Impacts of Marine Debris: Entanglement of Marine Life in - Earthmind

Impacts of Marine Debris: Entanglement of Marine Life in - Earthmind

8. Impacts of Marine Debris: Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris Including a Comprehensive List of Species with Entanglement and IngestiOn R...

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8.

Impacts of Marine Debris: Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris Including a Comprehensive List of Species with Entanglement and IngestiOn Records David W. Laist

Introduction Lost and discarded marine debris, particularly items made of persistent synthetic materials, is now recognized as a major form of marine pollution. This perception was a seminal finding of the 19S4 International Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris (Shomura and Yoshida 1985). A major factor leading to this conclusion was information on the nature and extent of interactions between marine debris and marine life gathered by researchers working independently in different ocean areas during the 1970s and early 1980s. Compiled for the first time at the 1984 workshop, the information highlighted two fundamental types of biological interactions: (1) entanglement, whereby the loops and openings of various types of debris entangle animal appendages or entrap animals; and (2) ingestion, whereby debris items are intentionally or accidentally eaten and enter the digestive tract. Collectively, the review demonstrated that such interactions were far more widespread and common than previously thought, and that both types of interactions cancause the injnty and death of individual animals of many different species. Since 1984, much additional information has been collected on the nature and extent of interactions between marine debris and marine life. This paper attempts to review all

information now available on marine debris entanglement interactions. Entanglement of marine life incidental to active fishing gear while affecting many of the same species, is considered a separate problem and issue and is not considered here. The principal objectives are to (1) compile a list of all species known to become entangled in marine debris and compare information on the occurrence of entanglement and ingestion of debris, (2) proVide a guide to available information on entanglement of marine life in marine debris, (3) review factors affecting the magnitude of entanglement-related interactions with marine debris, (4) describe the effect of entanglement on individual marine animals, (5) review information on population-level effects of entanglement, and (6) identify research and mitigation measures that should be taken to address entanglement. This analysis is based on a review of articles in peer-reviewe
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David W. Lais'

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Problems Associated with Collecting and Analyzing Entanglement Data For many reasons, efforts to characterize the occurrence and effect of entanglement with marine debris are difficult. As an awareness of these difficulties is important in interpreting available data, it is appropriate to briefly review some of the inherent problems before examining the reported data. These difficulties may be grouped into three categories: detection of entangled animals; biases in sampling and reporting; and determination as to whether entangled animals reflect interactions with marine debris (Table 8.1). The most basic limitation in assessing marine debris entanglement is the difficulty in detecting entangled animals. Most animals vulnerable to entanglement are highly migratory (e.g., seabirds, sea turtles, and marine mammals) and tend to be scattered across wide ocean areas. Entangling debris also is scattered over broad areas, making interactions possible almost anywhere in a species range. When dispersed throughout their ocean ranges, animals are visible only for brief instances at or above the sea surface. The fleeting glimpses of wildlife afforded from the decks of ships or plane windows

TABLE

does not provide a reasonable opportunity to detect entangled animals at sea either living or dead. Animals are usually visible only at great distances and often are only partially visible. Moreover, animals that become entangled and die may quickly sink or be consumed by predators at sea, thereby elimi.nating them from potential detection and sampling during limited sur.vey periods. Also, those that die and float in entangling debris are often concealed within a mass of debris that itself is hard to see. Together, these factors frustrate systematic attempts to detect entangled animals at sea. As a result, most data on entangled animals at sea are opportunistic anecdotal records. When systematic sampling efforts have been attempted, small sample sizes have precluded statistically meaningful analyses. Most entanglement records have, therefore, been gathered by landcbased observers examining animals that strand on beaches or congregate seasonally on shorelines to nest, breed, molt, etc. Reliance on such land-based sampling, however, introduces a number of common sampling biases that force investigators to contend with fundamental assumptions and uncertainties that have "not been tested or resolved. Most important, live en· tangled animals returning to shore include only those survivors entangled in debris light enough or close enough to shore. to allow

8.1. Factors complicating the analysis of marine entangelement trends. Detection

Entanglements occur as isolated events scattered over wide areas. Entangling debris is not easily seen on live animals at sea because animals may only be partially visible at great distances. Dead animals are difficult to see because they float just beneath the surface and may be concealed within debris

masses. Dead entangled animals may disappear quickly because of sinking or predation.

Sampling and reporting biases

Virtually no direct, systematic at-sea sampling has been done and the,e are few long-term surveys. Sampling methodologies are inconsistent. Strandings represent an unknown portion of total entanglements. Shore counts of live entangled animals are biased toward entanglement of survivors carrying small debris. Entangled animals spend less time ashore and more time foraging at sea. Some entanglements reflect interactions with active rather than derelict fishing gear. Many entanglement records may remain unpublished or are anecdotal and cannot be compared geographically or temporally. Few data are available for periods before 1980.

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

them to swim or fly to land. Invariably remaining unknown and unsampled are the animals that die at sea from entanglement in large debris items far from shore. Moreover, animals that are entangled in small debris and get to shore do so at an increased metabolic cost. This imposes added food reqnirements, resulting in more time spent at sea feeding. It also increases the risk of predation because of decreased mobility. Thus, by some uncertain factor, shore-based counts of entangled animals underrepresent the number of animals caught in small debris. More importantly, land-based surveys offer no measure of the number of animals that die in large debris at sea. By the same token, dead entangled animals that strand on shore represent an unknown proportion of entangled animals that die from entanglement at sea. The incidence of entanglement in debris also may be confused with the incidental "entanglement" or "by catch" of marine mammals, seabirds, turtles, and fish caught in active fishing gear. While active fIShing gear clearly is not marine debris, lost and discarded fishing gear is. Accordingly, data on animals found stranded, free swimming, or otherwise caught in derelict fishing gear or fishing gear debris are considered victims of marine debris. In this regard, it is recognized that some animals found with net fragments attached may have been cut out of active fIShing gear as unwanted bycatch when gear was retrieved. Also, some animals may tear free from active gear by themselves and carry small gear fragments with them. Thus, some unknown proportion of entanglement records almost certainly is caused by active gear rather than marine debris. Unfortunately, it is rarely possible to determine after the fact if animals found carrying fIShing debris became entangled in active fishing gear or in lost gear or gear fragments. Because lost and discarded fIShing gear is a significant component of marine debris and poses obvious entanglement hazards, it clearly is inappropriate to assume that all animals found entangled in fishing-related materials became entangled in actively fished gear. For the present, therefore, investigators

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and managers must work within the constraints of this conundrum.

Overview of Entanglement Records Notwithstanding difficulties in obtaining entanglement data and their limitations, one way to assess the scope of entanglement interactions is by compiling a' synoptic list of marine species worldwide for which individuals have been documented as being entangled in marine debris. To date, such lists have been prepared only for sea turtles (Balazs 1985) and pinnipeds (Fowler 1988). To assess the full range 'of biological effects caused by marine debris, it also is helpful to include species known to ingest marine debris. With regard to ingestion, Day et al. (1985) listed seabirds known to ingest plastics, Balazs (1985) reviewed ingestion by sea turtles, Walker and Coe (1990) compiled ingestion records for toothed whales, Hoss and Settle (1990) reviewed ingestion by bony fishes, Ryan (1987b) listed seabirds found to ingest plastics in the Southern Ocean; Ainley et al. (1990b) listed seabirds in the eastern equatorial Paclflc found with plastics in the digestive tract, and Moser and Lee (1992) listed seabirds in the western North Atlantic with ingested plastics. To combine and build on these efforts, Appendices 1 through 3 present synoptic lists of sea turtles (Appendix 1), seabirds (Appendix 2), and marine mammals (Appendix 3) reported entangled or containing ingested marine debris or both. The appendices update and expand earlier compilations by adding new or overlooked records, combining regional fmdings, and including reports of both entanglement and ingestion. Also, a list of fish and crustaceans known to be entangled or to ingest marine debris has been compiled (Appendix 4). In addition to providing a comprehensive listing of species known to be affected by marine debris, the appendices indicate the types of debris involved, the ocean basins in which the inter-

David w. Laist

102 actions have been reported, and, where possible, a subjective evaluation of whether the reviewed literature suggests that interactions are infrequent or more than infrequent for at least some locations. Overall, the lists of affected species indicate that marine debris is a broad-scale pollutant affecting individuals of a significant percentage. of the world's marine species (Table 8.2). Considering both entanglement and ingestion-related records, marine debris is known to affect individuals of at least 267 species worldwide (Table 8.2), including 86% of all sea turtle species, 44% of all seabird species, 43% of all marine mammal species, and numerous fish and crustacean species. For most of these species groups, significant numbers of species are subject to entanglement or ingestion of marine debris, although not necessarily both for individual species. For all species groups combined, entanglement records only were found for 90 species, ingestion records only were found

for 132 species, and both entanglement and ingestion records were found for 45 species. This suggests that a relatively small number of species are vulnerable to the combined effects of both entanglement and ingestion. FOr crustaceans, feeding mechanisms limit interactions exclusively to entanglement. Entanglement appears to be a far more likely cause of mortality than ingestionrelated interactions. For virtually all species with documented entanglements, at least some deaths are attributed to entangling debris. For at least some species (see following), there is evidence that significant levels of entanglement death occur. In contrast, for many species known to ingest marine debris there is equivocal or no evidence of ingestionrelated mortality. In these cases, ingested debris is documented from living and dead animals but there is either no evidence of mortality or it is not clear that the dead animals died as the result of the presence of debris in their digestive tracts. Even in cases

TABLE 8.2. Number and percentage of marine species worldwide with documented marine debris

entanglement and ingestiqn records by species group. Number and percentage oj

Spedes group

Sea turtles (see Appendix 1) Seabirds (see Appendix 2) Sphenisciformses (penguins) Podicip.,diformes (grebes) Procellariiformes (albatrosses, petrels, and shearwaters) Pelicaniformes (pelicans, boobies,

Total number ojspedes worldwide

7 312 16 19

species with

entanglement records 6 (86'10)

51 (16%)

Number and percentage oj species with ingestion records

Number and percentage of species with entanglement or ingestion records or both

6 (86%) III (36%)

6 (86'10) 138 (44'10)

6 (38'10)

1 (6'10)

0(0'10)

6 (38%) 2 (10'10)

99

2 (10'10) 10 (10'10)

62 (63'10)

63 (64'10)

51

11 (22%)

8 (16%)

17 (33'10)

122

22 (18%0

40 (33%)

50 (41'10)

5 32 (28%) 6 (60'10)

0 26 (23%) 2 (20%) 21 (32'10) 1 (7%) 1 (5%) 1 (25%) 0(0%) 33 0 1 177

gannets, cormorants, fngatebirds,

and tropicbirds) Charadriiformes (shorebirds, s!ruas, gulls, tems, auks) Other birds (see Appendix 2) Marine mammals (~Appendix 3) Mysticeti (baleen whales) Odontoceti (toothed whales) Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) Phocidae (true seals) Sirenia (manatees and dugongs) Mustellidae (sea otter) Fish (see Appendix 4) Crustaceans (see Appendix 4) Squid (see Appendix 4) Species total

115 10 65 14 19 4 1

5 (8'10)

11 (79%) 8 (42%) 1 (25%) 1 (100%) 34 8 0 136

5 49 (43'10)

6 (60'10) 22 (34'10) 11 (79'10) 8 (42'10)

1 (25%) 1 (100'10) 60 8 1 267

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

where there is evidence of frequent ingestion of debris (particularly certain species of seabirds, fish, and marine mammals), ingestionrelated mortality has often not been confinned or is reported rarely. In all cases in which entanglement is reported frequently or commonly, evidence of some mortality is apparent.

Sea Turtles The six species of sea turtles for which entanglement records exist (Appendix 1) represents 86% of the world's sea turtle species (6 of 7 species). The records suggest a regular pattern of occurrence by all six affected species with entanglements documented in most ocean areas. Sea turtles also actively approach and ingest all types of floating debris, including entangling line, as if it were food. This behavior may precipitate many if not most entanglements. The flatback sea turtle (Natator depressus), whose distribution is limited almost exclusively to the Arafura Sea, the Gulf of"Carpentaria, arid the Coral Sea north and northeast of Australia, is the only sea turtle for which neither entanglement nor ingestion records were found. The most thorough review of sea turtle entanglement records is by Balazs (1985), who listed some 60 cases involving five species from the mid-1970s to mid-1980s. Many if not most sea turtle entanglement cases involve animals that either died because of entanglement, wOnld have died without human intervention, or had gangrenous flippers caused by tightly wrapped lines. The vast majority of sea turtle entanglement records involve monofIlament line (likely from commercial or perhaps recreational fishing), rope, and corillnercial trawl and gillnet webbing. For at least some records, it is suspected that entangling material was encountered as active fishing gear. Other items known to entangle sea turtles include anchor lines, kite string, cloth strips, burlap, and plastic bags.

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Table 8.2 and Appendix 2), including 16% (51 of 312) of the world's seabird species listed by Harrison (1983) and 5 other coastal species. When considered from a taxonomic perspective, seabird entanglements appear to be most common in pelecaniformes (e.g., pelicans and gannets) and a few charadriiformes (e.g., coastal gulls), and less common in procellariiformes (e.g., albatrosses, petrels, and shearwaters), and least common in sphenisciformes (penguins) and podicipediformes (grebes). Although entanglements have been reported for 38% of penguin species (6 of 19 species), the records for each species involve only one or two birds. No entanglement records were found among gaviiformes (loons). Overall, entanglements have been reported for far fewer species than ingestion (Table 8.3), and the pattern of occurrence among species tends to be opposite that for ingestion. records. That is, many investigators note that ingestion of plastics is most common among procellariiformes, less frequent among charadriiformes, and least common among pelecaniformes (Day et al. 1985; Furness 1985a; Ryan 1987b; Ainley et al. 1990a; Sileo et al. 1990b; Moser and Lee 1992). For 57% of the seabird and coastal bird species with entanglement records (32 of 56 species), no reports of marine debris ingestion were found. Moreover, both entanglement and ingestion records were found in only 17% of the seabird species found to interact with marine debris (24 of 138 species). The records suggest that seabirds become entangled accidentally when seeking natural prey items associated with entangling debris, such as pelicans plunging for small fish that may be near floating line. By far, the debris items most frequently reported in seabird entanglement records are monofilament line and fishing net. Other entangling items repoited commonly, particularly for some species, are fishing hooks, six-pack yokes, wire, and string.

