If The Wall If The Walls Could Talk s Could Talk s Could Talk If The

If The Wall If The Walls Could Talk s Could Talk s Could Talk If The

If If The The Walls Walls Could Talk Talk Walls Could Education Resource  Reproduction of the information and materials contained in this Education...

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If If The The Walls Walls Could Talk Talk Walls Could Education Resource

 Reproduction of the information and materials contained in this Education Resource is permissible strictly for teaching and learning purposes. Permission to reproduce this material for other purposes must be obtained from The Bendigo Trust. Acknowledgements: If The Walls Could Talk Education Resource is written and prepared for The Bendigo Trust by: Nina Shadforth, B. Ed (University of Melbourne), P.Grad. Dip. (Monash University) With the assistance of: Alan Boddy, Bachelor of Education (Language & Literature) © 2006, Central Deborah Gold Mine, The Bendigo Trust

If The Walls Could Talk Education

Resource

 Index: Introduction Aims VELS Resources Publications Pre-Visit, On-Site and Post-Visit Activities Golden Moments & Fools Gold Mishaps, Misfortunes & Mourning Rebels with a Cause Reefs, Shafts & Echoes from below

Teachers Notes

3 4 8 9 10 11-20 11 13 15 18 21

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

Introduction

Resource



Welcome to the If The Walls Could Talk education resource, brought to you by Central Deborah Gold Mine. This program is supported by Department of Education and Training’s Strategic Partnership Program. Since the discovery of gold in Bendigo in 1851, the ‘big gold mountain’ has become richly steeped in history. At Central Deborah Gold Mine you can discover many fascinating stories and facts about mining life, underground and above ground. If the Walls Could Talk was a pilot education resource developed in 2004. Students in the Flora Hill cluster were invited to participate. Through immersion and experiential learning initiatives, students developed a broad understanding about Bendigo’s goldfields heritage. At Flora Hill Secondary College, class involvement required a commitment from two or more subject teachers and in groups, students decided upon a ‘story’ for in-depth investigation. In some cases, story selection was based around a theme or subject area. This education resource has been written and developed for Central Deborah Gold Mine’s If The Walls Could Talk project, which celebrates and commemorates gold and the many workers associated with gold mining in Bendigo. Many elements within the education resource include comprehensive teacher notes and materials for pre-visit, on-site and post-visit extension activities based on the following themes: - Reefs, Shafts and Echoes From Below - Golden Moments and Fools Gold - Mishaps, Misfortunes and Mourning - Rebels with a Cause If The Walls Could Talk education resource supports the current Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) and is intended for use by teachers and students. The activities cater specifically for cross-strand learning across VELS levels 3 – 6, allowing flexibility to simplify for younger year levels or to increase the challenge for older year levels. Learning models of Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy, Edward deBono’s Thinking Hats and Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences have also been applied throughout the activities for ‘complete’ learning. The If The Walls Could Talk education resource* is on offer to all school groups booking at Central Deborah Gold Mine. School tours at Central Deborah Gold Mine complex offer a fascinating, learning experience, enabling students to examine a variety of issues about the development of the gold mining industry around the Bendigo goldfields. As part of the tour, school groups attend a short presentation about the If The Walls Could Talk education program where they are introduced to The Magic Suitcase resource kit, which contains teaching and learning materials to be used in the school classroom environment. The most popular part of the tour is the one hour Mine Experience Tour, where students are given an overview of the history of gold mining in Bendigo. They are taken to the ‘Kit Up' area, where they don a hard hat and lamp before descending to a depth of 61 metres underground! (Consult the Risk Assessment Schedule when planning your excursion. Download available from, www.central-deborah.com). Following their vertical descent down the shaft, students are taken for an informative guided tour through the honeycomb of tunnels that lie beneath Bendigo, where they learn what underground life was like for miners! Following the tour underground, students are encouraged to wander around the Central Deborah Gold Mine complex above ground and discover the blacksmith shop, interpretive museum, gold panning and vintage mining machinery. Bookings are essential! Speak to our friendly bookings staff for more information on tours and tailoring to your specific needs at Central Deborah Gold Mine on (03) 5443 8255 or email [email protected] *Schools may decline the offer of the complete program.

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

Resource

 Aims: The aim of this education resource is to assist students in their development of knowledge and understanding about the gold mining industry, its technological and economical developments, mishaps and misfortunes and rebellious petitions for mining reforms, available through the exploration of primary information sources on offer at the Central Deborah Gold Mine complex. From a combination of pre-visit, on-site and post-visit activities, students are provided with the opportunity to engage in the learning and gathering of information and knowledge through such modes as listening and viewing. The activities provided in the education resource encourage students to utilise various skills in interpretation, thinking and communicating across a variety of the VELS Domains, consolidating knowledge and experiences gained from their visit. Programs within the If The Walls Could Talk education resource contain a number of prompts and storystarters for creating a variety of responses that express opinions, influence situations and include ideas and information about mining and the discovery of gold. Students will develop skills for producing texts using structures and features of language appropriate to purpose and audience. During a visit to the Central Deborah Gold Mine complex, students will experience a variety of opportunities to learn about the gold rush and mining in Bendigo by listening to media dialogues and guided tours. Postvisit activities will encourage students to exchange ideas about their experience and develop speaking skills through role-plays, re-telling information, group discussions, oral interaction and debates. Students learn to apply and extend their knowledge in reading, writing, speaking and listening and incorporate art forms from the activities provided. The education resource encourages active engagement with visuals, scripts and historical texts. The use of language and communication will evoke feelings, form ideas, sustain a point of view, inform, influence others, entertain and argue. The following Student Learning Outcomes simply outlines selected VELS learning domains and highlights aspects in the relevant dimensions addressed in If The Walls Could Talk education resource.

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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 Domain:

The Arts

Level: 3 - 5

Creating and making focuses on: -

engagement in concepts that emerge from a range of starting points and stimuli. explore experiences, ideas, feelings and understandings through making, interpreting, performing, creating and presenting. imagination and experimentation; planning; the application of arts elements and principles; skills, techniques and processes; media, materials, equipment and technologies; reflection; and refinement. experimenting with imaginative and innovative ways of generating ideas and manipulation application of arts knowledge and understanding of style when experimenting with, selecting and using a range of contemporary and traditional media, materials, equipment and technology.

