IEEE History Center

IEEE History Center

IEEE History Center ISSUE 97, March 2015 I Such efforts address both goals one a This activity was part “ o This effort comp The administrative and...

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Things to See and Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

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Center Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

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IEEE History Center The newsletter reports on the activities of the IEEE History Center and on new resources and projects in electrical and computer history. It is published three times each year—once in hard copy (March) and twice electronically ( July and November) by the IEEE History Center.

IEEE History Center at Stevens Institute of Technology Samuel C. Williams Library 3rd Floor 1 Castle Point on Hudson Hoboken, NJ 07030-5991 Telephone +1 732 562 5450 Fax +1 732 562 6020 E-mail: [email protected] URL:

IEEE History Committee 2015 David Burger, Chair Allison Marsh, Vice Chair Fiorenza Albert-Howard Jacob Baal-Schem Theodore Bickart Richard Gowen John Impagliazzo Paul Israel David Kemp Antonio Perez Yuste Antonio Savini Mischa Schwartz Isao Shirakawa Jorge Soares John Vig

IEEE History Center Staff Michael Geselowitz, Senior Director [email protected] Sheldon Hochheiser, Archivist and Institutional Historian [email protected] Alexander Magoun, Outreach Historian [email protected] John Vardalas, Senior Historian [email protected] Nathan Brewer, Digital Content Administrator [email protected] Robert Colburn, Research Coordinator [email protected] IEEE prohibits discrimination, harassment and bullying. For more information visit © IEEE information contained in this newsletter may be copied without permission, provided that copies for direct commercial advantage are not made or distributed, and the title of the IEEE publication and its date appear on each copy.


STATIC FROM THE DIRECTOR By Michael Geselowitz, Ph.D. Welcome to another action-packed issue of the IEEE History Center newsletter, the first issue in what is poised to be a very exciting year. As discussed by the IEEE History Committee Chair in his column (pg 3) and also described in the article on page 4, the new Engineering & Technology Wiki site has been launched. As mentioned last issue, a Phase 2 grant from the United Engineering Foundation will have us continuing to fine-tune the site and finding additional partners. Our main focus in 2015, however, will be on raising the visibility of this new exciting resource. I hope

Subscription Information The IEEE History Center newsletter is available free to all persons interested in technological history – whether engineers, scholars, researchers, hobbyists, or interested members of the public. It is published in hard copy in March, and in electronic form in July and November of each year. To subscribe to the IEEE History Center’s free newsletter, please send your name, postal mailing address, e-mail address (optional if you wish to receive the electronic versions), and IEEE member number (if applicable – non-

that you, our staunch supporters, will visit the site (, use its content, and, most importantly, participate in our efforts to preserve and make known engineering history by writing topic articles or first-hand histories. Our other major focus this year will be REACH (Raising Engineering Awareness/Appreciation through the Conduit of History) our pre-university educational program that was previewed last issue by our IEEE Development Office colleague, Natalie Krauser-McCarthy. To remind you, REACH will be our effort to give pre-university teachers the tools they need to teach and engage their students in the history and role of engineering and

members are encouraged to subscribe as well) to [email protected] Current and past issues of the newsletter can be accessed at: _center/newsletters.html The IEEE History Center is a non-profit organization which relies on your support to preserve, research, and promote the legacy of electrical engineering and computing. To support the Center’s projects – such as the Global History Network, Milestones, and Oral History Collection, please click the "Donate Online" tab at or

NEWSLETTER SUBMISSION BOX The IEEE History Center Newsletter welcomes submissions of Letters to the Editor, as well as articles for its Reminiscences and Relic Hunting departments. “Reminiscences” are accounts of history of a technology from the point of view of someone who worked in the technical area or was closely connected to someone who was. They may be narrated either in the first person or third person. “Relic Hunting” are accounts of finding or tracking down tangible pieces of electrical history in interesting or unsuspected places (in situ and still operating is of particular interest). Length: 500-1200 words. Submit to [email protected] Articles and letters to the editor may be edited for style or length.

The IEEE History Center Newsletter Advertising Rates The newsletter of the IEEE History Center is published three times per annum; one issue (March) in paper, the other two (July and November) electronically. The circulation of the paper issue is 4,800; the circulation of the electronic issues is 22,500. The newsletter reaches engineers, retired engineers, researchers, archivists, and curators interested specifically in the history of electrical, electronics, and computing engineering, and the history of related technologies. Cost Per Issue Quarter Page $150 Half Page $200 Full Page $250 Please submit camera-ready copy via mail or email attachment to [email protected] Deadlines for receipt of ad copy are 2 February, 2 June, 2 October. For more information, contact Robert Colburn at [email protected]

STATIC FROM THE DIRECTOR technology in their society. While not every student who learns about the history of engineering and technology will enter a technical field (though we hope some do!), everyone will gain a better understanding of the technology they use daily, and of how the engineering discipline helped create the world many take for granted. We are not the only ones who believe that the role of technology in history is important—the “Common Core” social studies standards that are being promoted in the United States call for students to engage in the subject—but for structural and historical reasons history teachers currently lack the tools to do so effectively and in an exciting way. The IEEE History Center is well positioned to fill that gap! 2015 will be the year that we organize our staff team to take on this important initiative, identify our external content partners, develop production and communication plans, and convene stakeholder meetings. We will also be working closely with Natalie and our other IEEE Development Office and IEEE Foundation partners to identify and engage potential major donors. I would like to point out that despite these two major initiatives, ETHW and REACH, we have not let up in our other ac-

Issue 97 March 2015

tivities to preserve and make known the proud heritage of IEEE, its members, our professions and industries, and, most importantly, the related technologies. The ever accelerating Milestones program has reached a Milestone of its own (see pg. 7). Our successful move to the Stevens Institute of Technology was capped off by some exciting university teaching (pg. 5). Our social media presence is exploding (pg. 5). We completed an important institutional history project for the IEEE Life Members Committee (pg. 4). We hope that all of these programs continue to draw your support for our important mission. This is the newsletter issue when annually we recognize you, our generous donors, with our Honor Role (pp 9-13). As you can see—despite uncertain economic times and despite an ever-increasing number of calls for your philanthropic dollars—you and your fellow fans of the IEEE History Center have come through again. I want to personally express my extreme gratitude and also my hope that you will continue to give generously, whether for REACH (our fundraising focus this year), for general operating support, or for any program or project that resonates with you personally. Thanks again.

HISTORY COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES HISTORY COMMITTEE CHAIR’S MESSAGE Taking this opportunity to thank you all for the support in 2014, needs to be extended especially to those of you who recognise the History Centre operations as a worthwhile means to 'leave your mark' in history! To the donors and volunteers, your contributions may seem to disappear into the noise of today's social communications, and I want to assure you that your contributions are highly valued. Our History Center operation is measured financially as 0.3% of the IEEE machine, our impact however in one of the most visible of IEEE outside academia and far greater than a 0.3% influence. Witness the degree of change during the past 12 months with the History Centre. Sure there were back-end office changes for the staff, with still some challenges to resolve, but the game changer is the new "Engineering and Technology History Wiki". The level of investigative journalism and word of mouth around this initiative are all pointing to the near guaranteed success and support this initiative even before it goes

live. The attention is elevating the IEEE brand and shows we are adaptive to the modern day social and behavioural changes. The anticipated changes in 2015 are expected to be equally significant as our initiatives expand and gather momentum, suffice to say, it will be hard to predict how high we will land from a reputation and global historical impact perspective. One thing history teaches us that most of the challenges we are facing today have all occurred in the past. Technology facilitates social change, where unwanted events in the world can be presented in an unsettling way onto your smart phone within minutes. The recent events here in Sydney and then in Paris both came across like we were there, indeed I was just 300m from the Sydney events, and shared that same emotion of what occurred in Paris just 14 days later. Communications 100 years ago was far less immediate, and now looking forward, the social changes in the future will be driven by what we do in the technology space, for better or for worse.

