragile.

adv.

35. Please come here quickly.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 7: Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections Lesson 41

Prepositions

Grammar

A preposition is a word that relates a noun or a pronoun to some other word in a sentence. Most prepositions are single words, but some are made up of two or three words. Prepositions made up of two or three words are called compound prepositions. Park the tractor behind the barn. Victor came to the meeting instead of Charles.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

WORDS COMMONLY USED AS PREPOSITIONS about above according to across across from after against ahead of along along with among apart from around as as well as aside from at

because of before behind below beneath beside between beyond but (except) by (next to) despite down during except for from in

in addition to in front of inside in spite of instead of into like (as) near next to of off on onto on top of out out of outside

over past since than through throughout till (until) to toward under underneath until up upon with within without

 Exercise 1 Draw a line under each preposition and compound preposition. Jeremiah, please stand by my desk. 1. Place the umbrella stand beside the door. 2. Lean a little to the left. 3. Mom, may I go skating with Suzi? 4. You can get extra supplies from the stationery store. Unit 7, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

149

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

5. Eileen and Miranda have been best friends since third grade. 6. The ground under the trees isn’t even wet. 7. We can do this work without any extra help. 8. The paprika is between the onion powder and the pepper. 9. I can stay only until eight o’clock. 10. I found my homework inside my social studies book.

12. Myra lives near Mr. Polumski, who is my English teacher. 13. The airplane flew above the storm. 14. Sprinkle the colored sugar on top of the frosting. 15. Meet me during lunch period. 16. I can meet you in front of the library at four o’clock. 17. Samantha and David ran down the street. 18. Alfie, my golden retriever, relaxes in the shade under the oak tree. 19. Juan shyly stood apart from the other new students. 20. We must be on the train by noon. 21. Jeremy sits third from the left among the other trumpet players. 22. Will you write about John Cabot instead of Abigail Adams? 23. According to Mr. Wolford, you performed beyond all expectations. 24. Everyone went outside the building because of the false alarm. 25. All of these papers except the green ones are for Salem Elementary. 26. Crawl through the tunnel, and climb onto the platform. 27. How did you get inside the house without your key? 28. Go into the stable and look for the saddle soap. 29. During my study time, I came upon this beautiful poem. 30. On top of the mountain the temperature often drops below zero. 31. Put this shovel against the wall and behind the lawn mower. 32. Above the sagging couch hung a broken lamp.

150 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

11. We ran five laps around the gym and then practiced shots.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 42

Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun called the object of the preposition. The Adirondack Mountains are in northern New York. (New York is the object of the preposition in.) I will mark the map for you. (You is the object of the preposition for.)

People from countries around the world visit Yosemite each year. 1. Yosemite, in central California, is one of the best-known national parks. 2. It became a national park through the efforts of naturalist John Muir. 3. Yosemite National Park is known for its waterfalls, for its mountains and domes, and for its giant sequoia trees. 4. During the Ice Age, glaciers carved the Yosemite Valley. 5. Small side valleys, also formed by glaciers, have rivers at their bases. 6. These rivers spill over the sides of the mountains in spectacular waterfalls.

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7. At 2,435 feet, Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in North America. 8. The water in Yosemite Creek spills over the edge in three falls. 9. Two of Yosemite’s natural wonders are called El Capitán and Half Dome. 10. El Capitán is the world’s largest piece of exposed granite. 11. Half Dome is a piece of granite that looks like a gumdrop cut in half. 12. The Sierra Nevadas are one huge piece of granite. 13. The park contains three separate groves of giant sequoia trees. 14. Among these groves, the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees is the most famous. 15. The largest tree in the park, the Grizzly Giant, is 3,800 years old. 16. According to historians, the name Yosemite means “grizzly bear.”

Unit 7, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

151

Grammar

 Exercise 1 Draw a line under the prepositional phrase or phrases in each sentence.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 2 Draw one line under each preposition and two lines under its object. Naturalists like John Muir left messages for people. 1. John Muir was born in Dunbar, Scotland, in 1838. 2. He was a boy when his family moved to Wisconsin in 1849. 3. When he was a young man, he walked a thousand miles from the Ohio River to the Gulf Coast.

5. There he heard debates about the formation of the Yosemite Valley. 6. He was thirty years old when he first went to California in 1868. 7. Upon his arrival, John Muir fell in love with the land. 8. He devoted his life to the study of nature. 9. He believed erosion from glaciers caused the formation of the Yosemite Valley. 10. Muir did many studies of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range. 11. In the 1890s, John Muir started the Sierra Club. 12. This club has been active in conservation efforts for a century. 13. John Muir was a friend of Theodore Roosevelt. 14. Teddy Roosevelt was president of the United States from 1901 to 1908. 15. In 1903 Roosevelt and Muir spent a night in Yosemite camping underneath the stars. 16. They listened to sounds of water tumbling down sheer cliffs. 17. After a campfire meal, they slept among the giant sequoias. 18. Muir wanted the valley preserved for all people. 19. Through the efforts of John Muir and with the support of Theodore Roosevelt, the valley became part of Yosemite National Park. 20. Roosevelt’s administration made great efforts toward conservation.

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Grammar

4. Muir studied geology at a university in Wisconsin.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 43

Pronouns After Prepositions When a pronoun is the object of a preposition, use an object pronoun, not a subject pronoun. I backpacked with my parents last summer. I backpacked with them last summer.

Grammar

Use an object pronoun when a preposition has a compound object consisting of a noun and a pronoun or two pronouns. Mike and Sal usually play tennis with José and her. Pronouns in compound subjects or compound objects can be confusing. When deciding what pronoun to use, read the sentence with only the pronoun. This eliminates extra words and can help you decide if you should use a subject pronoun or an object pronoun. Mike and Sal usually play tennis with her. The pronoun who is a subject pronoun, and the pronoun whom is an object pronoun. Who told you about the trip? From whom did you get the details? Notice that who is the subject of the first sentence and whom is the object of the preposition from in the second sentence.

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 Exercise 1 Write the appropriate personal pronoun above the word or words in italics.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

him We have to go by Mr. Mahoney to get out of the room. her Armand, stand next to Chico and Jenna. them Gordon and Sookie will play opposite Joe and Natasha. her Our teacher is on the second floor with Mrs. Lane. her Did you get the tickets from Aunt Beatrice? them Please give a paper to each of the students. them The banner will be held by Ling and Claudia. her Let’s make room for Alicia between Amy and Ana. him The serpent costume with the green scales is for Emilio.