Exploring and responding explores: -

context, interpretation and responding, criticism and aesthetics. understanding of social, cultural, political, economic and historic contexts and constructs, developing a consideration of ways that art works reflect, construct, reinforce and challenge personal, societal and cultural values and beliefs. inspiration gained from a broad range of sources, including art works from different cultures, styles and historical contexts.

Domain:

English

Level: 3 - 5

Reading enables students to: -

read, respond to and interpret an increasing range of imaginative and informative texts, everyday and media texts in print and multi-modal formats, through to persuasive texts that explore ideas and information related to challenging topics, themes and issues. interpret unfamiliar ideas and information, vocabulary and textual features. analyse and infer meaning from material presented in informative and imaginative texts about plot, setting and characters’ qualities, motives and actions. identify how language is used to represent information, characters, people, places and events in different ways including identification of some simple symbolic meanings and stereotypes. describe how texts are constructed for particular purposes, and identify how socio-cultural values, attitudes and beliefs are presented in texts. explore and identify ideas, themes and issues and provide supporting evidence to justify their interpretations.

Writing encourages students to: -

write texts containing several logically ordered paragraphs that express opinions and include ideas and information about familiar topics, such as narratives which include characters, setting and plot. write arguments that express a point of view or personal viewpoint and use simple to complex figurative language providing some information and supporting detail with a combination of verbal and visual elements in the texts they produce. consider and meet the needs of audiences by including appropriate background information, speculating, hypothesising, persuading and reflecting. employ a variety of strategies for writing, including note-making, using models, planning, editing and proofreading.

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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 Domain:

English

Level: 3 - 5

Speaking and listening promotes: -

variation to speaking and listening for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences. voice projection and adjustment adequate for an audience, including planning, rehearsal and the making of presentations for different purposes. use of appropriate spoken language features by varying tone, volume and pace of speech to create or emphasise or clarify a meaning. attentive listening to spoken texts, including factual texts, identification of topics, retell information accurately, ask clarifying questions, volunteer information and justify opinions. sustaining a point of view and ability to summarise or provide succinct accounts of personal experiences or events. use of a variety of multimodal texts to support individual presentations in which they inform or persuade an audience. awareness of the influence of audience on the construction and presentation of spoken texts, and of how situational and socio-cultural factors affect audience responses.

Domain:

HumanitiesHumanities-History

Level: 3 - 4

Historical knowledge and understanding assists students to: -

investigate key aspects of the histories of cultural groups that make up their class, community and nation. describe how people use and affect different environments in Victoria. use a range of historical evidence, including oral history, artefacts, narratives and pictures, to retell events and describe historical characters demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of Australian history: they describe key events in the development of Australia - the 1850’s gold rushes; demonstrate an understanding of the histories of some cultural groups which make up Australia today. make links and appropriate comparisons with contemporary Australia. compare aspects of different cultures and countries, in both the past and present, and ask questions about their own society.

Historical reasoning and interpretation encourages students to: -

use a range of primary and secondary sources to investigate the past. frame research questions and plan their own inquiries. construct timelines, and develop explanations and narratives in a range of forms. comprehend and question sources and make judgments about the views being expressed, the completeness of the evidence, and the values represented. use appropriate historical language and concepts to develop historical explanations and present their understandings in a range of forms.

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If The Walls Could Talk

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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 Domain:

Thinking

Level: 4 - 6

Reasoning, processing and inquiry enables students to: -

-

-

reason, process and inquire which encompasses the knowledge, skills and behaviours required to enable students to inquire into the world around them./ make observations and pose questions about people and events within and beyond their own experience, and develop a growing awareness of the complexity of the world around them. develop strategies to find suitable sources of information and they learn to distinguish between fact and opinion. use critical thinking to analyse and evaluate information they encounter. question information and develop opinions based on informed judgments. develop the capacity to transform information into coherent knowledge structures. participate in increasingly complex investigations and activities in which they seek evidence to support their conclusions, and investigate the validity of other people's ideas; for example, by testing the credibility of differing accounts of the same event, questioning conclusions based on very small or biased samples of data, and identifying and questioning generalisations. develop questioning techniques appropriate to the complexity of ideas they investigate, to probe into and elicit information from varying sources.

Creativity provides students with the capacity to: -

think creatively and be able to solve problems. include time for sustained discussion throughout their investigations, deliberation and inquiry, with teachers providing appropriate tools and support in this process. learn to seek innovative alternatives and use their imagination to generate possibilities. learn to take risks with their thinking and make new connections. explore differing perspectives and issues in depth and identify a range of creative possibilities. selectively apply a range of creative thinking strategies to broaden their knowledge and engage with contentious, ambiguous, novel and complex ideas.

Reflection, evaluation and metacognition allows students to: -

develop the capacity to reflect on, and refine their existing ideas and beliefs through to explanation of the different methodologies used by different disciplines to create and verify knowledge. learn to reflect on what they know and develop awareness that there is more to know. learn to question their perspectives and those of others. evaluate the validity of their own and others’ ideas. learn to make and justify changes to their thinking and develop awareness of perceptions different from their own and to accommodate diversity. review information and refine ideas and beliefs and explain conscious changes that may occur in their own and others’ thinking to analyse alternative perspectives and perceptions. develop their metacognitive skills in planning, monitoring and evaluating their own thinking processes and strategies. examine and engage positively with novelty and difference in innovative ways to define and work through tasks and find solutions.