CENTER ACTIVITIES NEW 45-RPM PHONOGRAPH EXHIBIT AT THE HISTORY CENTER Long before music streaming and MP3 files, and portable cassette decks pioneered by Sony’s Walkman, corporations sought ways to make the music you want available when you want it. In the late 1930s, RCA Victor had a problem. Sales of 78rpm records were rising, and so were sales of record changers on

which people stacked their own playlists, just like AM radio’s first disc jockeys. But 78s, made largely of slate powder, weighed heavily on a record player’s spindle and motor; the variety of shaped edges made it difficult to separate one disc from Continued on Page 4


IEEE History Center


the stack. Benjamin Carson led a team to redesign the record and its changer in a patented system that RCA released only after Columbia records introduced its longplaying 33 1/3-rpm records in 1948. Both systems found their niches among record buyers, the cheap 7-inch diameter singles proving popular with teenagers and performers with only a song to release. RCA Victor made its large-spindle changers for nearly ten years, before multi-speed players with spindle adapters made them less necessary. The single record format is a rare novelty now that plays at the LP speed with an LP spindle, but the format’s durability over 50 years testifies to its cultural appeal. The History Center’s first exhibit at its offices in Stevens Institute’s Samuel C. Williams documents this pop culture icon,

thanks to the generosity of Phil Vourtsis, the world’s leading collector of 45rpm record changers and phonographs. Outreach historian Alex Magoun had worked with him before in assisting with Phil’s book, The Fabulous Victrola 45 (Schiffer, 2002), and creating a smaller exhibit at the David Sarnoff Library. At the History Center Vourtsis loaned a larger sample of RCA Victor record players and related artifacts that Magoun complemented with more recent 45rpm records and other discs of similar or even smaller size. The result is three cabinets showcasing RCA’s initial products and succeeding changers, along with 45s in their original colors and sleeves. Should you be in the New York or Hoboken, NJ area and feel a nostalgic pull, please stop by!

LIFE MEMBERS COMMITTEE HISTORY PROJECT UPDATE, MARCH 2015 By Sheldon Hochheiser, Archivist and Institutional Historian As I reported in the last two issues of the newsletter, at the request of—and with funding from—the IEEE Life Members Committee, the IEEE History Center engaged veteran public historian of technology and IEEE Member Andrew Butrica to research and write a history of the Life Members Committee. In January, as planned, Butrica completed a 162-page draft history and submitted it to the History Center and through the Center to the Life Members Committee for review. The draft documents the entire history of the IEEE Life Members Committee; its predecessor the Life Members Fund Committee; the history of life membership at IEEE predecessors AIEE and IRE; and the many programs that the Life Members Fund has supported over the years. These include many decades of support for historical

activities, both at the IEEE History Center and elsewhere, as well as decades of support for students, education, and the interests of older IEEE members. Butrica’s work stands as a model of what can be done by a historian to document an important piece of IEEE history. Butrica, as part of his research, became no doubt the first person to read all of the minutes of the committee, going back to AIEE days, and all of the issues of the Life Members Newsletters. He also conducted Oral Histories with staff member Dan Toland, who long supported the committee, and key volunteers Art Winston and Jacob Baal-Schem. After reviews are completed, the LMC history will be posted on the the Engineering and Technology History Wiki for all to read and use. The three oral histories will be posted there as well.

UEF PROJECT UPDATE As was reported in the last issue of this newsletter, the IEEE History Center championed the creation of a consortium of engineering associations with the goal of designing, launching, and running a new history of engineering website. With support for the United Engineering Foundation (UEF), this consortium launched the Engineering and Technology History Wiki Network ( in January 2015. Currently the consortium has seven members: AIChE, AIME, ASCE, ASME, IEEE, SPE, and SWE. The UEF is funding a second year to expand and improve the site and seek additional partners, and all partners contribute an annual fee to run the website. The IEEE History


Center manages the site on behalf of the consortium. Please go to the ETHW and explore it. From the outset, the IEEE History Center has believed that ETHW would best serve the world by increasing the diversity of the participating engineering disciplines. The current consortium members all have the same belief. As mentioned, seeing the wisdom of embracing more engineering societies, the United Engineering Foundation has given us a second grant to help in this recruitment. This grant is also intended to help us promote the site within the memberships and the wider general public. To paraphrase a cliché, building it does not ensure that they will come. An active awareness campaign is needed.


Issue 97 March 2015

IEEE HISTORY CENTER AT THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION From Friday 2 January to Monday 5 January, the American Historical Association (AHA)—the main society for practicing historians in North America—held its annual conference in New York City. The theme of the meeting was “History and other Disciplines” and the AHA encouraged nontraditional session formats in order to foment discussion on this important issue of interdisciplinarity. Dr. Andrew Russell, a Stevens Institute of Technology colleague, therefore organized a roundtable session held on the Sunday entitled “The History of Engineering and the Engineering of History,” which was chaired by IEEE History

Committee member Dr. Paul Israel. History center Senior Director Dr. Michael Geselowitz contributed opening remarks entitled “Professional Courtesy: Historians Encounter Engineers” and participated in the subsequent discussion. The session was well attended by a range of historians interested in issues surround engineering and technology (and even one practicing engineer!), and the discussion was lively. While at the conference, Dr. Geselowitz also attended several sessions on public history and participated in the AHA’s annual business meeting.

IEEE HISTORY CENTER ON TWITTER AND TUMBLR The IEEE History Center is bringing history to more people via social networking tools such as Twitter and Tumblr. Follow the activities of the IEEE History Center and others involved in the history of engineering on its Twitter feed at The IEEE History Center maintains a blog on Tumblr in which interesting images related to the history of technology are posted. Featured in Tumblr’s history and science categories,

the blog has approximately 123,000 followers as of January 2015 and more than 130,000 total social interactions. To date, six of the posted images were featured on Tumblr’s radar, a feature that allows the Tumblr staff to broadcast selected images to all logged-in users. These posts receive significantly more social interactions, the highest reaching 10,400. To follow the blog or to view the images, go to