Unit 7, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

153

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

him 10. For the second picture, I want Diana standing in front of Micah and Kenneth. us 11. When the cheerleaders make a pyramid, Jenny is on top of me and everyone else. her 12. In tonight’s performance, Kitty Cain will perform instead of Julia Rice. him 13. You remind me a lot of a boy I used to know. them 14. We live on the sixth floor, above the Garcias. her 15. Is everyone here now except Sonia? him 16. Find a seat near Lydia and Ryan. him 17. Jimmy, stop wrestling with your brother. them 18. We will have to leave without Paul and Mrs. Macchio. her 19. For this song, Audrey stands beside Betty Jo and faces the audience. them 20. The fifth grade always sits in the bleachers below the sixth grade.  Exercise 2 Underline the pronoun in parentheses that best completes the sentence. First find Melissa, and Juan will be right next to (she, her). 1. I think that the Crowleys live across from (they, them). 2. According to (she, her), Monday’s practice is cancelled. 3. Rodolfo, who is a new student, sits across from my sister and (I, me). 4. Stacey, I want you to help me instead of (she, her). 5. Stand back to back, lean against (he, him), and then try to sit down. 6. From (who, whom) did you get this information? 7. Jorge, will you please go to the office along with Chad and (he, him)? 8. Everyone form a circle around Mrs. Rodrigez and (we, us). 9. (Who, Whom) else is going with (they, them)? 10. Hillary is in line behind (she, her). 11. Can we rearrange the furniture in Alice’s room without (she, her)? 12. (Who, Whom) wanted help from my tutor and (I, me)?

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Grammar

them 9. This award really belongs to all the students in the sixth grade.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 44

Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives and Adverbs Prepositional phrases serve as adjectives and adverbs. An adjective phrase is sometimes a prepositional phrase that describes a noun or a pronoun. Castles in Japan were built differently from European castles. (describes the noun castles) Those in Japan often included many courtyards. (describes the pronoun those) Grammar

An adverb phrase is sometimes a prepositional phrase that describes a verb, another adverb, or an adjective. The first European castles were built of earth and timber. (describes the verb built) Later in history castles were built out of stone. (describes the adverb later) The chapel was important in a Christian castle. (describes the adjective important)

 Exercise 1 Identify the phrase in italics by writing adj. in the blank for each adjective phrase or adv. for each adverb phrase. Circle the word or phrase it modifies.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

adv.

Castles served as homes for lords and as strongholds.

adv.

1. How did people live inside a medieval castle?

adj.

2. The main room in a castle was the great hall.

adv.

3. The great hall served as a bedroom, dining room, and office.

adj.

4. Early halls had fireplaces in the middle of the room.

adv.

5. Later, wall fireplaces were introduced, and the lord’s table was often near the fire.

adv.

6. The main meal was eaten late in the morning.

adj.

7. Servants with pitchers of water helped guests wash their hands before and after eating.

adv.

8. Some tables had removable legs so the room could be used for many purposes.

adj.

9. The lord’s table was often the only table with fixed legs.

adj.

10. Removing the tables used for dining provided space for entertainment.

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155

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

adv.

11. Later in the evening straw mattresses were brought into the great hall for

adv.

12. The floors of some castles were decorated with tiles.

adv.

13. Medieval people rarely used carpets as floor coverings.

adv.

14. Carpets were regarded as luxuries.

adv.

15. Some carpets hung on the walls as tapestries.

adv.

16. Castles built after the year 1200 often had extra rooms.

adv.

17. The heat for cooking came from an open fire.

adv.

18. To prevent fires, halls were built away from the kitchen.

adv.

19. Often the kitchen was in the courtyard.

adv.

20. Later the kitchen was connected to the great hall.

adj.

21. Medieval people living in castles ate a variety of foods.

adj.

22. They ate beef, mutton, and many kinds of wild birds.

adv.

23. They served venison and other game after a hunt.

adv.

24. They ate fish during Lent.

adj.

25. Many castles had gardens with orchards.

adj.

26. Northern orchards provided fruit like apples and pears.

adj.

27. Trenchers were flat pieces of stale bread.

adv.

28. Trenchers were used as plates.

adj.

29. The stale bread soaked up the gravy from the meat.

adv.

30. The trenchers could be given to the poor.

adv.

31. Nobles were usually served by pages.

adv.

32. Only rich people had chairs, so most people sat on benches.

adv.

33. Hunting and hawking were enjoyed as entertainment.

adv.

34. In addition, the knights participated in tournaments.

adv.

35. People listened to musicians and storytellers.

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Grammar

sleeping.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 45

Telling Prepositions and Adverbs Apart Some words can be used as either prepositions or adverbs. For a word to be a preposition, it must be part of a prepositional phrase. A preposition never stands alone in a sentence. If the word has an object, it is probably a preposition. If the word is not followed closely by a noun or a pronoun that could be an object, it is probably an adverb. Grammar

Anastasia is riding her bike around the neighborhood. (preposition) Anastasia is riding her bike around. (adverb) WORDS THAT CAN BE USED AS PREPOSITIONS OR ADVERBS about above around

before behind below

down in inside

near off on

out outside over

through up

 Exercise 1 Write adv. in the blank if the word in italics is an adverb and prep. if it is a preposition.

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adv.

Everyone, please sit down.

prep.

1. I will leave the package outside my front door.

adv.

2. Kyla had a feeling that she had been here before.

prep.

3. Can we hang this picture on the wall above my bed?

adv.

4. Stay with the group. Don’t fall behind.

adv.

5. The yacht’s entire crew just went below.

prep.

6. Is Stephanie in third grade or fourth grade now?

adv.

7. This book is so good that I can’t put it down.

prep.

8. Valerie made a perfect swan dive off the ten-foot board.

prep.

9. Let’s put the small box inside the larger box.

adv.

10. Won’t you please come in and talk?

adv.

11. Would the children like to come inside for a snack?

adv.

12. I don’t see Amanda, but I’m sure she is near.

adv.

13. We’ve put this off long enough.

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prep. 14. Mom locked her keys inside the car. adv.

15. Put your boots on so your feet stay dry.

adv.

16. Take Lucky out for a walk.

prep. 17. Do you think we can finish this before noon?

adv.

19. We put the trash outside on Tuesday nights.

adv.

20. I’m glad that this project is finally over.

prep. 21. Go through the door, and turn left. adv.

22. The crowds wouldn’t let me through.

adv.

23. Button up before you go outside.

prep. 24. Most female adult gymnasts weigh about ninety-five pounds. prep. 25. Is it possible to fly around the world non-stop? prep. 26. Federico always has to be home before dinner. prep. 27. A piece of paper just fell behind the sofa. adv.

28. I’ll be around, so call if you need me.

prep. 29. We can store these props in the space below the stage. adv.

30. It’s almost noon, so I’m sure she’s up.

prep. 31. The Zaharis family lives down this street. prep. 32. Hang your coat on the rack near the back door. prep. 33. The book you want is on the third shelf. adv.

34. We will have recess outside today.

prep. 35. Please go out the doors at the front of the gym. prep. 36. We went over the hill to the picnic area. adv.