Coastal and Marine Birds

Marine Mammals

Reports of entangling debris were found for 56 species of marine and coastal birds (see

Entanglement records were found for 28% (32 of 115 species) of the world's marine

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8.3. Number and percentage of seabird species with entanglement records only, ingestion records only, and both entanglement and ingestion records.

TABLE

Number and

percent of species with entanglement records only

percent of species with ingestion records only

Sphenisciformes (penguins) Podicipediformes (grebes) Procellariiformes (albatrosses, petrels, and shearwaters)

5 (83'10) 2 (100%) 1 (2'10)

o (O%) 0(0%) 53 (84%)

1 (l7%) 0(0%) 9 (14'70)

Pelicaniformes (pelican, cormorants,

9 (53%)

6 (35%)

2 (12%)

boobies, gannets, frigatebirds, and tropicbirds) Charadriiformes (shorebirds,

10 (20%)

28 (56%)

12 (24%)

27 (20%) 5 (100%)

87 (63%) 0(0%)

24 (17%) 0(0%)

Species group

skuas, gulls, terns, and aUks) All seabird species

Other coastal birds

"

Number and percent of

Number and

mammal species (Table 8.2 and Appendix 3). For marine mammals, entanglement in. marine debris appears to be most common among seals and sea lions (pinnipeds), partiCularly the eared seals (otarids), less common in baleen whales (mysticetes) and manatees (sirenians), and rare among toothed whales (odontocetes) and otters (mustellids). Using a comprehensive list of the world's marine mammal species compiled by Rice (1977), the entanglement records include 60% of baleen whale species (6 of 10 species), 58% of seal and sea lion species (19 of 33 species), 25 %of sirenians (1 of 4 species), 8% of toothed whales and dolphins (5 of 65 species), and the only' exclusively marine otter, the sea otter Enbydra lutrus. Entanglement records among toothed whales that are clearly not related to bycatch in active fISheries are almost absent. Also, as discussed next, entanglement data for baleen whales (primarily scaring from ropes) may reflect a high interaction rate with active fIShing gear rather than marine debris_ Among pinnipeds, entanglement reports are more prevalent both in number of species and frequency of occurrence for fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) than true seals (phocidae) (Laist 1987; Fowler 1988). As in seabirds, there is relatively little overlap between marine mammal species known to become entangled and those that ingest marine debris. Of the 49 marine mammal species documented to interact with

species with

entanglement and ingestion records

marine debris, interactions for 47% (23 species) were limited to entanglement, 35% (17 species) were limited to ingestion, and only 18% (9 species) included reports of both entanglement and ingestion (Table 8.4). Also like seabirds, the taxonomic pattern of marine mammal entanglement records tends to be opposite that for ingestion. That is, pinnipeds, which have the highest incidence of entanglement records, have the fewest ingestion records. Conversely, the species group with the lowest percentage of species with entanglement records (toothed whales) is the group with the highest percentage of species ingestion records. The West Indian manatee is the only species of marine mammal for which there is evidence that both entanglement and ingestion occur regularly (Beck and Barros 1991). Available data indicate that entanglement is a far greater threat to marine mammals than ingestion in the number of species affected, the frequency of occurrence, and the effect on individuals. While there are a few records of mortality from ingestion, almost all species for which entanglement records exist include reports of dead or seriously injured animals or both. The debris items most often identi· fied in marine mammal entanglement records are trawl net and gillnet fragments and roo· nofilament line. Other entangling debris commonly identified includes rope and line of unspecified origin and strapping or packing bands.

Marine Debris Entanglemenr and Ingestion

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8.4. Number and percentage of marine mammal species with entanglement records only, ingestion records only, and both entanglement and ingestion records."

TABLE

Species group Mystieete (baleen whales) Odontoeete (toothed whales) Phocidae (earless or true seals) Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) Sirenia (manatees and dugongs) MusteIIidae (sea otters) All marine mammal species

Number and

Number and percent of species with entanglement records only

Number and percent of species with ingestion

records only

percent of species with entanglement and ingestion records

4 (66'10)

0(0%) 17 (77%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 17 (35%)

2 (33%) 4 (18%) 1 (12%) 1 (9%) 1 (100%) 0(0%) 9 (18%)

1(5%) 7 (88%) 10 (91%) 0(0%) 1 (100%) 23 (47%)

Fish, Crabs, and Squid Entanglement records also were found for 34 species of fish and 8 sp"ecies of crabs, but no species of squid (Appendix 4). Virtually all entanglement records involve dead animals, and most of these were caught in derelict fishing gear, principally set- and drift-gillnets and crab traps. This list seems particularly incomplete because entanglement in lost or discarded fishing gear seem possible for virtually all species <;aught in active commercial fishing gear;

Factors Influencing Entanglement Rates As indicated, evidence of entanglement in

marine debris has been reported for a significant number of species. The magnitude of impact for each species, however, is different and depends on the frequency with which individuals interact with and become entangled in marine debris. This, in turn, depends primarily on factors affecting the amount and density of entangling debris likely to be enCountered and on biological factors that predispose some species to entanglement.

the physical processes by which it is moved, reconfigured, and eventually deposited. Many investigators have collected information on the types, amounts, and distribution of entangling marine debris; see, for example, Shomura and Yoshida (1985), Alverson and June (1988), Shomura and Godfrey (1990), and Chapter 1, this volume. In general, the amount and distribution of debris have been related to probable sources (e.g., urban centers, commercial fishing areas, and shipping corridors) and to surface currents and wind patterns. Hazardous debris often enters the marine environment and is most concentrated in fishing grounds, coastal waters, and beach areas that are particularly important habitats for" various marine species (Laist 1987). For example, "Brothers (1989) reported high concentrations of lost gillnets on fishing grounds off Newfoundland; Henderson (1984, 1988, 1990) reported accumUlations of entangling debris on remote atolls in the northwest Hawaiian Islands used by Hawaiian monk seals; A. Carr (1987) noted massive concentrations of hazardous floating debris along drift lines and current margins used by sea turtles and seabirds for feeding; and the National Marine Fisheries Service (1993) suggested that the subarctic boundary in the North Pacific is an area where both northern fur seals and oceanic debris tend to concentrate.

Amount and Density

Animal Behavior

The amount and density of entangling debris is a function of disposal or loss patterns and

While patterns of debris disposal and loss and physical forces concentrate marine debris in

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certain important marine habitats, an array of animal behaviors, such as those related to feeding, play, and nest building, bring individuals of certain species into direct physical contact with entangling debris. In effect, these behavior patterns predispose certain species to entanglement. Sea turtles, for example, often forage along drift lines where prey as well as floating entangling debris accumulates (A. Carr 1987). Data on ingestion of plastic by sea turtles also indicate that sea turtles are unable to distinguish synthetic materials from natural prey items (Fritts 1982; A. Carr 1987). While plastic bags, sheeting, and fragments are the predominant debris items found in turtle stomachs, derelict rope and monofilament line also are ingested (Balazs 1985). This suggests that turtles approach virtually any floating debris, including entangling items, as potential prey. Studies of ingestion by captive sea turtles also illustrate this behavioral tendency (Lutz 1990). Once attracted to entan-gling material, it is not difficult to imagine webbing, rope, or line enwrapping flippers and snagging shells. Foraging strategies and feeding behavior also may be related to entanglement rates among seabirds. Several gulls, such as the herring gull, the black-backed gull, and the black-headed gull, often feed in garbage dumps (Ryan 1990a; Onions and Rees 1992), near fIShing vessels (Ryan 1991), or in the wake of ships where concentrations of entangling debris are likely to be greatest. Like sea turtles, some seabirds known to become entangled, such as gannets, also feed along current margins (Ashmole 1971) where debris concentrates. In general, seabirds that feed by scavenging (e.g., herring and black-headed gulls) and plunging (e.g., pelicans and gannets) are among the species with the highest entanglement rates. This tnight be expected given that scavenging birds often pick through garbage to obtain food and that prey of plunging birds may associate with floating debris for cover. Entanglement records are usually least common among species that feed by pursuit diving, surface seizing, and dipping. The collection of debris items for nest

David W. Laist

building is another behavior that increases entanglement risks for adults and chicks of certain birds. Two species for which this behavior is common are northern gannets and double-crested cormorants. Bourne (1976) first reported the use of plastic debris in nest construction by gannets, and more recently Montevecchi (1991) reported that virtually all gannet nests sampled at colonies in eastern Newfoundland (97%, 722 of 741 nests) have plastics incorporated into them. Gannets collect nesting material almost exclusively from offshore areas, and the most common debris reported from their nests were scraps of fishing net, rope, and line. For double-crested cormorants, Podolsky and Kress (1989) reported 37% of examined nests (188 of 497) in the Gulf of Maine contained plastic materials, principally plastic bags, lobster pot lines, and fishing net fragments. Among marine mammals, the fIlter-feeding strategies of baleen whales may cause some entanglements. Right whales (Kraus 1990), humpback whales (National Marine Fisheries Service 1991; Wiley et al. 1995), bowhead whales (Philo et al. 1992), and gray whales (Heyning and Lewis 1990) have been observed with rope and line traIling from their mouths or entangled around flippers and flukes. Numerous reports of baleen whales swimtning off With float lines to crab pots and gillnets (Heyning and Lewis 1990) suggest that many, if not most, baleen whales that -become entangled or scarred by fIShing gear encounter this material as active gear. At least some animals, however, probably become entangled in derelict rope and netting. Occasional interactions would seem likely during skim feeding, a strategy sometimes used by humpback whales, right whales, and bowhead whales to collect prey from the uppermost layer of water where floating rope or line also could occur. For seals and sea lions, curiosity and play appear to be important factors causing animals to seek out and interact with entangling debris (Laist 1987). Most interactions involve pups and juveniles. Studies of young and adult captive northern fur seals in pools containing net fragments and strapping bands demonstrate:

th~t

vonnu

~nim~h; ~rp more

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

likely to become entangled than adults (Yoshida and Baba 1985; Yoshida et al. 1985) and that young seals repeatedly approach, interact with, and become entangled in such material (Bengtson et al. 1988; Feldcamp et al. 1988). Some pups become entangled in beach-cast debris before ever entering the water. These findings fit well with field observations of entangled fur seals on the Pribilof Islands that report the highest rates of entanglement in juvenile age classes (Scordino et al. 1988). Higher entanglement rates among younger age classes also are reported for Hawaiian monk seals (Henderson 1984), Antarctic fur seals (Croxall et al. 1990), Australian fur seals (pemberton et al. 1992), and California sea lions (Stewart and Yochem 1987, 1990). Declining rates of entanglement in older age classes may reflect decreased interest and curiosity in floating debris based on accumulated experience with such items over time (Feldcamp et al. 1988). It also is possible that older animals become too large to be caught in small mesh sizes, thereby decreasing the proportion of debris hazardous to them. Most fish and crustacean entanglements occur in lost or discarded fishing gear specifically designed to exploit the normal behavior patterns of such species. For example, gillnets are designed to exploit fish swimming patterns and traps are designed to exploit fish and crab food preferences and feeding behavior. While the catch efficiency of lost gear declines as nets collapse, and traps may incorporate corrodible time-release panels to minimize ghost-fishing, it seems likely that virtually all target and nontarget species taken in commercial fIsheries are also killed in lost or discarded gear. .A!; animals become trapped in lost gear, they can lure other animals that in turn become trapped in a self-perpetuating cycle (Kruse and Kimker 1993). In considering factors that influence the magnitude of the effect of marine debris on marine life, it is interesting to compare marine debris with other pollutants. For example, although the effects of marine debris and contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, and hydrocarbons are influenced by their concentration in the marine environment,

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chemical pollutants, even those magnified through the food chain, may be diluted to a point at which they pose no threat to individuals. Marine debris items, however, retain a potential to injure or' kill individual animals independent of their concentration in the environment. That is, the ability of a strapping band to injure or kill a seal is not diminished by decreasing numbers of strapping bands in the ocean. Considering the behavioral attraction of some endangered species to entangling debris, this is an important distinction from other forms of marine poIlu· tion. It also is important to recognize that behavioral patterns that draw individual animals to entangling debris amplify biological effects. This phenomenon is functionally analogous to the biomagnification of other contaminants through the food cl1ain, in that both mechanisms effectively amplify the impact of dispersed contaminants on marine life.