BRINGING THE HISTORY OF ENGINEERING ALIVE The History Center’s innovative course, given in the Fall of 2014, on the history of engineering was a success. As reported in the last issue of this Newsletter, this course, which looked at the role of engineering in human development from prehistoric times to the 18th century, integrated hands-on labs with classroom lectures strongly grounded in history and archaeology. Introducing labs iis an exciting and effective was to make a traditional humanities course come alive, particularly for engineering and science undergraduates. Traditionally, history courses require students to write term papers. The capstone for this course was an ambitious project in which students, grouped in teams, explored the connection between the design and performance in ancient naval vessels. The trireme was a formidable, high performance naval vessel in the ancient Mediterranean. In their superior use of the trireme, the Athenians defeated Xerxes’s much larger Persian fleet at the battle of Salamis, in 480 B.C. Many historians argue that it was this victory that saved Athens and allowed the concept of democracy to take root in the history of the West. The students were asked to examine the role of the cutwater (bow) in the performance of these ancient vessels. Other than serving as a way to mount a bronze ram, did this long protrusion of the bow play any role in the vessels performance? To frame the project, Dr. John Vardalas, Senior Historian at the IEEE History Center, consulted a team of 2 naval architects, an archaeologist, and a historian of ancient navies: Drs. Larrie Ferreiro, Raju Datla, Jeffrey Royal, and William Murray respectively. They suspected that the cutwater played a role. This group produced a

rough sketch that captured the general shape of the cutwaters found in ancient iconography. With the help of a graduate student, our undergraduates worked in two teams to convert this rough sketch into 3-D CAD drawings for the hull. The CAD files was then sent to a CNC machine to produce a 5 ft. scale version of the hull, with two different bow attachments: the ancient cutwater and the traditional bow we normally associate with ships. The two configurations were then tested in Stevens’s world-class tank testing facility, at the Davidson Laboratory. The tank uses an array of sensors to measure the model’s dynamic behavior. The model was run through the water at different speeds. The students then scaled up the data to produce drag coefficient numbers for the full sized vessel, which, based on archaeological evidence, was more than 120 ft. long. From the data, the students discovered that the cutwater conferred clear hydrodynamic advantages to the vessel. Instead of writing a conventional report, the course challenged the students to give a presentation in a specific historical context. They were to go back in time to Ancient Greece and pretend to be naval architects giving a presentation to the Athenian Trieropoioi on the eve of the Peloponnesian War. The Trieropoioi, a board of ten men, was charged by the Athenian assembly to let contracts for trireme construction. Each team had to convince this board that if Athens were to prevail over its Spartan foe, more money had to be invested to support the team’s R&D. The students got into their role-playing and did a wonderful job. The board was played by Stevens faculty and staff, which included the Provost.


IEEE History Center


ROBOTICS HISTORY: NARRATIVES AND NETWORKS. A MAJOR COLLECTION OF ORAL HISTORIES COMES TO THE IEEE HISTORY CENTER In 1961, George Devol and Joe Engelberger put the world’s first industrial robot on the factory floor of General Motors, and in the half-century that followed, robots have found their way into surgery rooms, scientific laboratories, battlefields, search and rescue situations, Mars, and even our homes as vacuum cleaners, toys, and security guards. To commemorate this anniversary, the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society decided in 2010 to undertake a major project to document, and preserve, and disseminate this history. The society formed a partnership with the School of Information and Computing at Indiana University, and in particular, with Assistant Professor Selma Šabanović, a social scientist who is an expert on the influence of social and cultural factors on the design of robots in the U.S. and Japan, as well as on how theories of social cognition can be developed and evaluated through human-robot interaction. Professor Šabanović put together a team to undertake the extensive initial stage of this project, collecting the recollections of major par-

FROM WATT TO JOBS: LIVES OF THE ENGINEERS AND THE RISE OF THE GREAT POWERS It’s not hard to imagine that for engineering majors fulfilling a requirement in history—even when it’s about one’s profession—a course on the history of modern engineering threatens to glaze over the eyes and ears. After all, what can one learn from the development of now-outmoded techniques and technologies? History Center outreach historian Alex Magoun thought he would try to overcome that potential obstacle in two ways. One is to take a biographical approach, and focus on the lives of individual engineers and their relation to the era and countries in which they lived or worked. The second approach is to put those individuals in the context of their countries’ rise to the status of great powers. “I want to make it personal,” Magoun says. “Engineers enjoy and struggle with the fortunes of life, and they have to adapt to or resist the political, economic, and technological trends of their time and space, just as the rest of us do.” Such a course has its challenges, to be sure. Magoun has learned a great deal about civil and mechanical engineering in the 18th and 19th centuries, and is still assimilating what biographies he can assemble about engineers in European and Asian countries in the 19th and 20th centuries. “My high school French helps a bit, but not with German, Japanese, or Russian, alas. The sooner online translation software improves, the better.”


ticipants in robotics through oral history. The team collected more than ninety of these between 2010 and 2013. In 2014, Šabanović approached the IEEE History Center to see if the Center would be interested in hosting and preserving the transcripts of these oral histories on the IEEE Global History Network. The History Center of course, was happy to do so, and she started to send the transcripts to the History Center as they were ready. To date, she has sent 22 transcripts, all of which have been posted. Among the interviews available are those with IEEE Life Fellows Peter Kokotovic, Ray Jarvis, and George Bekey. With the transition from the Global History Network to the new Engineering and Technology History Wiki, these oral histories can be found there. You can find the list of available oral histories, with brief descriptions, and links to the full transcripts at: and_Networks

THANK YOU TO OUR HISTORY CENTER DONORS! Your support helps preserve the heritage of IEEE’s technologies.

Image courtesy of Smithsonian Institution


Issue 97 March 2015

150TH MILESTONE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING DEDICATED IEEE’s Milestone program dedicated its 150th milestone on 5 December 2014. Commemorating Heinrich Hertz’s discovery and proof of electromagnetic waves in 1888, the plaque was unveiled in front of the building where Hertz made his discovery at the Karlsrühe Institute of Technology, Karlsrühe, Germany by 2014 President Roberto de Marca and Karlsrühe Institute of Technology President Detlef Lohe. The Milestone Program has grown in recent years, and is one of the most publicly-visible ways that IEEE recognizes and celebrates achievements within its fields of interest. 2014 was a very active year, with fifteen milestone dedication ceremonies held in Japan, Germany, Canada, and the United States. Because some of the milestones

had multiple plaques, almost half a ton of bronze bearing IEEE’s name was installed in various parts of the globe. Nonetheless, many achievements remain to be recognized, and IEEE encourages its members to propose these achievements. Details of the Milestone Program can be found at: and there is even a list of suggested achievements (which is not intended to be a comprehensive list, merely examples) which can be proposed php?title=Milestones:List_of_Achievements_Suitable_for_ Milestones

THINGS TO SEE AND DO VINTAGE COMPUTER FESTIVAL Vintage Computer Festival East will celebrate its tenth anniversary on April 17-19 at the InfoAge Science Center, in Wall, New Jersey. "VCF East" offers sixteen technical classes, two hands-on demonstration halls of systems from the 1960s-1980s, and historic lectures. This year's keynote speakers are computer designer Wes Clark and VisiCalc co-creator Bob Frankston. There

will be a special ceremony honoring the 50th anniversary of the DEC PDP-8 minicomputer. Visitors to the family-friendly event will also find museum tours, consignment, vendors, food, prizes, and more. Please visit for details or find us on Facebook and Twitter @vcfeast. Contact: [email protected]

THE COMPUTER WORE HEELS APP Guest review by Gabriela Geselowitz, Tablet Magazine In 2011, readers of this newsletter were informed about a documentary film, “Top Secret Rosies,” which had been partially funded by the IEEE Foundation. The IEEE History Center had played an advisory role in the production, and served as one of the premier sites. Now the director of the film, LeAnn Erickson (also a professor of film at Temple University in Philadelphia) has turned the film into an App for the iPad. Like the film, "The Computer Wore Heels" tells the inspirational story of the group of young women in their teens and twenties who used their math skills and early computing technology on behalf of the allies during World War II. It's a story well recorded but under-reported, and this app explains the work of these women in a way accessible to young adults. LeAnn Erickson's App reads like a novel (and is even designed to resemble a book, complete with turning pages), with multimedia extras, from newsreel clips, to old photographs, to now-digitized handwritten notes. It tells the story from the perspective of the young women from a diverse group of back-

grounds who were united by their love of math and desire to help the war effort. The story is one of the history of computing to be sure, but it's also several composite biographies. The app explores the hardships of the young women, including the several Jewish participants in the program fearing the Holocaust overseas, and the discrimination faced by an African American woman on the team. Of course, it outlines how difficult it was to have a career in mathematics as a woman at the time, how they didn't receive the recognition they deserved for their work, and yet what a rare opportunity all the girls had. This story draws the clear connection between math skills and computing, as the women go from solving problems on their own to working on ENIAC. The app concludes with a message to young women encouraging them to follow in the footsteps of these women seventy years ago – and it's a message sorely needed. Hopefully this app will gain popularity and can inspire someone else to not give up on her love of math or computing. Available for the iPad at the Apple App Store for $2.99.