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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 Themes and Victorian Essential Learning Standards: Theme Domain Golden Moments - The Arts and Fools Gold

Mishaps, Misfortunes and Mourning

Rebels with a Cause

Reefs, Shafts and Echoes from Below

Dimensions Creating and making Exploring and responding

- English

Reading Writing Speaking and listening

- Thinking

Reasoning, processing & inquiry Reflection, evaluation & metacognition

- English

Reading Writing Speaking and listening

- History

Historical knowledge and understanding Historical reasoning & interpretation

- Thinking

Reasoning, processing & inquiry Reflection, evaluation & metacognition

- The Arts

Creating and making Exploring and responding

- English

Reading Writing Speaking and listening

- History

Historical knowledge and understanding Historical reasoning & interpretation

-Thinking

Reasoning, processing & inquiry Reflection, evaluation & metacognition

- The Arts

Creating and making Exploring and responding

- English

Reading Writing Speaking and listening

- Thinking

Reasoning, processing & inquiry Reflection, evaluation & metacognition

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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 ICT Resources: www.central-deborah.com home page of the Central Deborah Gold Mine www.thegoldentrail.com information on trail that follows the path of the Chinese immigrants www.makinganation.com home page of Making A Nation exhibition www.bendigotramways.com home page of Bendigo Tramways www.goldendragonmuseum.org home page of the Golden Dragon Museum www.sbs.com.au/gold/story.html?storyid=74 provides a good general overview of life on the goldfields. www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/07/07/1089000229260.html provides information about Bendigo’s current gold boom. www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/goldrush/index.htm Government search engine to learn more about gold rushes. www.bendigohistory.com home page of the Bendigo Historical Society. Good starting point for information for excursions to Bendigo. www.planetozkids.com/Ace_Detectives/ghostmine/episode1/jeremiah_goldrush.html fun pages for children learning about gold mine mysteries. www.nre.vic.gov.au/virtualexhibition/gold/index.htm provides information and collection of photographs of miners and mining as early as the 1890s www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrenmp.nsf/FID/-CBB8593700A51A074A2567A2002DDDA8?OpenDocument provides general history of gold mining in Victoria www.minerals.org.au/education/primary/primary_resources/rockfiles/gold very informative about the properties of gold and gold mining facts www.vecci.org.au/vecci/about+vecci/history/index1.asp provides timelines from gold rush to Federation. www.defence.gov.au/digo/About_Us/Fortuna _Villa_Historic_Site/mappingFort4.htm provides background information regarding gold mines in Bendigo from official Department of Defence web site. econgeol.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/96/4/705 scientific information about gold in quartz www.deh.gov.au/heritage/national/sites/castlemaine-factsheet.html overview of Australia’s mining heritage with links to other goldfields information sites around Australia www.gold-net.com.au/archivemagazines/sep20/94732580.html#5 gold magazine/publication ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Education resource

If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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 Publications: Discovering Mt Alexander Diggings Mt Alexander Diggings Committee, 1999 Bendigo Underworld (DVD) City of Greater Bendigo, Bendigo Tourism Central Deborah Gold Mine Education resource (DVD) Central Deborah Gold Mine Grief, Not Gold – Mining Accident Fatalities in Eaglehawk Noelene Wild A Bereaved City – Appalling Mining Disaster John Kelly, Mike McCarthy Printing, 2002 Joseph Davis, Bendigo Hero Faye Guthrie, Guthrigg Genealogy, 1990 Bendigo, the Golden Heart of Victoria Lloyd Junor, Aussie Outback Publishing, 2005 Bendigo’s Central Deborah Gold Mine and its Era James A Lerk, The Bendigo Trust, 1993 A Banner Bold, The Diary of Rosa Aarons, Ballarat Goldfields, 1854 Scholastic Press, 2005 The Red Ribbon Rebellion, The Bendigo Petition Geoff Hocking, New Chum Press, 2001 Bendigo’s Gold Story Ralph W Burrell & James A Lerk, J.A. & E.R.S.Lerk, 2001 A Traveller’s Guide to the Goldfields

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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Further reading! http://www.goldendragonmuseum.org/ Joseph Davis, Bendigo Hero Faye Guthrie, Guthrigg Genealogy, 1990

Golden Moments and and Fools Gold: Pre & Post -Visit Activities Activity 1: 1: Task:

Miner’s Recall! Recall!

VELS Focus – Thinking

Role Play

Use the historical notes (character descriptions and scripts) provided in the Education Resource or the Magic Suitcase to give you an insight in to the variety of working issues faced by miners. For additional character authenticity, the Magic Suitcase provides the following costumes: Miner, Police Trooper, Chinese Immigrant, Irish Immigrant and Magistrate. Working in groups, select one of the following scenarios and write a short scene about the feelings and incidences between miners and the authorities, then perform as a play for your school or community. SCENARIO 1: It is the 1850s on the Bendigo fields. Two Chinese miners have just arrived on the fields and start to pan for gold in the Bendigo Creek. A Police Trooper arrives to check on miners’ licenses. What happens next? SCENARIO 2: Two miners have been put on trial for drunkenness on the goldfields. Bendigo Mac, the well known magistrate, will soon pass judgement. Develop a role play of a trial scene to consider whether the two should be put in jail. Use the costumes of magistrates wig, police troopers and miners outfits. SCENARIO 3: Joseph Davis was working the Goldfields Consolidated Mine. His comrade, John Allen, had fallen down the mine shaft right on top of two charged holes. Davis climbed down 56 feet of ladders and lifted his helpless mate with a severely broken leg to a safer part of the shaft. The fuse ignited, but luckily the flying rocks caused no damage. Extension Activity: Following your performance, divide class in to two groups. One as the ‘DeBono Red Hats’ and the other as the ‘DeBono Blue Hats’ and discuss the feelings experienced by each character and the possibilities of resolution. Can you see a better solution? Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Civics & Citizenship/History De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Red/feelings, White/information, Blue/thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy - Understanding Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Interpersonal

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

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 Golden Moments and Fools Gold: Pre & Post -Visit Activities Activity 2: Task:

Miner’s Verse! Verse!

VELS Focus – English

Acrostic Poem

Working in pairs, create an acrostic poem from one of the words listed below. An acrostic poem is formed by using the letters of a topic word or name written in a vertical format. Write the word down the page, placing each letter on a new line directly beneath the other. Together, brainstorm words and phrases to use in your acrostic poem, these should relate directly to the topic word. miners

accident

fatality

quartz

goldfields

shaft

trooper

magistrate

Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - History De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Green/creativity, White/information, Blue/thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy - Application Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic

Activity 3: 3: Task:

Portrait of a Miner! Miner!