The Effect of Entanglement on Affected Individuals While many different types of marine life are subject to entanglement, the effect of entangling debris is essentially the same for all species and is primarily mechanical (Laist 1987). Animals that become entangled may exhaust themselves and drown, have their mobility impaired to a point where they can no longer catch food or avoid predators, become hung up on rocks or other fixed objects by trailing rope or line, or incur wounds and infections from th.e abrasion or constriction of attached debris. In many cases, animals that interaet with entangling debris do not become entangled or become entangled only briefly with little or no apparent harm. During studies of captive northern fur seals, animals frequently freed themselves after only brief periods of entanglement in netting and strapping bands introduced into their pools (Yoshida et al. 1985). Also, entanglement data on northern right whales (Kraus 1990) suggest that baleen whales are able to free themselves of entan-

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gling debris with some degree of success. There are only a dozen records of right whales seen entangled in fishing gear between 1976 and 1989, but 57% of appropriately photographed northern right whales in the right whale photoidentification catalog (68 of 118 animals) bear scars on their peduncles and 17% (28 of 168 animals) have scars along their mouths indicative of chafImg by ropes and lines. For animals unable to free themselves quickly, survival prospects are poor. Increased drag from attached debris imposes high energy requirements and restricts movements. Studies on a captive California sea lion (Feldcamp 1985) showed that entangling debris can cause a severalfold increase in both drag and power required for swimming. Feldcamp concluded that small sea lions experience relatively higher drag and greater power requirements for a given size of debris than larger adults and that entanglement of younger animals conld cause proportionally higher mortality. Similar fmdings were reported by Feldcamp et a1. (1988) from energetic studies on captive juvenile northern fur seals. Attached debris also causes changes in behavior. Balazs (1985) suggested that entangled sea turtles are unable to function normally in feeding, diving, surfacing to breathe, or other essential behaviors. Quantitative studies of behavioral changes induced by entanglement have been done on free-ranging and captive northern fur seals. Bengtson et al. (1989) compared at-sea foraging behavior of free-ranging entangled and unentangled juvenile fur seals on the Pribilof Islands using radio tags equipped with depth-of-dive recorders.They showed that anim:alS entangled in small debris items spend twice as much time foraging at sea as do unentangled animals and that their average diving depth is much shallower. Other studies have shown that the pups of entangled female fur seals have higher mortality rates and lower body weight than pups of unentangled females (Delong et a1. 1988) and that, after a year, entangled fur seals are resighted, at half the rate of unentangled fur seals (Stewart et a1. 1989). Feldcamp et a1. (1988) reported a marked de-

David W. Laist

crease in the time captive fur seals spend swimming when the weight of entangling debris increased from 200 g to 250 g. Together, the studies suggest a vicious cycle in which entangling debris imposes added energy requirements while at the same time impairing foraging efficiency, leading to eventual starvation and death. While gradual starvation may be the fate of animals entangled in relatively small pieces of debris, those that become entangled in larger items probably die quickly. Fowler (1987) listed northern fur seal entanglement records for areas other than rookeries and haul-outs from 1967 to 1986. The list includes 13 animals found dead; of those, 9 were entangled in debris weighing more than 500 g, 1 was entangled in debriS weighing less than 500 g, and for 4 there was no weight estimate for the debris. In contrast, nearly 75% of the debris removed from entangled fur seals found on the Pribilof Islands between 1983 and 1992 was less than 150 g and more than 90% was less than 500 g (Fowler et al. 1993). The data suggest that northern fur seals en"tangled in debris weighing more than 500 g are not likely to survive long enough to make it back to rookeries or haul-outs unless they become entangled close to shore or on shore. Death of entangled animals also may occur quickly from injury or predation. Feldcamp (1985) reported that when a net fragment was placed in a pool with a captive California sea lion, the animal inserted his head into a mesh opening and reacted immediately with a violent twisting action that further entangled the animal and tightened the netting around the neck. He concluded that if such a reaction is common among seals, drowning or ensning wounds may be more immediate causes of death than starvation. Potentially lethal injuries such as necrosis and loss of appendages caused by the constriction of entangling rope and line, have been reported for West Indian manatees (Beck and Barros 1991), sea turtles (Balazs 1985), baleen whales (Heyning and lewis 1990), and seabirds (T. Miller, National Park Service, Corpus Christi, Texas, personal commuuication). Death also may come quickly for entangled birds. Trailing line or other debris on entan-

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

gled birds returning to roosts can snag on branches or other IlXed objects. In a matter of minutes, thrashing pelicans struggling to take flight after becoming hung up in trees can sustain massive injuries and die (R. Heath, personal communication). Fish and crustaceans caught in lost traps or immobilized in lost gillnets may die from cannibalism, predation, starvation, and suffocation as gear is buried by sand (Muir et al. 1984; Kruse and Kimker 1993; Paul et al. 1993). Each of these--observations has important implications for interpreting entanglement records. They suggest that animals entangled in debris above a certain size threshold may die at sea quickly and, unless entangled close to shore, rarely wash up on beaches. Also, while animals entangled in relatively small debris may survive somewhat longer and make it back to shore, the amount of time spent ashore tends to be less than for unentangled animals because of their greater food requirements and shorter life spans. In both cases, entangled animals are less likely to be seen by "researchers on land. Also, entangled animals that die for reasons other than predation may be detectable for only short periods of time because of scavenging and decomposition or be concealed in ways that frustrate detection (e.g., resting on the sea floor or floating at sea just below the sea surface).

109

quantitative estimates of entanglement rates are put forward as minimum estimates or indexes. In general, defInitive proof of population-level effects is lacking even for those species thought to be most affected by entanglement. However, because of the aforementioned sampling constraints, conclusions that suggest population impacts are low or insignificant should be treated with caution. Indeed, indirect analyses for some species offer convincing evidence that effects of entanglement are great enough to limit population growth or accelerate population declines.

Northern Fur Seals

The first systematic analyses of marine debris entanglement were done on the population of northern fur seals (Callorbinus ursinus) that breed and haul out during summer on the Pribilof Islands in the southeast Bering Sea. These entanglement stUdies, which are also the most extensive and in-depth work done on the subject to date, have played a major role in bringing the problem of marine debris to light. In many respects, this entanglement work has been made possible by the extensive amount of research done on the species. Indeed, because of a cooperative international management regime established early in the 1900s, this population is one of the most thoroughly studied marine mammal populations in the world. The purpose of the Impacts on Species and cooperative management program was to Populations oversee a commercial harvest of juvenile male fur seals for their pelts. Under the proAt least four approaches have been used to gram, harvesting was limited to a portion of assess the rates and effects of entanglement in the population's 2- to 3-year-old juvenile marine debris for particular populations of males that haul out in segregated groups on marine life: (1) seasonal field surveys to count the breeding islands each summer. and compare entangled and unentangled anEarly in the 1950s, the fur seal population imals in a given population; (2) long-term on the Pribilof Islands numbered an estinecropsy and photoidentification studies of mated 2.1 million animals. Its size at that time entanglements and entanglement wounds is believed to have been roughly equal to the and scars; (3) population modeling; and (4) preexploitation population size before epicompilations of independent anecdotal re- sodes of intense harvesting in the late 1700s ports. The fIrst three approaches offer quan- and 1800s (National Marine Fisheries Service titative analyses and have been done in only a 1993). From the 1960s to about 1970, the few cases, almost all of which involve marine population size declined to about 1.2 million mammals (Table 8_5). In most all cases, these for reasons apparently related to a change in

110

David W. Laist

TABLE

8.5. Observed entanglement rates for selected species.

Species

Northern fur seal Cape fur seal

Antarctic fur seal

Highest Observed percentage percentage observed entangled per colony 0.15...().71" 0.1I...().12·

0.66

0.1I

0.39

Australian fur seal 1.9 ± 0.7 0.18...().85 Hawaiian monk seal California sea lion Northern elephant seal West Indian manatee Northern right whale Northern gannet Loggerhead sea turtle

0.08...().16 0.1O...().16 1.7 and 3.6 b 12 and 57b 2.6 6

7.5

Location(s) Pribilof Islands South Africa and Namibia Bird Island, South Georgia Tasmania Northwest Hawaiian Islands

Study period

Source

1%7-1992 1977-1979

Fowler et aI. 1993 Shaughnessy 1980

1988-1989

Croxall et aI. 1990

1989-1990 1985-1988

Southern 1983-1988 California Bight Southern 1983-1988 California Bight Florida 1974-1985 Western North Atlantic Helgoland, German Bight Western North Atlantic

Pemberton et aI. 1992 Henderson 1990; T. GerrodeUe, U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, 1994, personal communication Stewart and Yochem 1990 Stewart and Yochern 1990 Beck and Barros 1991

1976-1989

Kraus 1990

1984-1985

Schrey and Vauk 1987

1990-1992

Bjorndal et al.1994

2Percentage is for juvenile male segment of the population only. bThe lust estimate is based on carcass salvage data and the second is based on scars and entanglements from photoidentification catalog data.

harvesting practices between 1956 and 1968 when female, as well as juvenile male, seals were taken. After the end of the female harvest, the population began increasing in the early 1970s. However, the period of the increase was brief, and in 1974 fur seal numbers again began to decline at an average rate of 4%-8% per year. By 1983, the population was estimated to number 877,000 animals. Since then, the population size has remained relatively stable at about 900,000-1,000,000 (National Marine Fisheries Service 1993). The effect of the female harvest does not appear adequate to explain either the magnitude or the persistence of the observed population decline after 1974. And while the cause of the post-1974 decline is still debated, there is good reason to believe that entanglement was and remains a significant factor in shaping the population trend. Even for this extensively studied population, however, the evidence remains largely circumstantial, illustrating the difficulty in documenting and measuring the effects of marine debris entanglement.

As with other pinnipeds, virtually all records of entangled fur seals are from periods when they haul out on land. On the Pribilof Islands, sightings of entangled fur seals date back to at least the 1930s (Fowler 1987). Because of increasing observations of entanglement, counts were begun in 1967 to record the number of entangled animals found in the annual harvests of juvenile males returning to the islands for the first time after spending their first 2-3 years at sea. When commercial harvests ended in 1984, comparable counts were continued by the National Marine Fisheries Service as part of its northern fur seal research program. The percentage of entangled juvenile males seen in the commercial harvests and research drives from 1967 through 1992 has ranged from 0.15 % to 0.71% (Fig. 8.1). As noted, some 90 % of the animals were entangled in debris weighing less than 500 g. While observed entanglement rates seen on land are far too low to account for the unexplained portion of the fur seal population decline, the unrecorded number of animals

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

111

Entancled Nortbera. Far Seal.

0.'

0.1

0.6


• E

!

,!

.:! 0.' ';i

j

I.

• tl.3

0.2

0.1

O+-------.~----_r-----_r_----_,_-----_r_----_, 1970 1975 1915 1990 1095 1965 19'0 Yur FIGURE 8.1. The percentage of juvenile male northern fur seals found entangled in the commercial harvest from 1967 to 1984 and in research roundups from 1985 to 1992 on St. Paul Island, Alaska (Fowler et al. 1993).

entangled and killed at sea in large debris was recognized as a potentially significant unknown factor. Therefore, to assess whether undetected entanglement at sea might be a cause of the decline, investigators turned to population modeling. The results show a statistically significant relationship between fluctuations in entanglement rates on land and changes in the numbers of pups bom and an unexplained high mortality among juvenile aninlals before their initial return to the Pribilof Islands (Fowler 1982, 1985, 1987, 1988; Fowler et al. 1990; French and Reed 1990; Swartzman et al. 1990). When combined with information on the amount of large net debris found on Alaska beaches (more than 500 g) that could entangle and prevent fur seals from returning to

land, the propensity of juveniles to become entangled, and the effect of debris on entangled indiViduals, the correlative analyses offer compelling indirect evidence that entanglement was a major factor in the population decline during the 1970s. Based on the size of the Pribilof Islands fur seal herd in the mid- to late-1970s, it was suggested that 50,000 Pribilof Island fur seals were killed annually at that time by entanglement in debris (Fowler 1982). When indirect evidence offers a compelling explanation for the decline, direct supporting evidence has proven elusive despite the large number of entanglement-related deaths implied. In part, this is because it is still unclear where weaned pups go during their. first years at sea. Moreover, detecting

112

entangled animals at sea is exceedingly difficult. Also unclear is the extent to which entanglement is a function of inquisitiveness in young versus older animals and the size of animals relative to the size of openings in entangling debris. If the former factor is dominant, entanglement might be limited largely to pups and juveniles; however, if attraction to debris does not differ with age, a larger proportion of female fur seals may become entangled because their growth rate is less and their adult size is smaller than males. Direct evidence of entanglement at sea is limited to a small number of records. Fowler's (1987) compilation of northern fur seal entanglement records from locations other than rookeries and haul-outs includes only 28 sightings between 1967 and 1987. These sightings confirm that both male and female animals become entangled and die at sea in relatively large pieces of debris (more than 500 g), but the sample size is far too small to verify or refute assetted mortality levels suggested by indirect analyses. As shown in Fig. 8.1, counts since the late 1980s show a decline in juvenile seal entanglement rates observed on the Pribilof Islands through most of the 1970s and I980s. In the Iate-1980s and early-1990s, observed entanglement on land declined to between 0.2% and 0.3%. This decline has resulted largely from a decrease in the number of seals entangled in trawl webbing, which may reflect a decrease in the discard of trawl net fragments by fishermen; there is no apparent decline in entanglement in strapping bands or other debris items (Fowler et al. 1993). Another possibility is that the decline reflects a change in fishing patterns and associated debris dispersal relative to the distribution of juvenile fur seals at sea. Given the modest signs of recovery of the fur seal population in recent years, it is possible that continuing entanglement is among the density-dependent factors impeding population recovery.

Cape Fur Seals Like northern fur seals, young Cape fur seals along the Atlantic coast of South Africa and

David W. Laist

Namibia have been harvested for their pelts. Also like northern fur seals, efforts have been made to record the incidence of entangled animals seen in harvests at various rookeries. These studies, however, were limited to the 1977-1979 harvest seasons. The overall entanglement rates reported for surveyed Cape fur seal colonies were 0.12%, 0.11%, and 0.12% in 1977,1978, and 1979, respectively (Shaughnessy 1980). For each year, about two-thirds of the observed entanglements were at the Cape Cross colony in Namibia even though that colony accounted for less than one-fifth of total annual harvests. Entanglement rates at Cape Cross ranged from 0.56% in 1977 to 0.66% in 1979. Cape Cross is close to a major purse seine fishing ground, and monoItlament line was the most common entangling item at that location. Shaughnessy (1980) cautioned against direct comparisons of entanglement rates for Cape fur seals and northern fur seal, in part because most harvested Cape fur seals were less than 1 year old while most harvested northern fur seals are 2-3 years old. However, given reported entanglement rates and the shorter amount of time Cape fur seals spent at sea exposed to debris, he suggests entanglement rates for Cape fur seals may be as high or higher than northern fur seals. Given more recent analyses of the effect of entanglement on northern fur seals, debris may be a significant source of mortality for at least the Cape Cross colony of Cape fur seals. Unfortunately, more recent entanglement surveys of Cape fur seal colonies have not been done.