37. Look above and below for the package.

adv.

38. Everything is still up in the air.

adv.

39. Carefully put the punch bowl down on this table.

prep. 40. What do you think you will be doing in twenty years?

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Grammar

prep. 18. The rescuers climbed up the fire escape to the third floor.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 46

Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that joins single words or groups of words in a sentence. The most common conjunctions—and, but, and or—are called coordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions can be used to connect individual nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, phrases, or clauses. Place a comma before the conjunction in a compound sentence. Grammar

We scoured and scrubbed the kitchen sink. Simon is very relaxed or very lazy. I have recovered, but my sister is still sick. Correlative conjunctions are pairs of words used to connect words or phrases in a sentence. Correlative conjunctions include both . . . and, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, and not only . . . but also. Both Wanda and Emily are right-handed. Neither the coach nor Ms. Thomas is left-handed.

 Exercise 1 Circle each coordinating conjunction. Underline the words it connects. I was thrilled and excited when I heard your news. 1. Maureen or Margaret could help you. 2. Give these packages to him and her.

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3. Broad Street runs east and west. 4. I really want to stay home, but my mom says I have to go. 5. The water was cool and clear. 6. Did you travel by plane or by car? 7. We drove over a bridge and through a tunnel. 8. William hemmed and hawed before he answered the question. 9. The flowers smell fresh and delicate. 10. We can write Mandy a letter tonight, or we can call her tomorrow. 11. Was Washington or Jefferson the first president? 12. The Rockies are in the West, and the Alleghenies are in the East.

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. This package came for you and me. 14. Would you like milk or water? 15. Are you sure of your answer, or do you need some time to think?  Exercise 2 Underline each coordinating or correlative conjunction. Both Jackson and Austin are state capitals. 1. Either Danielle or Benjamin has the tickets.

3. Both Manet and Monet are famous painters. 4. Either a salad or soup comes with the meal. 5. Neither red nor blue is my favorite color. 6. Ms. Torrence or Mr. Rodriguez teaches that course. 7. My cocker spaniel and cat chase each other around the tree. 8. Both the taxi driver and the bus driver drive faster than they should. 9. Neither fruit nor vegetables contain much fat. 10. Either the toast or the pie in the oven is burning. 11. The north trail and south trail end at the foot of the mountain. 12. Neither the garter snake nor the black snake is poisonous. 13. Do you know if either Li or Mason eats meat? 14. If it rains, neither the softball team nor the tennis team practices. 15. An open door or window lets in fresh air. 16. Both my bicycle and my father’s car have a flat tire. 17. Can either girls or boys enter the contest? 18. Neither the drug store nor the grocery store sells notebooks. 19. Whenever you do that, Lynn and Morgan laugh. 20. Either a bacteria or a virus causes that disease.

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Grammar

2. My stepfather and mother walk two miles every day.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 47

Interjections An interjection is a word or group of words that expresses mild or strong feeling. COMMON INTERJECTIONS congratulations good grief great hey hi

hooray phew oh oh, no oops

ouch no ugh wow yes

Grammar

ah aha all right awesome bravo

Since an interjection is not related to other words in the sentence, it is set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma or an exclamation point. Use an exclamation point after an interjection that stands alone, either before or after a sentence. Use a comma before or after an interjection that expresses a mild emotion to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Yes! I knew you could do it! You got front row seats! Great! Congratulations, you passed the test.

 Exercise 1 Underline each interjection. No way! You go first.

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1. Bravo! You won! 2. Hi, I think we met at Jarrod’s party. 3. What! You said you were bringing the money! 4. Ah! That sun feels good. 5. Ouch! You stepped on my foot. 6. Yes, I understand you perfectly. 7. I didn’t take the last piece of cake. Really! 8. Well, it’s about time you got here! 9. No, I haven’t seen your sister. 10. Whoops! I didn’t realize the floor was so slippery. 11. Oh, no! I left my homework on the bus!

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. I only have one token left, and I need two for the subway. Good grief! 13. My, how you’ve grown since the last time I saw you! 14. Whew, that sure was a close call! 15. Do I want to go with you to see our favorite movie again? Yes! 16. Phew! That truck just missed us. 17. Oh, well, better luck next time!

19. Aha! You didn’t think I’d be able to find you, did you? 20. Ahem, I believe you’re sitting in my seat.  Exercise 2 Add to each sentence an interjection that expresses the emotion in parentheses. Add appropriate punctuation. Answers may vary. [

Congratulations!

You got the part. (compliment)

1. [

Oops!

2. [

No,

]]]]] that can’t be true. (denial)

3. [

Hey,

]]]]] that’s my dessert. (call attention to)

4. [

Hooray!

5. [

Ouch!

That really hurts! (pain)

6. [

Ugh!

All the snow has turned to slush. (disgust)

7. [

Good grief!

I didn’t mean to make such a mess. (apology)

The Eagles are winning at last. (excitement)

We are already twenty minutes late. (impatience)

8. [

Yes!

I’ll be glad to help you. (agreement)

9. [

Wow!

Did you really win ten dollars? (surprise)

10. [

Hey!

Watch out for the car! (call attention to)

11. [

Bravo!

That was a great performance. (approval)

12. [

Phew!

The bell rang just as I got to my desk. (relief)

13. [

Oops!,

14. [

Aha!

I finally solved the puzzle. (satisfaction)

15. [

Oh, no!

We were supposed to stop at the store first. (regret)

]] ] I dropped my glass on the floor! (surprise)

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Grammar

18. Rats! They sold the last team sweatshirt an hour ago.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Review

 Exercise 1 Identify each word in italics by labeling it adv. (adverb), conj. (conjunction), inter. (interjection), or prep. (preposition). inter. prep. conj. Unbelievable! Ramón placed second in the first race and won this one. inter. prep. 1. Wow! I am so impressed with your natural talent. prep. conj. 2. I like most of this jewelry, but I can buy only one piece. prep. adv. 3. Have you read any stories by Jack London before? prep. conj. 4. It’s supposed to snow six inches on Friday, and I don’t have any boots. inter. prep. 5. Oh, are you still practicing for your recital? prep. prep. 6. The road to success is paved with hard work. conj. prep. 7. Does Ezra or Camilla have the key to the back door? prep. prep. 8. The storage shed is behind the garage, which is next to the house. prep. 9. Would you rather play a board game instead of cards? inter. prep. 10. Uh-oh, I’m not sure where I put the envelope with the money. prep. conj. prep. 11. I keep the soap under the sink, but all other cleansers belong in this cupboard. conj. conj. prep. 12. Neither Yosef nor Pauline recognized me in the costume. inter. adv. prep. 13. Phew! We made it inside before the storm. prep. prep. prep. 14. Mr. Golden lives in the house on the southeast corner of this block. prep. conj. prep. 15. Have you seen a jacket with zippers and snap fasteners in the store recently? inter. prep. conj. prep. 16. Oh, good! You’ve got the bag of prizes and the tickets for the games. prep. conj. adv. 17. Sandra felt weak during math class, and afterward she left for home. conj. adv. prep. 18. My uncle and my four cousins have been inside for three hours. prep. prep. prep. conj. 19. Towers like the one in this picture were used as watchtowers or storage areas. prep. conj. prep. 20. Look underneath the bed for my brown shoes and the box with my sweaters.