VELS Focus – The Arts

Paint a heroic portrait

A number of mining identities have had their stories told and documented for the purpose of family and social histories. Choose a mining identity to read about, then draw and paint a portrait of a mining hero or survivor! Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - History De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Green/creativity, White/information Bloom’s Taxonomy – Understanding, Synthesis Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Visual

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

Resource Further reading!



Mishaps, Misfortunes and Mourning: PrePre-Visit Activity 1: Task:

A Mining Mishap! Mishap!

Grief, Not Gold – Mining Accident Fatalities in Eaglehawk Noelene Wild

VELS Focus – Thinking

Role Play

Use the historical notes (character descriptions and scripts) provided in the Education Resource or the Magic Suitcase to give you an insight in to the working issues faced by miners. For additional character authenticity, the Magic Suitcase provides the following costumes: Miner, Police Trooper, Chinese Immigrant, Irish Immigrant and Magistrate. Working in groups, write a short scene about the procedure and set up an obstacle course to see how well you perform in a rescue mission! SCENARIO 1: A miner has broken his leg at Level 6 in the Central Deborah Gold Mine. What procedures would you take to get to this miner and to get him to the surface safely and with as little difficulty as possible? SCENARIO 2: Robert John Hobba was a 14 year old miner working underground on the 400 foot level of Johnson’s Reef Mine on 21st June, 1878 when an explosion occurred. Twelve miners worked in relays to carry him by nd stretcher to the hospital, arriving at 2am. Sadly, he died the next day at noon. He was born on the 2 of December, 1863 in the mining town: Kapunda in South Australia. He was buried at Eaglehawk cemetery in the Christian section in an unmarked grave, plot ‘13B’. The Mine paid for his funeral and compensated his parents 15 pounds. The inquest was held on June 24th, 1878 at the California Gully Hotel with a jury verdict of ‘Accidental Death’. SCENARIO 3: As an eleven year old boy, John William Selfe worked with his father puddling for gold in the Huntly area. Young Selfe was working down a hole with his young mate, William Abbott Douglas (14yrs), getting wash dirt when the earth fell in on him. He was killed, his body brought to the surface and laid at the mouth of the hole and his father then sent for. He was buried at the White Hills Cemetery in the Catholic section in an unmarked grave. The inquest was held at the Sir Henry Barkly Public House with a jury verdict of: ‘Accidental fall of cement and died from a fractured skull’ (cement was the term given for the White Hills gravel/wash dirt). Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - The Arts De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Blue/thinking, White/information Bloom’s Taxonomy – Understanding Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Interpersonal

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

Resource Further reading!

 Mishaps, Misfortunes and Mourning: PrePre-Visit Activity 2: 2: Task:

Grief, Not Gold – Mining Accident Fatalities in Eaglehawk Noelene Wild Joseph Davis, Bendigo Hero Faye Guthrie, Guthrigg Genealogy, 1990

Mining News! News!

VELS Focus – English

Write a newspaper article

Word has spread about a miraculous mining rescue and you immediately make your way to the scene! Being the super sleuth that you are, you find out all the facts and race back to the office with an amazing tale to tell! Flip through a current newspaper and find an eye-catching headline. Read the article to get ideas on how to present a story and techniques the writer may have used to make the story newsworthy. Write an article about a mining accident to be published on the front page of the local newspaper. Be sure to give it an eyecatching headline! Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - History, Thinking De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Blue/thinking, White/information Bloom’s Taxonomy – Understanding Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic

PrePre-Visit Activity 3: Task:

MineMine-shaft Misfortune! Misfortune!

VELS Focus – History

Mining Accidents/Deaths Toll

Working in groups, construct a graph about mining accidents and fatalities. Using the historical notes provided as your starting point, research mining accidents further. Organise your information into headings such as: Date; Accident; Death; How it happened; Where it happened. Translate your data and present it as a colourful graph depicting a series of mine shafts, where shaft depth indicates the numerical data! Extension Activity: Evaluate the information in your group’s graph and consider ways in which mining accidents could have been prevented. Think about the technology of the time and what other methods were available, then write your suggestions as a Statement of Safety to the Mine Manager. Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Thinking De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Blue/thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy - Application Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic

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If The Walls Could Talk

© Central Deborah Gold Mine, 2006

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If The Walls Could Talk Education

Rebels with a Cause: Cause:



PrePre-Visit Activity 1: Task:

Resource Further reading! A Banner Bold, The Diary of Rosa Aarons, Ballarat Goldfields, 1854 Scholastic Press, 2005 The Red Ribbon Rebellion, The Bendigo Petition Geoff Hocking, New Chum Press, 2001 http://www.central-deborah.com/redribbon/ A Traveller’s Guide to the Goldfields

MineMine-Time!

VELS Focus – History

Create a Time-Line of events

Imagine yourself as a miner on the goldfields in the 1850s where living and working is in unforgiving climate conditions. Summers were hot and dry, with little water for everyone’s necessities. To add to your hardship, the Governor of the time has instructed his police troopers to enforce the law and make sure all miners have their miners’ license. At a cost of 30 shillings per month and the manner in which the law is enforced upon you and your fellow diggers, you decide it is time to take a stand! Research the Red Ribbon Agitation and Eureka Stockade on the internet or reference library. Look for events that occurred on published dates and choose one to write a journal entry for in the eyes of a miner! Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Personal Learning De Bono’s Thinking Hats –White/information Bloom’s Taxonomy – Knowledge Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Logical

PrePre-Visit Activity 2: Task:

Role Play

VELS Focus – Thinking

Role Play

SCENARIO: The day of reckoning has arrived and it’s the Red Ribbon Agitation! The miners are no longer going to put up with paying 30 shillings a month. They want to only pay 10 shillings a month which they believe is a fair and affordable amount! Use the historical notes (character descriptions and scripts) provided on the Central Deborah Gold Mine web site: www.central-deborah.com/redribbon/news.html and in the Education Resource or the Magic Suitcase to give you an insight in to the working issues faced by miners. For additional character authenticity, the Magic Suitcase provides the following costumes: Miner, Police Trooper, Chinese Immigrant, Irish Immigrant, and Magistrate. Working in groups, write a short scene about the protest between the miners and the authorities based on the notes about the Red Ribbon Agitation and perform as a play for school or community. Extension Activity: Following your performance, discuss as a whole class the feelings experienced by each character and possibilities of resolution. Can you see a better solution? Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Civics & Citizenship De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Red/feelings, White/information, Blue/thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy - Understanding Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Interpersonal ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Education resource

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 Rebels with a Cause: Cause: PrePre-Visit Visit Activity 3: 3: Task:

Rebellious Poster

Further reading! A Banner Bold, The Diary of Rosa Aarons, Ballarat Goldfields, 1854 Scholastic Press, 2005 The Red Ribbon Rebellion, The Bendigo Petition Geoff Hocking, New Chum Press, 2001 http://www.central-deborah.com/redribbon/

VELS Focus – The Arts

Poster Design

Design your own poster about the Red Ribbon Agitation. Include details of what the cause is, when and where the event will occur and a statement about the cause and what it means to all miners. Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Personal Learning De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Green/Creativity, White/information Bloom’s Taxonomy – Synthesis Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Visual

OnOn-Site Activity 1: Task:

Miner Causes Causes

VELS Focus – Thinking

Perspective Prospecting

Divide students into six groups and allocate each group a ‘hat’ colour (see below). Students navigate through and around the Central Deborah Gold Mine complex, directed by their thinking hat perspective to collect information in relation to their hat and questions and explore the shifts in attitudes associated with the gold mining industry. They will need a notepad and a pencil to make notes about their task. Red Hat = Feelings - How did the miners feel about the cost of the miner’s licenses? - What did the miners feel they could do about the issue? Yellow Hat = Strengths - What would be good about staging a protest against the government of the Colony of Victoria? Black Hat = Weaknesses - How might staging a protest weaken the miners’ situation? Green Hat = Creativity - What other ways could the miners show their displeasure? White Hat = Information - What was the government’s position about the license fees? - Why was a miner’s license necessary? Blue Hat = Thinking - What thinking was needed to resolve this crisis? Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Civics & Citizenship De Bono’s Thinking Hats – All Bloom’s Taxonomy – Knowledge, Understanding, Evaluation Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Interpersonal ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Education resource

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 Rebels with a Cause: Cause: PostPost-Visit Activity 1: Task:

Miner ‘s Response

VELS Focus – English

Write a Letter

You are one of the many miners struggling to make a living and feel that you are at a disadvantage because of the high license fees that are mandatory and failure to pay ends in serious consequence: jail! Write a letter to the Governor declaring your innocence over an incident involving unfair treatment by Police Troopers who claimed you refused to pay license fees. Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Thinking De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Red/feelings Bloom’s Taxonomy – Knowledge Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic

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Further reading! Bendigo’s Gold Story R Burrell & J Lerk, J.A. & E.R.S.Lerk, 2001 Bendigo’s Central Deborah Gold Mine and its Era James A Lerk, The Bendigo Trust, 1993 Central Deborah Gold Mine Education Program (DVD) The Bendigo Trust, Central Deborah Gold Mine

Reefs, Shafts and Echoes from below: PrePre-Visit Activity 1: 1: Task:

Gold Mining Glossary! Glossary!

VELS Focus – English

Create a dictionary of Mining terms

Working with a study-buddy, compile your own list of gold mining words and find the meanings of each one. Use the Central Deborah Gold Mine web site for more ideas. (www.central-deobrah.com) Take a look at the format of a dictionary and together, create your own dictionary for mining that includes the word, how it is pronounced, the meaning, an image if possible and an example of the use of the word in a sentence. Using ICT, present your Gold Mining Glossary as a booklet. Below are some words to get you started! shaft

reef

plat

digger

Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Interpersonal Learning, Thinking De Bono’s Thinking Hats – White/information, Blue/thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy – Applying Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic

OnOn-site Activity 1: Task:

Tram Tales! Tales!*

VELS Focus – Thinking

Fiction Commentary

Develop a commentary of your journey on the Bendigo Tramways Vintage ‘Talking’ Tram. On your tour on the Bendigo Tramways Vintage ‘Talking’ Tram, take notes of the voice-over commentary and heritage sites highlighted along the way. Consider the following to include in your fictional commentary: - family members - incidents/discussions had along the way Further reading! - other travellers on the tram Bendigo, the Golden Heart of Victoria Lloyd Junor, Aussie Outback Publishing, 2005 - time of year/day - clothing worn of the day http://www.bendigotramways.com/ - cost of the tram ride SCENARIO: You are back in the days of bustling Bendigo town in the late 1800s. You earn an average wage working in the mines and decide to take your family on the tram to Sunday Mass at the Sacred Heart Cathedral, Bendigo. Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Personal Learning, English De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Green/creativity, Blue/thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy – Applying, Creating Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic * Tour is recommended to complete this activity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Education resource

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Reefs, Shafts and Echoes from below: OnOn-Site Activity 2: Task:

It’s all in the Mine!

VELS Focus – Thinking

Word Search

Search for the list of hidden words in the grid below. Using the remaining letters, fill in the blanks below to reveal a mystery place!