Australian Fur Seals Entanglement surveys of Australian fur seals were undertaken recently in Tasmania shortly after regional trawl fisheries began expanding. During observations of haul-out beaches in the 1989-1990 and 1990-1991 breeding seasons, 75 entangled animals were counted, 96% of which showed obvious signs of physical injury from attached debris (Pemberton et al. 1992). Juveniles and subadults comprised 66% of the entangled ani-

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

mals, and entangling material included trawl net (40%), plastic straps (30%), monofilament nets (15%), and nylon rope (15%). Using counts of entangled and unentangled seals at a subset of survey sites in southern Tasmania, Pemberton et al. (1992) calculated a mean entanglement rate of 1.9% ± 0.7%. For reasons similar to those of Croxall et al. (1990), they put forward their calculated entanglement rate for Australian fur seals as a minimum estimate and added that conclusions regarding any influence entanglement might have on population trends at Tasmania's fur seal colonies will not be apparent for several years.

Antarctic Fur Seals Studies to quantify Antarctic fur seal entanglement were done on Bird Island, South Georgia, during the 1988-1989 pup-rearing season by Croxall et al. (1990). Entangling debris was seen on 208 animals, representing at least 0.11 % of the island's total estimated fur seal population. In only 19% of the entangled seals was debriS considered loose enough to have any chance of coming off naturally. With regard to age and sex, 71 % of the entangled animals were males, 88% of which were 4 years of age or less. Most entangled females (64%) were more than 4 years old. Unlike other seal entanglement studies in which ftshing gear is the item most commonly seen, 75% of the Antarctic fur seal entanglements at Bird Island involve plastic straps and string and only 13% involve trawl web. Researchers were able to remove debris from 170 of the 208 entangled animals. Croxall et al. (1990) consider the 0.11 % entanglement rate a minimum rate for several reasons. They noted that a portion of the population (Le., many juveniles) does not return to shore annually and thus are not available for detection of debris. They also noted that the number of animals entangled at sea and unable to return to Bird Island is unknown. In this regard, the high incidence of strapping bands and string seem noteworthy. If these items are representative of entangling debris in the species oceanic range

113

and heavy trawl net webbing is rare, more entangled Antarctic fur seals may be able to return to land than other species, such as northern fur. seals, because entanglement rates in heavy items is comparatively low. The calculated entanglement rate also is assumed to be low because some beaches were surveyed only occasionally, increasing the possibility that entangled animals may have been present but not counted. At beaches where there was conftdence all entangled animals were recorded (Le., those visited daily), entanglement rates were significantly higher, just under 0.40%. Considering such factors, Croxall et al. (1990) suggested a likely maximum entanglement rate might approach 1%. Extrapolated to the entire South Georgia fur seal population of 1.2 million animals, they estimated 5,00010,000 animals may have been entangled in 1988-1989. Noting that Antarctic fur seals have been increasing at about 4%-15% annually, an order of magnitude greater than the highest observed entanglement rate, they concluded that entanglement is not likely to be signiftcant for South Georgia's Antarctic fur seal population at present. They caution, however, that persistent high entanglement levels could cause a decline in the future as the population reaches equilibrium in response to density-dependent factors (Croxall et al. 1990).

Hawaiian Monk Seals Entanglement records for endangered Hawaiian monk seals have been compiled by Henderson (1984, 1985, 1988, 1990). Between 1974 and 1984 he lists 27 entanglements and 8 additional reports of seals with scars indicating prior entanglement (Henderson 1985, 1990). From 1985 to 1988, Henderson lists 34 entanglements, including 3, 4, 12, and 15 in 1985, 1986, 1987, and 1988, respectively (Henderson 1990). The 1985-1988 entanglements include 4 animals found dead. Debris on most other entangled seals was described as being loose and was removed whenever possible. Most accounts involve pups. Fishing net and monofilament

David

114

line constitute the most commonly reported debris. Researchers visit the five major monk seal breeding islands for only a few days to a few months each year. Therefore, to examine trends between years and locations with different amounts of sighting effort, Henderson calculated observed entanglement incidents in units of 100 field camp-
Pinnipeds in California Stewart and Yochem (1987, 1990) reported on entanglement surveys of California sea

~/.

Laist

lions, northern elephant seals, harbor seals, and northern fur seals at haul-out sites on San Nicolas Island and San Miguel Island off the coast of California. Based on observations from 1983 through 1988, they concluded that entanglement contributes to the mortality of some animals, but that it is not a significant factor in population trends for any of the pinniped populations in the Southern California Bight (Stewart and Yochem 1990). For California sea lions, reported entanglement rates combined for both islands range from 0.08% to 0.16% between 1983 and 1988 (Stewart and Yochem 1990). Monofilament giIInet was the most common entangling material. For northern elephant seals, reported entanglement rates over that period range from 0.10% to 0.15% with strapping bands the most commonly seen entangling debris. Entangling debris on harbor seals and northern fur seals was seen on only a very few occasions during the study.

West Indian Manatees Beck and Barros (1991) reviewed entanglement records for endangered West Indian manatees in Florida. Their analysis suggests entanglements occur regularly and involve a small but increasing percentage of the population. From 1974 to 1985, 1.7% of the manatees salvaged in the Southern United States (16 of 940 carcasses) had one or both flippers scarred, missing, or entangled in monofilament line, rope, or crab trap lines. In 11 cases (1.2 %), entanglement in line or netting was the identified cause of death. Also, 3.6% of free-ranging manatees in the manatee photoidentification catalog (26 of 729 individuals) bear scars or missing flippers from previous entanglements (Beck and Barros 1991). In recent years, sightings and rescues of entangled manatees have become more frequent. Because an unknown portion of these entanglement records result from interactions in active commercial and recreational fishing gear, mortality and injury rates caused by debris may be lower than those reported here.

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

Right Whales Scars indicative of chafmg and abrasion by rope and line have been identified on a much larger percentage of northern right whales in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Analyses of photographs in the right whale photoidentification catalog indicate 57% of appropriately photographed animals (67 of 118 whales) have rope scars on their peduncles and 17% (28 of 161 whales) have such scars around the mouth (Kraus 1990). Kraus (1990) attributed these scars to entanglement in fishing gear. Given a population estimate of 350 animals for the North Atlantic right whale population (Kraus 1990), at least 20% of the population (67 of 350) appear to have entanglement-related scars on peduncles alone. Also, 12% (3 of25) of all documented right whale deaths recorded from 1970 to 1989 were attributed to entanglement in fishing gear. Given overlap between fishing grounds and the distribution of right whales, many if not most scars and deaths may be caused by interactions with active rather than derelict gear.

Sea Turtles Until recently, information on sea turtle entanglement was limited almost exclusively to compilations of anecdotal records. The most thorough evaluation of such records is that by Balazs (1985), who compiled 60 entanglement records worldwide, 38% of which involve dead animals. The records cover five species and almost all are of single animals. Balazs concluded that sea turtles are affected to an unknown but potentially significant degree by entanglement in debris. As noted, sea turtles approach and attempt to eat all types of debris, including entangling material. Given information since Balazs' review on the use of drift lines where debris tends to accumulate (A. Carr 1986, 1987), it seems reasonable to assume that significant numbers of turtles may become entangled. More recent quantitative assessments of sea

115

turtle entanglement also suggest entanglement rates may be high. Based on sea turtle stranding records collected from 1980 to 1992 along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, entangling debris was found on 0.8% (142 of 16,327) loggerhead turtles, 6.6% (123 of 1,874) green turtles, 6.8% (66 of 970) leatherback turtles, 14% (36 of 258) hawksbill turtles, and 0.8% (18 of 2,140) Kemp's ridley turtles (W. Teas, personal communication). Data on entanglement rates among free-swimming sea turtles seen at sea also have been collected. Bjorndal and Bolton (1994) reported entangling debris was found on 6% of more than 800 loggerhead sea turtles caught in waters around the Azores from 1990 to 1993 and 5% of more than 1500 sea turtles of various species observed at sea worldwide. Assuming a high mortality rate among entangled sea turtles and the potential for a high percentage of female turtles to become entangled before reaching sexual maturity, the data suggest that entanglement mortality and reduced recruitment potential for at least some sea turtle species could cause population declines.

Northern Gannets The only study found in this review presenting quantitative data on entanglement among seabirds is a report by Schrey and Vauk (1987) on northern gannets along part of their migratory route in the German Bight. They reported that 2.6% (8 of 313 sightings) of the gannets sighted at Helgoland in 1984 and 1985 were entangled in derelict fishing gear. Assuming that some of the 313 sightings were repeat sightings of individuals, they concluded entanglement rates in the area were definitely higher. They also reported finding 3 dead entangled birds (13% of all dead gannets found on Helgoland) and freeing 5 other entangled birds between 1976 and 1985. Because most gannet colonies in the northeast Atlantic are in the British Isles, western France, leeland, and Norway, where no entanglement surveys have been done, the sig-

S

116

David W. Laist

interviews with fishermen to derive an 11 % annual trap loss rate for the riungeness crab fishery in the Fraser River Estuary of British Columbia, Breen (1987) estimated ghost fishing losses for that fishery in 1984 at 7% of the landed catch or about 21,100 kg. Based on other reported trap loss rates, Breen (1990) estimated an annual loss of about 10%-20% of the traps used in the coastal Dungeness crab and American lobster fisheries and concluded that associated ghostfishing is a cause for concern. Other estimates cited by Breen (1990) for annual ghost-fishing losses in lost pots and traps are 670 metric tons of American lobster in 1978 off the Northeast United States (Smolowitz 1978) and 300 metric tons of sablefish (7.5%-30% of landings) in the sablefish trap fishery off British Columbia from 1977 to Pelicans 1983 (Scarsbrooke et al. 1988). Kruse and Kimker (1993) estimated 31,600 pots were Although no statistical data on entanglement lost in the Bristol Bay king crab fishery in of pelicans are av'illable, Ralph Heath (per- 1990 and 1991. If each pot killed just one sonal communication), founder of a seabird legal-sized crab per year, annual losses would rescue and rehabilitation facility in southwest be 205,400 pounds. Regulations for many Florida, has found hundreds of pelicans that crab and pot fisheries now include provisions died in the past decade in south Florida from for marking traps and using time-release deentanglement in line, string, and similar ma- vices on panels to minimize ghost-fishing terial. In addition, staff at the facility have (Breen 1990). removed entangling line from thousandS of Lost coastal gillnets also may catch signifiother pelicans. Because line removed from cant quantities of commercially important live birds is often unsnarled, interaCtion with fmfish and shellfish. Brothers (1989, 1992) active recreational fishing gear is suspected as reviewed a series of 16st gillnet retrieval a major source of the entangling material. In projects off Newfoundland, Canada, and reat \east some cases, however, entanglement ports recoveries of 148 gillnets in 20 days in in lost or discarded lines seerus probable. The 1975, 176 gillnetsin 24 days in 1976, 16.5 tendency of these species to occur around gillnets in 15 days in February 1984, and no docks and other areas where debris is likely gillnets in 5 days in November 1984. Catch in to enter coastal waters and its plunging the 148 lost nets retrieved in 1975 included feeding behavior would suggest a high poten- 3,047 kg of groundfish and 1460 kg of crab. tial for becoming entangled in lost or dis- Total catch in the 176 nets recovered in 1976 carded line. included 4,813 kg of groundfish and 2,593 kg of crab. No fISh were found in the 16.5 nets retrieved in 1984. Off Massachusetts, H.A. Fish and Crabs Carr and Cooper (1987) reported fmding 9 lost nets in 15 submersible dives searching The death of fish and crabs in lost fishing gear 40.5 ha of bottom. The findings suggest high (ie., ghost-fishing) is recognized as a serious densities of lost nets occur in at least some concern for several commercial fisheries demersal gillnet fishing grounds off the (Breen 1990; Kruse and Kimker 1993). Using northeast United States. Some of the nets nificance of entanglements reported from the German Bight is unclear but may indicate problems elsewhere. As noted, almost all nests in some gannet rookeries contain plastic debris, indicating that gannets routinely collect such material for nest building. In 8 days of work at one rookery, Montevecchi (1991) reported fmding 3 adults and 15 chicks entangled and concluded that a small percentage of adult and nesting ganneis die at rookeries from entanglement in debris woven into nests. Despite finding a high percentage of double-crested cormorant nests with plastic debris in the Gulf of Maine, Podolsky and Kress (1989) reported finding no entangled cormorants at the rookeries they studied.