IEEE History Center


ANTIQUE WIRELESS MUSEUM, BLOOMFIELD, NEW YORK Life without telegraph, telephone, radio, 1944 and operated until October 2007 as a television, cell phone, or wireless text mesVoice of America station during World War saging would be very quiet and certainly II, the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, not what we expect in today’s world of inand the Cold War. One of VOA’s most powstant communications. The Antique Wireerful stations, it sent its signals to Central less Museum, now in its 62nd year, America, South America, and the Pacific preserves and shares the history of techRim. This display will tell the historically signologies used to communicate and enternificant story of VOA and its role in worldtain, from telegraph to text messaging. wide short-wave broadcast communicaTitanic Wireless Room Display The Antique Wireless Association (AWA) tions, and its major impact on preserving is based in Bloomfield, New York southeast and promoting free speech. of Rochester New York. The AWA houses The AWA was also selected as the new a world-class collection, including nearly home for the National Telegraph Museum 90,000 cubic feet of artifacts and ephemera and significant pieces from the historic at the Thomas Peterson, Jr. Antique WireWestern Union Museum. Displays of these less Museum and Research Campus. historic artifacts and ephemera will be inIn autumn of 2014, the AWA ancluded as part of the Phase II development. nounced plans to double the size of its exTelegraph was the beginning of electric/ hibit space by August 2015. “Phase II” of electronic communications, and Western AWA’s development of the museum will Union, founded in Rochester, New York, Western Union Office Display provide much needed additional exhibit played a central role in the development and program space. In the last year there have been two major and commercialization of the telegraph industry. additions to the collection which will be incorporated into The Antique Wireless Museum is open Tuesdays from 10 Phase II. am to 3 pm and weekends from 2 pm to 5 pm. The research liMajor components of the Delano, California, Voice of brary is available for historical research by appointment and America Station have been recovered and shipped to AWA. The holds more than 500,000 books, documents, photographs, and AWA, in cooperation with the Collins Collectors Association, recordings. rescued the station’s control room and one of the Collins For further information, visit the AWA web site at 250,000 watt short wave transmitters and shipped the compo- nents to Bloomfield, New York. The Delano station was built in

IN MEMORIAM IN MEMORIAM: CHARLES TOWNES, A DEDICATED SUPPORTER OF HISTORY The IEEE History Center lost a friend and longtime supporter recently. Charles Townes, IEEE Fellow, Nobel Laureate, and inventor of the laser, died at the age of ninety-nine on 27 January 2015. Townes’s many contributions to technology made him a towering figure; imagine a world without CD and DVD players, laser surgical devices, industrial lasers, or fiber-optic communications. While much has, and will, be written about his technical achievements, the IEEE History Center staff would particularly like to remember his service to IEEE’s historical activities. We also recall with personal fondness what a delightful and engaging person he was to work with. Charles Townes


served on the Trustees of the History Center from 1999 through 2001, and continued to lend his wisdom and advice as a trustee emeritus for many years after that. He was also a stalwart supporter of the IEEE History Center Fund. An oral history—including an audio clip— with Charles Townes conducted by IEEE History Center Senior Historian Frederik Nebeker can be found on the Engineering & Technology History Wiki (ETHW) at _H._Townes_%281992%29 and we are pleased that we can help preserve Charles Townes’ words and voice. An obituary in The Institute can be found at: ieee-roundup/opinions/ieee-roundup/remembering-lasertheory-pioneer-charles-townes-


Issue 97 March 2015

2014 DONOR LIST IEEE History Center Preservationists Circle Recognizing donors who have made significant contributions to the History Center at crucial stages in its founding and development.

IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society IEEE Circuits and Systems Society IEEE Communications Society IEEE Denver Section IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society IEEE Foundation IEEE Incorporated IEEE Life Members Committee IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society IEEE Power Engineering Society IEEE Electron Devices Society IEEE Power Engineering Society IEEE Signal Processing Society IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society IEEE Laser and Optics Society IEEE Magnetics Society IEEE Signal Processing Society IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society

Laurence R. Avins Earl Bakken Paul and Evelyn Baran Fund Frank A. Brand Michael D. Brown John Bryant* Central Japan Railroad Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry Jules Cohen, P.E. Lawrence H. Crooks Charles A. Eldon* Electric Power Development Corporation, Tokyo Electro-Mechanics Company The Elias Family in Memory of Peter Elias* The Gerald and Thelma Estrin Living Trust GE Yokogawa Medical Systems, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd.

The IEEE History Center gratefully recognizes the generosity and support of the individuals, corporations, and organizations listed here. Your support enables us to fulfill our mission to further the preservation, research, and dissemination of information about the history of electrical science and technology. All listings acknowledge gifts made to IEEE Foundation funds dedicated to the support of the IEEE History Center during the calendar year 2014.



Gold Advocate

($10,000 to $24,999)

($1,000 to $2,499) Anonymous Leo L. Beranek Anthony Durniak Daniel D. Hoolihan IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society John Impagliazzo, Ph.D. Walter R. Keevil Susumu Kobayashi Mr. and Mrs. Samuel J. Losh A. Michael Noll, Ph.D. Virginia and Carl Sulzberger James M. Tien, Ph.D.

($500 to $749) Eleanor Baum Lawrence E. Crooks Lyle D. Feisel Paul J. Fox Peter A and Gretchen Lewis William D. O'Brien, Jr. Robert D. Smith Mr. Richard P. Waltermeyer, Jr.

Robert N. Riley * Mr. Robert M. Walp

Patron ($5,000 to $9,999)

IEEE Signal Processing Society John R. Treichler, Ph.D.

Associate ($2,500 to $4,999)

Robert A. Dent


Silver Advocate ($250 to $499) James V. Boone Joseph Bordogna

John H. Bruning Graham M. Campbell, Ph.D. Arthur Claus Russell D. Coan Jonathan Coopersmith Manuel Correia Douglas C. Dawson Charles A. Fowler Thomas F. Garrity GE Foundation Dr. Michael N. Geselowitz Clinton R. and Mary Turner Gilliland Raymond R. Glenn George G. Harman, Jr. Lawson P. Harris

IBM Corporation Don H. Johnson, Ph.D. Joseph Keithley* Susumu Kobayashi Harold. W. Lord* John Meggitt John K. Menoudakos NEC Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) Jun-ichi Nishozawa Thomas F. Peterson, Jr. Emerson and Elizabeth Pugh Fund of the Fidelity Fund Emerson W. Pugh Theodore S. Saad* Sematech Takashi Sugiyama* Tokyo Electric Power Company Topol Family Fund at the Boston Foundation Toshiba Corporation Rudolf A. Wassmer Yokogawa Electric Company IEEE Princeton / Central Jersey Section Paul Israel Clark E. Johnson, Jr. Howard H. Leach, Jr. Ira M. Lichtman Paul M. Lundquist Alexander B. Magoun William F. Pickard Gordon P. Riblet Jose A. Ruiz de la Herran Kazuki Takamine