Unit 7, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

Grammar

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Unit 7

163

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1– 7  Exercise 1 Draw one line under the complete subject and two lines under the complete predicate. If the subject is understood, write you in the space provided. you

Give me a chance! 1. The gate in our backyard has a lock but no key. 2. Does anyone in the audience have any questions?

Grammar

you

3. Roll up your sleeves. 4. You tell a good story! 5. The furniture in my bedroom came from my uncle’s house.

you

6. Try again. 7. Has anyone been to Grand Teton National Park?

you

8. Visit with Grandma sometime this week. 9. The evergreen tree bowed under the weight of the snow. 10. Everyoneebut Joe was on time for the meeting. 11. Not one more thing will fit in my closet.

you

13. Sort these files alphabetically.

you

14. Sharpen these pencils for me. 15. I won a great prize! 16. You must decide before five o’clock. 17. These instructions are confusing! 18. Can you show me that step one more time?

you

19. Turn the stereo and the television off. 20. Can you believe it!

you

21. Put the milk in the refrigerator right away. 22. Mark and Melissa made apple pie for tonight’s dessert. 23. My mother’s second cousin, April, is living with us now.

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12. Am I speaking loudly enough?

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

24. Can you call my mom or dad for me? 25. Do you ever use the new software?  Exercise 2 Write in the blank the tense or form of the verb indicated in parentheses. Yesterday we [

walked

enjoys

] her advanced dance classes. (enjoy, present)

2. Fred [

is cooking

3. Opa [

pointed

] dinner right now. (cook, present progressive) ] to Germany and Ghana on the map when she was told to find

countries starting with the letter g. (point, past) has collected

4. Mrs. Morris [

is jogging

5. Elizabeth [ 6. Mr. Schaffer [

typed

7. This picture [

proves

have talked

8. I [

] with Barry. (jog, present progressive) ] this report. (type, past) ] my point. (prove, present)

] to Susan several times already. (talk, present perfect)

live

9. The Coles [

] on Mulberry Street near High Street. (live, present)

10. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas [ 11. Joshua [

has given

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13. [

16. Dad [ 17. I [ 18. Who [

had taught

cut have worn broke

will bring

gone

] in Saturday’s meet? (swim, future) ] seventh grade for ten years. (teach, past perfect) ] to Dallas before? (go, present perfect)

] my hair yesterday. (cut, past) ] that shirt only once. (wear, present perfect) ] this glass? (break, past)

19. Jeremy’s little brother [ 20. I [

] for tomorrow’s test. (study, present progressive) swim

] you [

Have

] in the first row. (sit, past)

] a lot of time to this project. (give, present perfect)

] you [

Will

14. Mrs. Gunther [ 15. [

sat

is studying

12. Shannon [

] dolls for years. (collect, present perfect)

was crying

] . (cry, past progressive)

] flowers to my grandma next week. (bring, future)

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Grammar

1. Kisha [

] through the park at dusk. (walk, past)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 3 Identify the word in italics by labeling it adv. (adverb), conj. (conjunction), inter. (interjection), or prep. (preposition). inter. conj. prep. Oh, I left my books and my money in my locker. inter. prep. 1. Congratulations! You got the blue ribbon for creative arts. prep. conj. 2. Since my accident, I ski cross-country but not downhill.

conj. prep. 4. Sylvio, can you find the Indian Ocean or the Bay of Bengal on this map? inter. prep. 5. Ouch, I didn’t know the edge of the table was so sharp. prep. conj. 6. I actually ran to school this morning, but I was still late. adv. prep. 7. He left his gloves on when he painted the mural on the wall. conj. prep. 8. I vacuumed the carpets but still have to clean behind the couch. prep. prep. 9. During the party the dog has to stay outside the house. conj. adv. 10. If you can’t reach my mom or dad, my aunt is probably around. conj. prep. prep. 11. You can find an almanac and a dictionary on the shelf in the den. inter. prep. 12. Oh, no! I cracked an egg, and the shell fell into the batter. prep. prep. prep. 13. In 1861 Lincoln offered command of the U.S. Army to Robert E. Lee. prep. prep. 14. Along with Jerry and Phil, I walked toward the opening of the cave. prep. conj. prep. 15. Put your book down, and listen to me. inter. prep. conj. 16. Wow! Sam says you are fluent in English, Spanish, and German. adv. prep. 17. Turn your lights out by ten o’clock. conj. conj. prep. adv. 18. Either close your door, or turn the volume on your stereo down.

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Grammar

prep. inter. 3. The basketball team has won its first game in two years. Hooray!

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 8: Subject-Verb Agreement Lesson 48

Making Subjects and Verbs Agree The subject and verb of a sentence must agree in number. A noun that is singular must have the singular form of the verb. A noun that is plural takes the plural form of the verb. Grammar

A cat sleeps during the day. (singular noun cat, singular verb sleeps) Cats sleep during the day. (plural noun cats, plural verb sleep)

 Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. Leroy (rides, ride) his bicycle to school every day. 1. Television (brings, bring) the world into our homes with pictures, or video, and sounds, or audio. 2. The electronic television imaging device (was, were) invented in the 1920s. 3. The first practical TV system (was demonstrated, were demonstrated) at the New York World’s Fair in 1939. 4. Early television sets (was, were) crude black and white models.

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5. Today, technical advancements (gives, give) us high-quality color pictures. 6. Also, most programs now (comes, come) with stereo sound. 7. Television programs (is based, are based) on movies, plays, books, original screenplays, and short stories. 8. The subjects (remains, remain) the same, yesterday and today. 9. I Love Lucy still (serves, serve) as the example for all family shows. 10. The Mickey Mouse Club (was, were) first broadcast to “Mouseketeers” throughout America in 1955. 11. Today, their grandchildren (watches, watch) a new program with the same name. 12. Both Mickey Mouse Club shows (has, have) music, games, information, and humor.

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. The original Mickey Mouse Club (seems, seem) almost foreign to viewers of today’s show. 14. However, each show (presents, present) the popular styles of the day. 15. Until the 1960s, a city (was given, were given) only four or five TV channels. 16. Thirty years later, cable TV (brings, bring) many channels into your set. 17. Entire channels (focuses, focus) on one subject.

19. Television sets can (shows, show) more than just TV programs. 20. The “Information Superhighway” (combines, combine) computer data, programs, games, and communications.  Exercise 2 Underline the subject of each sentence. Then, choose the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject and write it in the blank. Many individuals [

use

1. A television newscast [

television to view the news. (uses, use) relies

on the efforts of many different persons.

(relies, rely) 2. The on-air newscasters [

are

a small part of a large, mostly unseen team.

(is, are) 3. News programs [ 4. The producer [

begin decides

with a producer. (begins, begin) which stories to cover. (decides, decide)

5. The assignment desk dispatcher [

sends

reporters and video photographers to

different parts of the city. (sends, send) 6. News photographers [

carry

video cameras to tape whatever stories they cover.

(carries, carry) 7. Back at the station, electronic news gathering (ENG) editors [

combine

different

videotapes and scenes to tell a story. (combines, combine) 8. Each news tape [

lasts

9. Live newscasts [

are

10. A typical studio [

has

between twenty and ninety seconds. (lasts, last) broadcast from a studio. (is, are) about thirty powerful spotlights. (has, have)

168 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

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Grammar

18. Experts (predicts, predict) 500-channel cable systems in the next few years.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 49

Subject Pronouns and Verb Agreement Subject pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they) must also agree with the verb. I walk. (First person, singular) You walk. (Second person, singular) He, she or it walks. (Third person, singular)

We walk. (First person, plural) You walk. (Second person, plural) They walk. (Third person, plural)

I am asleep. (main verb) She does good work. (main verb) You have three dollars. (main verb)

I am walking. (helping verb) They do like their work. (helping verb) You have met our new teacher. (helping verb)

 Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. I (hopes, hope) the movie isn’t sold out. 1. Before beginning to eat, they (thanks, thank) their hostess. 2. We always (has, have) to wait for Anne to arrive. 3. She (is, are) planning to read Little Women this summer. 4. On the top shelf you (finds, find) the basket of fruit.

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5. It (is, are) obvious that the picnic will have to be postponed. 6. He (lives, live) in a town called Woodsfield. 7. Walking up to the plate, I (prepares, prepare) to bat. 8. They (has, have) seen the new art exhibit. 9. We usually (packs, pack) our suitcases the day before we leave on a trip. 10. Since it is so late, he (is, are) coming with us. 11. Today you (seems, seem) even happier than usual. 12. Gretchen was going to organize a softball game, but now it (looks, look) like rain. 13. I (practices, practice) singing every day. 14. She (visits, visit) the neighbors twice a week. 15. He (says, say) the park is filled with flowers. Unit 8, Subject-Verb Agreement

169

Grammar

The verbs have, do, and be can be main verbs or helping verbs. They must agree with the subject whether they are used as main verbs or helping verbs.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

16. We (is, are) waving to the boaters from the bridge. 17. When shopping for gifts, they (searches, search) for practical items. 18. You (paints, paint) beautifully, Irene. 19. I (has, have) enjoyed learning to play chess. 20. It (is, are) the prettiest garden we have ever seen! 21. They (likes, like) to go camping on weekends.

23. Beyond the horizon he (sees, see) the glow of a gorgeous sunset. 24. Singing joyously, we (marches, march) toward the stage. 25. You (has, have) heard Danny’s new composition, haven’t you? 26. It (startles, startle) me when the wind chimes sound unexpectedly. 27. We often (stays, stay) at Grandpa’s farm during the summer. 28. After running five miles, I (am, are) ready for a rest. 29. They (laughs, laugh) whenever they look at themselves in the carnival mirrors. 30. He (cooks, cook) delicious Italian meals. 31. This month we (is, are) learning how to polka. 32. Drew, you (picks, pick) the colors for the decorations. 33. He (waits, wait) in the airport restaurant, hoping his plane will arrive soon. 34. It (appears, appear) as if the understudy will have to go on tonight. 35. Smiling, I (greets, greet) the new member of the class.  Writing Link Write a short paragraph about your favorite team sport. Use at least two subject pronouns, and be sure each subject and verb agree.

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Grammar

22. She (is, are) thinking about buying Christina a new watch.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 50

Locating the Subject Sometimes a prepositional phrase comes between the subject and the verb. The verb must agree with the subject of the sentence and not with the object of the preposition. The rooms near the entrance have new windows. The air in the mountains contains little oxygen. Grammar

In the first sentence, near the entrance is a prepositional phrase. The subject of the sentence is rooms, which is plural; therefore, the verb that agrees with it, have, is also plural. In the second sentence, in the mountains is a prepositional phrase. The singular verb contains agrees with air, which is a singular subject. You can check for subject-verb agreement by removing the prepositional phrase. The rooms have new windows.

The air contains little oxygen.

Some sentences begin with there or here. These words are never the subject of a sentence. Look for the subject after the verb. There are many palm trees in Florida.

Here in the city is a large building.

To make finding the subject easier, rearrange these sentences by placing the subject before the verb in the usual manner.

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Many palm trees are there in Florida.

A large building is here in the city.

 Exercise 1 Draw one line under the subject. Draw two lines under the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. Each of the girls (has, have) her own locker. 1. The monkeys in the zoo (climbs, climb) trees all day long. 2. Students from all over the country (attends, attend) day camp every spring. 3. Cookies fresh from the oven (tastes, taste) delicious. 4. Drivers from the freight company (travels, travel) across the country. 5. A truckload of band uniforms (arrives, arrive) Saturday. 6. Millions of persons (listens, listen) to radio every day. 7. A sergeant from the police department (teaches, teach) bicycle safety at our school.

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. Roots from the mesquite tree (extends, extend) far below the ground. 9. A ticket for front-row seats (costs, cost) too much. 10. The restaurant with the chairs and tables in front of it (serves, serve) authentic Hawaiian food. 11. Suitcases with an extra pouch (holds, hold) extra clothes. 12. The fireworks at the city park (begins, begin) at 9:30 P.M.

14. Teams in the City League (scores, score) more touchdowns than any other teams in the county. 15. Here (is, are) the book that belongs to Kim. 16. The president of the United States (lives, live) in the White House. 17. Hamburgers at this restaurant (comes, come) with tomatoes, lettuce, and cheese. 18. Trees near the top of the mountain (needs, need) more water. 19. The glue on postage stamps (contains, contain) flavoring to make it taste better. 20. The photographer from the school paper (wants, want) us to smile for the class picture. 21. All of the visitors to the museum (receives, receive) a souvenir. 22. The school year in this district (lasts, last) nine months and two weeks. 23. The lockers in this building (stands, stand) more than six feet high. 24. The core of Earth (contains, contain) molten iron. 25. There (is, are) reptile eggs in that leathery covering. 26. Each of the birds in the wetlands (wears, wear) an identification tag. 27. The leader of the circus clowns (works, work) in a bank during the week. 28. The organist in Rhonda’s church also (plays, play) at the baseball stadium. 29. The cider from Washington apples (has, have) a pleasant aroma. 30. Class pictures from the 1980s (hangs, hang) in the halls. 31. Light from the sun (reaches, reach) Earth in eight minutes. 32. The sound of the crickets (interrupts, interrupt) the quiet night.

