Historical Thinking and Inquiry in the Social Studies Classroom

Historical Thinking and Inquiry in the Social Studies Classroom

Historical  Thinking  and  Inquiry   in  the  Social  Studies  Classroom for 5-12 Grades “Historical  knowledge  is  no  more  and  no  less  than  c...

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Historical  Thinking  and  Inquiry   in  the  Social  Studies  Classroom for 5-12 Grades

“Historical  knowledge  is  no  more  and  no  less  than  carefully  and  critically   constructed  collective  memory.  As  such  it  can  both  make  us  wiser  in  our   public  choices  and  more  richly  human  in  our  private  lives.”   —William  H.  McNeill,  Why  Study  History?  (1985)  

Participant  Handouts Professional  Development  

Arkansas Department of Education

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

1

Charlotte Danielson’s FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING DOMAIN 1: Planning and Preparation

DOMAIN 2: The Classroom Environment

1a Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy

2a Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport

• Content knowledge • Prerequisite relationships • Content pedagogy

1b Demonstrating Knowledge of Students

• Child development • Learning process • Special needs • Student skills, knowledge, and proficiency • Interests and cultural heritage

1c Setting Instructional Outcomes

• Value, sequence, and alignment • Clarity • Balance • Suitability for diverse learners

1d Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources

• For classroom • To extend content knowledge • For students

1e Designing Coherent Instruction

• Learning activities • Instructional materials and resources • Instructional groups • Lesson and unit structure

1f

Designing Student Assessments

• Teacher interaction with students • Student interaction with students

2b Establishing a Culture for Learning

• Importance of content • Expectations for learning and achievement • Student pride in work

2c Managing Classroom Procedures

• Instructional groups • Transitions • Materials and supplies • Non-instructional duties • Supervision of volunteers and paraprofessionals

2d Managing Student Behavior

• Expectations • Monitoring behavior • Response to misbehavior

2e Organizing Physical Space

• Safety and accessibility • Arrangement of furniture and resources

• Congruence with outcomes • Criteria and standards • Formative assessments • Use for planning

DOMAIN 4: Professional Responsibilities

DOMAIN 3: Instruction

4a Reflecting on Teaching

3a Communicating With Students

• Accuracy • Use in future teaching

4b Maintaining Accurate Records

• Student completion of assignments • Student progress in learning • Non-instructional records

4c Communicating with Families

• About instructional program • About individual students • Engagement of families in instructional program

4d Participating in a Professional Community

• Relationships with colleagues • Participation in school projects • Involvement in culture of professional inquiry • Service to school

4e Growing and Developing Professionally

• Enhancement of content knowledge and pedagogical skill • Receptivity to feedback from colleagues • Service to the profession

4f

Showing Professionalism

• Expectations for learning • Directions and procedures • Explanations of content • Use of oral and written language

3b Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques

• Quality of questions • Discussion techniques • Student participation

3c Engaging Students in Learning

• Activities and assignments • Student groups • Instructional materials and resources • Structure and pacing

3d Using Assessment in Instruction

• Assessment criteria • Monitoring of student learning • Feedback to students • Student self-assessment and monitoring

3e Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness

• Lesson adjustment • Response to students • Persistence

• Integrity/ethical conduct • Service to students • Advocacy • Decision-making • Compliance with school/district regulations Arkansas Department of Education

www.danielsongroup.org 2

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

History’s Habits of Mind

The National Council for History Education (NCHE) believes that historical thinking develops a unique capacity to comprehend human situations, challenges, and interactions. Thinking historically introduces students to the wonders of the past and fosters the ability to make judgments about the present. History’s Habits of Mind articulates this distinctive approach, one that leads towards engaging with and understanding the contemporary world and serves as a foundation for life-long, productive learning and active citizenship. History’s habits of mind empower and enable individuals to: • • • • • • • • • •

Grasp the significance of the past in shaping the present Perceive past events and issues as they might have been experienced by the people of the time, with historical empathy rather than present-mindedness Read critically, to discern differences between evidence and assertion and to frame useful and appropriate questions about the past Interrogate texts and artifacts, posing questions about the past that foster informed discussion, reasoned debate and evidence-based interpretation Recognize that history is an evolving narrative constructed from available sources, cogent inferences and changing interpretations Appreciate the diversity of cultures and variety of historical contexts, as well as to distinguish elements of our shared humanity Understand the impact made by individuals, groups and institutions at local, national and global levels both in effecting change and in ensuring continuity Realize that all individuals are decision makers, but that personal and public choices are often restricted by time, place and circumstance Negotiate a complex, often uncertain and ambiguous world, equipped with the appreciation for multiple perspectives Engage in patient reflection and constant reexamination of the past and present.

*cogent - convincing, powerful, effective

www.nche.net National Council for History Education Arkansas Department of Education

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

3

Fact Sheet College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework For Social Studies State Standards State Guidance to improve the rigor of instruction in Civics, Economics, Geography, and History “Knowledge about our system of government, our rights and responsibilities as citizens, is not passed down through the gene pool. Each generation must be taught and we have work to do!” Associate Justice Sandra Day O’Connor Co-Chair, Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools What is the College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework? The C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards is a powerful guide to help each state strengthen instruction in the social studies by establishing fewer, clearer, and higher standards for instruction in civics, economics, geography, and history, kindergarten through high school. The C3 Framework can also be used by teachers, school districts, and curriculum writers to strengthen their social studies programs to a) enhance the rigor of the individual disciplines, b) build critical thinking, problem solving, and participatory skills vital to engaged citizenship, and c) align academic programs to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies. Who developed the C3 Framework? Over twenty states and fifteen national social studies content organizations joined together in a voluntary effort to develop the C3 Framework for use by each state and school district in the nation. Over 3,000 social studies professionals, university scholars, as well as district and state administrators, reviewed and commented on the C3 Framework. A group of participating organizations funded the development of the Framework, with no taxpayer dollars. The National Council for the Social Studies (www.ncss.org) coordinated the publishing of the C3 Framework.

What are the Guiding Principles of the C3 Framework? The C3 Framework is driven by the following shared principles about high quality social studies education:

  

The social studies prepare the nation’s young people for success in college and career; as well as informed, engaged participation in civic life. Inquiry is at the heart of social studies instruction. The social studies involve interdisciplinary instruction and benefit from interaction with and integration of the arts and humanities.

Arkansas Department of Education

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

4

  

The social studies is composed of deep and enduring understandings, concepts, and skills from the disciplines. Social studies emphasize skills and practices that prepare students for informed and engaged participation in civic life. Social studies education has direct and explicit connections to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies. The C3 Framework informs the process by which states and school districts develop social studies standards.

What is the instructional emphasis of the C3 Framework? The C3 Framework emphasizes the acquisition and application of knowledge to prepare students for college, career, and civic life. It intentionally envisions social studies instruction as an inquiry arc of interlocking and mutually reinforcing elements that speak to the intersection of ideas and learners. The “Four Dimensions” of the C3 Framework center on the use of questions to spark curiosity, guide instruction, deepen investigations, acquire rigorous content, and apply knowledge and ideas in real world settings to become active and engaged citizens in the 21st century.

Is this part of the “Common Core State Standards” Initiative? No. The C3 Framework was developed over a three-year period by a voluntary collaborative of states and content organizations. While the C3 Framework makes important, explicit connections to the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, the Framework was developed independent of the Common Core State Standards Initiative. Why should states and school districts adopt and use the C3 Framework? K-12 Education is driven by State Standards of Learning. The many social studies state standards present an overloaded list of dates, places and names to memorize-- information students quickly forget. This practice, combined with assessment systems that emphasize math and English over other critical academic subjects, has lead to a marginalization of civics, economics, geography, and history; the result has been a drastic and harmful reduction of social studies instruction, instruction that provides the conceptual knowledge and skills that are critical for the future of our democracy. The C3 Framework will help states and districts provide students the tools and methods of clear, disciplined thinking that will enable them to traverse successfully the worlds of college, career, and civic life.

The C3 Framework is available free of charge at: www.socialstudies.org/C3

For More Information please contact: Susan Griffin, Executive Director, National Council for the Social Studies: [email protected], or Kathy Swan, C3 Lead Writer and Project Director: [email protected]

Arkansas Department of Education

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

5

Dimensions  of  the  Inquiry  Arc   Dimension  1  features  the  development  of  questions  and  the  planning  of   inquiries.  With  the  entire  scope  of  human  experience  as  its  backdrop,   the  content  of  social  studies  consists  of  a  rich  array  of  facts,  concepts,   and  generalizations.  The  way  to  tie  all  of  this  content  together  is  through   the  use  of  compelling  and  supporting  questions  (pp.  12-14). Dimension  2  Applying  Disciplinary  Concepts  and  Tools  provides  the   backbone  for  the  Inquiry  Arc.  The  foundational  concepts  in  Dimension  2   outline  the  scope  of  the  disciplinary  knowledge  and  tools  associated   with  civics,  economics,  geography,  and  history.  The  particulars  of   curriculum  and  instructional  content—such  as  how  a  bill  becomes  a  law   or  the  difference  between  a  map  and  a  globe—are  important  decisions   each  state  needs  to  make  in  the  development  of  local  social  studies   standards  (pp.  12-14). Dimension 3  Evaluating Sources and Using Evidence. A compelling question such as “Was the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s a success?” demands that students draw evidence from more than one or two sources. A wide range of perspectives is available in both primary and secondary form. Having students gather, evaluate, and use a rich subset of those sources offers them opportunities to identify claims and counterclaims and to support those claims with evidence. Making and supporting evidence---based claims and counterclaims is key to student capacity to construct explanations and arguments (pp. 12-14). Dimension 4 Communicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action includes a range of venues and a variety of forms (e.g., discussions, debates, policy analyses, video productions, and portfolios). Moreover, the manner in which students work to create their solutions can differ. Students need opportunities to work individually, with partners, in small groups, and within whole class settings. Readiness for college, career, and civic life is as much about the experiences students have as it is about learning any particular set of concepts or tools (pp. 12-14). Arkansas Department of Education

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

6

 Inquiry  Design  Model  (IDM)  Blueprint™   Compelling   Question   Standards  and   Practices   Staging  the   Question   Supporting  

Supporting  

Supporting  

Question  1  

Question  2  

Question  3  

Formative    

Formative    

Formative    

Performance  Task  

Performance  Task  

Performance  Task  

Featured  Sources  

Featured  Sources  

Featured  Sources  

Argument   Summative     Performance  Task   Extension  

Taking  Informed   Action  

Grant,  Lee,  and  Swan,  2014 Arkansas Department of Education

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

7

Inquiry Design Model (IDM)—At a Glance™ Compelling Question Standards and Practices Staging the Question

Compelling questions address issues found in and across the academic disciplines that make up social studies. Compelling questions reflect the interests of students and the curriculum and content with which students might have little experience. Example: Was the American Revolution revolutionary? The  key  standard  (1-­‐2)  that  is  the  foundation  for  the  inquiry.  Example:  Integrate  evidence  from   multiple  relevant  historical  sources  and  interpretations  into  a  reasoned  argument  about  the  past   (D2.His.16.9-­‐12).