P L A T E B T U C S S O R C

O S K C O L L A M E M K A R

P N L N P T B A T T E R Y I

P V D I O Q L G D U B M S B

Arsenic Battery Bell Cage Carbide Light Crib Cross Cut Drill

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E T T O A C N A C I O E U H

T C U S I N K P D R I L L W

H R E G F U S E Q D S G I I

E O O R H R L S R P E T A N

Explosives Fuse Gold Knocker Ladder Mallock Miner Pitch

D U C A G E X O R F S A N E

C A B H R H L R B E L L K X

P S T F A H S W N G V L W B

E E X P L O S I V E S E T P

S T O P E F C L C P C W V E

Plat Poppet Head Quartz Shaft Sink Stope Well Winze

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Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Personal Learning, English Bloom’s Taxonomy – Understanding

A L R E N I M D Q U A R T Z

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De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Blue/thinking Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic

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 Reefs, Shafts and Echoes from below: OnOn-Site Activity 3: Task:

Scratching the Surface

VELS Focus – The Arts

Surface Rubbings

Using plain art paper and crayons, find at least five interesting examples to make a series of rubbings through and around the Central Deborah Gold Mine complex. To make a ‘rubbing’, simply lay paper over a textured surface and using one hand to keep it steady, rub your crayon evenly over the area and watch the details of the surface show through! Don’t forget to write down some information about the rubbing. For instance; what it is; where it is located and include an interesting fact. Display around the class room. Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Design, Creativity & Technology De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Green/creativity Bloom’s Taxonomy – Synthesis Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Visual

PostPost-Visit Activity 1: Task:

Echoes from below

VELS Focus – English

Write a Mining Story

Choose one of the following story-starters to develop a likely finish to a story. Students may use fiction to enhance the story, but any fiction must be in keeping with the integrity and authenticity of the original story. 1. It was common practice to initiate ‘new chums’ to the goldfields by way of a practical joke. Miners were given a large lamp called a ‘Spider’ to take with them underground. When the new miners inquired why the lamp was called a ‘Spider’, they were duly told it was for catching spiders! The usual response was that if spiders were that big, ‘they’ could: “keep their flamin’ job”. 2. Working with arsenic, mercury and cyanide to separate gold-bearing quartz caused miners and members of their families great risks such as life threatening illnesses. The toxic waste levels were so bad that they affected water quality and women had to give birth away from the gold fields in Epsom to reduce the rate of infant mortality. 3. Alf was a young man working the Central Deborah Gold Mine in the 1950s. He was not feeling well and left a note deep underground for his working mate Herbert “possum” Hunter. The note warned that there was ‘bad rock’ in their level. Bad rock meant that it was liable to collapse. Sadly, the next day Possum was working that level and a collapse occurred. Possum’s injuries were so serious that he died that day. He died on January 15 1954 and remains the only miner to die in the working life of the Central Deborah. Curriculum Links: VELS Cross-curricular: - Personal Learning/Thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy – Applying

De Bono’s Thinking Hats – Blue/thinking Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic

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 Teachers Notes Golden Moments and Fools Gold: Chinese Miners From 1851 word spread quickly around the world about the discovery of gold in Bendigo. People from many countries, particularly Europeans and Chinese, made their way by sea to the Port of Melbourne and then continued their journey over land to the Bendigo goldfields. Chinese immigrants came in great numbers in the pursuit of finding gold at ‘Dai Gum San’ (Big Gold Mountain). Most came from the southern regions of China, where the economy was suffering a great economic downturn. The discovery of gold meant potential wealth and prosperity and, to the Chinese immigrants, it also meant saving their families from financial hardship back in their homeland. The Chinese miners were known to be very resourceful, hardworking and resilient. They endured discrimination, racism, a harsh journey on foot from Robe in South Australia to Bendigo (www.thegoldentrail.com and www.goldendragonmuseum.org), and were taken advantage of by Labour Agents demanding fees and taxes that sent many of them in to financial ruin. Arriving in Bendigo, they set up various trades for goods and services, maintained their cultural beliefs and established market gardens for the mining community. It was their resourcefulness at mining the abandoned sites of the Europeans that quickly started feelings of resentment and suspicion between the two groups. With little ability to speak or understand English, the Chinese community worked at other ways of gaining acceptance within Bendigo. They organised charity events that were humorous and entertaining, sporting days and most notably, they established the famous Bendigo Easter Festival that featured many of their cultural activities, in particular, ‘Loong’, the oldest Imperial Chinese dragon. Such events raised much needed funds for organisations like the Bendigo Benevolent Society. Their goodwill became recognised by the wider community and it was not long before Bendigo Chinese were in demand for skilled labour due to their efficiency and lower labour costs. To this day, the Bendigo Easter Festival remains a highlight of Bendigo’s event calendar for its colourful and cultural displays moving through the parade!

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 Teachers Notes Golden Moments and Fools Gold: Bendigo Mac: ‘Bendigo Mac’ was a famous magistrate on the Bendigo goldfields in the mid - 1850s. He was renowned for his tough stance on all criminal acts. People caught breaking the law were sure of one thing and that was a jail sentence! In 1855, Lachlan McLachlan was appointed to Bendigo as a Police Magistrate and motivated to ‘clean up the desperate characters on the goldfields’. As some of them were convicts, he administered the law with such rigor and severity, he became known as Bendigo Mac – an identity to fear! Despite his fearful persona and lawful rigidness, Bendigo Mac steadfastly refused to carry out Governor Hotham’s instructions to collect licence fees from miners at Bayonet Point, which saved Bendigo from bloodshed and loss of life. A well respected member of the community, McLachlan was the magistrate to swear in Bendigo’s first municipal council: Sandhurst Municipal Council, in 1856.

Joseph Davies: It was in July 1909 that a very unassuming miner performed a heroic act that put him in the history books for the most heroic rescue in mining! Working a normal shift on Friday July 16 1909, for the Goldfields Consolidated Mine at Diamond Hill, three diggers, Joseph Davis, Daniel Darcy and John Allen, were sinking the shaft a further 53 feet below the 730 feet plat. As they completed drilling, two holes were then charged, Davis and Darcy climbed the ladder ascending towards the 730 feet plat were the Underground Manager, James Halliday, was waiting. Allen was left to detonate the charges and, in doing so, he too made his way up the ladder to the 730 feet plat. As Allen’s head appeared near the plat where the other miners were waiting suddenly, losing his footing, he disappeared, having fallen back down the shaft where the two charges lay lit. Without hesitation, Davis declared: “I’m after him!” and quickly descended back down the ladder. The shaft was in total darkness and Davis, with only the light of a candle reached the bottom to see his mate injured and in the helpless position of being over the burden of the two charged holes. It was inevitable that the charges would explode at any moment and, in anticipation, Davis lifted Allen and dragged him to the eastern end of the shaft and courageously shielded his mate from the blast. Knowing the second charge was yet to explode, the pair huddled up to wait for the discharge of the second hole. It was fortunate that in the drilling process, the miners made prior consideration for the burden to be thrown in opposite directions upon discharging, this is what saved the two mates from a fatal accident. Halliday assumed the worst and gave the serious accident signal of 15 knocks, signifying a doctor was needed at once and an ambulance be sent for. Both men were eventually brought to the surface where it was realised that Allen had sustained a severely broken leg and was in shock, whereas Davis came out miraculously unscathed!