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

117

were revisited over a 3-year period during on isolated or infrequent reports. For these which they continued to catch fish and shell- species, entanglement appears unlikely to fish (H. A. Carr et al. 1985; H. A. Carr 1986; cause effects at a population level. For certain H. A. Carr and Cooper 1987). Given the other species, entanglement appears to be a ability of lost nets to continue catching fISh chronic low-level source of mortality. Some and crabs over a period of years, lost gillnets of these species, such as gray whales, Calicould be responsible for significant losses of fornia sea lions, northern elepha.nt seals, some commercially valuable species. northern gannets, herring gulls, and shags, consist of large or increasing populations that appear to be unaffected by entanglement. However, other species subject to low levels Conclusions and of entanglement (e.g., West Indian manatees, Recommendations Steller sea lions, and some sea turtles) are endangered or threatened. Although entangleAvailable information indicates that individ- ment-related mortality for these species may uals of at least 135 marine species, including be low compared to other sources of mortala significant percentage of the world's sea ity, it constitutes an added obstacle to returtle, marine mammal, and seabird species, covery and therefore merits attention. become entangled in marine debris. At least For a few species, such as Hawaiian monk some entanglement-related deaths have been seals, northern fur seals, some sea turtles, reported for most of these species. In almost certain fish and 'crabs caught commercially, all cases, a direct, absolute measure of the and perhaps northern right whales, entangleextent to which entanglement occurs or af- ment in marine debris appears to occur often fects species at the population level does not enough to affect population abundance diexist. There are two principal reasons for rectly. In these cases, marine debris is an this. First, most data have been gathered on important research and management conbeaches where animals haul out, roost, or cern. strand. As a result, records are limited to The types of marine debris most commonly animals that survive long enough to swim associated with entanglement are fishing ashore or that become entangled close to nets, monofilament line, lost crab traps and shore. Because of logistical and practical con- fish pots, rope, and strapping bands. The straints, at-sea surveys for entangled animals greatest source of this material is commercial are rare and the number of animals entangled fishing operations, although cargo vessels, and killed offshore is unknown. Second, recreational fIShing, and land-based sources many entanglements involve fishing nets and also may be significant contributors. line, and it is rarely possible to determine Given these points, resolution of marine after the fact if entangled animals encoun- debris entanglement problems would be best tered their burden of gear when nets or line addressed through a combination of species were active or after the gear was lost. There management and source-reduction programs. are no immediate prospects for resolving For endangered or threatened species afthese uncertainties, and thus definitive infor- fected at low levels and for species for which mation on the magnitude of entanglement marine debris may be a substantial source of mortality for affected species or populations mortality, the following actions are recomseems unlikely in the near future. mended: Notwithstanding these limitations, some conclusions regarding levels of impact seem Research should be undertaken to better docreasonable. For most seabirds (particularly ument and monitor entanglement rates. procellariiform seabirds, penguins, grebes, Particularly promising in this regard are and loons), toothed whales, and fish, eviprospects for monitoring entanglement dence of entanglement is lacking or is based rates for sea turtles at sea. Periodic on-land

Il8

David W. Laist

submerged where they would not be cut or surveys for entangled seals and seabirds towed by passing ships), and enhance the that come to shore to nest, breed, and molt likelibood that lost gear could be recovered should be continued in cases in which such (e.g., attachment of sonic devices to help information provides the only source of relocate lost gear). knowledge about the extent of such interEncourage or require alternative technologies actions. and products that reduce the likelihood of In conjunction with such studies and other loosing hazardous entangling items (e.g., field work, researchers should take steps to using nonplastic straps or bait containers). free entangled animals and to remove entangling debris from key habitats, such as With regard to recreational fishing, steps rookeries. should be taken to investigate the feasibility Because of the pJ;edominance of fishing- of degradable monofilament fishing line (e.g., related debris in entanglement incidents, line with a I-year service life). As a general source-reduction efforts should focus on in- matter, targeted education and awareness corporating new management measures into programs should be developed and mainfishery management programs to avoid losses tained for operators of commercial and and to increase recovery of such items. In this recreational fishing vessels and cargo vessels. regard, the following actions are recom- Such programs should describe the problems mended: caused by lost items commonly used by each Require fishermen to report when, where, user group, relevant legal requirements, and and the circumstances under which nets or provisions for properly disposing of plastics. traps are lost. Analyses of such information should help in devising ways to minimize Acknowledgments. A review paper of this losses and perhaps mounting clean-up ef- sort would not be possible without the generous assistance of many colleagues. At the forts. Investigate the feasibility of implementing' risk of omitting many who prOVided help in pilot prog=s to clean up lost fishing gear compiling information used in this paper, I from the sea floor in areas where such express special thanks to David G. Ainley, debris is likely to be concentrated. Sarah Allen, Raymond V. Arnaudo, Jason D. Undertake studies to better document the Baker, George Balazs, Cathy A. Beck, John L. magnitude of ghost fIshing by derelict Bengtson, Karen A. Bjorndal, Alan B. Bolton, fishing gear through surveys to locate and W. Nigel Bonner, William R. P. Bourne, record catch in. lost gear and to record the Gerald Brothers, Jeff Brown, Alan R. Bunn, catch in lost gear recovered incidentally Ruperto Chaparro, Susan J. Chivers, John . during commercial fishing operations. Clary, James M. Coe, Anne Collet, John P. Require fIshermen to retain all plastic or en- Croxall, Trevor R. Dixon, David E. Gaskin, tangling gear caught incidentally during William P. Gregg, Murray R. Gregory, Ralph fishing operations for on-land disposal. T. Health, Jr., John R. Henderson, Robert J. Institute incentives for retaining and re- Hofman, Karl W. Kenyon, Gordon H. Kruse, turning used fIShing gear for on-land dis- David M. Lavigne, Burney J. Le Boeuf, Lloyd posal (e.g., bonuses for returning used gear F. Lowry, Peter 1. Lutz, Theodore R. Merrell, Jr., Kenneth D. McDermond, Jeffrey Miller, or gear deposits). Ensure that convenient reception facilities John E. Miller, William A. Montevecchi, Da· are available in fishing ports to receive niel K. Odell, Rodney J. Paterson, Villere C. material returned to shore. Reggio, Christine A. Ribic, Martin D. Robards, Evaluate new technologies to decrease the Betsy Schrader, David Sergeant, Peter D. potential for gear loss (e.g., automatic float Shaughnessy, Louis Sileo, Janet Slater, Wendy releases that would allow floats to .stay G. Teas, Fritz Trillmich, Jan Andries van

Marine Debris Entanglement and Ingestion

119

Franeker, Dean Wilkinson, Charles D. Wood- W. Fowler, Burr Heneman, and most of all house, and Steven T. Zimmerman. For their Peter G. Ryan. Finally, for the opportunity great care in reviewing and commenting on and support to work on this paper, I thank early drafts and assistance in gathering infor- John R. Twiss, Jr. and the Marine Mammal mation, I am particularly grateful to Charles Commission.

~

N 0

ApPENDIX 1. Sea turtle entanglement (E) and Ingestion (I) records.

Species

liE

Material

Green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas

l+/E+

1: Plastic bags, plastic sheeting, linc, synthetic cloth; plastic fragments; E: Monofilament line, trawl net, - gillnet, anchor line, cloth strip, kite string I: Plastic banana bags, plaslic - fragments and cloth, unidentified plastic, rubber, aluminium foil, monofilament line; E: Fishing line

I+/E-

I-/E+

Loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta

l+/E-

Uchida 1990; Balazs 1980, 1985

N. Pac.: Japan, Hawaii, and California

Henderson 1984; Mooney and Naughton, 1981; Balazs 1985

N. Atl.: Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Florida

Meylan 1978; Balazs 1985; Plotkin and Amos 1990: Bjorndal et al. 1994

N. Atl.: Texas, Florida

Hildebrand 1980; Balazs 1985; Teas and Witzell 1994 Hirth 1971; Brown and Brown 1982; Balazs 1983, 1985

S. Pac.: Peru, Australia

E: Rope lied to anchor

S. Pac.: Australia

1: Styrofoam, plastic,

N. AU.: Texas, Florida, Georgia,

plastic bags,

E: Monofilament line, gillnet, trawl

netting, plastic woven sack

I: Plastic pellets in hatchings, plastic sheeting and bags, glass; E: Polypropylene rope

1-

Plastic plastic sheeting, line, and

I+/E+

I: Plastic sheeting, plastic bags,

Source

N. Pac.: Japan and Hawaii

I: Plastic bags, vinyl film;

monofilament line, plastic bottle, balloons, iron bolt, champagne cork, nylon thread:

I-lE-

Location

S. Atl.: South Africa

Brongersma 1968; Salvador 1978; Van Nierop and den Hartog 1984: Balazs 1985; Oramentez 1988; Shoop and Ruckdeschel 1989 Rabalais and Rabalais 1980; Balazs 1985: Bolten and Bjorndal1991; Bjorndal and Bolten 1994; Plotkin and Amos 1990 Hughes 1970, 1974b

S. Atl.: South Africa N. Pac.: Japan

P.O. Ryan, personal communication Balazs 1985; Uchida 1990

N. Atl.: Costa Rica, Florida. and

Carr and Stancyk 1975; Hildebrand 1980; Hartog 1980; Meylan 1984; Balazs 1985 Broadrick 1982; Fletcher 1982; Wolf 1982; Balazs 1985; Plotkin and Amos 1990: Teas and Witzelll994 Balazs 1985; Uchida 1990 Balazs 1978 Afelin and Pulelos 1982; Balazs 1985

Virginia, Azores, and

Mediterranean N. All.: Caribbean, Texas, Florida,

and Azores

oiher debris Hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys impricata

- plastic fragments, pellets,

Texas

styrofoam, paper;

E: Monofilament line, plastic onion

N. Atl.: Florida and Texas

- bag I+/E-

I: Numerous plastic particles;

Il: Monofilament gillnet Olive ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea

E+

Trawl net, monofilament and nylon webbing, synthetic line

N. Pac.: Japan, Hawaii N. Pac.: Hawaii N. Pac.: Hawaii and Costa Rica

:>-

'0 '0

"::>

Cl.



~

::1. ~

o

0::l. ~

'"

ApPENDIX

1. Continued.

Species

liE

Kemp's ridley turtle, Lepldochelys

l+/E+

Material

Location

!: Milk carton, plastics, burlap;

N. AU.: Texas and Georgia

E: Shrimp trawl, fishing line, rope f: Plastic bags, plastic sheeting, - plastic-coated prescription label, plastic fragments, nylon line;

N. AU.: Texas N. Atl.: Netherlands, England, and eastern U.S.

E: Lobster pot line, rope, nylon line

N. AU.: England, Bermuda, France. and Texas

I-/E-

I: Plastic sheeting;

l+/E-

E: Nylon rope f: Twisted vinyl

S. Atl.: South Africa S. Atl.: South Africa N. Pac.: Japan

Balazs 1985; Plotkin and Amos 1990; Shoop and Ruckdeschel 1989 Plotkin and Amos 1990; Balazs 1985 Brongersma 1972; Schoelkopf 1981; Duguy et al. 1980; Fritts 1982; Balazs 1985, Sadove and Morreale 1990 Duron and Duron 1980; Lee and Palmer, 1981; Duguy and Duron 1981,1982; Duguy 1983; Hartog and Van Nierop 1984; Plotkin an Amos 1990 Hughes 1974a Balazs 1985 Balazs 1985; Uchida 1990

N. Pac.: Hawaii

Balazs 1985

S. Pac.: Peru and New Zealand

Fritts 1982; Cawthorn 1985

kempl Leatherback turtle, Dermochelys

Source

I+/E+

coriacea

fiber, large plastic

t~ ~

0-

~ ~

M

o'

"

- sheets; E: Monofilament gillnet, parachute

- anchor) rope 1-

Plastic bags, plastic sheeting

Ad., Atlantic; Pac., Pacific; U.S., United States.

Minus ( - ), evidence of Interactions based on rare or infrequent reports of isolated individuals. Plus ( +), some reports of interactions more than infrequent and/or evidence of a regular pattern of occurrence at low to high levels.

-N

~

ApPENDIX

N N

2. Seabird entanglement (E) and Ingestion (I) records.

Species

liE

Ma/eriai

Location

Source

Sphenisciformes (penguins): Gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis

E-

Plastic line

Ind. 0.: Marion Is.

Ryan 1987a

E-

Fishing net, wire

S. Ocean

Slip 1990

E-

Trawl netting

S. Ocean: Seal Is.

United States of America 1991

E-

Plastic

S. AU.: Gough Is.

Ryan 1986

E-

Not identified

S. AU.: South Africa

Ryan 1990a

E-/I-

E: Fishing line

S. Pac.: Tasmania

Slater 1992

I: Bottle cap

S. Pac.: Tasmania

Slater 1994

E-

Fishing line

N. Atl.: North Sea

Federal Republic of Germany 1985

E-

Monofilament gillnet fragment

N. Pac.:. California

Jameson 1986

papua Adeline penguin, Pygaseelis

adeliae Chinstrap penguin,

pygaseelis an/arc/lea Rockhopper penguin,

Eudyp/es cres/a/us Jackass penguin, Spheniseus demersus Fairy penguin, Euc/yp/ula minor

Podicipediformes (grebes): Great crested grebe, Padieeps cristatf!$

Western grebe,

Aeehmorphorus oeeiden/alis Procellariiformes (albatrosses, petrels, and shearwaters): Wandering albatross,

I

Plastic fragments

S. AU.: S. Pac.

B.L. Furness 1983; Day et al. 1985

Diomedea exulana Royal albatross, Diomedea epamaphora

I

Manufactured pieces of plastic

S. Pac.: Chatham Is.

i+/E

I: Plastic fragments and bags

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

E: Not identified

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

M. Imber (cited et al. in Day et al. 1985) Conant 1984; Sileo et al. 1990a, 1990b S. Fefer (cited in Henderson 1988) Sileo et aI. 1990a, 1990b; Fry et al. 1987; Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume DeGange and Newby 1980 B.L. Furness 1983

Black-footed albatross,

Dlomedea nlgripes Laysan albatross, Diomedea

I+/E-

1: plastic fragments,

light sticks,

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

- cigarette lighter, cellophane, paint

immu/abilis

chips; Grey-headed albatross, Diomedea chrysostoma

Northern fulmar, Flumarus

glacialis

I

i+/E-

E: Monofilament eillnet Pieces of plastic

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is. Ind. 0.: Marion Is.

I: Pellets, plastic pieces and sheeting,

N. Pac.: Alaska N. Atl.

- elastic thread, cigarette filters, tea bag, balloon, syringe tip, foil E: Monofilament net

N. Pac.

Day 1980; Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume; Bourne 1976; Van Franeker 1985; Moser and Lee i992 DeGange and Newby 1980

o ~. 0. :;1 I:;' :;;. ~

:s: :" :1. p

ApPENDIX 2. Continued.