Staging the question activities introduce students to the ideas behind the compelling question in order to generate curiosity in the topic. Example: Discuss the question of how much change must occur for something to be considered revolutionary.

Supporting Question 1

Supporting Question 2

Supporting Question 3

Supporting questions are intended to contribute knowledge and insights to the inquiry behind a compelling question. Supporting questions focus on descriptions, definitions, and processes about which there is general agreement within the social studies disciplines, which will assist students to construct explanations that advance the inquiry. Typically, there are 3-4 supporting questions that help to scaffold the compelling question. Example: What were the political changes that resulted from the American Revolution? Formative Performance Task

Formative Performance Task

Formative Performance Task

Formative Performance Tasks are activities designed to help students practice the skills and acquire the content needed to perform well on the summative task. These tasks are built around the supporting questions and are intended to grow in sophistication across the tasks. The performance tasks threaded throughout the inquiry provide teachers multiple opportunities to evaluate what students know and are able to do so that teachers have a steady loop of data to inform his/her instructional decision-making. Example: Write a paragraph that compares the political rights of white, black, and Native American men and women before and after the American Revolution. Featured Sources

Featured Sources

Featured Sources

Each Formative Performance Task should have 1-3 disciplinary sources to help students build their understandings of the compelling and supporting questions and to practice the work of historians and social scientists. To that end, sources can be used toward three distinct, but mutually reinforcing purposes: a) to generate students’ curiosity and interest in the topic, b) to build students’ content knowledge, and c) to help students construct and support their arguments related to a compelling question. Example: Abigail Adams letter to John Adams (1776).

Argument

Each inquiry ends with students constructing an argument (e.g., detailed outline, drawing, essay) that addresses the compelling question using specific claims and relevant evidence from sources while acknowledging competing views. Example: Construct a written argument that addresses the compelling question using specific claims and relevant evidence from historical sources while acknowledging competing views.

Extension

An extension activity offers an optional task that might be used in place of the Summative Performance Task. Example: Create a three-part chart detailing the social, economic, and political changes that may or may not have occurred as a result of the American Revolution.

Summative Performance Task

Taking Informed Action

The three activities described in this space represent a logic that asks students to a) understand the issues evident from the inquiry in a larger and/or current context, b) assess the relevance and impact of the issues, and c) act in ways that allow students to demonstrate agency in a real-world context. Example: Understand--Research a proposed tax in the United States. Assess--Examine the benefits and disadvantaged to the proposed tax. Act--Write a letter to the newspaper editor that outlines support or opposition to the proposed tax.

Arkansas Department of Education

Grant,  Lee,  and  Swan,  2014

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

8

 Inquiry  Design  Model  (IDM)™  Blueprint  CHECKLIST     • • • •

Compelling  Question  

Is  the  question  relevant  and  rigorous?    Intellectually  meaty  and  kid  friendly?   Is  the  question  closely  connected  to  the  standard  or  objective?   Will  the  question  allow  for  meaningful  exploration  of  an  idea?    (Remember:  Inquiries  are  smaller   than  a  Unit/Module;  bigger  than  a  lesson  plan)   Will  the  question  result  in  students  building  a  summative  argument?  (Remember:  a  compelling   question  can  be  answered  with  “yes”  or  “no”  but  elaborated  upon  by  the  student)

  Recommendation: One  of  the  most  valuable  exercises  in  drafting  compelling  questions  is  developing   argument  stems  once  you  have  landed  on  a  compelling  question.    This  process  helps  to:    1)  see  if  the   compelling  question  worked  (it  allows  students  to  form  an  argument)  and  2)  create  a  road  map  for  the   supporting  questions  (in  order  to  develop  the  content  and  skills  for  these  arguments,  you  need  to  cover  a,   b,  c,  d…..).     •

Standards  and  Practices  

Is  the  standard(s)  selected  clearly  connected  to  the  outcomes  of  the  formative  and  summative  tasks?       In  other  words,  as  you  look  across  the  tasks,  will  students  have  the  opportunity  to  wrestle  with  the   ideas  within  the  selected  standard(s)?  

Recommendation:    Choose  no  more  than  2  standards  or  objectives.    While  you  may  touch  on  more  than   that  in  a  thematically  oriented  inquiry,  select  the  objectives  that  are  most  directly  tied  to  the  inquiry.   • • •

Staging  the  Question  

Is  the  exercise  engaging?       Will  students  be  able  to  make  connection  between  exercise,  question,  and  inquiry?   Does  the  activity  allow  students  to  wrestle  with  an  intellectual  idea  embedded  within  the  question   (e.g.,  for  the  compelling  question:  Was  the  French  Revolution  successful?  Students  wrestle  the  idea   of  revolutions  today)?      

Recommendation:  Create  Staging  the  Compelling  Question  exercises  so  they  are  10-­‐30  minute   experiences  that  spark  students’  curiosity  and  allow  them  to  glimpse  or  wrestle  with  the  inquiry  ideas  that   will  unfold.  

Supporting  Question  1     •



• •

Supporting  Question  2    

Supporting  Question  3    

Do  the  supporting  questions  have  a  content  logic  or  sequence?       o Do  the  questions  help  to  posthole  the  content  of  the  inquiry?    For  example,  in  an  inquiry  about  the  French  Revolution,   the  questions  stage  over  10  years  beginning  move  chronologically  from  a)  pre-­‐revolution  b)  early  stages  with  deposing  of   King  c)  Reign  of  Terror  and  d)  rise  of  Napoleon.    Not  all  inquiries  will  move  this  way  but  a  clear  logic  is  present.   Do  the  supporting  questions  have  a  pedagogical  logic  or  sequence?   o Do  the  questions  sequence  in  such  a  way  that  moves  students  from  less  complexity  to  more  complexity?    For  example,  in   an  inquiry  about  the  French  Revolution,  the  questions  begin  with  “what”  and  move  to  “how”  and  then  to  “did”.   Do  the  supporting  questions  help  frame  an  explanation  or  claim  making  exercise?   Will  students  who  have  answered  the  supporting  questions  be  set  up  to  answer  the  compelling  question?    Are  there  any  major   holes  in  the  content  that  they  will  need?  

Recommendation:    Two  types  of  logic  play  out  when  designing  inquires  –  a  content  logic  and  a  pedagogical  logic.  We  sometimes  talk   about  that  logic  using  the  construction  metaphor  of  plum  lines.  There  should  be  a  logical  progression  (a  plum  line)  that  stretches  across   the  supporting  questions,  formative  tasks,  and  sources  representing  a  pedagogical  logic  and  a  content  logic.  Before  designing  tasks  or   supporting  questions,  outline  a  “good”  argument  to  the  compelling  question.    Use  this  as  the  criteria/direction  for  building  supporting   questions  and  tasks.  As  you  build  you  content  logic  within  supporting  questions,  sequence  them  in  such  a  way  that  they  build   collectively  toward  a  cohesive  understanding  of  the  inquiry  topic  and  provide  students  the  key  content  ideas  that  they  will  need  to  build   a  strong  summative  argument.    

Grant,  Lee,  and  Swan,  2014 Arkansas Department of Education

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies

9

Formative  Performance  Task  1   • • • •

Formative  Performance  Task  2  

Formative  Performance  Task  3  

Do  the  formative  performance  tasks  clearly  connect  to  the  supporting  questions?     By  assessing  these  tasks,  will  you  feel  comfortable  that  students  understand  the  answer  to  the  supporting  question?     Is  there  a  pedagogical  logic  to  the  tasks?    Do  they  stage  both  content  and  skill  experiences  in  a  way  that  prepare  students  for  the   summative  argument?   Do  the  formative  performance  tasks  vary  by  type  and  outcome?    For  example,  students  should  be  able  to  express  themselves  in  a   variety  of  ways—written,  oral,  and  graphical  forms.    Do  the  tasks  set  them  up  to  engage  with  the  material  creatively  and  in   different  ways  (e.g.,  creating  a  t-­‐chart,  writing  a  paragraph,  debating/discussing  an  idea,  researching  sources,  developing  a  claim)?  

Recommendation:  Pedagogic  logic  means  thinking  about  the  best  tasks  to  answer  the  supporting  questions  as  well  as  thinking  about   how  those  tasks  build  on  skills  that  help  students  create  an  argument.    For  example,  if  students  need  to  make  an  argument  about  the   success  of  the  French  Revolution—they  will  need  to  know  on  what  the  French  people  wanted  from  the  revolution  as  well  as  the   revolutionary  outcomes.    If  students  are  going  to  write  an  evidence  based  argument,  they  will  need  experiences  working  with  historic   sources,  pulling  information  from  the  sources,  and  making  claims  with  evidence  from  the  sources.      

Featured  Sources   • • •

Featured  Sources  

Featured  Sources  

Do  the  selected  sources  help  students  a)  generate  curiosity  about  the  supporting  question;  b)  build  background  knowledge  to   answer  supporting  question  or  c)  construct  claims  with  evidence?   Are  the  sources  grade  appropriate  or  are  they  modified  or  adapted  to  meet  the  needs  of  each  learner?   Do  they  sources  vary  in  type?    Students  should  engage  with  the  vast  scope  of  disciplinary  sources  in  the  social  studies,  including   maps,  journals,  images,  charts,  secondary  interpretations,  etc.      