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 Teachers Notes Golden Moments and Fools Gold: Character Descriptions: Character: Costume: Description:

Chinese Miners Chinese hats and aprons Ni Hao! I am a Chinese miner and I have migrated from the Southern Province of China to make my fortune in gold, which I send back to feed and clothe my poor family. I speak and understand very little English and do not have much money to buy heavy mining machinery. People tease us and are suspicious about our culture - they say we are ‘strange’. I have worked the alluvial diggings after the Europeans had finished, but I also work in a quartz mine for a big mining company.

Character: Costume: Description:

Irish women Women’s hat and aprons Hello! I have travelled all the way from Ireland and I am a domestic worker for a rich mining family. I am 18 years old and I live in the servant’s quarters away from the main house. I live a simple existence in my quarters: a small room, with a table and chair, wood stove, a bed and my trunk.

Character: Costume: Description:

Bendigo Mac (Lachlan MacLachlan) Magistrate’s wig Good day to you! My name is Lachlan MacLachlan, better known as Bendigo Mac! I am of good Scottish stock and have a reputation that is clean as a whistle. It is my job to keep law and order across the goldfields. Do wrongly and I will pass severe judgement on you!

Character: Costume: Description:

Police Trooper Police uniform items Hello! I am a police trooper to keep law and order in this town. My role is to serve the government and I have the authority to bring you before the magistrate if I see that you have not obeyed the law!

Character: Costume: Description:

Miners Rags and pans Blimey! How ya going mate? As you can see by my tattered and filthy clothes, I am a miner and I go way down, deep below the earth’s surface. I work 10 hours a day and pick at the dirt and the hard quartz reefs in semi-darkness to find that beautiful yellow rock that dazzles the world! It is a risky job and I am sad to say that I have lost some good comrades down those deadly shafts!

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Teachers Notes Mishaps, Misfortunes and Mourning: Mining Accidents and Fatalities Mining was a dangerous occupation where life expectancy was short. Many lives were lost due to horrific and fatal accidents from hazardous working practices and conditions in the mines. If a miner was injured underground, he would anticipate further risk and injury because of the nature of the rescue. Not only would they endure immense pain, but the frightful ascent up the shaft to the surface in an upright position. That was the only way as the shaft dimensions were very narrow! Mine related accidents and fatalities numbered in the hundreds and, of those that survived, many were so seriously injured that they were never able to work again, carrying their injuries for the rest of their lives. The most common mining accidents were falls down shafts either whilst working or even just walking around the diggings and shaft areas! Other causes were from blasting and explosives malfunctioning, winding ropes breaking and sending the miners cages plummeting down a shaft, rock and earth collapsing, timber and debris falling down shafts and on the surface above, boiler explosions and scalds from steam were also very common. If a miner was lucky to escape injury or death, another risk he faced was toxic poisoning or contracting a respiratory disease called: ‘Miner’s Phthisis’, which was caused from breathing in great amounts of dust generated by dry-drilling machinery, appropriately called a ‘Widow-Maker’. A new drilling machine was developed called the ‘Drifter’ that used water to reduce the dust and incidences of Miner’s Phthisis. Poisoning resulted from inhaling noxious vapours or handling toxins like mercury, cyanide and arsenic which were used to separate the gold from the quartz. Of the large amount of mining tragedies, the most serious was the explosion at the Great Extended Hustlers Mine. Seven miners were working at level 13, 1053 feet down, when an explosion occurred at 10pm on May nd 2 , 1914. Tragically, all seven miners perished in the blast and this accident is considered the most appalling in the history of the Bendigo goldfields. The gravestones in the cemeteries around Bendigo provide chilling evidence of the low life expectancy on the goldfields. The statements below are horrific accounts recording details of fatal mining accidents. Francis Long (14 yrs) On October 10 1873, Francis Long was working with his father and 12 year old brother. They had been contracted to sink the shaft further at the Garden Gully Quintette Shaft. His father Francis Snr, was at the bottom of the 218 foot deep shaft, his 12 year old brother was winding the windless, with young Francis removing the buckets from the rope and emptying them. On leaning over the shaft to get the bucket, he fell down the shaft and landed next to his father and died instantly. Three months earlier, his mother was drying out ‘explosive powder’ for the contract works in the kitchen of their Barnard Street home, when an explosion occurred and she was killed. What a terrible time his family had! Both are buried in the Bendigo Cemetery, Church of England section unmarked grave ‘B1’. Francis was born in Sandhurst (Bendigo). ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Education resource

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 Teachers Notes Mishaps, Misfortunes and Mourning: Mining Accidents and Fatalities Thomas William Gordon De-La-Cour (13 yrs) Thomas worked with his father Samuel and 12 year old brother in the Royal Albert Claims Shaft, where the family was on contract work in the mine. He was descending the perpendicular ladder which had in places 2 inch toe grips. Both he and his father fell from 130 foot and were killed. The 12 year old brother also descended the shaft and found his deceased father and older brother. The father was 43 years old and both were buried at Bendigo Cemetery, unmarked grave ‘B4’. The family was from Holland, with Thomas being born at Forest Creek, Chewton, in 1857. Christopher Roff (12 years) Christopher was an orphan, as his father had recently died. Christopher was born in London around 1846. He was driving the horse for Mr Kingsland at the ‘chillian-wheel’ crushing machine, (vertical wheel principal of operation). It was noticed that the horse had stopped and upon inspection by fellow workers who made the gruesome discovery, found young Christopher inside the crushing machine where his head had been crushed by the wheel. He was classed as a ‘labourer’. The inquest was held at the Bird in Hand Hotel, Epsom with a jury verdict – Accidental Death: it appears that he fell asleep and fell into the machine. Burial unspecified.

