Bread Street Ward Club Ward History and Members’ Reference Update December 2015
A sign on a building within the ward
BREAD STREET WARD CLUB INTRODUCTION If you work in the City of London, especially in or close to Bread Street Ward (see map), or if you have any connections with the City, you might like to consider joining the Bread Street Ward Club. The Club is an active informal group that meets to enjoy meetings, talks, visits and social occasions in and out of the City. If you would like to join, or discuss anything about the club, please look at the Club’s website at www.breadstreetwardclub.org The website lists all the current officers and the committee. Committee members serve for a three-year period. To stand they are nominated by two other members and elected at the AGM, normally in May. The Chairman is nominated by the Committee and elected annually, normally for a one-year term. The President is elected at an Extraordinary General Meeting. The current President is the Ward’s Alderman, William Russell, elected on 11th March 2013. He succeeded Sir Michael Savory.
Alderman William Russell
This history only scratches the surface of the amazing development of the City of London, but gives a few interesting peeps at the extent of it. Please note that text from this History should not be copied for other uses. -2-
The objects of the club are to:Encourage Members to take an active interest in civic affairs and Organise social functions and to arrange lectures and visits of general interest. The Club is non-political, non-denominational and non-sectarian. The club was re-established in 1967 by the late Sir Murray Fox, Lord Mayor 1974/5 and long time President and friend of the Club.
The Club has been active since then. A “Bread Street Ward Club” existed in the 16th century with distinguished members such as William Shakespeare and Sir Walter Raleigh. Membership is open to any person who is or has been employed or is residing within the boundaries of the Ward of Bread Street (see map), or who is interested in the history and affairs of the Ward or the City of London generally. The current subscription (2013) is £10 per year. It is normally collected by Direct Debit and is reviewed each year. However, any changes require the -3-
approval of the membership at a General Meeting. There is currently no joining fee. A number of events are organised each year, some daytime, some evenings. They are open to members and their guests; however, on rare occasions events are oversubscribed and then restricted to Members only. Events range from the annual dinner, usually in the Livery Hall of the Guildhall, to talks, walks or visits on a wide variety of subjects. Many events are related in some way to the City and usually are complemented by a meal in a nearby club or pub. The Alderman and Common Councilmen representing the Bread Street Ward on the Corporation of London keep a close connection with the Club. Normally the Alderman becomes President of the Club and at least one of the two Common Councilmen can serve ex-officio on the Committee.
The ward’s notice board by the gardens of St Paul’s on New Change. -4-
What is a City of London Ward Club? In days gone by, the City was more residential as well as being a place of business and trade. As times progressed and communications improved, many of the people who had worked and lived in the City moved house to suburban areas. Some who had moved regretted the passing of the old neighbourliness and the loss of the active community life of which they had formed part. Accordingly, they began to create Ward Clubs enabling them to meet their business neighbours socially. The first ‘modern’ Ward Club was formed as long ago as the 18th century. Bread Street's Club is one of the newer, re-formed in 1967.
A street sign in the ward
City Wards For local government purposes, the City has always been organised into areas known as Wards. In Saxon times the City was in reality a small independent federated state of wards (holding Wardmotes) with its governing body, a "folkmote", the predecessor of the present Common Council. Even after the Battle of Hastings the City maintained its independence; William the Conqueror only gained possession of it by means of a Treaty with the City's Burgesses. A list made in 1130 shows only 20 wards situated in land belonging to St Paul’s. By 1206 the number had risen to 24 and in 1394, by Act of King Richard II, the ward of Farringdon was divided into two separate wards, Farringdon Within & Without. This made the 25 Wards we know today, each being represented by an Alderman and a number of members of the Court of Common Council, the complete Council providing the civic local government as the Corporation of London. An Honorary Ward Clerk assists in the running of Wardmotes and ward elections and any general business arising not in the remit of the Common Councilmen. The current Hon Ward Clerk is Michael Evans. A Beadle is elected for each ward, although the post now is purely ceremonial. The Beadle accompanies the Alderman on a number of occasions during the year, including the Lord Mayor’s Show and opens and closes the Wardmotes. The current Beadle is Angus Ross. Each year, in March, each ward holds a ‘Wardmote’ presided over by the Alderman. At this meeting the ward’s business is carried out, including any required elections for the Alderman, Common Councilmen or the Ward Beadle, though Aldermen are elected for a six years term and Common Councilmen and Beadles a four year term. Until recent times, Aldermen were not required to stand for re-election, save in certain circumstances. If polling is required, the Wardmote reconvenes after the poll. At each Wardmote the Alderman appoints his Deputy for the year ensuing. Likewise he appoints the Honorary Ward Clerk. -6-
Top – Alderman William Russell between Hon Ward Clerk Michael Evans and Beadle Angus Ross. Bottom – Alderman William Russell with colleagues in the Lord Mayor’s Show 2014
Bread Street Ward boundaries & electors City boundaries were fixed centuries ago and remained inviolate throughout the subsequent re-development resulting in boundaries running through buildings, as was the case with Bow Bells House in Bread Street and No 1 New Change. The ward was one of the smallest in the City covering about 4 hectares to the east of St Paul’s Cathedral, originally named from its principal street which was anciently the bread market; for by the records it appears that in 1302, the bakers of London were ordered to sell no bread at their houses but in the open market. The franchise for electing the City’s Aldermen and Common Councilmen is different from all other areas of the UK, primarily because there are so few residents (7,400 at 2011 census) but over ¼ million workers who commute in daily. Until recently only residents, leaseholders, sole traders and those in partnerships could vote. In recent times the Corporation agreed to extend the franchise to enable all City businesses to appoint voters for elections. An Act of Parliament was required to achieve this change. Now only residents and business appointees can vote. To ‘even-up’ the number of electors per ward, a wide-ranging redrawing of ward boundaries was completed in 2003, the total number of Common Councilmen was reduced to 100, elected every four years. The ward had four Common Councilmen, but this has now been reduced to two. Sadly, in 2003 we lost the east side of Bread Street that includes 35 Cannon Street (ex-Watling House) and what was ‘our’ part of Bow Bells House. Areas then gained included the new Paternoster Square, the remainder of St Paul’s Choir School, the City Information Centre and the statue to the Firefighters in the Second World War at the top of the walkway from the Millennium Bridge opposite St Paul’s. A further boundary review was effected in February 2013. The ward lost the buildings to the east of Distaff Lane, including Bracken House and the buildings on the triangle to the east of Friday Street. In return it gained 1 & 4 St Paul’s Churchyard and regained St Nicholas Cole Abbey Church. The ward now has an electorate of around 430. -8-
The current Bread Street ward
Cheapside separates Bread Street Ward, to its south, and Cripplegate Ward Within, to its north. Our visitor from the west might well have been tempted by the aromas of freshly-baked bread, to turn right from Cheapside onto Bread Street. As early as 1302, "the bakers of London were ordered to sell no bread at their houses, but in the open market at Bread Street" (Statute of Edward I).