Recommendation:    Less  in  more  with  sources.    While  we  want  students  to  read  a  variety  of  sources  types,  one  “deep  dive”  into  a  rich   and  engaging  source  may  be  better  than  a  deluge  of  sources  that  students  neither  have  the  time  nor  capacity  to  make  sense  of.    For   each  supporting  question,  try  focusing  your  efforts  on  1-­‐3  sources.       • •

Argument  



Summative     •

Performance  Task    



Extension     •

Taking  Informed  Action   • •





Are  students  answering  the  compelling  question  in  the  form  of  an   argument?   Have  you  chosen  a  format  for  the  argument  (written,  oral,  or   multi-­‐modal)  that  is  best  suited  for  your  students?   Have  students  had  an  opportunity  to  practice  elements  of   argument  construction  within  the  inquiry?   Have  you  included  your  expectations/criteria  for  what  a  solid   argument  looks  like  for  your  students?       Does  the  extension  exercise  help  students  to  elaborate  their   ideas  about  the  compelling  question?   Does  the  extension  allow  for  creative  expression  of  the   summative  argument?    

Does  the  Taking  Informed  Action  include  all  three  steps  including:   o understanding  a  problem/issue  related  to  the  inquiry?   o assessing  options  for  action  including  considering  alternative  perspectives,  scenarios,   or  options?   o Acting  on  an  issue  or  a  problem  related  to  inquiry?       Does  the  Taking  Informed  Action  opportunity  directly  relate  to  the  inquiry?   Does  the  Taking  Informed  Action  allow  for  divergence  of  political  thought  or  ideology?   Does  the  Taking  Informed  Action  experience  pair  well  with  overall  curriculum  and  your   comfort  level  as  a  teacher?  

 

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Inquiry Design Model (IDM) Blueprint™ Compelling Question ADE Curriculum Framework Alignment

Was the Dust Bowl a perfect storm? Era7.2.USH.1 Analyze the relationship between industrialization and immigration/migration in the United States Era.7.2.USH.6 Construct historical arguments and explanations about the long-term impact of social, economic, political, and cultural changes that occurred during the 1920s utilizing evidence from a variety of primary and secondary sources

C3 Framework Alignment

D.1.5.9-12; D.3.1.9-12, D.3.3.9-12, D.4.1.9-12; D.4.2.9-12

What is a perfect storm? Have students brainstorm a definition and create a visual representation of their idea of a perfect storm (e.g., cartoon or illustration). Definition: perfect storm - rare combination of events or circumstances that aggravate a situation drastically resulting in an event of unusual magnitude. Consider the power of photographs and music for entering into an ongoing historical conversation on the story of the Dust Bowl and who or what is responsible. Play the Woody Guthrie song “So Long It’s Been Good to Know You;” have students share images and ideas created while listening to the song. Photographs: http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/nws/dust1.html National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) site with many pictures

Staging the Question

Teacher Note: This is a good time to teach students how to analyze primary sources, specifically photographs, if these skills have not been previously taught. The Library of Congress (LOC) has some excellent worksheets for analyzing primary sources. For LOC worksheets look under education at https://www.loc.gov/education/ and click on teacher resources. There is also an online tool for completing analysis worksheets. The teachers guides and analysis tool for students can be directly accessed at http://www.loc.gov/teachers/usingprimarysources/guides.html. The National Archives also has document analysis worksheets under Special Topics and Tools at http://www.archives.gov/education/special-topics.html. The photograph analysis can be directly accessed at http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/photo_analysis_worksheet.pdf.

Supporting Question 1 Are there discrepancies in the historical account(s) of the Dust Bowl? If so, why?

Supporting Question 2 Did farming practices contribute to the Dust Bowl?

Supporting Question 3

Supporting Question 4

Did geography and climate play a role in the Dust Bowl? If so, what role?

How were people (e.g., farmers, doctors, merchants,

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children, mothers) affected by the Dust Bowl?

Teacher Note: The featured sources for this supporting question lend themselves well to teaching the historical thinking and disciplinary literacy skills historical corroboration and sourcing. The formative assessment requires students to corroborate evidence from multiple sources.

Teacher Note: Students will need to look at soil erosion, farming techniques from sod busting to mechanization, and the results of farming methods. This supporting question lends itself well to teaching the disciplinary literacy skills involved with analyzing a variety of text types. Students should ask Who wrote this, took this photo, created this map? What is the author’s perspective? Why was it written, taken, created? When? Where? Is this source reliable? Library of Congress and National Archives have some excellent worksheets and resources for teaching students to analyze maps, photographs, pictures, text.

Teacher Note: Students are corroborating, sourcing, and analyzing a variety of texts and summarizing their findings in a visual format.

Formative Performance Task

Formative Performance Task

Formative Performance Task

Formative Performance Task

Students will ● read the textbook chapter/section on the Dust Bowl and another two or three texts providing background information on the Dust Bowl. ● create an infographic or Venn Diagram showing the similarities and differences between the accounts. ● write a draft inferring why there are

Students will create a visual graphic comparing farming methods from the mid-1800s to the mid-1930s. Be sure to include different ● types of farming and crops (wheat, corn, cattle…), ● types of equipment used (braking plow, mules, tractor, irrigation…), ● results or effects (more product, higher prices, fewer workers,

Students will ● create a visual graphic to show/illustrate/explai n the relationship(s) between farming practices, geography, and the environment/climate ● share with the class.

Students will ● work in collaborative groups to research how the daily lives of people were affected by the Dust Bowl. ● share the findings with the class (poster project, report, ppt. or other presentation. ● write a letter from the viewpoint of a community member

Teacher Note: This supporting question lends itself well to teaching the historical thinking and disciplinary literacy skills involved with corroboration, contextualization, sourcing, and close reading of a variety of sources. (look at the historical thinking chart for guidance on what types of questions students should be asking as they read the sources, what students should be able to do, and prompts to assist student learning of these skills).

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discrepancies among all of the historical accounts read; address the following questions What do other texts say? Do the texts agree? If not, why? What are other possible texts? What texts are most reliable?

more land in production, fewer trees, more water consumption…).

(e.g., a farmer, merchant, Dr., homemaker) during the Dust Bowl. The letter should describe daily life during the Dust Bowl.

Students will then summarize the information on their visual graphic sharing with the class.

For example, a homemaker would describe cooking, cleaning, washing clothes… ; a Dr. would describe the types of illnesses they are treating, how they are treating patients, keeping office sterile… ; a farmer would describe feeding animals, tending to crops, working on farm machinery … ; and how these activities and daily life have changed since the dust storms.

Pre-writing - use a graphic organizer to plan an argumentative essay stating whether or not farming practices contributed to the Dust Bowl and which practices contributed the most. Make sure to cite evidence on the organizer.

Featured Sources

Featured Sources

Featured Sources

Featured Sources

Teacher Note: Teacher select 2 or 3 sources or excerpts under each Supporting Question for students to read. It is not necessary that each student read all of the featured sources listed. http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/ dustbowl/about/overview/ Ken Burns PBS overview and pictures will be used with slide 31 in PPT. http://www.history.com/topics /dust-bowl will be used with slides 30 and 31 in PPT. http://www.trinity.edu/jdunn/d ustbowl.htm http://jaysonlusk.com/blog/201

http://www.intimeandplace.o rg/Dust%20Bowl/activities/co nclusions.html http://www.ldeo.columbia.ed u/res/div/ocp/drought/dust_ storms.shtml http://www.livinghistoryfarm .org/farminginthe30s/water_ 01.html This site should open on “Farm Life”; there are other tabs at the top of this site for

http://www.eoearth.org/view /article/151818/ Encyclopedia of Earth “Dust Bowl”. Read the following sections: Geographic characteristics, Agricultural and settlement history, Drought, Misuse of land. http://www.nasa.gov/centers /goddard/news/topstory/200 4/0319dustbowl.html

http://www.theatlantic.com /magazine/archive/1936/05/ letters-from-the-dustbowl/308897/ Henderson letter - will be used with slide 32 in PPT. Letter to Mrs. Roosevelt. November 1937. From EDSITEment. http://newdeal.feri.org/elea nor/fm1137.htm

http://www1.american.edu/t

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4/1/6/dealing-with-drought 2014 - blog about a book on the Dust Bowl written in 2006. http://www.wtamu.edu/library /govt/dustbowl.shtml Website about Dust Bowl.

“Crops”, “Machines”... There are also tabs at the left for further topic breakdown in each category under Farming in the 1930s. http://drought.unl.edu/Droug htBasics/DustBowl/RainFollo wsthePlow.aspx National Drought Mitigation Center “Rain Follows the Plow?” http://loc.gov/pictures/item/ 2002723443 Map of CA by the Rural Rehabilitation Division showing areas where different crops are grown, proposed location of initial camps for migrants, and routes of migration. 1935. From Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog.

ed/ICE/dust-bowl.html#r2 http://www.srh.noaa.gov/im ages/oun/wxevents/1935041 4/mwr-193506.pdf http://hoovervillehistory.trip od.com/id5.html includes a map with marginal cropland, wind erosion, and states losing population. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/p aleo/drought/drght_history.h tml Dust Bowl Drought read the first 3 paragraphs http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/ $department/deptdocs.nsf/all /agdex3524?opendocument Wind erosion http://newdeal.feri.org/hopki ns/hop27.htm Report of the Great Plains Area Drought Committee

http://www.livinghistoryfar m.org/farminginthe30s/wat er_02.html - audio and transcripts, primary sources, recounting aspects of daily life during the Dust Bowl. https://www.loc.gov/resour ce/afc1985001.afc1985001_s t045/?sp=1 Hunter, Lester. “I’d Rather Not be on Relief” 1938. (Song lyrics) From Library of Congress, Voices from the Dust Bowl: the Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin Migrant Collection, 1940 – 1941. https://www.loc.gov/collecti on/todd-and-sonkinmigrant-workers-from-1940to-1941/about-thiscollection/. The migrant experience link is https://www.loc.gov/collecti ons/todd-and-sonkinmigrant-workers-from-1940to-1941/articles-andessays/the-migrantexperience/. http://www.csub.edu/librar y/SpecialCollection/Dustbow l/index.html CSU Bakersfield California Odyssey: Dust Bowl Migration Archives contains Articles, interviews, photos. http://drought.unl.edu/Drou ghtBasics/DustBowl/Copinga ndRecovering.aspx National

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Drought Mitigation Center “Coping and Recovering”

Argument

Summative Performance Task Extension

Students will write a historical argument in response to the compelling question, “Was the Dust Bowl a perfect storm?” Use evidence from the featured sources read and formative performance tasks to support claims and counterclaims. Has the United States instituted enough changes in environmental policies and farming methods and practices to prevent another dust bowl? Based on what has been learned in this inquiry and any additional reading(s) make an inference whether another dust bowl is possible. Create a chart comparing current conditions and those of the past including climate, erosion, farming, and land use. Share the final product with the class. (Could place in hallways at school for others to see). http://www.weather.com/news/news/dust-bowl-20120718#/2 Research the effects of World War I on farming in Europe and the U.S., including crop and land prices. Research government regulations on farming in the early 1900s to mid 1930s. Write an informational essay in which you discuss the effects of WWI on farming in the U.S. and how this may have contributed to the Dust Bowl.