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Grammar

13. Patterns from the Smith Clothing Catalog (requires, require) careful cutting.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 51

Agreement with Compound Subjects A compound subject is two or more subjects that have the same verb. When two or more subjects are joined by and, the verb is plural. William and Sandy live on the same block. Both trees and flowers require sunlight. Elaine and her brothers play in the band. Grammar

Compound subjects can also be joined by or, either...or, and neither...nor. In these cases, the verb must agree with the subject that is closer to it. Dana or Maria knows the answer. Either Dana or his study partners know the answer. Neither the fifth-graders nor Dana knows the answer.

 Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. Both Florida and Hawaii (has, have) beautiful beaches. 1. Neither shoes nor jackets (fits, fit) in these lockers. 2. Tomas and his brothers (runs, run) in the marathon every year. 3. Both the mayor and the governor (has, have) offices downtown. 4. Either cotton or wool (feels, feel) comfortable.

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5. Elephants and rhinos (lives, live) in the jungles of Africa. 6. Both the orchestra conductor and the musicians (studies, study) classical music for years. 7. Either newspapers or a magazine (contains, contain) advertisements. 8. Martha and Jean (walks, walk) to school when the weather is warm. 9. Neither snow nor ice (stays, stay) on the ground after the spring thaw. 10. Blisters and bruises may (appears, appear) on one’s hands after doing yardwork. 11. Heat or smoke by the door (warns, warn) of a fire on the other side. 12. Both badminton and tennis (uses, use) a net to divide the two halves of the court. 13. Bowlers and gymnasts (competes, compete) indoors.

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. Neither skateboards nor roller skates (is permitted, are permitted) in the parking area. 15. In many cities, cars and bicycles (shares, share) the same road. 16. Both glass and plastic (holds, hold) water. 17. Neither the dancers nor the instructor (thinks, think) the stage is too slippery. 18. Palm trees and bushes (provides, provide) shade. 19. Dolphins and whales (belongs, belong) to the same order of mammals.

21. Orange juice or grapefruit juice (has, have) plenty of Vitamin C. 22. Carpenters and electricians (serves, serve) apprenticeships before starting their own businesses. 23. Either the ocean or the pool (is, are) a pleasant place to relax. 24. Electric bulbs and candles (creates, create) light. 25. African elephants and Indian elephants (has, have) different facial features. 26. Yarn and silk (is used, are used) for embroidery. 27. Both the arcade and the amusement park (closes, close) after Labor Day. 28. A map or a navigation chart (shows, show) where to find the coral reef. 29. Billboards and posters (advertises, advertise) new movies. 30. Neither wood nor bricks (keeps, keep) out all of the cold weather. 31. Both dogs and cats (enjoys, enjoy) running in the park. 32. Joel and Adam (plays, play) video games on weekends. 33. Neither boots nor galoshes (leaks, leak) in wet weather. 34. Gerbils and hamsters (runs, run) on stationary wheels. 35. A calculator or a computer (solves, solve) difficult math problems. 36. Kanisha and John (sings, sing) a duet in the school play. 37. A postcard or an entry form (is, are) acceptable. 38. A pitcher and a catcher (communicates, communicate) with hand signals. 39. Neither a mop nor a sponge (absorbs, absorb) all the water. 40. Water and oil (does, do) not mix.

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Grammar

20. Mrs. Trinh and Mr. Walton (teaches, teach) at City College in the summer.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 8 Review  Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. There by the building (is, are) a large tree. 1. The Amazon River basin (covers, cover) one-third of Brazil. 2. A cool breeze (chills, chill) the air on a hot summer day. Grammar

3. Sharks (roams, roam) the oceans looking for things to eat. 4. Yoshi (plays, play) the clarinet in the school band. 5. We (has seen, have seen) this movie before. 6. Ashley (prefers, prefer) French fries to potato chips. 7. Our teacher (goes, go) to the beach every summer. 8. Cartoons (has, have) many hand-drawn scenes. 9. Young children (imitates, imitate) the actions of their parents, sisters, and brothers. 10. Professional athletes (trains, train) for years to learn their sport. 11. A bugle (sounds, sound) similar to a trumpet. 12. Toni (wants, want) to play goalie next quarter.

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13. Birds (flies, fly) from one tree to another. 14. She (sings, sing) in the church choir. 15. Mushrooms (grows, grow) in damp, dark forests. 16. A canoe (holds, hold) one or two people. 17. My city (has, have) a large fireworks display every Fourth of July. 18. Cactus plants (retains, retain) water. 19. I (rides, ride) the number 8 bus to go to school. 20. The theater (shows, show) a new movie every two weeks. 21. The leaders of every country (talks, talk) to each other once a year. 22. A hike up the mountain (requires, require) plenty of strength.

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1– 8  Exercise 1 Draw one line under each complete subject. Draw two lines under each complete predicate. The fish in the pond swam back and forth. 1. Everyone at the party had a great time.

3. Each contestant chose a category and answered a question. 4. A bubbling brook meandered through the mountains. 5. Christopher opened the mysterious box, but Lisa closed it quickly. 6. The rally ended with two stirring speeches and the singing of the national anthem. 7. An explosion came from the chemistry lab. 8. Sixteen teams will play in the annual tournament. 9. Cardinals and blue jays are common in this area. 10. The Tylers are moving to Chicago in February. 11. We will study black holes in science class today. 12. Some television programs seem educational as well as entertaining. 13. Our field hockey team won the championship last year, and they may win again this year. 14. Dad tells funny jokes at the dinner table. 15. You should try white-water rafting sometime. 16. Talia asked about the value of the gemstones. 17. The cooking instructor taught us a recipe for beef burgundy. 18. The recreation center has an indoor swimming pool. 19. Jackie is flying home for her grandma’s birthday. 20. Silence reigned throughout the large library.

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Grammar

2. This book has many interesting facts.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 2 Write the part of speech of the italicized word in the blank. Use these abbreviations: N (noun), V (verb), pro. (pronoun), adj. (adjective), adv. (adverb), prep. (preposition), conj. (conjunction), and int. (interjection). adj. V prep. N

We have three maple trees in our backyard. 1. Todd raced to the corner store. 2. Pictures in the museum hang on special hooks. 3. Conservation of rare animals requires careful planning. 4. The pedals on a bicycle spin in both directions.

adv.

5. Student athletes are constantly working, either in the classroom or on the

Grammar

prep.

playing field. int. conj.

7. Alison and Sydney rode the roller coaster twice.

pro.

8. He always brings his lunch in a brown paper sack.

adj.