Species Southern fulmar, FlumanJs

Plastics

S. AtI.: S. Africa S. Ocean: Antarctica

Pellets

S. Pac.: New Zealand

1-

Plastics

N. Pac.

Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this

Longline hooks, nylon line, string

1-

Plastics

S. Ocean: Antarctica Ind. 0.: Marion Is. N. Pac.

Pterodroma phaeopygla Great-winged petrel,

Source

1-

E-

giganteus Dark-rumped petrel,

Location

Ryan 1987b Van Franeker and Bell 1988; Ainley et aI. 1990a Anonymous, 1992 Ryan 1987a Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume M. Imber (cited in Day et ai. 1985)

I

glacialoides Giant fulmar, Macranectes

"tJ

Material

liE

Pterodroma macroptera Solander's petrel,

Pterodroma solandri Mottled petrel, Pterodroma inexpecta White-winged petrel,

"::1.0-

V>

tTl

p

~

"p ra "i3 p" "p 0. ~

"" p

volume I

Plastics

N. Pac.

1+

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Ainley et ai. 1990b

1+

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Ainley et ai. 1990b

I

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Ainley et aI. 1990b

1-

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Ainley et al. 1990b

1-

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Ainley et ai. 1990b

I

Pellets

Equatorial Pacific

Spear et aI., 1995

I+

Pellets, nylon line

Equatorial Pacific

Spear et al., 1995

1+

Pellets

I+

Pellets

1+

Plastic

S. Pac.: New Zealand S. Ocean S. Pac.: New Zealand Equatorial Pacific N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

S. Reed 1981 Ainley et ai. 1990a M. Imber (cited in Day et al. 1985) Ainley et ai. 1990b Sileo et aI. 1990b

1-

Pellets

S. AU.: Gough Is.

R. W. Furness 1985a

"

V>

~

o'p

Pterodroma leucoptera Stejneger's petrel,

Pterodroma I. longirostrls Pycroft's petrel, Plerodroma I. pycro!li Black-winged petrel,

Pterodroma nigripennls Thaiti petrel, pterodroma rastrata Collared petrel, Pterodroma brevicpes Murphy's petrel, Pterodroma ultima Kerguelen petrel, Pterodroma brevirostris Cook's petrel, Plerodroma cookli Bonin's petrel, Pterodroma

hypoleaca Atlantic petrel, Pterodroma incerta

N

'"

~

N

"'-

ApPENDIX

2. Continued. Species

Soft-plumaged pelrel,

liE

Location

Material

Source

1-

Pellets

S. AU.: Gough Is.

R.W. Furness 1985a

1-

Pellets

N. AU.: N. Carolina

Moser and Lee 1992

1-

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Ainley et al. 1990b

1-

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Ainley et al. 1990b

1-

Pellets

S. Ocean: Antarctica

1-

Plastics

S. Ocean: Antarctica

Van Franeker and Bell 1988; Ainley et al. 1990a Ainley et al. 1990a

1+

Pellets

S. Atl.: Gough Is. S. Pac.: New Zealand

1+

Pellets

1+

Plastic

S. Pac. S. AU.: Gough Is. S. Ocean Equatorial Pacific S. Pac.: New Zealand

Ryan 1985, I987c S. Reed 1981 Ainley et ai. 1990a Bourne and Imber 1982 Ryan and Fraser 1988 Ainley et al. I990a Ainley et al. I990b Bourne and Imber 1982

I

Pellets

S. Pac.: New Zealand

Harper and Fowier 1987

1+

Pellets

S. Pac.: New Zealand

Harper and Fowler 1987: Ryan 1990a

I

Pellets

S. Pac.: New Zealand

M. Imber (cited in Day et al. 1985)

I

Plastic

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Harrison et al. 1983

I: Plastic fragmenls

S. AU. S. Ocean S. Pac.: New Zealand

B.L. Furness 1983 Ryan 1987a M.Imber (cited in Day et al. 1985)

Pterodroma mollis Black-capped petrel,

Pterodroma hasitata Juan Fernandez petrel,

Pterodroma e. ex/erna White-necked petrel,

Pterodroma e. cervicallis Snow petrel, Pagodroma niveo Antarctic petrel, Thalassoica antarctica Blue petrel, Halobaena caerules

S. Ocean

Broad-billed prion,

Pachyptila villata Narrow-billed prion,

Pachyptila belcheri Salvin's prien, Pachyptila

salvin! Antarctic prion, Pachyptila

desolata Fairy prion, Pachyptila turfur

Bulwer's petrel, Bulweria bulwerii White~chinned

petrel,

Procellaria aequinoctialis Parkinson's petrei, Procellaria parkinson!

I+/E-

8: String

r

Pellets

".," 0:

~

.....

"

:;;. M

s:

",.,S' ApPENDIX 2. Continued.

Speci..,

liE

Pintado or Cape petrel,

I+

Location

Material Plastic particles, paint flakes

Daption capense

Equatorial Pacific S. Ocean: Antarctica

S. Atl.: South Africa Common diving petrel, Pelecanold.., urinatrix Pink-footed shearwater, Puffinis crea/opus Flesh-footed shearwater, Puffinis carneip.., Greater shearwater, Puffinis

Wedge-tailed shearwater, PUffinis pacijicicus Sooty shearwater, Puffinls griseus

."""

.-""

Plastic

S. All.: Gough Is.

I

Pellets and plastic fragments

N. Pac.: California

1+

Pellets and plastic fragments

N. Pac.

I: Pellets, polystyrene, - thread E: Packing strip Pellets, styrofoam

N. Atl. S. All. S. All. N. All.: N. Carolina

Baltz and Morejohn 1976: Robards et al., Chapter 6, this volume Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Bourne 1976; B.L. Furness 1983 Ryan 1987 Ryan 1991 Moser and Lee 1992

I+

Plastic fragments

Equatorial Pacific N. Pac.

Ainley et al. 1990b Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this

I+

Pellets and plastic fragments

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Fry et al. 1987; Sileo et al. 1990b

!: Pellets and plastic fragments

Ogi 1990; DeGange and Newby 1980 Ainley et al. 1990b Bourne 1976 ManvIlle 1990 Day 1980 Ogi 1990; Ainley et ai. 1990b; DeGange and Newby 1980 Sileo et al. 1990b

I+/EI

Newell's shearwater, Pliffinis auricularis

1+

E: Monofilament gillnet Plastic

Christmas shearwater,

I+

Plastic

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Sileo et al. 1990b

Puffinis nativitatis Little shearwater, Puffinis

1-

Pellets

S. AtI.: Gough Is.

R.W. Furness 1985a

I+/E-

E: Trawl net

shearwater, Puffinis tenuirostris

assimilis

M

n i3

"",., ""0. "g.'

"

volume

N. Pac. S. Pac. N. Atl. N. Pac.: Aleutian Is. N. Pac. S. Pac. N. Pac. N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Short~tailed

tTl

Ainley et al. 1990b Ainley et al. 1990a Van Franeker and Bell 1988; Ryan 1987b, 1990a Ryan 1986

I

gravis Audubon's shearwater, Puffinls Ihermlnleri Buller's shearwater, Puffinis bulleri

Saurce

" "",.,e-:;;.

I+/E-

!: Pellets and plastic fragments

N

'"

-'" N

LPPEND!X

2. Continued.

Species Manx shearwater, Puffinis

puffinis Cory's shearwater, Calol)ectris dlomedea . Wilson's storm-petrel,

British storm-petrel,

Location

1+

Pellets

N. AtI.: N. Carolina

I

Pellets

N. Atl.: N. Carolina

Plastlc fragments, styrofoam Plastic particles

S. Ocean: Antarctica

I+

Oceanites o-ceanicus White-faced storm-petrel, Pelagodroma marina

Material

liE

I+IE

1: Pellets ~: String

1

Plastic

N. AtI.: N. Carolina

S. Pac.: Chatham Is. Equatorial Pacific Ind. 0.: Marion Is. N. Atl.: Scotland

Source

Moser and Lee 1992: R.W. Furness 1985b Moser and Lee 1992 Moser and Lee 1992 Van Franeker and Bell 1988: Ainley et aI. 1990a Bourne and Imber 1982 Ainley et aI. 1990b Ryan 1987a Van Franeker 1983

Hydrobates pelagicus Leach's storm-petrel,

E: Monofilament line

N. Atl.: Newfoundland

1

Plastic

N. Pac. Equatorial Pacific

Day 1980 Ainley et al. 1990b W.A. MontevecchI, personal communications: R.\V. Furness 1985b G.V. Byrd (cited in Manville 1990) Ainley et aI. 1990b

1-

Plastic

Equatorial Pacific

Ainley et aI. 1990b

I+

Plastic fragments

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

I

Plastic fragments

N. Pac.: Alaska

1

Plastic particles

S. Atl.: Gough Is.

Harrison et aI. 1983; Sileo et aI. I990b; Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Day 1980: Robards et al., Chapter 6, this volume R.W. Furness 1985a

1

Plastic particles

Gough Is., S. AtI.

R.W. Furness 1985a

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Sileo et aI. 1990b

N. AtI.: Florida

R. Heath, personal communication,

N. Pac.: California

Centaur Assoc. 1986 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1980

I+/E-

~:

Plastic fragments

Markham's storm-petrel, Oceanodroma markham!' Wedge-rumped storm-petrel,

N. Pac.: Alaska Equatorial Pacific

Oceanodroma leucorhoa

Oceanodroma tethys Sooty storm-petrel,

Oceanodroma tristrami Fork-tailed storm-petrel,

Oceanodroma furcata White-belly storm-petrel,

Fregelta grallaria Grey-backed storm-petrel,

Garrodia nereis Pelecaniformes (pelicans, boobies, gannets, cormorants, frigatebirds, tropicbirds): Red-tailed tropicbird, I+ Plastic

Phaethon .rubricauda Brown pelican, Pelecanus

E+

Monofilament line, string, fishhooks

occidentalis

"~,., ~

E

~ ~

s:.

"S' ~

APPENDIX

"t l

2. Continued. Species

liE

White pelican, Pelecanus

E

Material MonofJIarnent line, fishbooks

Location N. All.: Florida

Source R. Heath, personal communication

erythrorynchos Great frigatebird, Fregata

"

~S "::>

1+

Plastic

N. Pac.: Hawalian Is,

Sileo et ai. I990b

I

Plastic

N. Pac. N. AtI.: Brit. lsI.

Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Onions and Rees 1992

S. Pac.: Tasmania

Slater 1990

"""" '0", ::>

Phalacrocorax pelagicus Shag, Phalocrocorax aristotelis

E+

Little pied cormorant,

E-

Fishing net, fishing line, wire, six-pack yokes Gillnet

E-

Fishing line

S. AtI.: South Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication

E-

Fishing line

S. AtI.: South Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication

Plastic strapping band

S. Pac.: Tasmania

Slater 1992

I: Metal spike

Orange bag Plastic Pellets

N. All.: Orkney Is. N. All.: Newfoundland German Bight S. All.: South Africa N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is. N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Bourne 1976 Montevecchi 199I Schrey and Vauk 1987 P.O. Ryan, personal communication Sileo et ai. 1990b Anonymous 1981

I: Plastic E: Trawl net scrap Monofilament line

N. Pac.: Hawalian Is. N. Pac.: Hawalian Is. N. AtI.: Texas

Sileo et aI. 1990b Conant 1984 J.E. Miller, personal communication

Plastic pieces

N. AtI.: N. Carolina N. Pac.: Alaska

Moser and Lee 1992 Day 1980: Robards et al., Chapter 6, this volume Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this

Phalacrocorax melanoleucos Cape cormorant,

'" m ::> ~

minor Pelagic cormorant,

"::1.

<:T

~

":0-:>

0

Phalacrocorax capensis Great cormorant,

Phalacrocorax carbo Australasian gannet, Sula serratror Northern gannet, Sula bassana Cape gannet, Morus capensis Red-footed boohy, Sula sula Blue-footed booby, Sula

E

I-/E+

EII

E: Nets, rope, line, strapping bands

nebouxii Masked booby, Sula

I/E-

dactylatra RuddY turnstone, Arenaria

E-

interpres Red-necked phalarope,

Phalaropus lobatus Charadrliformes (shorebirds, skuas, gulls, terns, and auks): I Plastic pieces Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa

lapponica

N. Pac.

volume

-" N

is: ApPENDIX

"S'

2 •. Continued. Species

Glaucous gull, Larus

Material

liE

Location

Source

1-

Plastic

liE

I: Plastic bags, styrofoam, etc. ~.: Monofilament line, six-pack yoke

N. Atl.: Maine N. AU.: Maine, New Jersey

Day et al. 1985 Day et aI. 1985: Montevecchi,

Fishing line, string, six-pack yoke

N. AU.: Brit. lsI.

Onions and Rees 1992

E-

Six-pack ring

S. Pac.: Tasmania

Slater 1990

1+ E-

Plastics Fishing line

S. AU.: South Africa S. Atl.: South Africa

Ryan 1990c P.G. Ryan, personal communication

liE

!: Pellets, plastic fragments,

N. Pac.: California

N. Pac.

Day 1980

~

Larus marinus

personal communication Lesser black-backed gull,

Larus juscus Silver gull, Larus novaeholland/ae Kelp gull, Larus domin/conus Hartlaub's gull, Larus harl/aubii Black-legged kittiwake, R/ssa tr/dactyla

E

"::> ""1i S

"::> "::>Cl. ~

::>

thread ~: Fishing line

N. At!.

1+

Pellets

N. Pac.: Alaska

Baltz and Morejohn 1976; Robards et al., Chapter 6, this volume Bourne 1976: Moser and Lee 1992; Onions and Rees 1992 Day 1980

Sabine's gull, Zema sabin/ Common tern, Sterna h/rundo

I liE

Sooty tern, Sterna fuscata

1+ IE 1-

Plastic I: Plastic particles E: Fishing line Plastic E: Not identified Plastic

N. All.: N. Carolina N. Atl.: Canada, Brit. lsi. N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is. N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is. N. All.: N. Carolina

Moser and Lee 1992 Braune and Gaskin 1982 Onions and Rees 1992 Sileo et aI. 1990b Fefer (cited in Henderson 1988) Moser and Lee 1992

EE

Clear plastic bag Fishing line, string

S. All.: S. Africa N. All.: Brit. lsI.

Ryan 1990a Onions and Rees 1992

1-

Plastic User plastics Plastic

N. Atl.: N. Carolina Equatorial Pacific N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Moser and lee 1992 Spear et aI., 1995 Sileo et ai. 1990b

Plastic

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Sileo et al. 1990b

Red-legged kittiwake, R/ssa

tTl

::>

hyperboreus Great black-backed gull,

"tJ ""cr v;

nylon

"""i!l o' "

brevirostris

Bridled tern, Sterna anaethetus Crested tern, Sterna bergii Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvlcensis Black tern, Chlidonias niger White tern, Gygis alba Brown noddy, Anous

1+

1+

r:

stolidus Black noddy, Anous minutus

I

N

'0

....