Examine recent news stories, articles, and photographs on the drought and fires, farming practices, and dust clouds in the western U.S. and compare this with what has already been learned about the Dust Bowl. Create a visual representation or graphic comparing today’s situation with the Dust Bowl, then brainstorm and suggest possible solutions.

Taking Informed Action

Dust Bowl V. Drought of 2012: How does the current drought stack up? Two maps comparing 1930 and 2012 and an article are available on https://www2.ucar.edu/atmosnews/perspective/8349/dust-bowl-vdrought-2012 This site links the Dust Bowl to 2013 data and information. http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2013/02/23/1629081/dust-bowl-days-historic-us-drought-projected-topersist-for-months-worsened-by-thin-western-snowpack/

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A Few of the Lenses of the Social Studies from North Carolina Department of Public Instruction In general, “Social Scientists use multiple perspectives and questioning habits of mind to think and take action on their decisions through inquiry, dialogue, activism, and their daily decisions about how to live so that they help make a better world.” (The Social Studies, May/June 2003; p.102) History A historian studies the past, change over time and is concerned with the continuous, systematic narrative and research of previous events. Historical literacy requires engagement in five interconnected dimensions of historical thinking: 1. Chronological Thinking - refers to the way that historians make sense of events by placing them in their order of occurrence in time. 2. Historical Comprehension - takes into account what the narrative reveals of the humanity of the individuals and groups involved: their motives and intentions, their values and ideas, their hopes, fears, doubts, strengths, and weaknesses. 3. Historical Analysis and Interpretation - involves individuals engaging in investigation and dissecting of competing ideas, facts, and purported facts to create coherent narratives to explain a phenomenon 4. Historical Research Capabilities - individuals contextualize knowledge of the historical period: filling in the gaps, evaluating the records they have available, and imaginatively constructing a sound historical argument or narrative requiring a larger context of meaning. 5. Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making - involves issue-centered analysis and decisionmaking at the center of historical dilemmas and problems faced at critical moments in the past and contemporary and current times. Types of questions Historians ask: • Whose knowledge is this? • Where did this knowledge base come from? • Whom might this knowledge (or perspective) benefit? • What perspectives are missing? • What voices are silenced? Geography Geographers concentrate on the "where". This is the "Spatial Perspective" that is peculiar to the study of geography. History and Geography are quite similar. When historians study a topic they focus on the WHEN. Hence you can have subjects like the history of war, the history of sports, the history of comic books, etc. Geographers can study these same issues, and virtually anything else, but the geographer's perspective is SPATIAL, rather than TEMPORAL like the historians. Hence there can also be the geography of war, the geography of sports, and the geography of comic books. What geographers add to such topics is the spatial perspective. Geographers try to answer three questions: •Where? •Why there? •Why do we care? Arkansas Department of Education

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from North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Culture The study of culture examines the beliefs, values, behaviors, traditions, and ways of life of a group within society. It also encompasses other cultural attributes, such as language, literature, music, arts and artifacts, and food. A literate reader knows the object-language's alphabet, grammar, and a sufficient set of vocabulary; a culturally literate person knows a given culture's signs and symbols, including its language, particular dialectic, stories, entertainment, idioms, idiosyncrasies, and so on. The culturally literate person is able to talk to and understand others of that culture with fluency, while the culturally illiterate person fails to understand culturally-conditioned allusions, references to past events, idiomatic expressions, jokes, names, places, etc. A cultural anthropologist asks: • What role does culture play in human and societal development? • What are common characteristics across cultures? • How does culture change and accommodate various belief systems and ideas?

Government/Civics Political literacy refers to the skills of inquiry needed to understand the ways in which power operates in democratic and autocratic social contexts. It involves having the competencies needed in order to participate effectively and meaningfully in government. It includes an understanding of how government works and the many complex political issues facing society, as well as the critical thinking skills to evaluate different points of view. Political scientists study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. They research political ideas and analyze the structure and operation of governments, policies, political trends, and related issues. Some questions of focus for political literacy are: • • • • •

How do policies impact society? What effect does it have on a discussion when each person has an equal voice? Even when you work to give everyone an equal voice, what happens? What does authority mean? Who has authority and why? How is this different from responsibility? What interests are being served by those in power?

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from North Carolina Department of Public Instruction

Economics Economic literacy is defined as the competence in identifying and evaluating economic concepts as it relates to personal finance, the economy, and political systems. “Economic literacy is crucial because it is a measure of whether people understand the forces that significantly affect the quality of their lives.” - former president of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve. An economist is concerned with how limited resources, goods, and services are produced and distributed. Literacy for the economist is extremely loaded with the analysis of data and variables interpreted in charts, tables, graphs, etc. to help forecast outcomes and solve problems. Some questions an economist might ask include: • What economic choices will lead to a society with increased prosperity? • Which variables are independent and dependent? • How did the nation regain economic momentum? • How does the data support trends, patterns or forecast warnings for the economy, society, etc.?

Psychology Psychological literacy is the adaptive application of psychological science used to meet personal and societal needs. Psychological literacy requires the possession of a well-defined and expansive disciplinary vocabulary in the area of psychology. A psychological literate person is a critical thinker able to competently participate in and command meaning of intellectual exchanges dealing with questions or problems linked with behavior. The psychologically literate person is an affable questioner who is insightful and reflective about their own and others' actions. Psychologically literate people use what they know about psychology to solve home-based, local, civic, and even national matters by looking to data instead of personal opinion. Psychologists’ questions are specific to the area of psychology and the situation being addressed. However, some general questions a psychologist might ask include: • • • •

What are the norms of a particular social group or society? What information does the data provide about a situation? What behavioral model or research perspective was used? What mental processes are explained by the external environment?

from North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Arkansas Department of Education

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Looking Through The Lenses Of Social Studies from North Carolina Department of Public Instruction

Historical Literacy addresses both learning historical content and being able to make sense of that knowledge through reason and interpretation. (National Center for History in the Schools) A historian studies the past, change over time and is concerned with the continuous, systematic narrative and research of previous events. Historical literacy requires engagement in five interconnected dimensions of historical thinking. Types of questions Historians ask: • Whose knowledge is this? • Where did this knowledge base come from? • Whom might this knowledge (or perspective) benefit? • What perspectives are missing? • What voices are silenced? Arkansas Department of Education

DRAFT DOCUMENT

History and Geography are quite similar. When historians study a topic they focus on the WHEN. Hence you can have subjects like the: history of war, the history of sports, the history of comic books, etc. Geographers can study these same issues, and virtually anything else, but the geographer's perspective is SPATIAL, rather than TEMPORAL like the historians. Geographers concentrate on the "where". This is the "Spatial Perspective" that is peculiar to the study of geography. Geographers try to answer three questions:  Where?  Why there?  Why do we care? http://ssnces.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/file/view/A+Few+Lenses+of+Social Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies 19 +Studies.pdf

http://ssnces.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/file/view/A+Few+Lenses+of+Social+Studies.pdf

The study of culture examines the beliefs, values, behaviors, traditions, and ways of life of a group within society. It also encompasses other cultural attributes, such as language, literature, music, arts and artifacts, and food. A culturally literate person knows a given culture's signs and symbols, including its language, particular dialectic, stories, entertainment, idioms, idiosyncrasies, etc. The culturally literate person is able to talk to and understand others of a culture with fluency, while the culturally illiterate person fails to understand culturally-conditioned allusions, references to past events, idiomatic expressions, jokes, names, places, etc. A cultural anthropologist asks: • What role does culture play in human and societal development? • What are common characteristics across cultures? • How does culture change and accommodate various belief systems and ideas? Arkansas Department of Education

DRAFT DOCUMENT

Political literacy refers to the skills of inquiry needed to understand the ways in which power operates in democratic and autocratic social contexts. It involves having the competencies needed in order to participate effectively and meaningfully in government. It includes an understanding of how government works and the many complex political issues facing society, as well as the critical thinking skills to evaluate different points of view. Political scientists study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. They research political ideas and analyze the structure and operation of governments, policies, political trends, and related issues Some questions of focus for political literacy are: • How do policies impact society? • What effect does it have on a discussion when each person has an equal voice? • Even when you work to give everyone an equal voice, what happens? • What does authority mean? Who has authority and why? How is this different from responsibility? in History/Social 20 • What interestsDisciplinary are beingLiteracy served by thoseStudies in power?

http://ssnces.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/file/view/A+Few+Lenses+of+Social+Studies.pdf

An economist is concerned with how societies, governments, business and people choose to use and allocate resources and are concerned with how economic issues and forces affect outcomes. Economic literacy is defined as the competence in identifying and evaluating economic concepts as it relates to personal finance, the economy, and political systems. “Economic literacy is crucial because it is a measure of whether people understand the forces that significantly affect the quality of their lives.” - former president of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve . Some questions an economist might ask include: • What economic choices will lead to a society with increased prosperity? • Which variables are independent and dependent? • How did the nation regain economic momentum? • How does the data support trends, patterns or forecast warnings for the economy, society, etc.? Arkansas Department of Education

DRAFT DOCUMENT

The psychologist work to understand and improve the functioning of human beings.

Psychological literacy is the adaptive application of psychological science used to meet personal and societal needs. Psychological literacy required the possession of a well-defined and expansive disciplinary vocabulary in the area of psychology. A psychological literate person is a critical thinker able to competently participate in and command meaning of intellectual exchanges dealing with questions or problems linked with behavior. The psychologically literate person is an affable questioner who is insightful and reflective about their own and others' actions. Psychologically literate people use what they know about psychology to solve00 home-based, local, civic, and even national matters by looking to data instead of personal opinion. Psychologists’ questions are specific to the area of psychology and situation being addressed. However, some general questions a psychologist might ask include: • What are the norms of a particular social group or society? • What information does the data provide about a situation? • What behavioral model or research perspective was used? • What mental processes are explained by the external environment? Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies 21

     

Source:     “Did  dust  storms  make  the   Dust  Bowl  drought  worse?”  

 

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HISTORICAL THINKING CHART Historical Reading Skills Sourcing

Contextualization

Corroboration

Close Reading

Questions • • • • • •

Who wrote this? What is the author’s perspective? When was it written? Where was it written? Why was it written? Is it reliable? Why? Why not?

Students should be able to . . . • Identify the author’s position on the historical event • Identify and evaluate the author’s purpose in producing the document • Hypothesize what the author will say before reading the document • Evaluate the source’s trustworthiness by considering genre, audience, and purpose

Prompts • The author probably believes . . . • I think the audience is . . . • Based on the source information, I think the author might . . . • I do/don’t trust this document because . . .

• When and where was the document • Understand how context/ • Based on the background created? background information influences information, I understand this • What was different then? What was the content of the document document differently the same? • Recognize that documents are because . . . • How might the circumstances in products of particular points in • The author might have which the document was created time been influenced by _____ affect its content? (historical context) . . . • This document might not give me the whole picture because . . . • What do other documents say? • Do the documents agree? If not, why? • What are other possible documents? • What documents are most reliable?

• Establish what is probable by comparing documents to each other • Recognize disparities between accounts

• What claims does the author make? • Identify the author’s claims about • What evidence does the author use? an event • What language (words, phrases, • Evaluate the evidence and images, symbols) does the author reasoning the author uses to use to persuade the document’s support claims audience? • Evaluate author’s word choice; • How does the document’s language understand that language is used indicate the author’s perspective? deliberately

 Arkansas Department of Education STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP

• The author agrees/disagrees with . . . • These documents all agree/ disagree about . . . • Another document to consider might be . . . • I think the author chose these words in order to . . . • The author is trying to convince me . . . • The author claims . . . • The evidence used to support the author’s claims is . . .

Disciplinary Literacy in History/Social Studies 23 SHEG.STANFORD.EDU

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Letters From the Dust Bowl When drought struck Oklahoma in the 1930s, the author and her husband stayed behind to protect their 28-year-old farm. Her letters to a friend paint a picture of dire poverty, desiccated soil, and long days with no sunshine. CAROLINE A. HENDERSON

|

MAY 1936 ISSUE

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U.S.

Editor’s Note: For 28 years, Mrs. Caroline A. Henderson and her husband have been farming in Oklahoma. For the past five years, her household has been one of many that have fought as best they might the devastating effects, first of the unprecedented drought, and then of the resulting dust storms. Her letters, written to a friend in Maryland, open a vivid and pathetic chapter of American agriculture.] EVA, Okalhoma June 30, 1935 DEAR EVELYN: — Your continued interest in our effort to 'tie a knot in the end of the rope and hang on' is most stimulating. Our recent transition from rain-soaked eastern Kansas with its green pastures, luxuriant foliage, abundance of flowers, and promise of a generous harvest, to the dust-covered desolation of No Man's Land was a difficult change to crowd into one short day's travel. Eleanor has laid aside the medical books for a time. Wearing our shade hats, with handkerchiefs tied over our faces and Vaseline in our nostrils, we have been trying to rescue our home Arkansas Department of Education

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from the accumulations of wind-blown dust which penetrates wherever air can go. It is an almost hopeless task, for there is rarely a day when at some time the dust clouds do not roll over. 'Visibility' approaches zero and everything is covered again with a silt-like deposit which may vary in depth from a film to actual ripples on the kitchen floor. I keep oiled cloths on the window sills and between the upper and lower sashes. They help just a little to retard or collect the dust. Some seal the windows with the gummed-paper strips used in wrapping parcels, but no method is fully effective. We buy what appears to be red cedar sawdust with oil added to use in sweeping our floors, and do our best to avoid inhaling the irritating dust. In telling you of these conditions I realize that I expose myself to charges of disloyalty to this western region. A good Kansas friend suggests that we should imitate the Californian attitude toward earthquakes and keep to ourselves what we know about dust storms. Since the very limited rains of May in this section gave some slight ground for renewed hope, optimism has been the approved policy. Printed articles or statements by journalists, railroad officials, and secretaries of small-town Chambers of Commerce have heralded too enthusiastically the return of prosperity to the drouth region. And in our part of the country that is the one durable basis for any prosperity whatever. There is nothing else to build upon. But you wished to know the truth, so I am telling you the actual situation, though I freely admit that the facts are themselves often contradictory and confusing. Early in May, with no more grass or even weeds on our 640 acres than on your kitchen floor, and even the scanty remnants of dried grasses from last year cut off and blown away, we decided, like most of our neighbors, to ship our cattle to grass in the central part of the state. We sent 27 head, retaining here the heifers coming fresh this spring. The shipping charge on our part of the carload was $46. Pasture costs us $7.00 for a cow and calf for the season and $5.00 for a yearling. Whether this venture brings profit or loss depends on whether the cattle make Arkansas Department of Education

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satisfactory gains during the summer and whether prices remain reasonable or fall back to the level that most people would desire. We farmers here in the United States might as well recognize that we are a minority group, and that the prevailing interest of the nation as a whole is no longer agricultural. Hay for the horses and the heifers remaining here cost us $3 per ton, brought by truck from eastern Oklahoma. The day after we shipped the cattle, the long drouth was temporarily broken by the first effective moisture in many months —about one and one-quarter inches in two or three gentle rains. All hope of a wheat crop had been abandoned by March or April. Contrary to many published reports, a good many people had left this country either temporarily or permanently before any rains came. And they were not merely 'drifters,' as is frequently alleged. In May a friend in the southwestern county of Kansas voluntarily sent me a list of the people who had already left their immediate neighborhood or were packed up and ready to go. The list included 109 persons in 26 families, substantial people, most of whom had been in that locality over ten years, and some as long as forty years. In these families there had been two deaths from dust pneumonia. Others in the neighborhood were ill at that time. Fewer actual residents have left our neighborhood, but on a sixty mile trip yesterday to procure tract repairs we saw many pitiful reminder of broken hopes and apparently wasted effort. Little abandoned homes where people had drilled deep wells for the precious water, had set trees and vines built reservoirs, and fenced in gardens —with everything now walled in half buried by banks of drifted soil, told a painful story of loss and disappointment. I grieved especially over one lonely plum thicket buried to the tips of the twigs, and a garden with fence closely built of boards for wit protection, now enclosing only a hillock of dust covered with the blue-flower bull nettles which no winds or sands discourage.

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It might give you some notion of our great 'open spaces' if I tell you that on the sixty-mile trip, going by a state road over which our mail comes from the railroad, and coming back by Federal highway, we encountered on one car, and no other vehicles of an sort. And this was on Saturday, the farmers' marketing day! The coming of the long-desired rain gave impetus to the Federal projects for erosion control. Plans were quickly made, submitted to groups of farmers in district gatherings, and put in operation without delay. The proposition was that, in order to encourage the immediate listing abandoned wheat ground and other acreage so as to cut down wind erosion the Federal Government would contribute ten cents per acre toward the expense of fuel and oil for tractors feed for horses, if the farmers would agree to list not less than one fourth the acreage on contour lines. Surveys were made promptly for all farmers signing contracts for either contour listing or terracing. The latest report states that within the few weeks since the programme was begun in our county 99,986 acres have beenughed or listed on these contour lines —that is, according to the lay of the land instead of on straight lines with right-angled turns as has been the usual custom. The plan has been proposed and carried through here as a matter of public policy for the welfare of all without reproach or humiliation to anyone. It should be remembered that 1935 is the fourth successive year of drouth and crop failure through a great part of the high plains region, and the hopelessly low prices for the crop of 1931 gave no chance to build up reserves for future needs. If the severe critics of all who in any way join in government plans for the saving of homes and the restoration of farms to a productive basis could only understand how vital a human problem is here considered, possibly their censures might be less bitter and scornful. At any rate the contour listing has been done over extensive areas. If rains come Arkansas Department of Education

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to carry forward the feed crops now just struggling up in the furrows, the value of the work can be appraised. The primary intention of the plan for contour listing is to distribute rainfall evenly over the fields and prevent its running off to one end of the field or down the road to some creek or drainage basin. It is hoped that the plan will indirectly tend to lessen wind erosion by promoting the growth of feed crops, restoration of humus to denuded surfaces, and some protection through standing stubbles and the natural coverage of weeds and unavoidable wastes. One great contributing cause of the terrible dust storms of the last two years has been the pitiful bareness of the fields resulting from the long drouth. I am not wise enough to forecast the result. We have had two most welcome rains in June —three quarters of an inch and one-half inch. Normally these should have been of the utmost benefit, though they by no means guarantee an abundant feed crop from our now sprouting seeds as many editorial writers have decreed, and they do nothing toward restoring subsoil moisture. Actually the helpful effects of the rains have been for us and for other people largely destroyed by the drifting soil from abandoned, unworked lands around us. It fills the air and our eyes and noses and throats, and, worst of all, our furrows, where tender shoots are coming to the surface only to be buried by the smothering silt from the fields of rugged individualists who persist in their right to do nothing. A fairly promising piece of barley has been destroyed for us by the mere' less drift from the same field whose sands have practically buried the little mulberry hedge which has long sheltered our buildings from the north west winds. Large spaces in our pastures are entirely bare in spite of the rains. Most of the green color, where there is any grazing, is due to the pestilent Russian thistles rather than to grass. Our little locust grove which we cherished for so many years has become a small pile of fence posts. With trees and vines and flowers all around you, you can't imagine how I miss that little green shaded spot in the midst of the desert glare.

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Naturally you will wonder why we stay where conditions are so extremely disheartening. Why not pick up and leave as so many others have done? It is a fair question, but a hard one to answer. Recently I talked with a young university graduate of very superior attainments. He took the ground that in such a ease sentiment could and should be disregarded. He may be right. Yet I cannot act or feel or think as if the experiences of our twenty-seven years of life together had never been. And they are all bound up with the little corner to which we have given our continued and united efforts. To leave voluntarily to break all these closely knit ties for the sake of a possibly greater comfort elsewhere —seems like defaulting on our task. We may have to leave. We can't hold out indefinitely without some return from the land, some source of income, however small. But I think I can never go willingly or without pain that as yet seems unendurable. There are also practical considerations that serve to hold us here, for the present. Our soil is excellent. We need only a little rain —less than in most places—to make it productive. No one who remembers the wheat crops of 1926, 1929, 1931, can possibly regard this as permanently submarginal land. The newer methods of farming suggest possibilities of better control of moisture in the future. Our entire equipment is adapted to the type of farming suitable for this country and would have to be replaced at great expense with the tools needed in some other locality. We have spent so much in trying to keep our land from blowing away that it looks foolish to walk off and leave it, when somewhat more favorable conditions seem now to 'cast their shadows before.' I scarcely need to tell you that there is no use in thinking of either renting or selling farm property here at present. It is just a place to stand on —if we can keep the taxes paid —and work and hope for a better day. We could realize nothing whatever from all our years of struggle with which to make a fresh start. We long for the garden and little chickens, the trees and birds and wild flowers of Arkansas Department of Education

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the years gone by. Perhaps if we do our part these good things may return some day, for others if not for ourselves. Will joins me in earnest hopes for your recovery. The dust has been particularly aggravating to his bronchial trouble, but he keeps working on. A great reddishbrown dust cloud is rising now from the southeast, so we must get out and do our night work before it arrives. Our thoughts go with you. August 11, 1935 MY DEAR Evelyn: — On this blistering Sunday afternoon, I am, like Alexander Selkirk,

Monarch of all I survey; My right there is none to dispute.

There is no one within a mile and a half, and all day I've seen just one person pass by in an old stripped-down Ford. Will and Eleanor went early this morning with a family of neighbors to visit the dinosaur pit in the next county to the westward —about seventy miles from here where the State University is engaged in excavating the bones of some of these ancient monsters, reminders of a time when there was plenty of water even in the Panhandle. It seemed impossible for us all to leave home at once, so I stayed here to care for a new Shorthorn brother, to keep the chickens' pails filled with fresh water, to turn the cattle and horses in to water at noon, and to keep them from straying to the extremely poisonous drouth-stricken cane. We spent the better part of a Arkansas Department of Education

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night during the week trying to save two of the best young cows from the effects of the prussic acid which develops in the stunted sorghum. We thought they would die and I am not sure yet whether they recovered because of the liberal doses of melted lard and molasses or whether the poison was not quite strong enough to be fatal. It produces a paralysis of the respiratory system, and when death occurs, as it frequently does, it is due to suffocation from lack of oxygen. Ever since your letter came, I have been thinking how different are the causes of our personal difficulties. It is hard for us prodigals in this far country, in our scarcity of all things, not to feel envious of the Del Mar Va pigs luxuriating in potatoes, peaches (and cream?), and the delicious Youngerberries. But, as I started to say, our own problems are of a quite different sort. We cannot complain of laziness on the part of our citizens. Oklahoma is one of the first states to get away from direct relief. Official reports of the administrators here emphasize the eagerness with which people accept any sort of work to help themselves and to make unnecessary the acceptance of public aid. In our county the FERA force is being cut down. Three case workers and two from the office force have been dismissed during the past week. This progress toward more nearly normal conditions of employment occurs in the face of the most critical farm situation that we have ever encountered. For over a month we have had no rain, and the two light local showers early in July had only a slight and temporary effect. All hope of an adequate forage crop has now followed into oblivion the earlier hopes of wheat and maize production. We have no native or cultivated hay crops. The cattle stay alive thus far on weeds, but the pastures are destitute of grass. Many think it can never be restored. The heat is intense and the drying winds are practically continuous, with a real 'duster' occurring every few days to keep us humble. After the government erosion control project was carried through there was, for a time, a partial cessation of the dust blowing. But as the freshly upturned earth is pulverizing under the influence of continued heat and wind and entire lack of moisture, it Arkansas Department of Education

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too is ready to blow. A recently established Oklahoma law permits the County Commissioners to require the working of kind that is being allowed to blow to the detriment of other farms, and I note that one such order has recently been issued in our county. You asked about the soil erosion control programme and what could be done with an allowance of ten cents per acre. That amount just about covers actual expense of fuel and oil for listing with a large tractor. Possibly it leaves a slight margin if listing is done with a lighter outfit. In no case was any allowance made for a man's labor or the use of his farming equipment. The plan was proposed to encourage widespread and practically simultaneous working of the blowing fields, with a reasonable proportion on contour lines, Undoubtedly it has been of great benefit, and had rains followed, as everyone hoped, we should feel that we were approaching the turn in the long road. As a matter of fact, the complete absence of rain has given us no chance to test the effectiveness of the contour listing. A few people signed up for terracing as a more permanent method of conserving and distributing the longed for moisture —if it ever comes! Will has been working early and late with one of the county terracing machines, laying up ridges on contour lines for every foot of fall. He hopes to be ready to-morrow to turn the machine over to a neighbor who will also make the experiment. Later on he would like to run the terrace lines across the pasture lands, but the future for us is most uncertain. Everything now depends on whether a definite change of moisture conditions occurs in time for people to sow wheat for 1936. The 'suitcase farmers' that is, insurance agents, preachers, real-estate men, and so forth, from cities near or far —have bet thousands of dollars upon rain, or, in other words, have hired the preparation of large areas of land all around us which no longer represent the idea of homes at all, but just parts of a potential factory for the low-cost production of wheat if it rains. A short time ago a big tractor, working for one of these absentee farmers across the road from our home, accidentally hooked on Arkansas Department of Education

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to the cornerstone of the original survey and dragged it off up the road. All these many years that stone has marked the corner of our homestead. I have walked past it hundreds of times as I have taken the cows to their pasture or brought them home again. Always it has suggested the beauty of the untouched prairie as it was when the surveyors set the stone, the luxuriant thick turf of native grasses, ——grama grass, buffalo, and curly mesquite, the pincushion cactuses, strawcolor and rose, the other wild flowers which in their season fulfilled the thought of Shakespeare: —

The summer's flower is to the summer sweet, Though to itself it only live and die.

The cornerstone has also suggested the preparation for human occupation —the little homes that were so hopefully established here, of which so very few remain. After twenty-nine years, eight places in our township, out of the possible 136 (excluding the two school sections), are still occupied by those who made the original homestead entry. And now the stone is gone and the manner of its removal seemed almost symbolic of the changes that appear inevitable. We can't see why your wheat prices should be so hopelessly low. You may judge now a little of how we felt in 1931, with wheat at less than 'two bits' per bushel! The price here has recently been about a dollar a bushel, several cents above the Kansas City price. I suppose the idea is to discourage shipment, as there is not enough wheat in this area now to provide for fall sowing —if it rains —and seed wheat must be shipped in. One morning at the store, being in a reckless mood, I invested a dime in five small tomatoes and wished you might be getting something like that price for your surplus. Potatoes cost us around thirty cents a peck. I hope the protest of the Arkansas Department of Education

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Maryland growers has been successful in giving them some return for their work. Peaches are priced at four pounds for a quarter, but are not for us. So count your mercies, lady. It may surprise you to see how numerous they are. The last sack of flour cost $1.69, and twelve-ounce loaves of good bread are still to be had for a nickel, considerably less than the price we paid during the dear old days of reputed prosperity —before processing taxes were a subject for political debate and court consideration. We feel rather proud that the proprietor of the Elkhart flour mill which we have patronized for many years has withdrawn from the group of Kansas millers suing the government for recovery of the processing tax. He explained his position by stating that, as the benefits derived from these taxes had been an actual lifesaver for farming and general business interests in this section, he would not seek to embarrass the government in its attempt to collect the tax. His independent action in refusing to join in the raid seems worth mentioning in these days when individualism is supposed to be dead. It's time to do the evening work, put the guinea pig to bed, and begin to watch for the return of our explorers. I do hope weather conditions are favoring the growth of your crops. January 8, 1936 DEAR EVELYN: — As I have said before, our own problems seem of slight moment as pared with yours. Yet more than ever of late 'the day's journey' has indeed seemed to 'fill the whole long day.' As yet there are no decisive changes, no clear light on our way. Late in the summer, before Eleanor returned to her work in the medical school, she drove the tractor for her father, and with the help of the old header they worried down the scattering, scanty crop of sorghum cane and Sudan grass which had made all the growth it could through the hot, dry summer. That there Arkansas Department of Education

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was anything at all to harvest we attribute to the new planting methods encouraged by the Soil Erosion Control service, of listing on contour lines and laying up terraces to check the run-off in whatever rains might come. A shower the night they finished cutting and another about ten days later, conserved in the same way, gave us most fortunately a second cutting over the same fields, and a few loads of maize fodder from spots here and there on another part of the farm. These crops of roughage have little or no market value, but are indispensable if one plans to winter any cattle. The old, nutritious native grasses which used to provide winter pasturage are forever gone. Killing frosts happily came later than usual. In October, I drove the tractor myself and we two cut and hauled and put into the barn loft (including the earlier cutting) some twenty tons of fodder from two hundred acres, expensive feed when regarded as the entire outcome of a year's work and investment, yet essential to our attempt at carrying on. As you know, however, wisely or otherwisely, this region has permitted wheat growing to become its main concern. The wheat situation around us is so varied and precarious as to be most difficult of appraisal. Our own acreage is fairly typical of the general condition. We have a little wheat that came up in September, made a fair start, and for a time furnished pasturage for the small calves. A part of it was early smothered out by the drift from near-by fields. Part of it would yet respond to abundant moisture if that were to come. Much of the early sown wheat did not come up. Some of the seed sprouted and died before reaching the surface. Other portions remained dry until sprouted by a light rain in December. Most of that still lies dormant waiting for warmth to promote its growth. Large areas were drilled after the December rain, with varying results as to germination. After the four-to-six-inch snow of early January, the editor of our county paper was asked by the United Press for a candid report of actual conditions. His estimate allowed the county as a whole a 5 per cent chance; not, if I understood him, a fair chance for a 25 per cent crop, but about one chance in four for Arkansas Department of Education

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anything at all. His statement showed that fall and winter precipitation so far had been a trifle over half the normal amount for that time of year. And you must try to remember that a failure this year would mean five in succession for a large part of the high plains region. So our great problem here is production, after all. You can readily see that the conditions I have so hastily outlined promise no protection against the ravages of dust storms if the spring winds rage as in previous years. On the whole it is not surprising that here and there some bitterness should have been felt and expressed, perhaps immoderately, over the recent AAA decision in the Supreme Court. People here, business men as well as the farmers themselves, realize that the benefit payments under the AAA and the wage payments from Federal work projects are all that have saved a large territory here from abandonment. A December statement by the Soil Conservation service reports an area in five states, including part or all of sixty-eight counties and 87,900 square miles of territory, as in need of active measures for protection and control of the duststorm menace. Mr. Bennett, director of the service, regards this as the greatest 'physical problem facing the country to-day.' I was astonished to find by a little primary arithmetic that the area involved is equal to that of all the New England States, with New Jersey and Maryland and about half of Delaware added for good measure. The desolation of the countryside would admittedly have meant the ruin of the small towns, entirely dependent as they are upon country patronage. It will also mean —if it must ever be abandoned through utter exhaustion of resources and sheer inability to hang on any longer —a creeping eastward into more settled and productive territory of the danger and losses originating in the arid wastelands. It is a problem now that no merely individual action can handle successfully. But to return briefly to the Supreme Court decision. It has naturally been the cause of much regrettable confusion. It would probably have caused even more Arkansas Department of Education