9. Mom bought a blue sweater to wear with her white skirt.

adv. N pro. V conj. Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. Wow! That band plays great music.

10. Carrie often stops at the music store after school. 11. Give your ticket to the usher. 12. Yesterday we tried the new Mexican restaurant. 13. Roberto really enjoyed his trip to the planetarium. 14. The letter contained valuable information, but Nora did not know what to do with it.

int.

15. Well, I always thought he would come back to his hometown.

adv.

16. Lucia was truly surprised at the reception she received.

prep. 17. The ball of yarn rolled under the dining room table. adj.

18. The poem was long, but it was also quite beautiful.

V

19. The firecracker exploded into a hundred twinkling lights.

N

20. Jasmine adored the playful puppy in the pet shop window.

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Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

 Exercise 3 Draw two lines under the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. The men in my family (has, have) red hair. 1. Members of the soccer team (wears, wear) special shoes for wet fields. 2. Squirrels in the park (gathers, gather) nuts for the winter. 3. The announcer on TV (says, say) it is going to rain this weekend. 4. A camel’s water supply (lasts, last) for many days.

6. Vacations by the beach (ends, end) too quickly. 7. The runners on sleds easily (glides, glide) over fresh snow. 8. Libraries and museums (adds, add) culture to a city. 9. Hot chocolate or soup (warms, warm) you up on a cold winter day. 10. Old trunks and treasure chests (hides, hide) many interesting things. 11. Oil and gas (forms, form) underground. 12. Both Democrats and Republicans (campaigns, campaign) for political offices. 13. Neither rivers nor streams (runs, run) uphill. 14. Factories and mills (manufactures, manufacture) products for people to buy. 15. Both frogs and toads (croaks, croak) in the swamps. 16. A bell or chimes (rings, ring) on the hour. 17. The space shuttle and satellites (orbits, orbit) Earth. 18. Neither Will nor his sisters (rides, ride) our school bus this year. 19. Sand and cactus plants (bakes, bake) in the desert sun. 20. Both butterflies and moths (goes, go) through several stages of development. 21. Either a coat or a parka (provides, provide) warmth in the winter. 22. Dolphins and tuna (swims, swim) in groups. 23. Either a rainbow or floods (follows, follow) a storm. 24. Both decorations and ornaments (brightens, brighten) up a room. 25. Statues and monuments (honors, honor) outstanding individuals.

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Grammar

5. The cans of paint (weighs, weigh) seven pounds each.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 9: Diagraming Sentences Lesson 52

Diagraming Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates

Grammar

To diagram a sentence, first draw a long horizontal line. Then draw a short vertical line that crosses the horizontal line. Write the simple subject to the left of the vertical line. Write the simple predicate to the right of the vertical line. When diagraming sentences, use capital letters as they appear in the sentence, but do not use punctuation. Dynamite explodes. Dynamite

explodes

Write only the simple subject and the simple predicate in this part of the diagram. Remember that the simple predicate can include a helping verb. The dynamite will explode on schedule. dynamite

will explode

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 Exercise 1 Diagram only the simple subject and the simple predicate of each sentence. 1. The store opens early on Saturday.

2. My aunt works as a chemist.

Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

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3. A torch lit the way.

7. They named the collie pups Wynken, Blynken, and Nod.

4. The football team burst onto the field.

8. Tazu came to the library.

5. The Giraldis traveled through Italy last summer.

9. This movie is almost three hours long.

6. The heavy rainfall soaked the dry soil.

180 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

10. The sixth-grade girls won the volleyball tournament.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 53

Diagraming the Four Kinds of Sentences The simple subject and the simple predicate of four kinds of sentences are diagramed below. Notice that the location of the simple subject and the simple predicate in a sentence diagram is always the same, regardless of word order in the sentence. In an interrogative sentence the simple subject often comes between the two parts of a verb phrase. In an imperative sentence the simple subject is understood to be you. The house has central heat. house

Grammar

Declarative:

has

Interrogative: Does it have air conditioning? it

Imperative:

Does have

Turn down the thermostat at ten o’clock. (you)

Exclamatory:

How warm it is in this room! it

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Turn

is

 Exercise 1 Diagram only the simple subject and the simple predicate. 1. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.

2. The ice cream will melt there.

Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

181

3. How much money do you need?

6. What a good movie that was!

4. Why did Sally call the emergency squad?

7. How odd this is!

5. What caused the stain on the living room rug?

8. Put the leftovers in the refrigerator.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 54

Diagraming Direct and Indirect Objects and Predicate Words In a sentence diagram, the direct object is placed to the right of a vertical line after the action verb. Marissa threw the ball. Marissa

threw

ball

Grammar

Similarly, place the predicate noun to the right of the linking verb. Draw a slanted line to separate the verb from the predicate noun. Today’s special is blackened swordfish. special

is

swordfish

Diagram a predicate adjective just as you would diagram a predicate noun. Edmund seems confused. Edmund

seems

confused

In a diagram, the indirect object sits on a line below and to the right of the verb. Draw a slanted line to connect the indirect object to the verb. Marissa threw Jake the ball.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Marissa

threw

ball Jake

 Exercise 1 Diagram the simple subject, simple predicate, direct or indirect object, and predicate noun or adjective. 1. The library needs volunteers.

2. Yoshitaka finished the pizza.

Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

183

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

6. Aunt Eleanor bought me tickets.

4. The sudden rain soaked the ground.

7. This watermelon tastes so sweet!

5. Please hand me that bowl.

8. Katherine read Alexandra a story.

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Grammar

3. Mom gave me a hug.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 55

Diagraming Adjectives and Adverbs An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. In a diagram write the adjective on a slanted line beneath the noun or the pronoun it modifies. Diagram possessive nouns and pronouns and the articles a, an, and the just as you would diagram other kinds of adjectives. The sturdy house withstood the violent storm. house

withstood

storm

Grammar

t en ol vi e th

dy ur st e Th

An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Notice how adverbs are diagramed. The extraordinarily loud noise woke us immediately. noise

woke

us

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ily ar in rd ao tr ex

ly te ia ed m im

ud lo

e Th

 Exercise 1 Diagram each sentence. 1. The beautiful cherry blossoms attract many visitors.

2. The bright colors caught the infant’s attention.

Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

185

3. Anne slept late yesterday.

6. Do not give me so much spaghetti!

4. The wren chirped merrily.

7. Alfonso always works very carefully.

5. The long, curvy road suddenly disappeared.

8. This lesson confuses me somewhat.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 56

Diagraming Prepositional Phrases All prepositional phrases, whether used as an adjective or as an adverb, are diagramed the same way. Used as an adjective: The boxes under the stairs are full. boxes

are

full

Grammar

r de un

e Th

stairs e th

Used as an adverb: Hector

put

Hector put the boxes under the stairs. boxes e th

r de un

stairs e th

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

 Exercise 1 Diagram each sentence. 1. Toni’s letter from Italy arrived earlier.