Bronze Advocate ($100 to $249) Anonymous Merrill B. Allen Fumio Arakawa Walter O. Augenstein Ralph H. Baer * David L. Bailey David K. Barton Roger N. Barton

Paul E. Bassett Arthur R. Bauer Clifford J. Bedore C. Gordon Bell Luc Berger Martin Bitter Robert G. Blick Frank J. Bourbeau Matthew E. Brady Eric K. Butler Patrick A. Campanaro Thomas A. Campbell David N. Carson Garrett M. Carter Mr. Stephen M. Chalmers Dale N. Chayes James G. Cialdea Earl T. Cohen R. G. Colclaser, Jr. James M. Cole Sergio D. Cova Thomas R. Cuthbert W. Kenneth Dawson


IEEE History Center Frank J. Destasi Russell G. Dewitt Michel A. Duguay Thomas H. Einstein, Ph.D. Robert R. Everett James R. Fancher Ghaffar Farman-Farmaian Richard D. Faytinger Paul M. Ferguson Miles Ferris Mark A. Fleming Ernest A. Franke Sidney K. Gally Edward E. Gardner Finis E. Gentry Bruce Gilchrist Joseph A. Giordmaine Vanig Godoshian A. Goetzberger Jeffrey H. Goll Arvin Grabel Richard W. Granville, Jr. John G. Gregory Chris Gross Jerrier A. Haddad J. Scott Hamilton M. William Hans Masanori Hara Luther S. Harris Ronald T. Harrold Benjamin J. Hemmen Hanspeter P. Hentzschel George Hickey Alfred K. Higashi Sterling F. Higgins Charles R. Hoesel Mark A. Hopkins Steven C. Horii, M.D. William J. Huck, Jr. Patricia M. Hughes Hagen E. Hultzsch IBM Corporation Makoto Ihara Fred H. Irons Soichi Isono Charles B. Izard Richard C. Jackson Havis Johnson Walter A. Johnson George I. Johnston Edwin C. Jones, Jr. Jack J. Kahgan Thomas Kailath, Sc.D.




Laurel V. Kaleda Haruo Kawahara Myron Kayton, Ph.D. Samuel T. Kelly James L. Kirtley, Jr. Harry W. Klancer Myoung S. Ko Misao Kobayashi Robert K. Koslowsky Natalie R. Krauser McCarthy Kelly J. Krick Fred Kubli Wong Kwok-Ho Pentti Lappalainen Jay T. Last Jay W. Lathrop Gregory S. Leach Louis G. Leffler Vladimir Leonov Samuel A. Leslie Harry Letaw, Jr. Robert E. Levin Leslie S. Levine Julian R. Livingston George C. Loehr Milton J. Lowenstein Michael S. Lucas Kent H. Lundberg, Ph.D. John F. Malm John P. Mantey Thomas J. Marlowe, Ph.D. John E. Martin Gene W. Mc Pherson William R. McWhirter, Jr. George C. Milligan Glenwood J. Mitchell Peter G. Mitchell Steven C. Moss Alan G. Murray Shoichi Nakayama Venkatesh Narayanamurti Hans Neukom Ryoichi Ohnishi James E. O'Neil Albertus Oosenbrug C. Kumar Patel, Ph.D. Wayne H. Perry George W. Petznick D'Arcy E. Phillips, Jr. Robert R. Phillips J. I. S. Pinole Roland Plottel

William R. Pond Allan Powers Robert E. Pownall Seth M. Powsner George T. Reich Julian Reitman Stan and Sherri Retif Gunnar Ridell Charles Rino John D. Robbins Craig A. Rockenbauch Manuel F. RodriguezPerazza Joseph Rolfe Monte Ross John S. Rostand William F. Roth Herbert Kenneth Sacks, Ph.D. J. Sada-Gamiz Ara B. Sahagian Robert L. Schneider Ronald B. Schroer Mischa Schwartz Eugene D. Sharp Edmund M. Sheppard Daniel W. Shimer Naohisa Shimomura, Ph.D. Lee A. Shombert, Ph.D. Lanny L. Smith Peter W. Staecker John P. Stancin David L. Standley, Ph.D. Gerald Stanley Fred M. Staudaher Peter M. Stefan, Ph.D. Gordon E. Stewart Fred J. Stover, Jr. Albert Strub Robert A. Struthers David E. Sundstrom Shiro Suzuki C. B. Swan Carey T. Sweeny Bohdan J. Sypniak Yasutsughu Takeda Morris Tanenbaum Kyun H. Tchah Lewis M. Terman George M. Thomas Daniel D. Thompson David J. Thomson, Ph.D. Timothy N. Trick, Ph.D.

Bjarne E. Ursin Jose F. Valdez C. Ronald M. Van Oeveren Raymond L. Vargas Dr. Manfred von Borks Robert W. Waldele Laurence S. Watkins Todd J. Wesolowski L. Elwood West Daniel E. Whitney, Ph.D. John J. Williams Ernest E. Witschi John F. Wittibschlager J. A. Witz Ronald L. Wolff James B. Wood W. Lewis Wood, Jr. J. Waiter Woodbury Craig A. Woodworth Xcel Energy Foundation Eli Yablonovitch

Advocate ($25 to $99) Anonymous (14) Einar A. Aagaard Kirkwood E. Adderley Morton M. Aguado David J. Ahlgren John L. Aker Ray E. Aker Virginia L. Aldrich William A. Alfano, Jr. Joseph Alfieri Donald P. Allan Bjorn Allebrand Johnathan Allen, Ph.D. William D. Allen Hassan Alnaimi H. Louis Althaus Rasaq O. Amoda Constantine Anagnostopoulos Gary A. Anderson James A. Anderson John L. Andrews Robert F. Anelli Peter G. Angelides Fiorenzo Ardemagni John R. Armstrong Wolfgang O. Arnold * George T. Aschenbrenner Paul A. Ashley Bishnu S. Atal

John G. Atwood Edward F. Augst John P. Aurelius Roger M. Avery Steve Bacic William C. Bagley Keith D. Baker Peter M. Balma Manzoor A. Baloch David L. Barber Frank E. Barber Stanley Baron Mr. Henry R. Barracano Edwin C. Barringer Leopoldo Barrios Jesus J. Bartolome John K. Bates, Jr. John D. Bauer Richard A. Baumgartner James C. Beck Anwar A. Beg Masood N. Beg David G. Belanger David J. Belanger Thaddeus G. Bell Nigel A. Benfield Alton A. Berg Martin M. Berndt Theodore Bernstein Thomas R. Bertolino Dileep P. Bhandarkar Theodore A. Bickart Reid E. Bicknell Aaron T. Bigman John D. Bingley George A. Bishop, III Keith Bisset, Ph.D. Robert R. Bitmead, Ph.D. John R. Blackman Terence G. Blake, Ph.D. Arthur J. Blakely Allan L. Blanchard Gene E. Blankenship, PE Neal A. Bodin Arthur Bodmer Vernon C. Boileau Thomas Boinay Tom C. Bonsett Stanley R. Booker Charles W. Bostian, Ph.D. Donald R. Bouchard Richard P. Bowen Bradley A. Boytim

