Great Britain: Roanoke Great Britain: Chesapeake Great Britain

Great Britain: Roanoke Great Britain: Chesapeake Great Britain

8/26/2013 Great Britain: Roanoke   Area named “Virginia” (for “virgin queen”) European Footholds in North America Great Britain: Chesapeake  S...

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8/26/2013

Great Britain: Roanoke 

 Area named “Virginia” (for “virgin queen”)

European Footholds in North America

Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Sir Walter Raleigh, 1584: obtains charter to start a colony  Location as base for anti-Spanish privateers



British, Spanish, & Croatoan feuds prevented supply reinforcements



Supplies finally arrive; but colonists are “lost”

Great Britain: Chesapeake

Virginia Company, 1607: Jamestown



 Capture of Pocahontas brings

 Joint-stock company funds expedition

surrender; she converts to Christianity & marries John Rolfe

 Too interested in quick riches; did not plant

crops & grew hungry in harsh winter 



Cpt. John Smith led raid on Powhatan 38 of 105 survived

Servants



Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Social change, 1619  VA Co sent 100 women; 120 lbs of

tobacco could purchase a wife  Dutch ship arrives with 20 Africans ○ Indentured servants preferred until

1670s; expensive & hard to recruit

John Rolfe adapts tobacco to VA’s climate  Crop “saves” VA; VA Co. earns profit  Headright system & Indentured

 Pocahontas legend



1st Anglo-Powhatan War

House of Burgesses, 1619: 1st representative assembly in N.A.

Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Maryland & Lord Baltimore  1632, proprietary land grant as

refuge for Catholics, few moved  Protestant majority ○ 1649: Toleration Act ○ 1654: Act revoked followed by years of religious strife

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8/26/2013

Great Britain: Chesapeake 

Bacon’s Rebellion

Great Britain: New England 

 Berkeley’s fur-trade monopoly worked with Indians

Thomas Weston & VA Co, 1620  102 on Mayflower, ½ Separatists

○ Refused to aid frontier farmers from Indian attacks

 Landed too far north; created

Mayflower Compact to give legal status to Plymouth colony

 Bacon led farmers against Berkeley ○ Jamestown pillaged & capital is burned  Bacon dies; 20 rebels hanged



○ Rich v. poor ○ Coastal v. inland farmers ○ Wealthy landowners shift to

slaves (less likely to rebel)

Great Britain: New England 

Puritan “Great Migration” (1630/42)

Harsh winter & ½ died  Rest saved by Squanto & Samoset

 Social tensions revealed

 Plant corn w/ fish fertilizer



Indian alliance weakens due to stories of Anglo-Powhatan War in VA

Great Britain: New England 

Typical Puritan town layout

 John Winthrop & “City on a Hill”  70,000 migrate in 12 year period



Communities  Powerful/respected ministers  Town plot for each family; common  Town meetings (male “saints” could vote)  Education for religious purposes ○ Harvard College: to train ministers  Low mortality rates

Great Britain: New England 

“Bad” Puritans  Roger Williams, minister in Salem ○ Advocated separation of church & state ○ Supported “fairness” with Indians ○ Argued for full break with Anglicans ○ 1635: guilty of preaching “new and dangerous opinions”  exiled to Rogues’ Island

○ Creates new colony based on religious

freedom

Great Britain: New England 

“Bad” Puritans  Anne Hutchison, Boston ○ Highly educated; held home Bible studies ○ Critical of “good works” in predestination ○ Critical of control clergy had within society  Esp. of government’s economic policies

○ Put on trial for heresy  Superb knowledge of scripture  Claimed “direct revelation” from God  “guilty” and banished (RI then NY)

2

8/26/2013

Great Britain: New England 

Pequot War (1636/37)

Great Britain: New England 

 Pequot as barrier to CT’s trade w/New Neth.



Salem has Witches? (1691/93)  Economic rift amid Salem Town & Salem Village

 Ruthless war killing 100s of Indians

○ Most accusers: Village, young, poor, single girls

 Pequot land given to CT & New Haven

○ Most accused: Town, middle-aged, wives/widows

at least moderate wealth  Rampant hysteria & procedural

King Philip’s (Metacom) War (1675/76)  Wampanoag respond to “punishment”

flaws in courts

○ Raided 53 towns; killed 2500 colonists

 100s accused & 20 executed

○ Colonists blockade/destroy food supply & kill

 Other clergy & Gov. Phips

5000 Indians 

Great Britain: New England 

brought end to trials

Ends major resistance to expansion

Great Britain: Middle

Decline of “City on a Hill”



 Economic disputes between clergy &

1664: Peter Stuyvesant surrenders during GB war against Netherlands  Proprietorship to Duke of York; split

merchants: what is a reasonable profit?

into New York, East Jersey, & West Jersey

 “Bad” Puritans challenged orthodoxy  Farmers moved away from towns

○ New York tried to recreate feudal era w/

 Communal reciprocity turned to

large manor owners & rent paying tenants ○ Religious feuds caused consolidation of the Jerseys into royal colony of New Jersey

individualism & materialism  Creation of new colonies  Puritan rule failed in England  Witch hysteria

Great Britain: Middle

Great Britain: Middle

1681: Charles II paid debt to William Penn by giving proprietorship  Penn wanted safe place for Quakers  George Fox & Quakers:





1681: Quaker migration to Pennsylvania best planning of a European colony

 Inner Light speaks equally to all people

 Philadelphia: “city of brotherly love” ○ Planned city rather than haphazard growth

 Clergy not needed

 “democracy” was limited; strong

 Respect not based on socio-econ status  Refused to swear oaths  Ardently pacifist

governor  Religious toleration; Quakers

appointed to most gov’t positions

3

8/26/2013

Great Britain: Middle 1704: lower Delaware River valley cut off from Pennsylvania to quiet down Dutch & Swedish opposition  Success for Middle Colonies: 

Great Britain: South 

 Early settlers from Barbados  Charles Town as port (1670)  Indentured servants to slaves ○ Experience w/rice in Africa ○ Immunities to malaria ○ 130 acre rice plantation = 65 slaves

 Encouraging religious toleration  Encouraging ethnic pluralism  Lack of tax $$ to support official church

Great Britain: South 

Origins of Georgia  Oglethorpe buys land from Creeks ○ Savannah founded in 1733

 ½ from Germany, Switzerland, & Scotland

Image Credits             

 Anti-slavery because: ○ Spanish might stir up slave revolts ○ Undermines poor whites (ideal population) ○ Few moved so slave ban ended

Carolina, 1663 “restoration” colony

           

De Soto picture: http://www.nativevillage.org/Archives/2009%20Archives/NOV%20News/desoto2.gif De Soto map: http://rs6.loc.gov/intldl/eshtml/images/florida_map.jpg Coronado map: http://www.cabq.gov/veterans/images/Map-FranciscoVasquezdeCoronado.gif Salinas mission photo: http://images.travelpod.com/users/exploreamerica/usroadtrip_2007.1181366580.img_0085.jpg De Champlain painting: http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/english/maps/historical/exploration/brule.jpg French territorial map: http://www.quebecoislibre.org/06/060319map.jpg New Amsterdam image: http://ushistoryimages.com/images/new-amsterdam/fullsize/new-amsterdam-1.jpg Roanoke Island: http://www.lib.unc.edu/blogs/ncm/wp-content/uploads/2007/02/roanoke.jpg Jamestown image: http://amciv.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/jamestown_overview_01.gif Pocahontas Baptism: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/pocohontas/pocahontas_baptism2_sm.jpg Tobacco plant: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Tobacco_and_smoking_indian.jpg Jamestown Slave arrival: http://lehrman.isi.org/media/images/cache/Africans_Landed_at_Jamestown_1619.jpg/638pxAfricans_Landed_at_Jamestown_1619.jpg Jamestown wives arrival: http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/thumbnail/193180/1/Wives-For-The-Settlers-At-Jamestown,From-Pioneers-In-The-Settlement-Of-America-By-William-A.-Craft,-1876.jpg Lord Baltimore painting: http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/sc1500/sc1545/001100/001126/images/1545_1126.jpg Act of Toleration painting: http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/sc5500/sc5590/images/religious_toleration.jpg Bacon confronting Dunmore: http://www.understandingrace.org/images/482x270/society/colonial_exp.jpg Plimoth Plantation ad: http://www.plimoth.com/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/5e06319eda06f020e43594a9c230972d/f/i/file_35.jpg Puritans image: http://endtimepilgrim.org/puritans25.jpg Harvard logo: http://www.erictipler.com/blogimages/Harvard-logo.jpg Puritan village: http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap10_frq_us_history.pdf Roger Williams statue: http://virtualology.com/nationalstatuaryhall/roger-williams.org/ Anne Hutchinson: http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/591130-20.jpg Metacom image: http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/pilgrims/metacomet-Pokanoket.jpg Witch hanging: http://www.zunal.com/myaccount/uploads/hanging.jpg New England map: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI036.jpg

Image Credits • 2  

   

    

Stuyvesant image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peter_Stuyvesant.jpg NY Manor map: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Philipsburg_manor_map.png /220px-Philipsburg_manor_map.png William Penn image: http://www.philadelphia-reflections.com/images/william-penn.jpg Homes in Pennsylvania: http://ushistoryimages.com/images/colonialpennsylvania/fullsize/colonial-pennsylvania-6.jpg Philadelphia map: http://www.mapsofpa.com/articlepics/art3005.jpg Delaware River map: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Delawarerivermap.png Rice barge image: http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/king/king435.jpg Slave cabins: http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/king/king431.jpg Rice plant: http://fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu/projects/Rice_metabolome/k7577-1.jpg Oglethorpe image: http://www.loveofsavannah.com/images/oglethorpe.jpg Oglethorpe & Yamacraw tribe: http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdghdec/Oglethorpe%20&%20Tomochichinew.jpg

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