"" 0

ApPENDIX

2. Continued.

Species

liE

Black skimmer, Rynchops m'gra Razorbill, Alca torda Dovekie, AIle aIle

E+

Pigeon guillemot, Cepphus

Material

Location

Monofilament line

N. Atl.: New York

Gochfeld 1973

I

Fishing line, fishing net Plastic

I

Plastic

N. Atl.: Brit. lsI. Canadian Arctic N. At1. N. Pac.

E

Fishing net, fishing line, string

N. At1.: Brit. lsI.

Onions and Rees 1992 Bradstreet (cited in Day et al. 1985) Van Franeker 1983 Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Onions and Rees 1992

I: Plastic

N. Pac.

Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this

E: Nylon fishing net, some kind of

N. At1.: Norway, North Sea

Bourne 1977; Federal Republic of Germany 1985 Day 19&0 R. Elliott (cited in Heneman 1988) Jones and Ferrero 1985 Day 1980; Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Day 1980; Pettit et al. 1981

E

columbia Black guillemot, Cepphus

Source

gryIle Guillemot/common murre,

I-IE

volume

Uria aalge

Thick-billed murre, Uria

1-

lomyia Murres (unidentified)

E

Cassin's auklet, Ptychoraphus aleut/cus

I

Parakeet auklet,

1+

.

rmg

Pellets Net, line, & bottle fragments Lost gillnet Pellets, plastic fragments

N. Pac.: Alaska N. At1.: Newfoundland Western N. Pac. N. Pac.: Alaska

Pellets, plastic particles

N. Pac.

CycIorrhynchus psittacula Least auklet, Aethla pusllla

I

Plastics

N. Pac.

Crested auklet, Aethla

I

Pellets, plastic particles

N. Pac.

Plastic fragments

N. Pac.: California

Lost gillnet

Western N. Pac.

I: Elastic thread

N. Atl.: Brit. lsI. N. Atl.: Brit. lsI. N. Pac.: Alaska Western N. Pac.

volume

crlstateIla Rhinoceros auklet,

I

Cerorhlnca monocerata Auklets (several unidentified species) CommonlAtlantic puffin,

E+

I+/E

Fratercula arct/ca Tufted puffin, Fratercula cirrhata

I+IE-

Day 1980; Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this

E: Fishing net,

r: Pellets

~: Lost gillnet

fishing line

Baltz and Morejohn 1976: Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume Jones and Ferrero 1985 Parslow and Jefferies 1972 Onions and Rees 1992 Day 1980 DeGange and Newby 1980: Jones and Ferrero 1985; Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume

"~" ~

t"" ~.

~

~

;;::

ti. ~

"

g. ~

1;;'

ApPENDIX

I

2. Continued.

8

Species

liE

Horned puffin, Fralercula

l+/E

cornicu/ata

Malerial I: Pellets

N. Pac.: Alaska

g: Lost gillnet

Coastal birds other than seabirds: Osprey, Pandion haliaells

g

Location

Western N. Pac.

Source Day 1980; Robards et aI., Chapter 6, this volume; Jones and Ferrero 1985

~ ~

~

'"0' M

E-

N. AU.: Maryland

Centaur Assoc. 1986

E-

Monofilament line, six-pack yokes, fishing nets Monofilament line, six-pack yokes

N. AU.: Maryland

Centaur Assoc. 1986

E-

Monofilament line, six-pack yokes

N. AU.: Maryland

Centaur Assoc. 1986

Laysan finch, Telespyza

E-

Drowned in plastic cooler

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Is.

Morin 1987

cantons Common eider, mollissima

E-

Six~pack

N. AU.: North Sea

Federal Republic of Germany 1985

Canada goose, Branta

M

::>

canadensis Snow goose, Chen

hyperborea

Soma/efla

yokes, wire

Ind., Indian; 0, ocean; Ad., Atlantici Pac., Pacific.; Brit. lsI, British Islands. Minus (-), evidence of interactions based on rare or infrequent reports of isolated individuals. Plus (+), some reports of interactions more than infrequent and/or evidence of a regular pattern of occurrence at low lo higher levels.

~

V> ~

~

\'PPENDlX

u>

3. Marine mammal entanglement (E) and ingestion (I) records.

Species

liE

vlysticete whales (baleen whales): Bowhead whale, Balaena

I-lE-

Material

Southern right whale,

E-

I: Plastic sheeting Rope Gillnet, trawl net, rope, laster pot lines Rope and floats

Eubalaena australis Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae

E+

Gillnets, seines, rope and line

E:

mysticetus Northern right whale,

E+

Eubalaena glacialis

N

Location

Alaska, Beaufort Sea Alaska, Beaufort Sea N. At!. N. Pac. S. Pac.: New Zealand

Lowrey 1993 Philo et al. 1992 Kraus 1990 Marine Mammal Commission· 1993 Cawthorn 1985

N. At!.

Humpback Whale Recovery Team 1991 Humpback Whale Recovery Team 1991 Mate 1985; Hare and Mead 1987; Heyning and Lewis 1990 Anonymous 1988; Hare and Mead 1987 Cawthorn 1985

N. Pac. Gray whale, Eschrichtius

E+

Gillnet, crabpot float lines, rope

N. Pac.

I-/E-

!: Polythene bag, plastic sheeting

N. AtI.: Texas, Gulf of Mexico

E: Rope

S. Pac.: New Zealand

!: Trawl net, rope, mylar balloon,

N. AtI.: Newfoundland, Denmark Strait

robustus Minke whale, Balaenoptera

acutorostrata Ddontocete whales (tootbed whales): Sperm whale, Physeter

I+/E-

cups, newspaper

macrocephalus Dwarf sperm whale, Kogia

1-

E: Bouy line for longline Bread wrapper, rubber hospital gloves

N. All.: Bahamas N. AU.: Florida, N. Carolina

1-

Plastic bags, plastics

N. All.: S. Carolina, Florida, Texas

1+

Longline, p,lastic sheeting, cellophane, glass, cigarette filters, fishhooks, roofing tile, cigarette lighter top Plastic bags, plastic straw, asphalt

N. Pac.: Japan

breviceps Pigmy sperm whale, Kogia simus

Balrd's beaked whale, Berardius bairdii

Cuvicr's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris Gerval's beaked whale,

1-

Plastic bags

N. All.: Virginia N. Pac.: California N. All.: New Jersey, N. Carolina

1-

Plastic botlle cap

N. Atl.: New York

Plastic thread

S. Atl. Brazil

1-

Mesop/odon europaeus

Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densiros/Tis

Source

Mate 1985; Martin and Clarke 1986; U.S. Nat!. Mus. (cited in Walker and Cae 1990) J. Brown, personal communication Barros et al. 1990; U.S. National Museum (cited in Walker and Cae 1990) Charleston Museum and U.S. NatI. Mus. (cited in Walker and Cae 1990); Tarpley 1990 Walker and Cae 1990

U.S. Nall. Mus. (Cited in Walker and Cae 1990) U.S. Natl. Mus. (cited in Walker and Cae 1990) U.S. Nall. Mus. (cited in Walker and Cae 1990) E. Secchi, Personal communication

I;)

";:'i. ",

~ ::;'

;;;. M

ApPBNDIX

=:: ,.,

3. Continued. Species

ShOit-finned pilot whale,

Materia/

liE

Location

[-

Plastic container

N. AtI.: N. CalOlina

[-

Plastic

N. AtI.: France

G/obieepha/a maerorhynehus Long-finned pilot whale,

"'5' Source U.S. Nati. Mus. (cited in Walker and Coe 1990) A. Collet, personal communication

G/obieepha/a melaena Rough-toothed dolphin,

[-

1-

Plastic bag, heavy black plastic, fishhook Remains of a jug

N. Pac.: Hawaii N. AtI.: Virginia N. Atl.: Southeast U.S.

U.S. Natl. Mus. (cited in Walker and Cae 1990) Barros et al. 1990

crassidens Killer whale, Orcinus orca Pacific white-sided dolphin,

E-

1-

Lagenorhynehus obliquidens Common dolphin, De/phinus

1-

de/phis Bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops tnmcatus

Risso's dolphin, Grampus

I+/E-

1-

Rope and floats Plastic bags, plastic bottle caps, plastic drinking straw, waxed paper, fishhook Plastic bag, cellophane, black plastic sheeting, balloon, fishhook

S. Pac.: New Zealand N. Pac.: California

!: Plastic sheeting, plastic bag,

N. Pac.: California

buDgie cord, shoelace, bottle cap, spring, cloth, fishhook E: Monofilament line Plastic bag, balloon

N. AtI.: Florida Ind. 0.: Western Australia N. AU.: Massachusetts, France

N. Pac.: Hawaii, Clifornia

[-

Plastic bag

N. AtI.: N. Carolina

[-

Plastic bag, vinyl plastic, metal bottle cap I: Cloth, platic bag, plastic ~: Fishing line

N, Pac.: California

coeru/eoa/ba Northern right whale dolphin, Lissode/phis borealis Harbor porpoise, Phoeoena

[-IE

phoeoena DaB's porpoise,

Phoeoenoides da/li

cr ~.

'"m =>

,.,

l-/E-

!: Plastic sheeting, plastic gags, soda

N, AtI.: N. Carolina N. AtI.: North Sea N. Pac.: California

straw, bottle cap, cardbboard

E:: Lost gillnet

Cawthorn 1985 Caldwell et ai. 1965; Cowen et ai. 1986;.Walker and Cae 1990

=>

~

S

"=>

"" ~

"'~

=>

""" 'o'" ~

N. Pac.: California

griseus

Striped dolphin, Stenella

"""' ~

Steno bredanensis False kiiler whale, Pseudorca

"

Western N. Pac.

Walker and Cae 1990; Los Angeles Cty. Museum (cited in Walker and Cae 1990) Walker and Cae 1990; Schwartz et ai. 1992 Barros et ai. 1990 Mann et ai. 1995 U.S. Nati. Mus. (cited in Walker and Cae 1990): A. Collet, personal communication Los Angeles Cty. Mus. (cited in Walker and Coe 1990); E. Nitta (cited in Henderson 1988) U.S. Natl. Mus, (cited in Walker and Cae 1990) Walker and Cae 1990 U,S, Natl. Mus. (cited in Walker and Cae (1990); Hare and Mead 1987 Kastelein and Lavaleije 1991 Los Angeles Cty. Mus. and Santa Barbara Mus. (cited in Walker and Coe 1990) Jones and Ferrero 1985; DeGange and Newby 1980

=>

.....

'" '"

~

'-" ApPENDIX

"'-

3. Continued. Species

Franciscan dolphin,

Pontoporia blainvillei Tucuxi dolphin, Sotalia f1uviatilis Phocidae (earless or true seals): Hawaiian monk seal,

Monachus monachus Gray seal, Halichoerus grypus Harp seal, Phoca groenlandica Harbor seal, Phoca vitulina Northern elephant seal,

S. Atl.: Brazil

E. Secchi, personal communication

1-

Clear plastic sheeting

S. At!.: Brazil

E. Secchi, personal communication

E+

Trawl net, monofilament line, plastic ring, plastic cup, piastic band, wire, fishhook Fishing gear, rubber hoop

N. Pac.: Hawaiian Islands

Henderson 1984, 1990

Mediterranean Sea

Gots et al. 1992

E

Driftnet and trawl net fragments

N. Atl.: Nova Scotia

E

Monofilament gillnet and trawl net and strapping bands Strapping bands and other debris

N. Atl.

W.D. Bowen and S.S. Anderson (cited in Fowler 1988) W.D. Bowen (cited in Fowler 1988)

E-

N. Pac.: California

Stewart and Yochem 1987 W.D. Bowen and S.S. Anderson (cited in Fowler 1988) Mate 1985 Stewert and Yochem 1987

E-

gillnet, packing bands Rope, wire, plastic packing hoops (strapping bands)

S. AtI.: Argentina

Ramirez 1986

E-

Monofilament fishing line, fishhooks

S. Pac.: Tasmania

Jenkin 1990; J. Slater, personal communication

E+

Trawl net, strapping bands, rope,

N. Pac.: Bering Sea

Scardino 1985j Laist 1987; Bengtson

E-

monofilament line, six~pack holder, metal headlight ring, lawn chair material Unidentified line

E

I-IE

Mirounga leonina

Leopard seal, Hydrurga

N. Pac.: California N. AU.: Nova Scotia, Brit. lsI.

I: Styrofoam cup

N. Pac.: Oregon

E:

Monofilament line, trawl nct &

lep/onyx Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals): Northern fur seal, Calorhinus ursinus

Guadalupe fur seal,

Arc/ocephalus townsendi CapelAustralian fur seal,

Arctocehpalus pusillus

Source

Unindentified debris

Mirounga angustirostrls

Southern elephant seal,

Location

I

Monachus schauinslandi Mediterranean monk seal,

Material

liE

E+

Trawl net, monofilament net fragment; monofilament line, plastic straps, nylon rope, rubber

IO'-rings, wire

et' al. 1988; Baba et a1. 1990; Fowler et al. 1990, 1992 N. Pac.: Mexico S. AtI.: South Africa S. Pac.: Tasmania

B.J. Le Boeuf, personal communication Shaughnessy 1980 Pemberton et aI. 1992

Ij

"5: ~

r-

el.

"'

M

~~. 1:1 ApPENDIX

a-

3. Continued.

M

(;;.