Bread Street and Cordwainer Wards in 1720.
The City Livery Companies were responsible for regulating their respective trades (the Worshipful Company of Bakers, for example, was concerned to ensure that the flour in the London loaf was not adulterated with sawdust, chalk or other contaminants), and this was, at least in theory, made easier by having all the practitioners of a particular trade operating in the same areas. In practice, however, this did not prevent all abuses - the Cheapside Hoard includes a number of fake rubies, produced from rock-crystal.
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A woman buying bread from a baker, by Jorg Urlaub, 1568, Stadbibliothek Nurnberg (image is in the Public Domain).
Friday Street was part of the domain of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers, responsible for ensuring that all the fish on sale here was either fresh, or properly salted or smoked. Whilst Cheapside itself was clearly a thoroughfare, streets such as Bread Street and Friday Street are unlikely to have been navigable by horses or wheeled transport during market hours, being filled with market stalls, their owners and customers.
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The old Ward – a far cry from today in 1755
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Noble Volunteers in 18th century
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Current Temple Bar Temple Bar was, of course, the historic entry to the City of London from Westminster. Badly damaged in 1666 by the Great Fire of London, it became necessary to rebuild the structure. Commissioned by King Charles II, and designed by Sir Christopher Wren, the fine arch of Portland stone was constructed between 1669 and 1672. In 1878 the Corporation of London, eager to widen the road but unwilling to destroy so historic a monument, dismantled it piece-by-piece and stored its 2,700 stones. The brewer Sir Henry Meux bought the stones (at the instigation of his wife, a barmaid he married amid much scandal) and re-erected the arch as a gateway at his house, Theobalds Park in Hertfordshire. It remained there, incongruously sitting in a clearing in a wood, until 2003. By then it had been purchased by the Temple Bar Trust from the Meux Trust in 1984. It was carefully dismantled and returned on 500 pallets to the City where it was painstakingly re-erected as an entrance to the Paternoster Square redevelopment, opening to the public in late 2004. It acts as a grand entrance to the new Paternoster Square, seen from the front of St Paul’s. Having lost so many historic buildings in the ward, we are fortunate to have this one in our ward. - 14 -
Pre-1878 Temple Bar
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The new position of Temple Bar next to St Paul’s
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Historic Bread Street Ward Bread Street Ward comprised the parishes of St. John the Evangelist, All Hallows, Bread Street, St. Margaret Moses and parts of the parishes of St. Mildred, St. Matthew Friday Street, St. Augustine Old Change and St. Nicholas Cole Abbey. The principal monument was the church of St. Mildred Bread Street. From John Stow, A Survey of London, 2nd ed. (London, 1603; STC #23343): BRedſtreete ward beginneth in the high ſtreete of weſt Cheape, to wit, on the ſouth ſide, from the Standard to the great Croſſe. Then is alſo a part of Watheling ſtreete ofthis warde, to wit, from ouer againſt the Red Lion on the North ſide up almoſt to Powles gate, for it lacketh but one houſe of S. Auguſtines church. And on the ſouth ſide from the red Lion gate to the Old Exchange, and downe the ſame Exchange on the Eaſt ſide, by the weſt end of Mayden lane, or Diſtar lane, to Knightriders ſtreete, or as they call that part thereof, Old Fiſhſtreet. And allt he north ſide of the ſaid old Fiſhſtreete to the South ende of Bredſtreete, and by that ſtill in Knightriders ſtreete, till ouer againſt the Trinitie Church, and Trinitie lane. Then is Bredſtreet it ſelfe, ſo called of bread in olde time there ſold: for it appeareth by recordes, that in the yeare 1302. which was the 30. of E. firſt, the Bakers of London were bounden to ſell no bread in their ſhops or houſes, but in the market, and that they ſhould haue 4. Hall motes in the yeare, at foure ſeuerall terms, to determine of enormities belonging to the ſaid Company. This ſtreete giuing the name to the whole warde, beginneth in weſt Chepe, almoſt by the Standarde, and runneth downe ſouth, through or thwart Watheling ſtreet, to Knightriders ſtreet aforeſaide where it endeth. This Bredſtreet is wholy on both ſides of this warde. Out of the which ſtreet on the Eaſt ſide is Baſing lane, a peece whereof to wit, too and ouer againſt the backe gate of the Red Lion in Watheling ſtreete, is of this Bredſtreete ward. Then is Fryday ſtreete beginning alſo in weſt Cheape, and runneth downe South through Watheling ſtreet to Knightrider ſtreete, or olde Fiſhſtreet. This Friday ſtreete is of Bredſtreet ward, on the eaſt ſide from ouer againſt the northeaſt corner of S. Mathewes church, and on the weſt ſide from the ſouth corner of the ſaid church, down as aforeſaid. In this Fryday ſtreete on the weſt ſide thereof is a Lane, commonly called Mayden Lane, or Diſtaffe lane, corruptly for Diſtar lane, which runneth weſt into the old Exchange: and in this lane is alſo one other lane, on the ſouth ſide thereof, likewiſe called Diſtar lane, which runneth downe to Knightriders ſtreet, or olde Fiſhſtreete: and ſo be the boundes of this whole ward. —Transcribed by Melanie Chernyk (Student Research Assistant) and Janelle Jenstad (general editor), 2004.
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The buildings All Hallows, Bread Street church once stood on the east side of Bread Street. It was burned down in the Great Fire and rebuilt in 1684, only to be pulled down in 1876-77 under the ‘Union of Benefices Act 1860’. The site and materials were sold for £32,254 and the proceeds used to build All Hallows East India Dock Road. In Henry VIII's reign two priests of this church had a most unpriestly quarrel in which one of them was wounded. Both were imprisoned and made to walk barefoot in penance from St Paul's through the City. It was a rectory and a ‘peculiar’ belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury, conveyed to him in 1365. The site after 1878 was occupied by warehouses but is now offices.