Allen H. Brady Don C. Bramlett Donald A. Brandon F. M. Brasch Sam J. Breidt William D. Breingan Donald R. Brennan Michael W. Brewen E. Bridges William B. Bridges William H. Bridwell, Jr. James E. Brittain Ralph W. Bromley Douglas A. Brooke Howard A. Brooks George Broomell Kyle Brown Wyatt Brown, Jr. Vern J. Brownell Charles Brugger J. Stephen Brugler William Buchman Donald E. Burke Thomas G. Burket G. E. Buroker William Butuk Eric Cachin Arthur L. Cader Dr. James T. Cain Edward W. Calhan Edwin T. Calkin Paul M. Calmes Frank J. Campisano Ezzelino Campolongo Ivan Persio De A. Campos Barney L. Capehart, Ph.D. David C. Carbonari Herbert R. Carleton James W. Carlin Frederick F. Carlson Gene S. Carlson Robert A. Carlstrom William F. Carnes Steven M. Carter Clifford D. Caseley Ralph Casper Peter F. Cassola Octavio Castelloes J. Michael Cathcart William K. Cavender Michael W. Ceigler Eduard Cerny Ramon P. Chambers

DONOR HONOR ROLL Kin Man K. Chan John D. Charlton Ronald J. Chase Sin H. Cheah Gordon Chen A. M. Chitnis Kon Chung Choi Russell B. Chorpenning Donald Christiansen Hsin Chih Chung Alan G. Chynoweth Micheal K. Ciraula Jerry D. Claiborne Robert L. Clark Richard C. Clarke William J. Clarke Anaida Classen Anne M. Cleary William A. Clementson Peter Clinton R. R. Coatsworth Nathaniel Cohen James Colker Harley L. Collins James C. Collins R. E. Compton Michael P. Connolly Kenneth A. Connor, Ph.D. Ray Connors James M. Cook Michael J. Corinthios Nick Cosmo Don E. Cottrell Lewis W. Counts Anthony C. Cowin Michael P. Craig Gregory P. Crump Niculita-Sergiu Curteanu Robert A. Curtis, Ph.D. Terry J. Dahlquist Daniel F. Daly Alberto Dams Robert G. Daniels H. T. Darlington Charles F. Davis, Jr. Theodore E. Dawson Trevor G. De La Motte Menno N. De Vries Robert M. Deiters Jack B. Dennis John M. Derrick, Jr. Bruce C. Detterich Stanley R. Dickstein Robert W. Dietrich *Deceased

Steven D. Dietrich Bryan J. Dietz Anthony A. Dill Rodman E. Doll Carlo P. Domenichini Thomas E. Donoho Ruth Douglas-Miller, Ph.D. R. F. Drake John G. Driscoll John C. Duemler James W. Duncan Thomas K. Duncan Egons K. Dunens Irvin D. Dunmire, Ph.D. W. Dutfield Bruce C. Eastmond Murray Eden Marvin J. Edwards Albert W. Egli Albert D. Ehrenfried Charles W. Eichhorn Rutherford L. Ellis, Jr. Maurice S. Elzas Jon N. Elzey Lawrence W. Emark, Jr. David E. Engle Milos D. Ercegovac, Ph.D. Anthony J. Estrada Phillip Euler Roderick J. Evenson John E. Farley Patrick G. Farrell Guy C. Fedorkow Weston A. Fenner Leonard W. Finnell Lewis T. Fitch Charles E. Fitterer John D. Fletcher P. A. Florig James A. Fogle Dianne Forman James F. Forren Gerard J. Foschini Michael H. Francis Lawrence T. Frase Stelian-Mirel Frasineanu Felix Freimann Jeffrey A. Friedhoffer Yoichi Fujii Yasuhiro Fujita Osamu Fujiwara Tadashi Fukao Hatsuaki Fukui Robert J. Fulmer

James E. Furber Bipin V. Gami Emilio C. Gatti Robert D. Gattis Frank S. Gengaro Issachar S. Gerlitz Adolf J. Giger Elmer G. Gilbert Michael J. Gill Grace E. Giras Alexander J. Glass Jerry Goerz Daniel F. Goessling Harold S. Goldberg Joel M. Goldberg Samuel Goldfarb Moshe Goldstein Keith W. Golke Hector Q. Gonzalez Beverley R. Gooch David E. Good D. J. Gooding William H. Gorder Richard J. Gorzegno LeRoy C. Graham Robert A. Graham Donald A. Grandis Anders Granhall Willard S. Grant Fred L. Granville Myron Greenbaum John F. Greenwald Leonard D. Greer Randall V. Gressang Thomas N. Grigsby Peter S. Grinnell, Jr. Ramon N. Grossi, Jr. Francis B. Grosz, Jr. Calvin E. Grubbs Paul A. Grygier, Ph.D. John J. Guagliardo Bernard S. Gurman Hammond H. Haas Michael V. Haddad William S. Haddock, Jr. Marion Hagler Henry P. Hall John H. Haller George H. Hallnor Masanao Hamai John W. Hamilton John D. Harnden, Jr. Robert T. Harnett R. Amos Harold, Jr.

Edgar D. Harras Paul T. Harrell Ernest R. Harris Dr. James S. Harris, Jr. Laurie F. Harris Arne Hatlestad J. Scott Hawker Clark M. Hay · James H. Haynes Jeffrey C. Hecht Gerald P. Heckert Walter E. Heinlein Wayne R. Heinmiller Donald N. Heirman David Heise J. Thomas Heislein A. L. Henrichsen Rolf Henriksen, Ph.D. Harry E. Herchert Luc M. Hermans Donna Herrick William M. Hester Karlene Hewan-Lowe William D. Hibbard, Jr. Douglas W. Hill Edward J. Hilliard, Jr. Cyril Hilsum Felix A. Himmelstoss Elliott P. Hinely Steven O. Hobbs Alan E. Hochhalter David M. Hodgin, Jr. David F. Hoerl James H. Hoffman George D. Hogan Byron R. Hohrein, III Milton Hollander D. L. Hollway George E. Holz Peter J. Holzer Philip J. Hopkinson William Hoppa Roy F. Huemer Herbert H. Hunt William P. Hunt Roy K. Idehara Masao Ikeda, Ph.D. Toshio Imai Hirosei Inuzuka Charles E. Isbell Rokuya Ishii Boyd P. Israelsen Fumitada Itakura Katsuyoshi Ito

Issue 97 March 2015

Sadao Itoh Thomas R. Iversen Isao Iyoda David R. Jackson, Ph.D. George T. Jacobi George Jacobs John M. Jacobs Vincent John De Jager Sudhanshu K. Jain Uwe Jansen Jouko Jarvi Mark W. Jarvis Max Jedda Jon M. Jenkins, Ph.D. Javier E. Jimenez Vilayil I. John Clifford W. Johnson David C. Johnson Martin R. Johnson Robert A. Johnson Elizabeth T. Johnston Paul E. Johnston Curtis A. Jones Leon T. Jones Merrill D. Jones Thomas M. Jones Marcel Joss Kenneth Kable Motoji Kado Walter E. Kaelin Robert E. Kahn, Ph.D. Stephen J. Kahne Yoshio Kami Adriaan J. Kampstra Laveen N. Kanal Carroll F. Kane M. R. Karim Makoto Katsurai Karen Kaufman Hirokazu Kawabata Shigeo Kazama Lawrence Kazmerski Charles R. Keagle William R. Kelley Bruce R. Kendall, Ph.D. Jeremy Kierstead Chul Joo Kim E. Kimura Dieter Kind Richard R. Kinsey Robert G. Kinsman Lyle D. Kipp, Ph.D. Bruce B. Kittams Brian W. Kline