3. My brother paints pictures of lions.

2. The garden under the grape arbor is Grandma’s favorite.

4. Put your coat on a hook by the back door.

Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

187

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. Mr. Larkspur’s surprise was the package outside the classroom door.

6. The brick house above the river’s delta was built in the last century.

9. The flags of all the participating countries fluttered in the breeze.

7. Can you come to my house after the game?

188 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 6

10. We built a platform for my bed above my other furniture.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

5. The shelves beneath the books hold family heirlooms.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 57

Diagraming Compound Sentence Parts When you diagram compound parts of a sentence, place the second part of the compound below the first. Compound Subject:

Casaba and cantaloupe are melons. Casaba and

are

melons

Compound Predicate:

Grammar

cantaloupe

Fruit trees grow and blossom. grow and

trees t ui Fr

blossom

Compound Sentence:

Some fruits are sweet, but some have a tart taste. fruits

are

sweet

e m So

but some

have

taste

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

rt ta

a

 Exercise 1 Diagram each sentence. 1. Geanna or Rodolfo could do the artwork.

2. The library and the post office close at noon on Saturday.

Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

189

3. It rains often and hails seldom.

6. Irene and Hoshi raked the leaves, and Toshiko and Olivia carried them.

4. Peter pushed the door, but it was heavy.

7. Bright colors and unusual shapes will help these posters.

5. Dad vacuumed and dusted.

8. Sharps and flats can change the mood of the music.

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Grammar

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 9 Review  Exercise 1 Diagram each sentence. 4. The excited children scampered quickly into the decorated room.

2. Mrs. Peterson sent us six blankets for the refugees.

5. My brother plays a harmonica, and my sister sings.

3. Give Glenda the extra tickets.

6. Eugene and Edgar usually like the same things.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

1. Do you know Mr. Sweeney?

Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

191

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–9  Exercise 1 Write S if the sentence is a simple sentence, C if it is compound, or frag. if it is a sentence fragment. Robins sing, and turkeys gobble.

C

1. Cats meow, and dogs bark.

C

2. Wind moves sailing ships, but a motor powers a speedboat.

S

3. Jenny and Francine went to the Somerset County Fair together.

frag.

4. The antique biplane on the wide cement runway.

C

5. Miriam studies French every day, but Askalu studies Swahili only once in a while.

S

6. My brand-new computer has a hard drive and a modem.

frag.

7. Growing in the garden, down by the old broken birdbath.

C

8. The grass needs mowing, and the garage needs painting.

S

9. I forgot all about that big history test on Monday.

frag.

10. The brand-new notebook and the dirty blue jacket.

C

11. I shall seal this big envelope, and Darla will mail it for me.

S

12. Those bananas are growing browner every day.

S

13. My aunt Kanya still reads to me from her collection of storybooks.

S

14. The gray clouds made the day dreary.

S

15. Jeff saw his friends Tommy and Jamal in the park.

C

16. Lightning flashes frighten me, but I like the sound of thunder.

S

17. Why is the road crew working in front of our house again?

S

18. In spite of its appearance, our old car runs pretty well.

S

19. Do you remember the Smith family: Michael, Brandon, Sara, and Elizabeth?

frag.

20. Bright red robin on the long, twisted tree branch.

S

21. Your new ten-speed bicycle flies down the road so swiftly and smoothly!

C

22. I smell that delicious apple pie, and I can almost taste it.

frag.

23. Exciting stories about actual events and real heroes.

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Grammar

C

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

S

24. Cindy and Carla quite often practice their music after school.

C

25. Glenn could come tomorrow, but he cannot make it today.

S

26. The canary’s song is soothing.

C

27. Mr. Raintree sings one part, and we follow with ours.

frag.

28. A stormy sea and high winds, black sky and occasional lightning.

pres. perf. past prog.

1. Ms. Johnson was giving a test in the next room.

P

2. The hours creep by slowly on rainy afternoons.

pres. prog.

3. I am drawing a picture for art class.

past perf.

4. Sally had woven that scarf before her twelfth birthday.

pres. perf.

5. Have you ever ridden a horse?

past pres. perf. P past Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

The puppy has stolen one of Dad’s new blue slippers.

pres. perf. P past P

6. I woke up at four in the morning. 7. The flowers have grown fast in this wet weather. 8. Your voice reminds me of someone else. 9. Conor threw the final strikeout pitch in our game against Central. 10. Who has seen my old green jacket? 11. I collect rocks, stamps, and old coins. 12. The fans stared at their favorite actor as he walked in. 13. Sharon sings in the choir.

pres. perf.

14. That dog has bitten people before.

pres. perf.

15. They have weathered many storms throughout their years together.

pres. prog.

16. Are you leaving soon?

past perf.

17. Paul had swept the room carefully.

P pres. perf.

18. The maple trees provide shade on a hot day. 19. Mrs. Baughman has paid me for mowing her yard. Unit 9, Diagraming Sentences

193

Grammar

 Exercise 2 Write P if the verb is in the present tense, pres. prog. if present progressive, pres. perf. if present perfect, past if past tense, past prog. if past progressive, and past perf. if past perfect.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

pres. prog.

20. I am holding the ladder steady.

pres. perf.

21. The snow has come at last!

P

22. The wind rattles the window panes.

P

23. My bird feeder hangs on a limb outside my bedroom window. 24. The baron rose and stood by the window, dreaming of his princess.

past perf.

25. The meat had not frozen properly.

pres. prog.

26. I’m teaching my puppy to sit, roll over, and fetch.

pres. perf.

27. That tree has stood there for hundreds of years.

P

28. The little field mouse hides timidly under the tulip leaves.

 Exercise 3 Write pro. if the italicized noun is a proper noun, com. if it is a common noun, or col. if it is a collective noun. For nouns that are both common and collective, wirte col. col.

The group has decided not to pay for a new slide projector.

col.

1. The family will buy this land for a new store.

pro.

2. Mrs. Smith will teach our class next week.

pro.

3. Dr. Johnson says a lot of funny things when I visit him.

col.

4. When will the legislature vote on that bill?

com.

5. The Carlson’s dog is always in our yard.

pro.

6. Tom Sawyer is one of my favorite story characters.

col.

7. The cheerleading squad will practice after school on Tuesday.

com.

8. What’s the name of the actor who played the butler?

pro.

9. President Abraham Lincoln is my favorite American leader.

col.

10. According to Bob, our class will go on a field trip next week.

com.

11. The alligator crossed the road right in front of us!

com.

12. The giant battleship is now a war memorial for our state.

col.

13. My brother’s army battalion will pass through our town today.

com.

14. The clouds looked like white feathers on the underwing of the sky.

com.

15. Although cricket is played with a ball and a bat, it is different from baseball.

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Grammar

past