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disturbance had there not been a background of hope that something may yet be done to compensate for the disappointments necessarily involved. Farmers are not asking for special favors. They ask only an even chance as compared with other workers. But people don't understand. Perhaps the many books on pioneer life with the usual successful and happy outcome have helped to give a wrong impression and perpetuate the idea that country people live on wild game and fish and fruits and in general on the free bounty of heaven. Many people have no idea of the cash expense of operating a farm to-day, or the work and planning required to the wheels going round, to say nothing of a decent living or suitable education for the children. This year we are keeping a separate account of expenses for car, truck, and tractor, all of which are old and frequently in need of repair. I fear we shall be horrified and discouraged by the close of the year. Not that I should willingly return to the long, slow trips of fifteen miles to town in a jolting wagon. Not that I want to take it out of the flesh and blood of horses in the hot heavy work of seed time and harvest —if they come again. But we can't combine the modern methods of work with the income of our early pioneering, when $200 used to cover all of a year's expense. I think I told you of shipping our cattle to pasture. It proved to be a disastrous mistake. To keep in tune, I suppose we should blame Secretary Wallace or the broad-shouldered Mr. Tugwell, who likewise had nothing to do with it. Really the source of trouble was our own erroneous impression that grass is grass, and that our cattle would gain if they could have ample pasturage. Evidently other factors of acclimatization must be considered. Our experience was duplicated in that of many of our neighbors, most of whom, on finding their cattle in far worse condition in the fall than in the spring, decided to sell for whatever their stock would bring. Perhaps they were wise to do so. We shipped ours back, availing ourselves of the drouth rates for such shipments. In the spring we had paid 85 Arkansas Department of Education

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per cent of the regular rate. In the fall, to encourage reshipment and the restocking of the country if possible, the government rate was 15 per cent of the regular charge. I was quite alone here for a week while Will went after our little bunch. He had to unload them late at night ten miles from home. That was November first, and most of our efforts and resources ever since have been devoted to trying to bring our cattle back to a normal condition. They are gaining slowly, but our homegrown feed is disappearing rapidly, and the grain feed of threshed maize which we must purchase, while about right in price for the seller at $1.10 per hundred, is piling up expenses. We have sold one mixed bunch of older cows and summer calves. That will help a little toward caring for the others, but there couldn't be much direct gain, as you will agree, in selling eleven head for $5. Still this is better than we could have done a year or two ago, when cattle were practically without value. In general, there has been an improvement in farm prices, both absolutely and relatively, which has given us courage to keep on working, and has kept alive our hope for some definite change in weather conditions that may once more make our acres fruitful and restore to us some sense of accomplishment. At present this great southwestern plains region, most of which has been perseveringly tilled during the fall and winter so as to cut down the loss by wind erosion even if the wheat proves a disappointment, seems to be lying asleep like the princess in the fairy tale. Perhaps you can share with us the painful longing that soon the enchantment may be broken, that the deliverer may come with the soft footfalls of gentle rain and waken our homeland once more into gracious, generous life. Perhaps it is a sin to parody anything as beautiful as Ulysses. Yet as we gray, lonely old people sit here by the fire to-night, planning for the year's work, my thoughts seem bound to fall into that pattern.

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It may be that the dust will choke us down; It may be we shall wake some happy morn And look again on fields of waving grain.

So good night, dear friend, and a happier to-morrow. March 8, 1936 DEAR EVELYN: — Since I wrote to you, we have had several bad days of wind and dust. On the worst one recently, old sheets stretched over door and window openings, and sprayed with kerosene, quickly became black and helped a little to keep down the irritating dust in our living rooms. Nothing that you see or hear or read will be likely to exaggerate the physical discomfort or material losses due to these storms. Less emphasis is usually given to the mental effect, the confusion of mind resulting from the overthrow of all plans for improvement or normal farm work, and the difficulty of making other plans, even in a tentative way. To give just one specific example: the paint has been literally scoured from our buildings by the storms of this and previous years; we should by all means try to 'save the surface'; but who knows when we might safely undertake such a project? The pleasantest morning may be a prelude to an afternoon when the 'dust devils' all unite in one hideous onslaught. The combination of fresh paint with a real dust storm is not pleasing to contemplate. The prospects for a wheat crop in 1936 still remain extremely doubtful. There has been no moisture of any kind since the light snow of early January. On a seventy-mile drive yesterday to arrange for hatchery chicks and to sell our week's cream and eggs, we saw more wheat that would still respond to immediate rainfall than I, with my stay-at-home habits, had expected to see. A few fields were refreshingly green and beautiful to look upon. There seems no doubt that Arkansas Department of Education

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improved methods of tillage and protection are already yielding some results in reducing wind erosion. But rain must come soon to encourage growth even on the best fields if there is to be any wheat harvest. Interspersed with the more hopeful areas are other tracts apparently abandoned to their fate. A field dotted thickly with shoulder-high hummocks of sand and soil bound together by the inevitable Russian thistles presents little encouragement to the most ardent conservationist. My own verdict in regard to plans for the reclaiming of such land would be, 'Too late.' Yet such fields are a menace to all the cultivated land or pasture ground around them and present a most difficult problem. The two extremes I have just suggested —that is, the slight hope even yet for some production on carefully tilled fields, and the practically hopeless conditions on abandoned land are indicative of the two conflicting tendencies now evident through an extensive section of the high plains. On the one hand we note a disposition to recognize a mistake, to turn aside from the undertaking with the least possible loss and direct one's time and energy to some new purpose. On the other hand we observe that many seem determined to use even the hard experiences of the past, their own mistakes and other people's, as warning signals, pointing the way to changes of method and more persistent and effective effort right where they stand. The first attitude may be illustrated by an incident of the past week, the attempt of former neighbors to sell the pipe from the well on their now deserted homestead. This may not seem significant to you. But to old-timers in this deepwater country, so nearly destitute of flowing streams, the virtual destruction of a well of our excellent, life-nourishing water comes close to being the unpardonable sin against future generations. The same disintegrating tendency is shown in a larger and more alarming way by the extent to which land once owned and occupied by farm families is now passing into ownership of banks, mortgage companies, assurance societies, and Arkansas Department of Education

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investment partnerships or corporations. The legal notices published in our county paper for the past week include two notices of foreclosure proceedings and nine notices of sheriff's sales to satisfy judgments previously rendered. These eleven legal actions involve the ownership of 35E20 acres of land, the equivalent of twenty-two quarter sections, the original homestead allotment in this territory. In only two cases apparently had the loan been made from one person to another. Four life insurance companies, one investment company, and one joint-stock land bank are included among the plaintiffs. These forced sales take place just outside of the window of the assessor's office, and we were told that they have now become merely a matter of routine. No one tries to redeem the property in question; no one even makes a bid on it; in fact, no one appears but the sheriff and the lawyer representing the plaintiff. I am not questioning the legal right of these companies to take over the title of the farms for their own security or that of the people whose money they have invested. In a sense their action in pressing their claims may hold some encouragement for the rest of us, since it suggests that they look in time for a return of value to the acres which at present no one seeks to rescue. In addition to the large amount of land now owned by these corporate interests, very many farms belong to nonresident individuals. The 'quarters' north and south of our own place are so held, while the one on the west has recently been taken over by an investment company. Unquestionably this remote control stands in the way of constructive efforts toward recovery. Yet there are numerous evidences of the persevering restoration of which I have written. The big road maintainers keep the highways in excellent condition. New license tags are appearing on cars and trucks. Churches, schools, and basket-ball tournaments continue much as usual. One village church reported forty people in attendance on one of the darkest and most dangerous of the recent dusty Sundays. The state agricultural college for this section has an increased Arkansas Department of Education

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enrollment this year. More people are managing in some way —we hardly see how —to keep in touch with the world of news and markets, politics and entertainment, through radio service. A local implement agency recently sent out invitations to a tractor entertainment with free moving pictures of factory operation and the like. The five hundred free lunches prepared for the occasion proved insufficient for the assembled crowd. Within a few succeeding days the company took orders for three tractors ranging in price from around $1200 to $1500. Some people must still have faith in the future! More impressive to me was the Saturday rush of activity at the small produce house where we did our marketing. Cars kept driving up and people coming in with pails or crates or cases of eggs. Cream was delivered in containers of all sorts and sizes, including one heavy aluminum cooker! Eggs were bringing fifteen cents per dozen and cream thirty cents a pound of tested butterfat. No large sums of money were involved. In many cases the payments were pitifully small, but every such sale represents hard work and economy and the struggle to keep going. At the hatchery they spoke of slow business through the extremely cold weather. The young man in charge also referred to the changes or postponements in people's plans because of their failure to receive the expected payments under the now extinct allotment plan. With spring in the dusty air, however, and renewed hope the government contracts will late fulfilled, orders were coming in encouragingly. We plan ourselves for four hundred baby Leghorns about the middle of April. That will be an increase for us, but is about the safest small investment we can make to yield an all-the-year-round return. We shall have to put quite a bit of work expense into the brooder house to keep out the dust, and the rain —if it ever comes. But we are happier to keep on trying. This impressionistic account of conditions here and of our hope for the future Arkansas Department of Education