Rex C. Klopfenstein Martin R. Knapp-Cordes Hsien Ching Ko Ryuichi Kobayashi Yoshio Kobayashi Frieda L. Koester Toshio Koga Karl E. Kohlrus David P. Koller Rikio Konno Michael W. Koop Paul R. Korney Thomas M. Kowalick William O. Kramer Francis X. Krier Reynir Kristbjornsson Frederic A. Kuhlemeier Wolfgang H. Kummer Alexander J. Kunkle Michael E. Kunsman Arthur Kunst Noriyoshi Kuroyanagi James F. Kviatkofsky James W. Kyle William F. Lake H. R. Lamberth Barry M. Landson G. Gordon Lange Richard C. Lanza David A. Lapinski Dr. Arvid G. Larson Richard E. Larson Clifford Lau Stefan Lauffenburger Kalevi Laukkanen Robert W. Lautenschlager Harold W. Lawson James R. Lawson Hans P. Leander Irwin L. Lebow Albert C. Lee Virgil G. Leenerts Knut R. Leer E. E. Lehtola Donald L. Leichtweis Will E. Leland, Ph.D. Cecil C. Lencioni, Jr. Hugh G. Leney Gabriel Lengyel, Ph.D. Howard Lessey James D. Lester Donald E. Lewis Edwin R. Lewis, Ph.D. Eric Lewis


IEEE History Center Mr. and Mrs. Richard I. Lewis Kenneth Lipman Neal E. Lockwood Michael D. Lore Jack M. Loudon Milen L. Loukantchevsky Stig Lovstad Donald L. Lowe David W. Luce John W. Luce Louis A. Luceri Edgar J. Luecke George E. Lyness J. S. MacKelvie Christoph E. Mahle William E. Maier, Jr. James H. Malinowski D. L. Maly Peter A. Mandics David Manning Pierre B. Mansourian William C. Marchand Marietta A. Marchitelli John Marczewski Laurence V. Marks John E. Marqullan Thomas W. Marrs E. Masada Berna L. Massingill Keiju Matsui Hidehiro Matsumoto Misao Matsushita Kevin G. McCarthy Tron McConnell J. Kevin McCoy William M. McDermid William T. McGarrigle John D. McKendree Peter G. McLaren Bert A. McLean A. J. McNerney Lewis Meier, III Catalin Meirosu David Menasce Microsoft Corporation Leon R. Migdalski C. Michael Miglore Norman L. Mikesell Zeljko Miksic Genaro O. Millan Douglas L. Miller John W. Miller




Dieter A. Mlynski Yukou Mochida Chinnarao Mokkapati J. Roger Moody Bernard G. Morais Tolga J. Morawski Ross P. Morley John G. Morrison Karl N. Mortensen Allan S. Moskowitz A. V. A. Mueller Thomas E. Muldowney Philip G. Mullen John P. Mulvey Michael J. Munroe Kendall H. Murakami Kazuo Murano H. Deon Murphy Stephen T. Murphy William F. Murphy Charles R. Murray James B. Murray Theodore J. Myers Leonard T. Mygatt, III Christian W. Myrstad J. H. Nadenau Michio Naito Takehiro Nakagawa Dr. Tsuneo Nakahara Takuma Nakamura Anthony P. Napikoski Robert T. Nash Jimmy R. Naylor Marvin A. Needler Charles M. Nelson Jeremiah Nelson Robert E. Nelson Raymond I. Nerenberg Robert L. Nevin Robert W. Newcomb Thomas F. Newell J. William Newitt Keith L. Nicodemus Paul Nielsen Jan M. Niemiec Motonao Niizuma N. Joergen A. Nilsson Martin Nisenoff Norman E. Nitschke J. Noordanus, Ph.D. Richard Norman Josef A. Nossek Donald W. Novotny

Joseph Nutaro Timothy W. Oakley Cary B. O'Brien Walter Obweger John J. O'Donnell Masami Ogita Richard J. Ohnemus Yasumitsu Okabe Toru Okumura Wallace Oliver Anders Olsson Robert J. O'Malley, Jr. Morio Onoe David O. Onstad Michael R. Osborne John M. Osepchuk Abraham J. Osofsky Nobunori Oura Gary L. Owens Terence H. Oxley Raymond J. Page Henry A. Pahl Christopher L. Painter Paul D. Palmer Paul H. Palmquist Gary M. Palter Thomas A. Panfil Loyal C. Park Joe D. Parrott Yadollah Parvizi Peregrin Pascual Bernard M. Pasternack Donald A. Patterson William R. Patterson Thomas J. Pavlik David R. Payne Arona Pearlstein Don E. Peck Robert M. Pedigo William B. Pennebaker M. L. Pepper, Jr. Edward G. Perkins George J. Peroni Lloyd J. Perper Robert G. Pessler Michael A. Peterson Mary Ellen Petrich Charles A. Pfeiffer John R. Pickering Edward S. Pierson Chloe N. Pile Jaime C. Plana Richard G. Pogson

Donald N. Pontsler Marian W. Pospieszalski Edwin L. Post Neils R. Poulsen John H. Powers Arnold Press Alfredo Previ Steven D. Prough Hans B. Puttgen Yudh V. Rajput Uwe K. Rakowsky Robert W. Ramsey, Jr. Shrikant T. Ranade Richard R. Rau John W. Read R. V. Rebbapragada Konrad Reichert Donald B. Reid Paul F. Reimel Thomas Reinhold Luis A. Remez John W. Rhodes V. T. Rhyne Francesco Ricci James K. Richardson Stephen L. Richter, Ph.D. George P. Rigg John D. Riner, Jr. Marlin P. Ristenbatt, Ph.D. Peter A. Rizzi John R. Roberts Malcolm A. Roberts Roland W. Roberts Donald G. Robinson N. David Robinson, M. D. William Rodriguez Kenneth C. Rogers Mark R. Rognstad Harry T. Roman Alexandru Romanescu David M. Rosenbaum Hugh C. Ross John E. Rossi Rodney S. Rougelot Carey V. Rowan Thomas W. Rowan Charles Rubenstein, Ph.D. Robert Eric Russell Mark D. Rustad Janet C. Rutledge, Ph.D. H. Ryser William H. Sahm, III Ali Saleh

Martin J. Salter Alexander Samarin Ahmed H. Sameh I. Aguilar Sanchez Rony Sanelli John R. Sanford Ralph P. Santoro Eugene W. Sard Debabrata Sarma Hajime Sasaki Anonymous Stephen A. Scandalis Peter M. Schaeffer Lee M. Schaff J. Z. Schanker Harry E. Schauwecker, PE G. A. Scherer Frank E. Schink Ernest J. Schirmer William C. Schmidt Martin S. Schmookler Michael Schueller Richard F. Schwartz Cameron C. Schweitzer Lawrence M. Sears Richard L. Seibel Samuel Sensiper E. N. Shadeed Daniel H. Sheingold Noordin N. Sheriff Fred E. Shoemaker Ernest F. Shoji Dr. and Mrs. Dragoslav D. Siljak Michael D. Silver Peter M. Silverberg James M. Simmers William W. Simmons Virgil Siouris Paul Skritek Dennis P. Slack Leo Slobodin Richard H. Small Jeffrey A. Smith Kelvin C. Smith Merlin G. Smith Roger D. Smith T. L. Smith Charles M. Snow, Ph.D. Clark A. Snyder Candido A. Soares Erik L. Soderburg Harry P. Solomon