The Church of St Mildred's, Bread Street, was destroyed by bombing in 1941. It was named after Mildred, the 7th century Saxon Saint Mildred the Virgin, abbess of a monastery on the Isle of Thanet and daughter to Merewald, sub-king of the West Mercians. It was founded about 1300 by Lord Trenchant of St Albans. The earliest record of the church is it’s rebuilding around 1300 – an aisled building with a clerestory. It was burned in the Great Fire and rebuilt to Wren’s designs in 1683 at a cost of £3,705 13s 6d. Shelley was married there. The ruins of St Mildred’s Church were one of the last remaining bombsites of the City surviving into the 60’s, though unfortunately most of the records were lost. The church was seen as the finest un-restored example in the City and its loss left the original ward without a church of its own.
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St Mildred Bread Street 1825.
Two other churches were in the old Ward but neither survived the Great Fire. These were: St Margaret Moyses situated on the corner of Friday Street and Cannon Street. The site was lost to widening of Cannon Street and paved over in 1830. Also St John the Evangelist, which stood on the east side of Friday Street next to Watling Street. .
The current ward area includes St Nicholas Cole Abbey in Queen Victoria Street, first recorded in 1144. The church was destroyed in the Great Fire and then rebuilt by the office of Sir Christopher Wren at a cost of £5,042 6s 11d, being the first church of the fifty-one to be rebuilt. It was bombed and burnt out in WW2 and rebuilt by 1962 after featuring prominently in the - 19 -
Ealing comedy ‘The Lavender Hill Mob’. Named after the 4th century St Nicholas of Myra who is patron saint of, among other groups, children and fishermen. “Cole Abbey” is derived from “coldharbour” a medieval word for a traveller’s shelter or shelter from the cold. In 2014 the building re-opened as the home of the St Nicholas Cole Abbey Centre for Workplace Ministry and a supporting cafe known as The Wren.
St Nicholas Cole Abbey
The whole of St Paul’s Choir School is now in the ward, ensuring our link with ‘The Children of Bread Street Ward’ – the school’s junior choir who add colour to our Club’s annual Carol Service each year. There has been a song school associated with Saint Paul's Cathedral since its foundation in 604. The Choir School for boy choristers dates from about 1123, when 8 boys in need of alms were provided with a home and education in return for singing the Cathedral Office. Gradually two schools emerged, the Choir School and the Grammar School. For many years they - 20 -
co-existed happily, the choristers graduating to the Grammar school to finish their education, until the latter was re-founded by Dean Colet in 1511 and became Saint Paul's School. (It is now in Barnes and has only a tenuous connection with the Cathedral.) In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries the school was more famous for its acting than its singing. The Children of St Paul's had their own resident playwrights, performed regularly at Greenwich Palace before Queen Elizabeth 1 and incurred the wrath of Shakespeare and his professional company just over the river. (In Hamlet he rails against the company of 'little eyases' who are roundly applauded for their histrionic efforts). After the Restoration the choristers enjoyed a somewhat chequered history, but a vigorous campaign by the redoubtable Maria Hackett lasting some sixty years led to the re-establishment of a purpose-built school in Carter Lane to the south-west of the Cathedral in 1874. There it remained until the 1960s, when, under threat of demolition due to a road-widening scheme, it moved to its present site in New Change.
Sadly, although our ward encircles St Paull’s Churchyard, neither the Cathedral nor its Churchyard is in our ward, despite many strenuous efforts to the contrary! St Paul’s Choir School seen from No 1 New Change
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St Paul’s & the old tower next to the choir school The new Jubilee Gardens on the old coach park site next to St Paul’s and the new fountain opposite are also within the ward. The bust to John Donne (see Page 38) is in the Gardens. The Mermaid Tavern in Cheapside, frequented by Ben Jonson and just possibly by Shakespeare, had a side entrance in Bread Street, whilst one of the 'divers fair inns' in the street was celebrated in Stow's time for a 40-foot pole of fir-wood which was kept in the hall. Legend had it that this was a giant’s staff, but in fact it was more probably a maypole. Three Livery Companies had halls in the Ward. The Cordwainers, shoemakers by trade, so called because of their use of the leather of Cordoba. They are commemorated by a blue plaque in the gardens of St Paul’s Cathedral. The 5th and last Hall was built in 1909/10 but was gutted in the blitz on 10th May 1941. The Fishmongers, who traded in Friday Street where fish was much in demand on Fridays; and the Salters whose wares were obviously in demand by the nearby fishmongers also had Halls in the ward. Sadly none remain. - 22 -
In Cheapside, on the south side between Old Change and Bucklersbury, was Goldsmith's Row, partly in the Ward. Built in 1491 by Thomas Wood, a goldsmith and sheriff, this was a row of splendid houses and shops four stories high, "beautified towards the street with the Goldsmiths' arms and likenesses of Woodmen, in memory of his name, riding on monstrous beasts, all richly painted and gilt". Bread Street Compter This was an ancient prison for debtors under the control of the City Sheriffs and existed until 1555 when its prisoners were transferred to the new Compter in nearby Wood Street. Stow says as follows: “On the west side of Bread Street amongst divers fair and large houses for merchants and fair inns for passengers had they one prison house pertaining to the Sheriffs of London…..” One wonders what the inhabitants of the “divers fair and large house” thought about it being in their midst! There appears to be no reference to it after its move so it was presumably demolished. The story goes that Richard Husband, the keeper, had the property of the ‘compter’ by lease which the corporation could not remove him out of it. Finding him ‘incorrigible on this security’ they built the ‘compter’ in Wood Street and took the prisoners out of his custody - 23 -
Mercers’ Company amassed great wealth and in the 18th century began to buy property in the City which was then leased to tenants. Records of the plans in Bread Street survive dated 1766.
Plans of Mercer’s lettings - 24 -
The Bank of England's elegant post-war building, sadly now demolished, was appropriately sited. Old Change, close by, was so called from the King's Exchange where bullion was kept for coinage. In Friday Street the Scottish financier William Paterson, whose idea it was to found the Bank, is said to have met friends each week at, strange to relate, the Wednesday Club. This link passed to the Ward Club who, after its restarting in 1967 had many members who were (and still are!) Bank of England employees and meetings were held there. . New Change - old
New Change – new - 25 -
One New Change, under construction in 2009.