Species

liE

Juan Fernandez fur seal,

E

Material

Location

Packing bands

N. Pac.: Chile

Strapping bands, fishing net, rope

S. Pac.: New Zealand

Arctacephalus philippi! New Zealand fur seal,

E+

Arctocephalus fosteri Antarctic fur seal,

E+

E

N. Pac.: Oregon N. Pac.: Bering Sea S. Pac.: Aukland

Mate 1985 Calkins 1985; Loughlin et al. 1986 Cawthorn 1985

E

Rope, wire, plastic packing bands

s.

Ramirez 1984, 1986

1+/E+

E: Rope, monofilament line Y; Monofilament line, plastic bags, - string twine, rope, fishhooks, wire, paper, cellophane, rubber bands

N. At!.: Florida. Antilles

Beck and Barros 1991

Monoftlament gillnet

N. Pac.: Aleutian Islands

DeGange and Newby 1980

E+

calijornianus Steller sea lion,. Eumatopias

I-IE

jubatus New Zealand sea lion,

Phocarctos hookeri South American sea liOD, Dlaria flavescens

S. At!.: South Georgia

ttl

~ g

"~

.o.,

S. At!.: Argentina S. Pac.: Peru N. Pac.: California S. Pac.: Galapagos Is.

E

Arctocephalus australis California and Galapagos sea lions, Zalophus

Cardenas and Cattan (cited in Wallace 1985) Cawthorn 1985; Fowler 1988

Nylon string, trawl net, plastic bags, rubber 'O'-ring, plastic packaging tape, twine, cloth strip, hard hat liner Fishing net fragments, plastic hoops plastic or rUbber ring Monoftlament fishing line, gillnet, trawl net, packing bands, rope, rubber bands, other debris I: Styrofoam cup E: Trawl net, rope, strapping bands Net

Arctocephalus gazella South American fur seal,

Source

Bonner and McCann 1982; Croxall et al. 1990

Ramirez 1986 Fowler 1988 Stewart and Yochem 1987 F. Trillmich, personal

.,

5-

igO

communication

Pac.: Argentina

Sirenia (manatees and dugongs):

West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus

Carnivora (sea otters and polar bears): Sea otter, Enhydra IUlris

E-

Minus (- ), evidence of Interactions based on rare or Infrequent reports of Isolated Individuals. Plus ( + ), some reports of interactions more than infrequent andlor evidence of a regular pattern of occurrence low to higher levels.

-

<.» V>

....

l)O

APPENDIX

0\

4. Fish, crab, and squid entanglement (E) and ingestion (I) records. Species

Fish: Parrotfish, Scarus sp.

GrubbY,Myoxocephalus

Material

l/E

Location

Source

E I

Derelict barrier net Polystyrene spherules

N. Pac.: Hawaii Eastern N. Atl.

Henderson 1988 Carpenter et aI. 1972: Day 1988

I

Plastics

Western N. Atl.

Kartar et al. 1976

Polystyrene spherules I: Polystyrene spherules E: Lost gillnets Lost gillnets

Western N. Atl. Eastern N. Atl. N. Atl.: Cape Cod Bay N. Atl.: Newfoundland

Katar et al. 1976: Day 198B Carpenter et al. 1972: Day 1980: H.A. Carr et al. 1985 Brothers 1989

Lost gillnets

N. Atl.: Newfoundland

Brothers 1989

Lost crab pots

N. Pac.: Alaska

High and Worlund 1979

I

Plastic pellets, polystyrene spherules

Eastern N. Atl.

Carpenter et al. 1972; Day 1988

I

Plastic cigar holder

Western N. Atl.

Manooch 1973

I I I I I

Polystyrene spherules Polystyrene spherules Polystyrene spherules Plastic particles Plastics

Eastern N. Atl. Western N. Atl. Eastern N. Atl. Western N. Atl. Western N. Atl. N. Atl.: Cape Cod Bay Eastern N. Atl. Eastern N. Pac. N. Atl.: Gulf of Mex.

aenus

Striped seasnail, Liparis liparis

Flounder, Platichthyes flesus Winter flounder,

Pleuronectes ornericonus American plaice, Hlppoglossoides platessoides Witch flounder/greysole, Glyptocephalus cynoglossus Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis White perch, Roccus ornericonus Striped bass, Morone

I I/E E+

E

E+

sax/atitis

Herring, Clupea harengus

E+ liE

Gulf menhaden, Brevoortia

I

Lost gillnets I: Polystyrene spherules E: Lost gill net Plastics

1

Plastics

Eastern N. Atl.

Carpenter et al. 1972: Day 1988 Kartar et al. 1976: Day 1988 Day 1988 Kartar et al. 1976 Govoni (cited in Hoss and Settle 1990) H.A. Carr et al. 1985 Day 1988 Breen 1990 Govoni (cited in Hoss and Settle 1990) Kartar et al. 1976

I

Polystyrene spherules, plastic cups

Eastern N. Atl.

Anonymous 1975: Day 1988

Silversides, Men/dia manidia Sand goby, Gobius minutus Cunner, Tautog,

Tautogolabrus adspersus Atlantic croaker,

Micropogonias undulatus Tautog, Tau/ago onitus

po/ronus

Five-bearded rockling, Ciliata mustela Atlantic pollock, Pol/achius virens

"0:~ ;:1 r-

e!.

~

~

ApPENDIX

4. Continued. Species

Material

liE

AUantic cod, Gadus morhua

IIE+

Pacific cod, Gadus

'E+

I: Plastic cups

E: Lost gillnets Lost gUlnets

Locatioll Eastern N. AU. Western N. Atl. N. Pac.

Source Anonymous 1975 Brothers 1989; Carr et al. 1985 High 1985

Oncarhynchus keta Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon, Oncorynchus gorbuscha Salmon (unidentified) Pacific pomfret, Brama

t'r1

I

Plastic cups

Eastern N. Atl.

Anonymous 1975

"::>

E+ E E E E E+

Lost gillnets Lost gillnets Lost gillnets Lost gillnets Lost gillnets Lost gillnet

N. Atl.: Newfouudland N. Atl.: Newfoundland N. Atl.: Newfoundland N. AU.: Newfoundland N. Atl.: Newfoundland Western N. Pacific

Brothers 1989 Brothers 1989 Brothers 1989 Brothers 1989 Brothers 1989 DeOange and Newby 1980

'"* !l -"" ~

E+

Lost gillnet

Western N. Pacific

DeOange and Newby 1980

I

Blue plastic fragment

N. Pac.

Day 1988

E I

Oill-net fragments Plastic fragments

N. Pac. N. Pac.

Jones and Ferrero 1985 Day 1988

Vinyl and polyethylene fragments, rubber, plastic soft drink bottles Mass of trawl and gillnet

Western N. Pac.

Kubota 1990

N. Pac.: Hawaii

Henderson 1988

Western N. Ati.

Manooch et al. 1984

E

Nylon rope, bottle, packaging, plastie fragment Mass of trawl net and gillnet

N. Pae.: Hawaii

Henderson 1988

I

Plastie packaging

Western N. Atl.

Manooeh et al. 1985

I

Plastie bag, plastic fragments

Western N. Atl.

Manooch and Mason 1983

I

Plastic fragments

Western N. Ati.

Manooch and Mason 1983

I

Plastic sheeting

Western N. Atl.

Manooch and Hogarth 1983

E

Mass of trawl net and gillnet

N. Pac,: Hawaii

Henderson 1984

Micromesistius pautassou Turbot (unidentified) Wolffish (unidentified) Lumpfish (unidentified) Redfish (unidentified) Sculpin (unidentified) Chum salmon,

::>

"tI "0-1;;'.., ::> ..,

macrocephalus Blue whiting or paur,

;: "::1.

i3

..,::>

.., o''"::>

japonica Longnose lancetfish,

1+

Alepisaurus ferox Unidentified billfish (Istiophoridae) Dolphin, Coryphaena

E I

hippurus Unidentified tuna (Seombridae) Little tunny, Euthynnus

alletteratus Blaekfin tuna, Thunnus

albacares Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus at/anticus Wahoo, Acanthocybium s%nder; Unidentified barracuda (Sphryaenidae)

~

UJ

"

~

'" CtJ

ApPENDIX 4.

Continued.

Species

liE

Material

VIua, Caranx sp. Sea raven, Hemitripterus

B B

Mass of net Lost gillnet

N. Pac.: Hawaii N. All.: Cape Cod Bay

Henderson 1988 H.A. Carr 1986

I B

Plastic pellets, polystyrene spherules Lost gillnet

Bastern N. All. Western N. Pac.

Carpenter et aI. 1972; Day 1988 DeGange and Newby 1980

B-

Lost gillnets I: Packaging E: Packing straps I: Packaging E: Packing straps I: Gumboot E: Plastic straps Plastic straps

N. All.: Newfoundland S. Atl.: South Africa S. Atl.: South Africa S. All.: South Africa S. All.: South Africa S. All.: South Africa S. All.: Sout.h Africa S. AtI.: South Afria

P.O. P.G. P.O. P.G. P.G. P.G. P.G.

B-

Plastic straps

S. All.: South Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication

B-

Plastic st.raps

S. AtI.: South Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication

S. AU.: Sout.h Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication

S. AU.: Sout.h Africa S. AU.: South Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication P.G. Ryan, personal communication

Location

Source

americanus

Sea robin, Prionotus evolans Ragfish, leosteus

aenigmaticus Catfish (unidentified) Dusky shark, Careharhinus

B I-/B-

obscurus

Brothers 1989

Ryan, Ryan, Ryan, Ryan, Ryan, Ryan, Ryan,

per"sonal communiation personal communication personal communication personal communication personal communication personal communicatoD personal communication

Blacktip shark, Careharhinus limbatus Great white shark, Carcharhinus carcharias Copper shark, Careharhinus braehyurus Spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna Sandbar shark, Careharhinus plumbeus Tiger shark, Galeacerda cuvier

I-/B-

Shortfin mako shark, lsurus Dxyrinchus Smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena Scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna Lewini Spoiled raggedtooth shark, Carcharias taurus Salmon shark, Lamna ditropis Manta ray (Mobulidae)

1-

1: Packaging, fishing net, plastic sheeting B: Plastic straps Packaging

1-

Packaging

S. Atl.: South Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication

1-

Packaging

S. At.I.: South Africa

P.G. Ryan, personal communication

I: Packaging

P.G. Ryan, personal communication P.G. Ryan, personal communication Jones and Ferrero 1985 Waterman (cit.ed in Wallace 1985)

I-/B-

l+/B-

B

(jillnet debris

S. Atl.: South Africa S. AU.: South Africa N. Pac.

E

Monofilament line

Not identified

I-/B-

E: Twine

t:I

:J

s: !'i ....

e:.

~

;;:: ~.

[i

ApPENDIX

"::1.Go

4. Continued. Species

'"tTl liE

Material

Skate (unidentified)

E+

Lost gillnet

Dogfish, Squalis acanthias

E+

Lost gillnet

Crabs (crustaceans) American lobster, Homarus

N. Atl.: Cape Cod Bay, Newfoundland N. AU.: Cape Cod Bay

Source

H.A. Carr et al. 1985; Brothers 1989 H.A. Carr et al. 1985; H.A. Carr 1986

~

"~

g ~

0.

E+

Lost gillnets and lobster traps

E+

Lost gillnets

N. AU.: Cape Cod Bay

E+

Lost crab pots

N. Pac.

H.A. Carr et al. 1985; H.A. Carr 1986; Sheldon and Dow 1975; Breen 1990 H.A. Carr et al. 1985; H.A. Carr 1986 High 1976, 1985; Breen 1987

E+

Lost crab pots

N. Pac.

High and Worlund 1979; High 1985

E+ E+

Lost crab pots Lost crab pots

N. Pac. N. Pac.

High 1985 Kimker 1992

E

Lost gillnet

N. Pac.

High 1985

E E+

Lost gillnet Lost gillnets

N. Pac. N. AU.: Newfoundland

High 1985 Brothers 1989

I

Plastic line

N. Pac.

Day 1988

N. Atl.: Cape Cod Bay

americanus Northern cancer crab, Cancer borealis Dungeness crab, Cancer

;:l

Location

,g "'"g. ;:l

magister

Red king crab, Paralithodes

camtschatica Snow crab (unidentified)

Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi Red rock crab, cancer produclus Kelp crab, Pugellia proucta Crab (unidentified) Squids (mollusks) Flying squid, Ommastrephes bartrami

Minus ( - ), evidence of interactions based on rare or infrequent reports of isolated individuals. Plus ( + ), reports of interactions more than infrequent and/or a regular pattern of occurrence. Entanglement reports usually reflect due to ghost fishing by derelict fishing gear.

~

'-"

V)

,,,-~

.. ..... ~

~

... _ ..

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James M. Coe, Editor

Donald B. Rogers, Editor

National Marine Fisheries Service

Alaska Fisheries Science Center

Marine Entanglement Research

Seattle, Washington

Seattle, Washington

Marine Debris Sources, Impacts, and Solutions

With 108 illustrations, 4 in full color

,

Springer

James M. Coe National Marine Fisheries Service Marine Entanglement Research Seattle, WA 98115-0070 USA

Donald B. Rogers Alaska Fisheries Science Center 7600 Sand Point Way, NE Seattle, WA 98115-0070 USA

Series Editor:

David E. Ale=nder University of Massachusetts

Department of Geology and Geography Amherst, MA 01003 USA

Cover photo: A trash-dogged urban tidal creek in the Washington, D.C. area. Photo by E. Durrum.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Coe, James M. Marine debris: sources. impacts, and solutions / James M. Coe and Donald B. Rogers. p. cm.-(Springer series in environmental management) Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-387-94759-0 (hc : alk. paper) 1. Marine pollution-Congresses. 2. Marine debris-Congresses. 1. Rogers, Donald B. 11. Title. Ill. Series. GCI08I.C64 1996 96-18351 CIP 363.73'94'09162-dc20 Printed on acid-free paper_

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