Hideaki Sone Harry E. Spain, Jr. James C. Spencer Douglas H. Sphar Marc Standaert Stephen D. Stearns Eldon Eldon Steelman Juergen Stenzel Karl D. Stephan William Y. Stevens A. C. Stevenson David A. Stevenson Thomas L. Stewart C. M. Stickley Heinrich J. Stockmanns John R. Stoltz Fred L. Streltzer Loran W. Stringer Vincent P. Stulginskis Branislav Stupar Tadasi Sueta Koji F. Suginuma, Ph.D. Yukiyasu Suguri Christopher J. Summers, Ph.D. Carl-Erik W. Sundberg Jerome J. Suran Jon M. Surprise Hiroshi Suzuki Paul Svetz Robert S. Swanstrom D. W. Swearingen James Morris Swiger Thomas L. Szabo James F. Tacker, Jr. Nils A. Tafvelin Gary S. Tahlmore Ichiro Tai Sanae Takahashi Daniella Talker Frank K. Tamney Atsushi Tanaka Takayuki Tanaka John Tardy Peter P. Tarjan Boyd C. Taylor * Pierre Tchatchoua Howard A. Teitelbaum John T. Tengdin Shinichi Terashima R. C. Terreault R. S. Terry Herbert L. Thal, Jr.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Carsten Thielecke Richard M. Thomas, II C J. Thompson Charles T. Thompson John R. Thompson Carl S. Tinch, Jr. William F. Tinney William L. Tippitt Willis J. Tompkins Loi Tien Tran Larry L. Tretter Anthony Troiano Henry J. Trussell Kiichiro Tsuji Yoshihiro Tsujino K. Tsukada Thomas A. Tullia Howard L. Turetzky Charles W. Turner Shingo Uchihashi Eric A. Udren Alan C. Udy Thomas Ueki

Paul D. Ulland Marc A. Ullman Victor C. Urrutia Roberto Vaccaro John A. Van Dyk Luke Van Dyk Wilhelmus C. Van Etten William B. Van Lennep Gene L. Vancuren Pedro Vaquer-Comas Matti Vasara George C. Verghese Verizon Foundation Mark Vernon N. G. Vershuren Percy B. Vinet, Jr. Federico A. Viramontes Herbert B. Voelcker, Jr. Alexander Volk Walter W. Vollenweider Beat Von Arx Christian Walker Michael S. Walker

Philip C. Warder Curtis M. Warthen Paul Warun Thomas J. Waters Stephen C. Weary Edward A. Weaver Thomas L. Weaver Charles W. Weesner Frode Weierud Claude M. Weil Timothy R. Weil I. Marvin Weilerstein Maurice Weiner Clifford Weinstein, Ph.D. Iram J. Weinstein Stephen B. Weinstein Martin Werner Denise P. Wernikoff Roger A. Westphal Frank W. Whalen Stanley A. White Willis S. White, Jr. Howard E. Whitston

Paul R. Wiancko Jimmy W. Wickiser Keith R. Wilbur Thomas G. Wildman Franz Wildner J. Claude Williamson in memory of Donald V. Rider Gert Willmann Donald G. Wilson John T. Wilson Arthur W. Winston B. E. Winter

Issue 97 March 2015

Ekkehard Wittig Peter M. Wolter Van E. Wood Ronald D. Woods Frank Woodworth Robert B. Worth William F. Wray Mrs. Catherine Wright in Memory of Charles Wright Kenneth K. Wu Earl O. Wukasch Goro Yabe

Shuzo Yajima James P. Yakura Yasushi Yamamoto Russell N. Yeckley Mitsuo Yokoyama Isami Yoshihara Richard C. Young Chih-Ping Yu Alexander Yuill-Thornton, II Albert F. Zeller John B. Zocchi, Jr. Brian J. Zook, Ph.D.

This Donor Roll of Honor recognizes donors who contributed $25 or more to the IEEE History Center Funds of the IEEE Foundation during calendar year 2014. The IEEE History Center extends a special thank you to those donors who are not included here. The IEEE Development Office makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the listing, including proper acknowledgement of gifts and correct spelling. Please notify us of omissions or errors by sending an e-mail to [email protected] or calling +1 732 465 5871.


BIBLIOGRAPHY THE BIRTH OF ELECTRIC TRACTION: THE EXTRAORDINARY LIFE OF INVENTOR FRANK J. SPRAGUE by Frank Rowsome Jr., published by the IEEE History Center Frank Julian Sprague has often been called the inventor of public transportation. In addition to his developments in electric traction, Sprague made enormous contributions in the areas of control and safety, without which mass transit would not be possible. Sprague developed automatic signal and brake control for railroads, and an auxiliary train control to take charge if the driver made a mistake. He was active in the planning and construction of New York City’s subway system, and in the electrification of Grand Central Terminal. Sprague believed that “Transportation is the key of civilization…for without it our existing social structure would collapse.” Among Sprague's other achievements are the introduction of electric elevators and of electric power units suitable for machine tools, printing presses, dentist's drills, and labor-saving conveniences in the home. Rowsome’s engaging and colorful biography not only gives a detailed view of Sprague as a person, but also Sprague’s approach to design and problem-solving. Numerous personal, and sometimes quite humorous, anecdotes bring Sprague, his assistants, and the early history of electric railroads to life. Frank Rowsome Jr. is probably now most famous for The Verse by the Side of the Road (1966), but he was also managing editor of Popular Science Monthly and later became NASA’s chief of technical publications. ISBN 9 7181490955346 Available from in hard copy and on Kindle. ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1395169365&sr=8-1&keywords=birth+of+electric+traction


IEEE History Center


BLUM, ANDREW, Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet, Ecco Books: 2012 By Sheldon Hochheiser While not—except incidentally—a book of history, many readers of this newsletter will likely find this book an interesting and engaging read. While the internet is most often thought about in abstract conceptual terms, Blum undertook the task of exploring and describing the internet in physical terms—as actual pipes of fiber optic strands carrying messages across cities and around the world on pulses of light, as physical buildings where the messages are handed off from one carrier’s fiber to another’s on their way to their destination, and as data centers were the information is stored. He constructed his book as a physical journey, a geek’s travelogue, to locations around the world where the physical internet is located, from hubs in places including New York, Vienna Virginia, Amsterdam, and London, to cables running under city streets to places where submarine cables emerge from the ocean, He explains how all these things come together to provide the physical infrastructure upon which modern communications is grounded. Ecco Press, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers, New York. Paperback, $15.99. ISBN 978-0061994951. 271 pages, Index.

JELVED, KAREN, and ANDREW D. JACKSON, eds. and trans. The Travel Letters of H. C. Ørsted, The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 2011 By Alexander B. Magoun Academic researchers are encouraged to reflect on their careers and lives through the letters that Hans Christian Ørsted wrote while traveling in Europe between 1800 and 1846. He shares your interests and concerns: grants and patronage, the nature of parties, theory and practice, the quality of culture, new equipment, intellectual disputes and stimulation, attending to a spouse and raising children, and the politicization of science. His adaptation to new forms of transportation—i.e., the steam locomotive—is analogous to converting from postal communications to internet and wireless. In fine translation as in the original Danish, Ørsted writes well and warmly about the industrializing world around him, bringing to life the man usually known for one set of brilliant experiments, if not as a unit of measurement. Available from: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen, Denmark, Telephone 45 33 43 53 00, Fax 45 33 43 53 01, Email [email protected], aspx?ID=382, DKR 450.00, paperback, ISBN 9788773043608, xxix + 536 pp.

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Issue 97 March 2015

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