Cheapside in the early 20th Century - 26 -
The monument to Admiral Arthur Phillip, R.N. (the Founder of Australia and first Governor of New South Wales 1788-1792), which stood in the Church, is now set on the Watling Street boundary wall of the ‘Fidelity’ building, 25 Cannon Street. Before that it was on the wall of the previous building, Gateway House, there only from the 1960’s to the 1990’s. See more under the ‘Who’s Who of Bread Street’ Originally a splendid memorial existed in St Mildred’s Church, only parts of which survived the Blitz and were salvaged from the rubble. More on Admiral Phillip on Page 40:
Admiral Phillip in Watling Street
This re-erected memorial was unveiled on May 8th 1968 by His Excellency the Honourable Sir Alexander Downer, KBE, High Commissioner for Australia and re-dedicated by the Right Reverend Francis Evered Junt, Bishop of Stepney. Alderman of Bread Street ward: H Murray Fox, MA, Common Councilmen: S.R. Walker, CBE, Deputy, R.M. Simon MA, LLB, G.D. Trentham, R.N. Steiner, MA , C. McAuley, O.S.R. Rawson Ward Clerk: S.D. Plummer, OFC - 27 -
Paternoster Square is an example of an area redeveloped twice since the 1940’s and has its own rich history. After the Second World War it was redeveloped in what some would call a ‘brutal’ style of architecture and this was then demolished as early as the 1990’s. There followed a long saga of proposals and consultations with the Prince of Wales becoming involved. The resulting new Paternoster Square attempts to recreate some of the old street lines and may well be considered to be both easier on the eye than the post - war development and also complementing St Paul’s.
“Which way to London Bridge?”
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“Cunningly disguised ventilation shaft”
“The old & the new”
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An addition to the ward is the new Stock Exchange fronting onto Newgate Street.
The modern Stock Exchange at the north end of Paternoster Square
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Firefighters’ Memorial On the edge of the Ward just south of St Pauls at the junction of Carter Street and visible from the new Millennium Bridge stands a memorial to the firefighters who so valiantly tried to minimise the damage caused by the bombs which fell on the City during the Second World War
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City Information Centre This was rebuilt a few years ago and provides an up-to-date centre open 7 days a week. It has information on places of interest and events, as well as providing services selling Oyster cards and event tickets, Foreign Money Exchange and has free WiFi.
Gisor’s Hall. It seems that in Basing Lane was the mansion house of the ancient family of Gisors, some of whom for several generations served the chief offices in the magistracy of the City. John Gisor was Lord Mayor in 1245, and another John in 1386.
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More Recent History It is a sad fact that the whole of the ward’s area was virtually flattened as a result of the bombing in the Second World War. Many of the post-war buildings have themselves been, or are planned to be demolished and new buildings erected.
St Paul’s 1945
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The Who’s Who of old Bread Street Bread Street gained its name quite simply because it was the place where London's bread was sold in the Middle Ages. In Edward I's reign the City's bakers were ordered to sell their wares here and nowhere else, but clearly the bakers were not without competitors because in Henry VI's reign, John Mitchell, Mayor in 1437, ordained: "That foreign bakers bringing foreign bread for sale shall stand at the following five places, and not elsewhere, viz., Billingesgate and Quenehithe with neighbouring vacant places, at Fletebridge between the gate of the common latrine and the outer gate of the prison of the Flete with intervening lane, in Chepe between the High Cross and the Conduit, and in Cornhylle between the Conduit and Ledynhale, under penalty of forfeiture of the whole of their foreign bread." By the time Stow wrote in the 16th century, however, the bakers of Bread Street had already given place to "rich merchants" and "divers fair inns". For several hundred years the price of bread was fixed by the Assize. The price remained constant but the amount received for the price varied, with the result that bakers frequently seemed to be in trouble over short weight, for example, in 1258 AD:-
"Justiciar Hugh Bygot summoned before himself and before the Earl of Gloucester all the bakers of the City who could be found, together with their loaves; and so, by some few citizens summoned before them, judgement was given in reference to their bread: those whose bread did not weigh according to the assay of the City, not being placed in the pillory, as they used to be, but, at the will of the Justiciar and Earl aforesaid, exalted in the tumbrel, against the ancient usage of the City and of all the realm." We can only now conjecture what the word 'exalted' meant in that context, but its combination with "Tumbrel" would have had sinister implications; probably the guilty were ducked in the river, the "exaltation" being the upper elevation part of the punishment exercise on the Ducking-Stool. - 34 -
Sir Nicholas Brembre "the worthie and puissant man of the City" was a collector of customs for the Port of London and at one time employed Geoffrey Chaucer for his comptroller. He was an Alderman of the Ward, was Lord Mayor of London (1377/78 & 1383-86) and the chief supporter among the citizens of Richard II. Although popular with his supporters, he was tyrannous during his mayoralty of 1383/84, among other things executing a Cordwainer for complicity in a riot in Cheapside. He had powerful enemies and was eventually vanquished by them, being impeached for Treason by his arch enemy the Duke of Gloucester. Notwithstanding his support of the Monarch, he was executed in 1388. John Milton was born in Bread Street on 9th December 1608 in his father’s house which stood on the east side at the corner of Bread Street and the north side of Watling Street. He was baptised at All Hallows before the end of that year. As a child he was a literary prodigy. He was educated privately until 1621 when he entered St. Paul’s School. He graduated from Christ’s College, Cambridge in 1629 but did not enter the Church as might have been expected in those days. Milton was fluent in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French and Italian and by 1627 had written his first poetry in Latin and Hebrew. His first known English poem was written in 1628. His Masque, ‘Comus’, was written in 1634. He travelled on a Continental tour in 1638/39 and met with many important churchmen and intellectuals including Galileo. His eyesight deteriorated from 1644 and he lost the sight in his left eye in 1648; by 1652 he was totally blind. He continued to work, composing and dictating until he died. During this time he dictated his epic poem ‘Paradise Lost’.
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Milton was a religious man with interests in music, mathematics and astronomy. He supported the Puritan and Commonwealth side in the Civil War and in 1649 he was appointed Secretary for Foreign Tongues to the Council of State led by Cromwell. In effect, he was England’s first Secretary of State and Foreign Minister. Many of his writings were both controversial and ahead of their time. His ‘Areopagitica’, presented to the English Parliament in 1644, argued with passion and lucidity for freedom of the press. In 1651 he wrote a powerful argument against the Divine Right of Kings. Milton’s brilliance made him nationally and internationally famous but also put his life at risk in those turbulent times. His concepts and arguments were strongly influential in the establishment of our modern religious, civil and domestic liberties. Milton’s contribution to the founding of Constitutional Monarchy and the birth of modern republics such as the USA can be clearly traced. It can be said that John Milton was Bread Street’s most famous son and the City’s most famous Cockney. A stone plaque now in Bow Churchyard commemorates the christening of John Milton in All Hallows Bread Street in 1608. His Quadricentenary celebrations in 2008 saw a ‘Blue Plaque’ unveiled by the Lord Mayor, accompanied by Sir Michael Savory and Beadle Angus Ross, on Bread Street and the passage into St Mary-le-Bow Churchyard named John Milton Passage. There were many celebrations and lectures to mark this anniversary of a very special man. Blue plaque in Milton Passage
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The Lord Mayor, Alderman Sir David Lewis with Bread Street Alderman Sir Michael Savory and Beadle Angus Ross at the Milton plaque unveiling ceremony on 14th July 2008 - 37 -
Born in Bread Street in 1572 and died in 1631 and was buried in the old St Paul’s cathedral. His monument survived the 1666 fire and is on display in St Paul’s today. He became an English poet, satirist, lawyer and priest. In 1621 he became Dean of St Paul’s and was an MP from 1601-14 for Brackley – not a paid position! An eloquent preacher, 160 of his sermons survive. A new statue to John Donne was unveiled in the Jubilee gardens next to St Paul’s and the Club were represented, having contributed to this venture.
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Thomas Carpenter who lived in Friday Street was a Haberdasher who died in 1731, left a sum of £1,000 in trust to assist poor young men in the Ward of Bread Street and surrounding wards to establish themselves in business. Later the Fund was extended to assist in the education of children whose parents are residents or employed in the Ward of Bread Street. The Trust funds have grown considerably over the intervening years and the Trustees continue to make
educational grants to suitably qualified candidates each year. The majority of the present Trustees are members of the Bread Street Ward Club.
Percival Pott, 1714-88, lived in Watling Street and was a notable surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital. His name still has world-wide fame. The term Pott's fracture is commonly applied to the compound variety of broken ankle which he sustained "he was thrown from his horse, and suffered a compound fracture of the leg, the bone being forced down through the integuments (skin). Conscious of the dangers attendant on fractures of this nature and thoroughly aware how much they may be increased by rough treatment or improper position, he would not suffer himself to be moved until he had made the necessary dispositions. He sent to Westminster, then the nearest place, for two chairmen to bring their poles, and patiently lay on the cold pavement, it being in the middle of January, until they arrived. In this situation he purchased a door, to which he made them nail their poles. When all was ready he caused himself to be laid on it, and was carried through Southwark, over London Bridge, to Watling Street, near St Paul's, where he had lived for some time. At a consultation of surgeons the case was thought so desperate as to require immediate amputation. Mr Pott convinced that no one could be a proper judge in his own case, submitted to their opinion, and the proper instruments were actually got ready, when Mr Nourse (his former master and then colleague at St Bartholomew's Hospital), who had been prevented from coming sooner, fortunately entered the room. After examining the limb he conceived there was a possibility of preserving it; an attempt to save it was acquiesced in, and succeeded." - 39 -
Sir Richard Ford, who died in 1678 and was Lord Mayor 1670/71, Sir Richard Hoare, who founded a bank, was Lord Mayor in 1712/13 and died in 1718, Brass Crosby, Lord Mayor in 1770/71 and Ralph Holland, Alderman from 1435-44 all have a colourful tale to tell.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 to 1822) married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin in St Mildred’s Church in Bread Street on 30th December 1816.
Arthur Phillip, An annual service of commemoration is held in St Mary-le-Bow church at which the club is represented, together with, amongst others, the Lord Mayor and Bread Street Alderman and his Beadle. An address by someone with experience on the Admiral, the First Fleet or the early colony makes the service a worthwhile event to attend. As well as the Watling Street memorial – see Pg 27 and below - there is also a memorial tablet in the church at which a wreath is laid during the service.
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Monument to Admiral Arthur Phillip
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Arthur Phillip was born on the 11th of October, 1738 in the Bread Street Ward and baptised in All Hallows Bread Street Church exactly one month later.(1) His parents were Jacob Phillip, who may have been a language teacher from Frankfurt, but was just as likely a sailor, and Elizabeth Breach, widow of John Herbert, a seaman in the Royal Navy. Arthur had sea-going aspirations as he went to the Royal Naval Hospital School in Greenwich in 1751. He was bound as an apprentice to William Readhead, a whale hunter who went after his catch in the waters around Spitsbergen in the summer and who traded in the Mediterranean in the winter. In 1755, Phillip joined the Navy and proceeded to climb up the naval hierarchy ladder. In 1787, the London Gazette reported that “the King has been please to appoint Arthur Phillip, Esq; to be Captain-General and Governor in Chief of the Territory of New South Wales”. That sounds rather grand, but the reality was that Phillip had to take eleven ships, the First Fleet, with over 700 convicts besides the regular sailors and some officers, to Botany Bay which had been discovered by James Cook a number of year before, in order to start a new colony. And so he did, but not in Botany Bay, which, although lush in vegetation, did not provide enough shelter and fresh water.
Placques on Arthur Phillip’s monument
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He established the colony in Port Jackson, an inlet slightly further north from the Bay. Phillip spend five years as governor of Sydney which he named after the British Home Secretary, Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, who had been instrumental in granting Phillip the charter authorising him to administer the colony. The settlement went through some rough times as disease was rife and the relief ships were late in bringing much needed supplies, but despite these setbacks, Sydney grew from these small beginnings into a large and prosperous city. Phillip was considered a reasonably fair man who tried to establish good relations with the indigenous people. It is difficult to judge this fairness from our viewpoint of another era where simply taking land from those who live there for you own, or your country’s gain is decidedly frowned upon. Phillip left for England in December 1792 when the colony started to take shape and handed the administration over to Francis Grose, a far less likeable man. Phillip did some more work for the Navy until he fully retired in 1805 to live out his remaining years in Bath. He was buried on 7 September 1814 in St. Nicholas Church, Bathampton.(2)
Arthur Phillip by Francis Wheatley. Oil on canvas, 1786. NPG 1462 ©National Portrait Gallery - 43 -
Some other prominent Bread Street personalities are included:
John Ansley (1774 – September 23, 1845) served as Lord Mayor of London from 1807 to 1808. Ansley was a Merchant Tailor, and liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Leathersellers. He was appointed an alderman in the City of London's Bread Street ward in 1800, when aged only 26, and subsequently elected one of the Sheriffs of the City of London in 1805, before being elected Lord Mayor in 1807. Ansley served as vice-president of the Royal Literary Fund for many years, and was a patron of the Merchant Taylors' School. Lawrence, William (1789-1855) Liberal reformer and civic activist was born at St. Agnes Cornwall, 4 February 1789. In London he became a builder at Pitfield Wharf, Commercial Road, Lambeth, 30 Bread Street, Cheapside and 21 Pitfield Street, Hoxton from 1823 to his death. In addition, he was Chairman of the Legal and Commercial Fire and Life Assurance Company. In his civic life he was a member of the Common Council from 1832 in the ward of Bread Street, Alderman in the same ward from 1848 to his death and Sheriff from 1849-50. He was a member of the City Liberal Club, the Reform Club and the Devonshire Club. As a reformer and Unitarian, his rational liberalism was extended to public service in the form of the Tower Hamlets Commission of Sewers and Holborn and Finsbury Commission of Sewers, on the Executive of the Commons Preservation Society 1869-1886, and as a Council member of the London Chamber of Commerce. Two of his sons, Sir William Lawrence (0000-1897) and Sir James Clarke Lawrence (1820-1897) became Lord Mayor’s. He died at 94 Westbourne Terrace on 25 November 1855. - 44 -
Lawrence, Sir William (1821-1897) MP and Lord Mayor was City born and bred. His father William Lawrence (1789-1855) was an Alderman and his brother James Clarke Lawrence (1820-97) was MP for Lambeth, where the family owned Pitfield Wharf. Brought up in the midst of a building business in Bread Street, he was elected as an Alderman for this ward on his father's death in 1855. Other duties included Magistrate for Middlesex and the City of Westminster, a Commissioner of Lieutenancy for London and Deputy for Middlesex, Sheriff in 185758, member of the Metropolitan Board of Works 1860-63, Lord Mayor 1863-64, Governor of the Royal Hospitals, Master of the Carpenters’ 1856-57 and Prime Warden of the Fishmongers’ in 187475. As a Liberal he sat for the City in parliament between 1865 and 1874. Here he was swept away in the shift to Conservatism, although returning briefly in 1880. As a Liberal of the old school, he favoured the abolition of duties on Hackney carriages and shipping, licensed victuallers, and house property tax. His period as MP was one of transition in the political views of the City. In his father’s day Liberalism reigned supreme and the Conservatives were a hopeless minority, but as years went on its complexion changed. By the time Lawrence contested Paddington South in 1885 he was well on the way to a nascent form of Liberal-Unionism. He died 18 April 1897, having been knighted ten years earlier.
Waterlow, Sir Sidney (1822-1906) businessman, philanthropist and Lord Mayor began an incredible life on 1 November 1822 at Crown Street, Finsbury. His father, James Waterlow, was a member of the Stationers’ Company and Common Councillor for Cornhill ward. His grandmother in Mile End brought him up until the age of 7. Like his family arrangements more - 45 -
generally, his education was far from settled. Firstly, he went to Dame’s school in Worship Street, then to a boarding school in Southwark, and then to St. Saviour’s Grammar school in Southwark, at which time he lived with his father at Gloucester Terrace, Hoxton. Both father and son were members of the Unitarian congregations at South Place chapel, Finsbury under the influential ministry of William Johnson Fox. A network was also in evidence when, in 1836, he was apprenticed to his uncle Thomas Harrison, a member of the Stationers’ Company and government printer with whom he lived at Pimlico and later at Sloane Square. At the age of twenty-one, he went to Paris to extend his knowledge of printing under the charge of the publisher’s Messieurs. Galignani’s. The Waterlow family, of French descent, had started a stationers business in Birchin Lane in 1811, and on his return to London in 1844 the fourth son Sydney extended the concern to London Wall, employing at least two thousand people. The firm grew rapidly and specialising in the printing of confidential government papers, was made limited in 1876, reconstructed in 1879 and by 1897 it had become highly profitable. Indeed, his company was the first to print the Banker’s Magazine. He also took advantage of the emerging business in railways, as Vice-Chairman of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway from 1874-99 and in banking as a Director of the Union Bank of London. His influence in the financial City grew expeditiously. He was also to become a member of the London Chamber of Commerce. He had been a Common Councillor in the ward of Bread Street from 1857 (he was particularly noted for the introduction of overhead telegraphic communications between police stations) when he was asked in 1863, in a requisition signed by nearly every banker in Lombard Street, to stand as an Alderman in the Langbourn ward. A member of the Stationers’ Company - he had joined the Livery in 1847 - he served as Master in 1872-73. He also became a Clothworker, in this his Lord Mayoral year. - 46 -
Ellis, Sir John Whittaker (1829-1912) businessman, MP and Lord Mayor was born January 25 1829 at Petersham, Surrey. He was the fifth son of the proprietor of the Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, and his wife, Elizabeth Masters. Baptised at the Hanover Independent Chapel, Peckham on May 27, he received a sound elementary education. Later, as a leading City auctioneer, he owed his career to Sir John Musgrove (1793-1881) who first employed him, eventually becoming the senior partner in the firm. A Common Councillor by 1864, he succeeded Musgrove as an Alderman from 1872 to his death, also in the ward of Bread Street. This was the foundation of a full public life. He was Sheriff for the City in 1874, for Surrey in 1899, Lord Mayor in 1881-82, Commissioner of Lieutenancy for London, Master of the Merchant Taylors' in 1884, Governor of the Irish Society for ten years from 1883, JP for Londonderry and Charter Mayor for Richmond in 189091. He was rewarded with a Baronetcy in 1882 on the occasion of the Queen's visit to Epping Forest and the Chevalier 2nd Class of the Gold Lion of Nassau.
Savory, Sir Joseph (1843-1921) businessman, Lord Mayor and MP was born on an uncertain date in Upper Clapton in 1843. He was educated at Harrow and married Helen Pemberton in 1888. Head of an important jewellery company, he also maintained interests in the Royal Mail Steam Company, the London Provincial Bank, the Mutual Reserve Company and eventually, the Goldsmiths' Alliance & Co. A City clubman and a Conservative – a member of the Carlton Club, National Club and City Carlton Club - he was an active member of the Clockmakers’, Poulters’ and Shipwrights’ Livery Companies, although he was - 47 -
refused entry to the Goldsmiths’. Also active in the wider City as a member of the City Church & Churchyard Protection Society, he became Alderman of Langbourn, Sheriff of London and Middlesex in 1882 and Lord Mayor in 1890-91. He was JP and Deputy Lieutenant for the City, the counties of Westmoreland and Berkshire, Chairman of Christ’s Hospital, Governor of St. Bart’s, St. Thomas’s, Queen Anne’s Bounty and the Royal Holloway College. He also sat as a member of the London School Board. His Conservatism extended to parliament where he sat for the Appleby division of Westmoreland from 1892, until his defeat in 1900. He died 1 October 1921.
Alliston, Sir Frederick Prat (1832-1912) was not a prominent figure in the Corporation and his birth date is not known. A Cordwainer and active member of the Masons’ Company, he represented Bread Street on the Common Council from 1878 to 1895, and as an Alderman from this date until 1908. Although his main interests were the fate of the City’s markets, he also served in a variety of other ways. As a Christian, he was a member of St. John’s Evangelist and Chairman of the Central Unemployed Body of London. He was also a poor law Guardian. In 1887 he was Deputy Governor of the Irish Society, member of the London County Council for the City from 1901 and Deputy Chairman in 1904. He was discharged from the Aldermanic Court in 1908 in circumstances that are not clear, but was also awarded a Knighthood in the same year. He died 16 May 1912.
Note. The above mentioned are obviously only a sample of the many famous/notorious characters connected with the Ward.
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One of the old businesses of Bread Street
In the mid 19th century much of the Bread Street area was occupied by companies involved in textiles and allied trades. One such company, W Williams & Son (Bread Street) Ltd, a haberdashery company was started in 1819 in the East End. In 1865 they opened a warehouse at No1 Old Change, moving in 1865 to Friday Street and in 1868 to Bread Street where their original warehouse remained until the 2nd World War. A sale of oddments in a December in the 1890’s realised £10k and was described as a “humourless but undignified event” and it was discontinued soon after. The warehouses were first destroyed in September 1940, not by bombing but by fire despite an elaborate sprinkler system. It was low tide on the Thames and the water supply was only sufficient for isolated fires. The strong room survived and all essential papers and documents recovered. The firm moved to Chesham only to have their building requisitioned by the Ministry of Aircraft Production! They returned to repaired premises at Milton Buildings, 48 Bread Street and 21 & 21a Bread Street. In turn these were badly damaged in January 1941 and the company again retired to north-west London returning before the end of the war to Aldersgate Street. - 49 -
In the 17c, there were many business visitors to the City, including carriers of goods by land and sea. A big implication was accommodating these people for their visits and a long list was published. A few are copied here where Bread Street hostelries were used. THE Carriers Coſmographie. Or A Briefe Relation, of The Innes, Ordinaries, Hoſteries, and other lodgings in, and neere London, where the Carriers, Waggons, Foote-poſts and Higglers, doe uſually come, from any parts, townes, ſhires and countries, of the Kingdomes of England, Principality of Wales, as alſo from the Kingdomes of Scotland and Ireland. With nomination of what daies of the weeke they doe come to London, and on what daies they returne, whereby all ſorts of people may finde direction how to receiue, or ſend, goods or letters, unto ſuch places as their occaſions may require. As alſo, Where the Ships, Hoighs, Barkes, Tiltboats, Barges and wherries, do uſually attend to Carry Paſſengers, and Goods to the coaſt Townes of England, Scotland, Ireland, or the Netherlands; and where the Barges and Boats are ordinarily to bee had that goe up the River of Thames weſtward from London. By Iohn Taylor. London Printed by A. G. 1 1637. To all Whom it may concerne, with my kinde remembrance to the Poſts, Carriers, Waggoners and Higglers. IF any man or woman whomſoever hath either occaſion or patience to Read this following deſcription, it is no doubt but they ſhall find full ſatisfaction forasmuch as they laid out for the booke, if not, it is againſt my will, and my good intentions are loſt and fruſtrate. I wrote it for three Cauſes, firſt for a generall and neceſſary good uſe for the whole Common-wealth, ſecondly to expreſſe my gratefull duty to all thoſe who have honeſtly paid me my mony which they owed me for my Bookes of the collection of Tavernes, in London and Weſtminſter, and tenne ſhires or Counties next round about London, and I doe alſo thanke all ſuch as doe purpoſe to pay me heereafter: thirdly, (for the third ſort) that can pay me and will not; I write this as a document: I am well pleaſed to leave them to the hangmans tuition (as being paſt any other mans mending) for I would have them to know, that I am ſenſible of the too much loſſe that I doe ſuffer by their pride or couſenage, their number being ſo many, and my charge ſo great, which I paid for paper and printing of thoſe bookes, that the baſe dealing of thoſe ſharks is Inſupportable; But the tedious Toyle that I had in this Collection, and the harſh and unſavoury anſwers that I was faine to take patiently, from Hoſtlers, Carriers, and Porters, may move any man that thinks himſelfe mortall to pitty me. The Carriers of Abington doe lodge at the George in bred ſtreet,2 they do come on wedneſdaies and goe away on thurſdaies. The Carriers of Bathe doe lodge at the three cups in breadſtreet they come on fridaies and goe on ſaturdaies.
