Great Britain: Roanoke Great Britain: Chesapeake Great Britain

Great Britain: Roanoke Great Britain: Chesapeake Great Britain

8/26/2013 Great Britain: Roanoke   Area named “Virginia” (for “virgin queen”) European Footholds in North America Great Britain: Chesapeake  S...

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Great Britain: Roanoke 

 Area named “Virginia” (for “virgin queen”)

European Footholds in North America

Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Sir Walter Raleigh, 1584: obtains charter to start a colony  Location as base for anti-Spanish privateers

British, Spanish, & Croatoan feuds prevented supply reinforcements

Supplies finally arrive; but colonists are “lost”

Great Britain: Chesapeake

Virginia Company, 1607: Jamestown

 Capture of Pocahontas brings

 Joint-stock company funds expedition

surrender; she converts to Christianity & marries John Rolfe

 Too interested in quick riches; did not plant

crops & grew hungry in harsh winter 

Cpt. John Smith led raid on Powhatan 38 of 105 survived


Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Social change, 1619  VA Co sent 100 women; 120 lbs of

tobacco could purchase a wife  Dutch ship arrives with 20 Africans ○ Indentured servants preferred until

1670s; expensive & hard to recruit

John Rolfe adapts tobacco to VA’s climate  Crop “saves” VA; VA Co. earns profit  Headright system & Indentured

 Pocahontas legend

1st Anglo-Powhatan War

House of Burgesses, 1619: 1st representative assembly in N.A.

Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Maryland & Lord Baltimore  1632, proprietary land grant as

refuge for Catholics, few moved  Protestant majority ○ 1649: Toleration Act ○ 1654: Act revoked followed by years of religious strife



Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Bacon’s Rebellion

Great Britain: New England 

 Berkeley’s fur-trade monopoly worked with Indians

Thomas Weston & VA Co, 1620  102 on Mayflower, ½ Separatists

○ Refused to aid frontier farmers from Indian attacks

 Landed too far north; created

Mayflower Compact to give legal status to Plymouth colony

 Bacon led farmers against Berkeley ○ Jamestown pillaged & capital is burned  Bacon dies; 20 rebels hanged

○ Rich v. poor ○ Coastal v. inland farmers ○ Wealthy landowners shift to

slaves (less likely to rebel)

Great Britain: New England 

Puritan “Great Migration” (1630/42)

Harsh winter & ½ died  Rest saved by Squanto & Samoset

 Social tensions revealed

 Plant corn w/ fish fertilizer

Indian alliance weakens due to stories of Anglo-Powhatan War in VA

Great Britain: New England 

Typical Puritan town layout

 John Winthrop & “City on a Hill”  70,000 migrate in 12 year period

Communities  Powerful/respected ministers  Town plot for each family; common  Town meetings (male “saints” could vote)  Education for religious purposes ○ Harvard College: to train ministers  Low mortality rates

Great Britain: New England 

“Bad” Puritans  Roger Williams, minister in Salem ○ Advocated separation of church & state ○ Supported “fairness” with Indians ○ Argued for full break with Anglicans ○ 1635: guilty of preaching “new and dangerous opinions”  exiled to Rogues’ Island

○ Creates new colony based on religious


Great Britain: New England 

“Bad” Puritans  Anne Hutchison, Boston ○ Highly educated; held home Bible studies ○ Critical of “good works” in predestination ○ Critical of control clergy had within society  Esp. of government’s economic policies

○ Put on trial for heresy  Superb knowledge of scripture  Claimed “direct revelation” from God  “guilty” and banished (RI then NY)



Great Britain: New England 

Pequot War (1636/37)

Great Britain: New England 

 Pequot as barrier to CT’s trade w/New Neth.

Salem has Witches? (1691/93)  Economic rift amid Salem Town & Salem Village

 Ruthless war killing 100s of Indians

○ Most accusers: Village, young, poor, single girls

 Pequot land given to CT & New Haven

○ Most accused: Town, middle-aged, wives/widows

at least moderate wealth  Rampant hysteria & procedural

King Philip’s (Metacom) War (1675/76)  Wampanoag respond to “punishment”

flaws in courts

○ Raided 53 towns; killed 2500 colonists

 100s accused & 20 executed

○ Colonists blockade/destroy food supply & kill

 Other clergy & Gov. Phips

5000 Indians 

Great Britain: New England 

brought end to trials

Ends major resistance to expansion

Great Britain: Middle

Decline of “City on a Hill”

 Economic disputes between clergy &

1664: Peter Stuyvesant surrenders during GB war against Netherlands  Proprietorship to Duke of York; split

merchants: what is a reasonable profit?

into New York, East Jersey, & West Jersey

 “Bad” Puritans challenged orthodoxy  Farmers moved away from towns

○ New York tried to recreate feudal era w/

 Communal reciprocity turned to

large manor owners & rent paying tenants ○ Religious feuds caused consolidation of the Jerseys into royal colony of New Jersey

individualism & materialism  Creation of new colonies  Puritan rule failed in England  Witch hysteria

Great Britain: Middle

Great Britain: Middle

1681: Charles II paid debt to William Penn by giving proprietorship  Penn wanted safe place for Quakers  George Fox & Quakers:

1681: Quaker migration to Pennsylvania best planning of a European colony

 Inner Light speaks equally to all people

 Philadelphia: “city of brotherly love” ○ Planned city rather than haphazard growth

 Clergy not needed

 “democracy” was limited; strong

 Respect not based on socio-econ status  Refused to swear oaths  Ardently pacifist

governor  Religious toleration; Quakers

appointed to most gov’t positions



Great Britain: Middle 1704: lower Delaware River valley cut off from Pennsylvania to quiet down Dutch & Swedish opposition  Success for Middle Colonies: 

Great Britain: South 

 Early settlers from Barbados  Charles Town as port (1670)  Indentured servants to slaves ○ Experience w/rice in Africa ○ Immunities to malaria ○ 130 acre rice plantation = 65 slaves

 Encouraging religious toleration  Encouraging ethnic pluralism  Lack of tax $$ to support official church

Great Britain: South 

Origins of Georgia  Oglethorpe buys land from Creeks ○ Savannah founded in 1733

 ½ from Germany, Switzerland, & Scotland

Image Credits             

 Anti-slavery because: ○ Spanish might stir up slave revolts ○ Undermines poor whites (ideal population) ○ Few moved so slave ban ended

Carolina, 1663 “restoration” colony


De Soto picture: De Soto map: Coronado map: Salinas mission photo: De Champlain painting: French territorial map: New Amsterdam image: Roanoke Island: Jamestown image: Pocahontas Baptism: Tobacco plant: Jamestown Slave arrival: Jamestown wives arrival:,From-Pioneers-In-The-Settlement-Of-America-By-William-A.-Craft,-1876.jpg Lord Baltimore painting: Act of Toleration painting: Bacon confronting Dunmore: Plimoth Plantation ad: Puritans image: Harvard logo: Puritan village: Roger Williams statue: Anne Hutchinson: Metacom image: Witch hanging: New England map:

Image Credits • 2  



Stuyvesant image: NY Manor map: /220px-Philipsburg_manor_map.png William Penn image: Homes in Pennsylvania: Philadelphia map: Delaware River map: Rice barge image: Slave cabins: Rice plant: Oglethorpe image: Oglethorpe & Yamacraw tribe: