Health Disparities In Diabetes And Obesity - Johns Hopkins

Health Disparities In Diabetes And Obesity - Johns Hopkins

Health Disparities in Diabetes and Obesity: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement Sherita Hill Golde...

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Health Disparities in Diabetes and Obesity: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement Sherita Hill Golden, MD, MHS Associate Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine September 10, 2012

Background • Health disparities in disease burden, comorbidities and outcomes exist worldwide • IOM report: “Unequal Treatment (2002)” – Examine health system, provider, and patient factors – Ethnic minorities less access to preventive care, treatment and surgery  delayed diagnosis, advanced disease – Persistence of race/ethnic disparities in health and healthcare (type 2 diabetes and complications and thyroid cancer and bone fracture outcomes)

• IOM report: Exploring the Biological Contributors of Human Health: Does Sex Matter? (2001) – Highlighted effect of sex on health care disparities – Consideration of sex as biological variable, allowing for sexstratified analyses, reducing sex-based discrimination in health – Coronary heart disease in diabetes, thyroid disease, osteoporosis  disproportionately affect women

Objectives • To provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to disparities in endocrine disorders – Race/ethnic – Sex

• To identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus of future research needs

Scientific Statement Writing Group Area of Expertise Sherita Hill Golden, MD, MHS (Johns Hopkins University [JHU])

Clinical endocrinology, diabetes and CVD epidemiology, diabetes disparities

Anne Sumner, MD (NIDDK)

Clinical endocrinology, disparities in metabolic syndrome (body fat distribution, dyslipidemia)

Arleen Brown, MD, PhD (UCLA)

Diabetes disparities, health services research

Tiffany Gary-Webb, PhD, MHS (Columbia University)

Social epidemiology, diabetes and obesity disparities

Marshall H. Chin, MD, MPH (University of Chicago)

Interventions to reduce disparities, health services research

Catherine Kim, MD, MPH (University of Michigan)

Sex disparities in diabetes complications, gestational diabetes, women’s health

Jane A. Cauley, DrPH (University of Pittsburg)

Disparities in metabolic bone disease

Julie Ann Sosa, MD, MA (Yale University)

Disparities in thyroid disorders, endocrine surgery

Blair Anton, MLIS, MS (JHU)

Comprehensive literature search skills

Search Strategy • Global prevalence data from World Health Organization • U.S. population-based studies identified through PubMed: MeSH and key word terms – Racial, ethnic, and sex differences (specific populations) – Specific endocrine disorder or condition

• Identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, original studies Golden et al., JCEM, 2012

Definitions of Race/Ethnicity Race/ethnic groups Non-Hispanic Black (NHB)

Individuals of African descent born and/or residing in the US

Non-Hispanic White (NHW) Nonminority individuals Hispanic-American

Mexican, South American, Cuban, or Puerto Rican descent born and/or residing in US

Asian-American

South Asian (e.g. Indian) East Asian (e.g. Japanese, Chinese) Southeast Asian (e.g. Cambodian, Vietnamese, Laotian, Thai) Pacific Island (Filipino)

Native American

American Indians and Alaska Natives Golden et al., JCEM, 2012

Race/Ethnic Disparities in Diabetes Mellitus

Worldwide Diabetes Prevalence: 346 million individuals

WHO 2010 Statistics • Countries with highest diabetes prevalence – Nauru, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia

• Countries with lowest diabetes prevalence – Mongolia, Rwanda, Iceland

• Death from diabetes higher in low- and middle-income countries

Diabetes Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity 7.6% Cuban, Central, South American 13.6% Mexican American 13.8% Puerto Rican American

Percentage (%)

11.8% 7.1%

12.9%

8.4%

Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011

Prevalence (%)

Heterogeneity in Diabetes Prevalence in Asian-Americans

Chinese

Filipino

Asian Indian

Japanese Vietnamese Korean

*Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Narayan et al, J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010

Other Asian NHOPI*

Biological Factors • Obesity and body fat distribution – 500 million adults ≥20 years were obese in 2010 – Highest worldwide prevalence—Nauru, Tonga, Cook Island, Micronesia – U.S. ranked 5th highest in male obesity (44.2%) and 12th highest in female obesity (48.3%)

Race/Ethnic Differences in Overweight and Obesity Race/Ethnic Group

Percentage BMI≥30 kg/m2 (NHANES 2009-2010)

NHWs

34.3%

NHBs

49.5%

Mexican-Americans

40.0%

• Grade 2 (BMI≥35 kg/m2) and 3 (BMI≥40 kg/m2) highest in NHBs and Mexican Americans • NHB and Mexican American women—greater rise in obesity prevalence over last 12 yrs than NHB or Mexican American men or NHW men or women • Native Americans and Alaska Natives—33.2% obese versus 24.8% of NHWs in 2007 NHIS Flegal et al., JAMA, 2012; Pleis and Lucas, 2007

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Asian-Americans Race/ethnic group

Age-adjusted overweight prevalence (%)

Age-adjusted obesity prevalence (%)

Chinese

21.8

4.2

Filipino

33.0

14.1

Asian Indian

34.4

6.0

Japanese

25.9

8.7

Vietnamese

19.1

5.3

Korean

27.3

2.8

Other Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander

29.2

12.5

Narayan et al., J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010

Asian individuals develop diabetes at lower body mass index KH, Yoon et al. Lancet. 2006; 368: 1681-1688.

Race/ethnic differences in body fat distribution • Asian Americans have more visceral fat at similar BMI and waist circumference compared to NHWs – Japanese Americans – Filipinos

Biological Factors • Obesity and body fat distribution • Glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (compared to NHWs) – Greater insulin resistance in minority populations (independent of adiposity) – Asian Americans have lower beta cell insulin secretion – Glucose metabolic features may differ in Hispanic Americans depending on country of origin

Biological Factors • Obesity and body fat distribution • Glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (compared to NHWs) • Genetics – Susceptibility loci associated with type 2 diabetes risk in European populations are also associated with increased risk in minority populations – GWAS in non-European populations—novel diabetesassociated SNPs (South and East Asians, NHBs) – Overall, genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes similar across race/ethnicity

Non-Biological Factors • Acculturation: “process by which immigrants adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of a new culture” – Hispanic immigrants – Asian immigrants

• Socioeconomic Status—lower income, education, and occupational status associated with increased diabetes risk • Health Behaviors – Physical activity—Less in minorities compared to NHWs – Smoking—Native Americans and Alaska Natives have higher rates compared to NHWs

Interface of Clinical/Biological and Environmental Factors: Epigenetics and Early Life Events

Intrauterine Environment • Fetal undernutrition and stress, maternal stress, maternal obesity  modification of offspring developmental biology • Low birth weight  insulin resistance, diabetes, abdominal adiposity, CVD risk, elevated cortisol reactivity (esp. NHBs) – Nutritional deprivation – Placental vascular compromise

• Epigenetic changes in cellular gene expression: fetal adaptation to adverse intrauterine environment

Kuzawa et al, Am J Hum Biol, 2009

Summary: Take Home Pearls • Insulin resistance is a key contributor to type 2 diabetes risk in minority populations – Prevention target – Basic science studies—determine if race/ethnic differences in insulin signaling

• Reduced beta cell function and greater visceral adiposity in Asian-Americans  higher diabetes risk at lower BMI • Heterogeneity in diabetes risk within Hispanic and Asian sub-populations Golden et al, JCEM, 2012

Summary: Take Home Pearls • Genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes risk similar in European and ethnic minority populations – Future GWAS in ethnic minorities (esp. Native Americans, Hispanic-Americans and NHBs) – Use of ancestral markers to account for admixture

• Acculturation and health behaviors contribute to diabetes and obesity in ethnic minority populations • Low birth weight, fetal undernutrition, and maternal-fetal stress  early targets for diabetes preventive intervention

Golden et al, JCEM, 2012

Race/Ethnic Disparities in Diabetic Complications

Microvascular Complications • Retinopathy – Severe retinopathy and visual impairment more common in ethnic minorities

• Nephropathy – End-stage renal disease (ESRD) disproportionately affects minority populations (esp. NHBs and Native Americans) – ESRD risk higher in Asian-Americans over age 45 yrs – NHBs have lower mortality on dialysis compared to NHWs

Macrovascular Complications • Cardiovascular Disease – Lower risk of CVD in minority populations, except Native Americans, compared to NHWs – NHBs have higher CVD mortality rate – Hispanic-Americans with hyperglycemia have higher post-stroke mortality than NHWs

• Peripheral arterial disease/amputations – Higher risk in NHBs and Native Americans than NHWs – Lower risk in Asian-Americans than NHWs – Studies in Hispanic-Americans mixed

Biological Factors: Race/Ethnic Differences in Glycemic Control • Ethnic minorities with diabetes have worse glycemic control than NHWs • Controversies: HbA1c in minority populations – Non-glycemic factors may contribute to higher levels in ethnic minorities – Caution in using HbA1c as only measure of diabetes diagnosis and management – HbA1c similarly related to micro- and macrovascular complications in NHBs and NHWs

Race/Ethnic Differences in CVD Risk Factors • Blood pressure  nephropathy, peripheral arterial disease – Higher hypertension prevalence in NHBs and Mexican American women than NHWs

• Lipids  CVD – Minorities generally have more favorable lipid profile (except lower HDL in NHBs)

Genetics and Epigenetics • Few GWAS analyses on complications in ethnic minorities • Low birth weight—may be associated with increased nephropathy risk through epigenetics – Associated with alterations in anatomical structure and function of kidneys and pancreas in animal models – Associated with increased odds of end-stage renal disease in humans

Non-Biological Factors: Health Behaviors • Self-monitoring of blood glucose – Rates lower in NHBs, Hispanic-Americans, and Asian-Americans than NHWs (no differences in Native Americans)

• Physical activity—lower in ethnic minorities than to NHWs

Non-Biological Factors: Access to and Quality of Care Poor access to care • Factors associated with inadequate access to diabetes specialist care – Lower educational attainment – Lack of health insurance greater in minorities with diabetes

• Ethnic minorities have worse diabetes-related outcomes even in countries with universal health insurance coverage

Poor quality of care • Uninsured with diabetes receive fewer recommended processes of care, have worse glycemic control, and more diabetic eye disease • Less aggressive prescribing practices in minority individuals living in countries with universal health insurance coverage

Summary: Take Home Pearls • Ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by microvascular complications and mortality • Notable paradoxes – CVD mortality higher in NHBs despite lower incidence of disease than in NHWs – Survival on dialysis higher in NHBs despite higher rates of end-stage renal disease than in NHWs

• Future basic, translational, and clinical research needed to elucidate mechanisms of survival differences Golden et al, JCEM, 2012

Sex Disparities in Diabetic Complications

Sex Disparities in Diabetic Complications • Microvascular complications rates similar in men and women • Disparities in macrovascular complications – Diabetes increases risk of CHD and CHD mortality in women more than men – Peripheral arterial disease and diabetes-related lower limb amputations higher in men

Biological and Non-Biological Factors • Biological Factors – Differences in glycemic control, lipids – Dimorphic sex hormone status  endothelial dysfunction and adipokine activity

• Treatment – Women with type 2 diabetes less likely to use aspirin

Summary: Take Home Pearls • Reasons for sex differences remain largely speculative • Most marked sex differences in diabetic complications are for coronary heart and peripheral arterial disease • Future basic, translational, and clinical research needed to elucidate differential impact of diabetes on two vascular beds Golden et al, JCEM, 2012

Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disparities Adapted from R. B. Warnecke et al, Am J Public Health, 2008; 98:1608-1615

BBIOLOGIC-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS Proximate Factors Biologic/Genetic Pathways Allostatic load, genetics, genetic ancestry, epigenetics

Individual Risk Behaviors Smoking, diet, disease self-management, medication adherence

Biologic/Responses Stress, hypertension, obesity, ↑cholesterol, hyperglycemia

Individual Demographics and Social Factors Age, socioeconomic status, education, race/ethnicity, acculturation, social support, language barriers

DISPARATE HEALTH OUTCOMES Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Complications

BBIOLOGIC-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS Intermediate Proximate Factors Factors Biologic/Genetic Pathways Allostatic load, genetics, genetic ancestry, epigenetics

Individual Risk Behaviors Smoking, diet, disease self-management, medication adherence

Physical Context Neighborhood stability, cleanliness, sidewalks, open space, parks, food availability

Biologic/Responses Stress, hypertension, obesity, ↑cholesterol, hyperglycemia

Individual Demographics and Social Factors Age, socioeconomic status, education, race/ethnicity, acculturation, social support, language barriers

Social Context Collective efficacy, social capital, social network, social cohesion, poverty, racial/ethnic integration, social/economic gradient Healthcare Context Access to care, quality of care, provider characteristics, patient-provider relationships, health literacy

DISPARATE HEALTH OUTCOMES Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Complications

BBIOLOGIC-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS Intermediate Proximate Factors Factors Distal Factors Biologic/Genetic Pathways Allostatic load, genetics, genetic ancestry, epigenetics

Individual Risk Behaviors Smoking, diet, disease self-management, medication adherence

Physical Context Neighborhood stability, cleanliness, sidewalks, open space, parks, food availability

Biologic/Responses Stress, hypertension, obesity, ↑cholesterol, hyperglycemia

Individual Demographics and Social Factors Age, socioeconomic status, education, race/ethnicity, acculturation, social support, language barriers

Social Context Collective efficacy, social capital, social network, social cohesion, poverty, racial/ethnic integration, social/economic gradient

Social Conditions and Policies Poverty, public policy, prejudice, culture, discrimination

Healthcare Context Access to care, quality of care, provider characteristics, patient-provider relationships, health literacy

DISPARATE HEALTH OUTCOMES Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Complications

Successful Interventions for Reducing Diabetes Health Disparities Level of intervention

Successful Components

Outcomes

Patient

Interpersonal connections rather than computer-based • Face-to-face • Social networks • Family/peer support groups • Community health worker Culturally tailored

Improved glycemic control and diabetes-related knowledge

Provider

In-person feedback rather than computerized decision-support

Change in provider behavior and improved diabetes outcomes

Successful Interventions for Reducing Diabetes Health Disparities Level of intervention

Successful Components

Outcomes

Microsystem/health care organization

Disease management • Identification of diabetes population (registries) • Practice guidelines • Health IT to track and monitor patients • Care management*

Improved diabetes outcomes

Community/health care system



Improved minority health care

• • • • •

Culturally tailored patient education and empowerment Community coalition building and advocacy Community health workers Provider audit and feedback Quality improvement Case management*

Reduced racial and ethnic disparities in care

*Care management: Patient education addressing adherence barriers, ancillary services (labs), transportation

Six cross-cutting themes of successful disparity interventions (RWJ Foundation) • Target multiple patient barriers rather than single solution • Culturally tailor interventions • Use multidisciplinary teams • Employ interactive, skills based patient training rather than passive learning approaches • Use patient navigators • Involve family and community Chin et al, J Gen Intern Med, 2012, In press

Take Home Pearls • Compared to NHWs, NHBs have worse outcomes and higher mortality from certain disorders despite having a lower or similar incidence – Coronary heart disease in diabetes

• Obesity is important contributor to diabetes risk in minority populations

Take Home Pearls • Implications of obesity definitions in different race/ethnic groups  ethnic specific cut-points for central adiposity should be determined to adequately assess metabolic risk • Little evidence that genetic differences contribute significantly to race/ethnic disparities in diabetes or its complications • Many current studies fail to specify HispanicAmerican and Asian-American subgroups

Take Home Pearls • Multi-level interventions have reduced disparities in diabetes care  design similar interventions for other endocrine disorders • Basic science, population-based, translational, and health services studies needed to explore underlying mechanisms contributing to endocrine health disparities – Increase representation of ethnic minorities in both clinical and research sectors of endocrinology and diabetes

Acknowledgements

Julie Ann Sosa

Tiffany L. Gary-Webb

Anne Sumner

Jane Cauley

Arleen Brown

Catherine Kim

Marshall H. Chin

Jose Florez, MD; James Meigs MD, MPH; Eric Vohr; Ivy Garner; Claire Twose

Blair Anton

Acknowledgements: The Endocrine Society Loretta Doan, PhD

Dr. Janet Hall

Dr. Robert Carey Dr. David Cooper

Acknowledgements: My Journey

Thank You! [email protected] http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johnshopkins-center-to-eliminate-cardiovascular-health-disparities/