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would scarcely be complete without some mention of government assistance. We have had only slight contact with the Rehabilitation Service. We know that the man in charge here is taking his work seriously, trying to give definite aid and encouragement to those who have reached the end of their small resources and have lost hope and courage. He stopped he the other morning to see whether we really meant it when we promised the use of our tractor and other equipment to a young man in the neighborhood who is trying to make a new start for himself and wife and small daughter through a rehabilitation loan. In spite of seriously adverse conditions, this agent, who meets many people, spoke of a rather surprising general spirit of optimism. I suppose there is something of the gambler in all of us. We in instinctively feel that the longer we travel on a straight road, the nearer we must be coming to a turn. People here can't quite believe yet in a hopeless climatic change which would deprive them permanently of the gracious gift of rain. To me the most interesting and forward-looking government undertaking in the dust bowl centres about the group of erosion control experiments scattered over a wide area. The Pony Creek project, fifteen miles east of our home, includes all of one congressional township and parts of three others, seventy square miles altogether, or something over 42,000 acres. This is a pretty seriously damaged area, principally devoted to wheat growing, and even now blowing badly. If the methods employed succeed in checking the drift and in restoring productivity, much will have been accomplished, both of intrinsic value and of use as a stimulating object lesson. We hope some day to drive over and see how they are progressing. We talked about this work with the young man who helped us last summer to run our terrace lines. At present they are employing 140 men from WPA rolls who would otherwise be idle and in need of relief. The work is frankly experimental. It includes such activities as surveying contour lines, laying up terraces, cleaning out fence rows piled high with drifted soil, filling gullies to prevent washing in Arkansas Department of Education

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that longed-for time of heavy rainfall, cutting down dead trees and brush, digging holes for the resetting of trees in favorable locations, testing the adaptability of different types of grass to the difficult task of reseeding windblown spaces, and so on. Altogether it is just such work as a provident farmer would like to get done if he had the time and means. It is done without expense to the farmers who agree to cooperate in the plan. Our young friend smiled when I asked about 'regimentation.' The farmers do promise to maintain for five years, I believe, the terraces built for them and to follow a system of crop rotation. But plans for planting and cultivation are worked out for each place in individual conferences, to suit the farm and the farmer. Don't worry about the stifling of individuality. 'It can't be did,' as one of our preachers used to say. Of course no one can predict yet the result of these experiments, but they seem to me abundantly worth while. Our personal plans like those of all the rest are entirely dependent on whether or not rain comes to save a little of our wheat, to give grass or even weeds for pasturage, to permit the growing of roughage for the winter, and provide some cover on the surface and promote the intertwining of rootlets in the soil to reduce wind damage. Our terraces are in good condition to distribute whatever moisture may come. We hope we have learned a little about protecting the soil which is the basis of our physical life. In the house the poinsettia and Christmas cactus are blooming a second time and the geraniums blossom in spite of the dust. Eleanor has just sent us budded hyacinth and daffodil bulbs in little moss-filled nests. They will help us to look forward for a time at least. March 13, 1936 We must try to get this mailed tomorrow. It has been a terrible week, with one day of almost complete obscurity, and others when only a part of the sun's rays struggled through the gloom with a strange bluish luminance. On such days each little wave of the troubled water in the stock tank glitters with a blue Arkansas Department of Education

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phosphorescent light. When I dip out a pail of water to carry to the hen-house, it looks almost as if it were covered with a film of oil. On days like this, when William Vaughn Moody's expression 'dust to eat' suggests a literal danger, we can't help questioning whether the traits we would rather think of as courage and perseverance are not actually recklessness and inertia. Who shall say?

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ob

es

qu

Sample Questions:

Describe what you see.



What do you notice first?

What people and objects are shown? •

question

reflect

Ask students to identify and note details.

arranged?

ct

observe

e

Analyzing Photographs & Prints

Guide students with the sample questions as they respond to the primary source. Encourage them to go back and forth between the columns; there is no correct order.

refl

t i on

teacher’s guide

se rv e



How are they

What is the physical setting?

any, words do you see?







What, if

What other details can you

see?

Encourage students to generate and test hypotheses about the source.

Invite students to ask questions that lead to more observations and reflections.

Why do you think this image was made?

What do you wonder about...

happening in the image?





What’s

When do you think it

who?

was made?



Who do you think was the audience for

this image?



What tools were used to create this?

What can you learn from examining this image?





what?



when?



where?



why?



how?



If

someone made this today, what would be different?



What would be the same?

f u rt h e r i n v e s t i g at i o n

Help students to identify questions appropriate for further investigation, and to develop a research strategy for finding answers. Sample Question:

What more do you want to know, and how can you find out?

A few follow-up activity ideas:

Beginning Write a caption for the image. Intermediate Select an image. Predict what will happen one minute after the scene shown in the image. One hour after? Explain the reasoning behind your predictions.

Advanced Have students expand or alter textbook or other printed explanations of history based on images they study.

For more tips on using primary sources, go to http://www.loc.gov.teachers

| LOC.gov/teachers

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Photo Analysis Worksheet Step 1. Observation A.

  

Study the photograph for 2 minutes. Form an overall impression of the photograph and then  examine individual items. Next, divide the photo into quadrants and study each section to see what  new details become visible. ___________________________________________________________________________    

B.

 

Use the chart below to list people, objects, and activities in the photograph. People

Objects

Activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Step 2. Inference 

 

 

Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________   

Step 3. Questions A.

 

What questions does this photograph raise in your mind? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________    

B.

 

Where could you find answers to them?  ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 

Designed and developed by the  Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC  20408. 

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You Ought to be in Pictures Imagine yourself within the context of a photograph. Make a connection to a place or a person through the photograph. First, examine the location of this photograph and try to detect as much detail as possible. What do you observe about the countryside? About the land? The plants and vegetation? The road? What time of year might it be? What does the climate appear to be like? What type of day does it seem to be?

Now focus very closely on each person in the photograph. Pay careful attention to what each person is wearing. Look at the way the family members carry themselves, their posture, their facial expressions.

Next, choose one of the individuals in the photograph and imagine you are this person. What might you be thinking if this was happening to you? Describe what you might be feeling, what emotions you might be experiencing. What has this day been like for you? Imagine what might have happened before the scene presented in the photo. What do you see happening later on, during this day and the following days?

Given the following writing prompt: “It is now many years later. You are showing this photograph to a grandchild. What would you say about your memories of that day? Write what you would share as an entry in your notebook.”

Share your entry with your class. Arkansas Department of Education

Sethna, 2011

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FSA Photograph by Arthur Rothstein Fleeing a dust storm Cimarron County, Oklahoma April, 1936

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Modern Photo by Bill Ganzel Darrel Coble – the littlest boy in the Rothstein photo – in his home. On the wall is a painting by a local woman copied from Rothsteinʼs photo. Cimarron County, Oklahoma September, 1977 “All the days was about alike then. For a three-year-old kid, you just go outside and play, dust blows and sand blows, and you donʼt know any different. One evening a black duster come in here from the north. We had kerosene lamps. And it got so dark you couldnʼt see with derosene lamps. “Last spring, we had some pretty bad days. They werenʼt the old black dusters, but there was plenty of dust in the air. “I donʼt really know why I like living here. I guess itʼs just home. Dad always said that if anybody ever come here and wear out two pairs of shoes, theyʼd never leave. Back in the 30s, my dad had some relatives in California that was fairly wealthy, an aunt and uncle, and they wanted him to get outa here. They said theyʼd pay his way out to California, the whole family, but he said he wouldnʼt go. He was just a hard-headed Coble, I guess. He was pretty independent. I just imagine he thought that if it was going to be somebody elseʼs money, why he wasnʼt gonna go, period.” – Darrel Coble

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Kismet, Kansas Nov. 3, 1937

Dear Mrs. Rosevelt: I am 13 years old and will be 14 the 27 of this month. I am a victim of a shut in. I have been sick ever since the 12 of July. And have a very lonely place to stay. My parence's are very poor people. I cant even go to school yet with the other kids. And doubt if I can this year. I have nothing I can do but set around and I get so lonely I don't know what to do. And if you want to cheer me up and make me one of the happies boys in the world just send me some money to get a cheap raido. Ihave got proof by the neighbors that I am sick and have nothing to do. My parence names is Mr. + Mrs. A. J. M. My name is F. M. I live at Kismet. Many, many thanks if you would cheer me up that way I wouldn't spend it for nothing but a radio. It would pass my lonely time a way so much faster. I only ask for a cheep one. F. M. Kismet, Kansas P.S. If I had any thing to do I wouldent ask you of it. It will be highly appreached. I am in the dust bowl. We didn't raise any crop this year. And we have to live off of the releif and theres no injoyment out of that. But were thankful for it. My mother is sick and under the doctor's care most of the time and my Grandma that lives with me is very poorly. And that keeps my heart broken all the time. And nothing to amuse myself with. thanks a lot http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/fm1137.htm  

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Bibliography   Arkansas  Department  of  Education  resources   Burke,  Kenneth    https://sheg.stanford.edu   C3  Framework  http://www.socialstudies.org/c3   Curriculum  Framework  document  of  United  States  History  Since  1890     http://www.davestuartjr.com/purposeful-­‐annotation-­‐close-­‐reading/   Daniels  and  Zemelman.  Subjects  Matter:  Every  Teacher’s    Guide  to  Content-­‐Area  Reading,  First  edition.   Portsmouth,  NH.  Heinemann,  2004.  Print.   Ed  Week  June  6,  2007,  commentary  “Opening  Up  the  Textbook  and  Offering  Students  a  ‘Second  Voice’”   "Opening  Up  the  Textbook."  -­‐  Education  Week.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  29  Mar.  2016.   http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2007/06/06/39wineburg.h26.html?tkn=VVZFXUyawS…     Gallagher,  Kelly.  Write  like  This:  Teaching  Real-­‐world  Writing  through  Modeling  &  Mentor  Texts.  Portland,   Me.:  Stenhouse,  2011.  Print.   http://www.socialstudies.org/system/files/c3/C3-­‐Framework-­‐for-­‐Social-­‐Studies.pdf     http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/drought/dust_storms.shtml   http://www.historicalstockphotos.com/details/photo/2199_migrant_mother.html   http://www.harpercollege.edu/mhealy/g101ilec/intro/int/g3intrfr.htm   https://infosys.ars.usda.gov/WindErosion/multimedia/dustbowl/big/cimarron_ok.jpg   http://www.history.com/topics/dust-­‐bowl   http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/dustbowl/about/overview/   Library  of  Congress  LOC  http://www.loc.gov/teachers/tps/  ;  https://www.loc.gov/   Moje,  Elizabeth  Birr.    NWP  Conference,  March  6,  2010   Monte-­‐Sano,  Chauncey.  Reading,  Thinking,  and  Writing  About  History.  New  York,  NY.  Teacher’s  College   Press,  2014.  Print.   National  Archives   NC  Department  of  Public  Instruction   Shanahan  and  Shanahan   Wineburg,  Sam.  Reading  Like  a  Historian:  Teaching  Literacy  in  the  Middle  &  High  School  History   Classrooms.  Columbia  University,  Teachers  College.  2013.  Print.    www.historians.org    www.c3teachers.org  

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