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The Carriers of Burfoord in Oxfordſhire, doe lodge at the bell in friday street, they come on thurſdaies and goe away on fridaies. The Carriers of Barſtable in Devonſhire, doe lodge at the ſtarre in breadſtreet, they come on fridaies and returne on ſaturdaies or mundaies. The Carriers of Cheltenham in Gloceſterſhire, doe lodge at the three caps in Bredstreet, they doe come on Fridaies and goe away on Saturdaies. The Carriers of Cambden in Gloceſtershire, and of Chippingnorton, doe lodge at the three Cups in Bredstreet, they come and goe Thurdaies, Fridaies, and Saturdaies. The Carriers of Chard doe lodge at the George in Bredſtreet. The Carriers of Cheſter do lodge at Bloſſomes (or Boſomes Inne) in Saint Laurence lane, neere Cheapſide, every Thursday. THe Carriers of Dunmow in Eſſex, doe lodge at the Saracens head in Gracious ſtreet, they come and goe on Thurſdaies and Fridaies. The Carriers of Ditmarſh in Barkeſhire, doe lodge at the George in Bredſtreet. The Carriers of Exeter do lodge at the ſtar in breadſtreet, they come on fridaies and goe away on ſaturdaies or mundaies. THe Carriers of Keinton in Oxfordſhire, doe lodge at the Bell in Friday ſtreet, they are there to be had on Thurſdaies and Fridaies. CArriers from New-elme in Barkeſhire doe lodge at the George in breadſtreet they come on wedneſdaies and thurſdaies. THe Carriers of Preſton in Lancaſhire doe lodge at the Bell in friday ſtreet, they are there on fridayes. THe Carriers of Redding in Barkeſhire doe lodge at the George in Breadſtreet, they are there on thurſdaies and fridaies. The Carriers from Stroodwater in Gloceſterſhire doe lodge at the Bell in friday ſtreet, they doe come on Thurſdaies and fridaies. The Carriers of Shaftſbury, and from Sherbourne in Dorcetſhire doe lodge at the Crowne (or Iarrets Hall) in Baſeing lane neere Breadſtreet, they come on fridaies. CArriers from Teuxbury in Gloceſterſhire doe lodge at the three Cups in Breadſtreet, they come and goe on fridaies and ſaturdaies. The Carriers of Tiverton in Devonſhire, doe lodge at the ſtarre in Breadſtreet, they come on fridaies and returne on ſaturdaies or mundaies. The Carriers of Wallingford in Barkeſhire doe lodge at the George in Breadſtreet, their daies are wedneſdaies, thurſdaies, and fridaies. The Carriers of Winchcombe in Gloceſterſhire doe lodge at the three Cups in Breadſtreet, they come and goe on fridaies and ſaturdaies. The Clothiers of ſundry parts of Wiltſhire doe weekely come and lodge at the Saracens head in Friday-ſtreet. The Carriers of Warwick doelodge at the Bell in Friday-ſtreet they are there on thurſdaies and fridaies.
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The wider ‘City of London’ The area called the City of London, or in common terms the Square Mile, started as the Roman Town later contained within the City Walls. Many mediaeval institutions still exist today, including the retention by the City of its own Local Government (Corporation of London), its own Police Force and many titles only now found in the City, such as Aldermen. The City is still divided into 25 wards. Many of them are named after the trades associated with those areas e.g. Bread, Cordwainer, Vintry. There are also over 100 Livery Companies, most of which are based on the old ‘Guilds’ or trade associations, although new ones such as the ‘Water Conservators’ are coming into being or applying for Livery. There are about 25,000 Liverymen. A number of present and past Club members have served as Masters of their Livery Companies, including the late Sir Murray Fox and Rodney FitzGerald, Sir Michael Savory, Sir David Wootton, Adrian Waddingham, John Taylor and Barry Davis. A number of current Club members are Liverymen, whilst many others are Freemen of the City of London. The government of the Corporation of London is vested in the ‘Court of Common Council’ comprising two bodies. The Court of Commoners comprises the Common Councilmen elected from each ward. The total has been reduced to 100, two representing Bread Street Ward. There is a wide variety of work carried out by the Corporation in addition to its primary role as the Local Authority for the City. This includes the management of the property and land belonging to the City (Epping Forest, Burnham Beeches and more) and for managing and maintaining many of the bridges across the Thames. Also they retain the pageantry and historic places like Guildhall, part of the fascination of the City. The ‘Court of Aldermen’ has 25 members (one per ward). An Alderman is elected by the voters in the ward and, if found acceptable to the Court of Aldermen, serves for a period of 6 years after which he/she must resign or stand for re-election. The upper age limit is 70. - 52 -
From that body each year one Alderman is nominated by them to be the Lord Mayor of London for one year, such nominations having to be approved by the Livery of the various companies assembled in the Great Hall of Guildhall. The Lord Mayor is the Chief Magistrate of the City, first Justice of the Central Criminal Court (Old Bailey), head of the City Lieutenancy, Clerk of the Markets and Admiral of the Port of London; an impressive list. The Lord Mayor also presides over the Court of Common Council similar to a Mayor or Chairman presides over a City, Borough or District Council. The day after inauguration he/she holds the Lord Mayor’s Show (second Saturday in November). The Lord Mayor hosts and attends many functions, receives and entertains Heads of State when they visit Britain and travels widely at home and, at the behest of Government, overseas as an ‘Ambassador’ for the City and Britain. There are many special positions within the City including two Sheriffs (usually one an Alderman and the other a layman), and, as officers for the Lord Mayor, the Swordbearer, Common Cryer and Serjeant-at-Arms and the City Marshal. The Club is proud to have had several members as Lord Mayor - our founding President, the late Sir Murray Fox became Lord Mayor in 1974, and Sir Michael Savory in 2004, Sir David Wootton in 2011 and Sir Roger Gifford in 2012. The late Alderman Sir Murray Fox was Sheriff in 1971, the late Rodney FitzGerald in 1983, John Taylor in 1990, Alderman Neil Young in 1991, Alderman Sir Michael Savory in 2001, Alderman Sir Roger Gifford in 2008, Alderman Sir David Wootton in 2009, and Adrian Waddingham in 2013. Two club members have served as Chief Commoner in recent times Terence Donnelly held that office in 1991, but sadly died in office and Tom Jackson in 2004, who also sadly died recently in November 2015. Earlier last century the Bread Street Aldermen who became Lord Mayor were Viscount Wakefield in 1915 and Sir Frederick Wells in 1947.
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Compilers Originally researched and compiled in 1982 by J Derriman and C M G Durston, past Chairmen of the Ward Club. Revised and updated 2001, 2006, 2013 and 2015 by Angus Ross and Michael Evans, both past Chairmen of the Ward Club and respectively the current Beadle to the Alderman and the Honorary Ward Clerk. Research on Milton undertaken in 2006 by committee member Leon Jacklin. Modern photographs by Angus Ross & others
Acknowledgements Thanks are due to the Clarendon Press for their permission to quote the text on "Percival Pott" which has been extracted from page 20 of "Dictionary of National Biography from the Earliest Times to 1900, 1921-1922 edition; also to the Corporation of London for their permission to quote passages on the sale of bread from "The Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London" and from "Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London".
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