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Teachers Notes Rebels with a Cause: Red Ribbon Agitation: By December 1851, miners were fed up with the cost of miner’s licenses and the nature in which police troopers acquired fees from the diggers. Despite prior attempts which resulted in failure, the miners became upset that the Government refused to make concessions and reduce the license fee to 10 shillings, rather than 30 shillings a month. Constant refusal by the Government led to the miners banding together across the Victorian Goldfields and charged with agitation, they established the Bendigo Petition and the Red Ribbon Agitation as a passive means of protest for such injustices. An Anti-Gold License Association was also established which was founded by Mr G E Thomson, Dr Jones and Edward Brown. Through their persistence, the three gentlemen collected more than 23,000 signatures. An additional 8,000 signatures from McIvor were also collected but fell victim to the robbery of the gold escort at Kyneton, where 2230 ounces of gold was stolen. By August 1853, the Bendigo Petition measured some 30metres in length and was sent to Melbourne bound in green silk. There were six demands stated on the Petition which ranged from a reduction in fees and penalties, options of monthly or quarterly payments through to allowances for new arrivals or invalids on the goldfields of fifteen days residency clearance. The Petition representatives returned from Melbourne two weeks later and were met with the enthusiasm of over 10,000 diggers at View Point. The representatives made their way to the top of View Point where the ‘Digger’s Flag’ was at full mast. They returned with an unsuccessful response. The Digger’s Flag was designed by Mr Dexter and was made up of four quarters. One depicted ‘Labour’ with a pick, shovel and cradle, another about ‘Justice’ illustrated by scales, the third quarter depicted ‘Union’ symbolised by a Roman bundle of sticks and the remaining quarter symbolized by a kangaroo and emu that meant ‘alltogether all up at once’. This encouraged the diggers to become united in their opposition to the license fees and grew to 20,000 strong. Mr G E Thomson proposed that the diggers vow to only pay 10 shillings a month and stage a protest of ‘passive resistance’. On August 27 1853, diggers once again met at View Point where they wore a red ribbon in their hats symbolising their unified stance against the law. Support grew in the wider community with retailers posting signs in shop windows refusing to take licenses. According to Governor La Trobe’s Commissioner of Police; “Bendigo was in a state of revolution”. Governor La Trobe relinquished the September fee and established a Committee of Inquiry to investigate the diggers’ grievances. The findings from the Inquiry realised that the earnings of the diggers were far less than the earnings in other comparable industries and that the license fee was both inequitable and oppressive. Further recommendation to the government was made to abolish the license fee altogether and in its place establish a Miner’s Rights clause. Aside from the main recommendation, a proposal to replace Commissioners with local wardens and the electing of Mining Courts also was realised and effected.

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 Teachers Notes

Reefs, Shafts and Echoes from below: Mining in Bendigo The world’s only pure yellow mineral: ‘Gold’ is synonymous with Bendigo, which has a history of being one of the richest producers of gold in the world. Bendigo is famous for the discovery of alluvial gold in 1851 on the Ravenswood Sheep Run, by Mrs Margaret Kennedy, which brought many prospectors from around the globe to seek wealth and prosperity. Known world-wide as the ‘Big Gold Mountain’ or ‘Dai Gum San’ by the Chinese, Bendigo is literally built on gold and its great yields. Alluvial gold yields waned as rapidly as the numbers of immigrants arriving in thousands to Bendigo to either work on the diggings or provide supply of goods and services to the mining community. Between 1851 and 1854 Bendigo produced over 700,000 kilograms of gold and in today’s terms would be worth almost $18 billion dollars! By 1858, the alluvial gold was gone! Dredging streams, puddling systems and sinking shafts to reach the gold-bearing quartz reefs deep in to the earth followed on from the alluvial decline. By the 1870s, Bendigo was renowned as the world’s wealthiest goldfield and hosted over a thousand mining companies operating to extract gold. The Bendigo goldfields contain 37 distinct, gold-bearing quartz reefs that extend parallel underneath the Central Victorian city for an area equal to 3600 acres. Bendigo still remains the seventh largest producer of the world’s gold! In the Bendigo region, there are many hundreds of kilometres of surveyed reefs which have been worked at a variety of depths from the shallow open-cuts to mines descending more than 1400 metres deep! The Victoria Quartz Mine on the ‘New Chum’ reef, for example, was worked to 1406 metres and was at the time the deepest mine in the world. By the 1950s the three mines on the Deborah line were the last operating mines in Bendigo, with the last two of those - including Central Deborah - closing in 1954.

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Teachers Notes

Reefs, Shafts and Echoes from below: Central Deborah Gold Mine The Central Deborah Gold Mine is a quartz-reef gold mine located on the Bendigo Flat near the Bendigo Creek. It operated from 1939 to 1954, which, in its day, extracted almost one-tonne of gold (929kg) from the earth! It was the last commercial gold mine to operate in Bendigo until 1954 when the mine closed. Years later, it was purchased by The Bendigo Trust and, in 1986 very much in-tact, it re-opened to the public as a heritage centre. Today, it is a well maintained and operational mine, preserved and retaining many original features. A large poppet head dominates the site which is enhanced by above-ground mining exhibits, artefacts, equipment and machinery. Expert-trained guides take visitors down the 61metre shaft to level 2 for the very popular Mine Experience Tour, for an authentic mine experience. The mine itself has 17 levels underground and reaches a total depth of 412 metres! The Central Deborah Gold Mine complex also hosts the end destination of the old Bendigo Tramways. The Bendigo Vintage ‘Talking’ Tram is a living historic relic that connects the colourful history of the gold rush era to the present and highlights many of Bendigo’s heritage landmarks all the way along the last remaining tram-line to the historic 1903 tram depot and North Bendigo.

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