Imperial Roman Naval Forces 31 BC-AD 500.pdf

Imperial Roman Naval Forces 31 BC-AD 500.pdf

Imperial Roman Naval For s 31 Be-AD 500 CONTENTS DR RAFFAELE D ' A M A T O is a n experience! T u r i n - b a s e d r e s e r a c h e r of t h e...

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.Imperial Roman Naval

For s 31 Be-AD 500

CONTENTS DR RAFFAELE D ' A M A T O is a n experience! T u r i n - b a s e d r e s e r a c h e r of t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d . H e is an external

INTRODUCTION

3

CHRONOLOGY

4

THE FLEETS

7

professor to t h e A t h e n s University School of Philosophy a n d M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e . This is his s e c o n d book for Osprey.

• I t a l i a n fleets - p r o v i n c i a l fleets - s m a l l e r s q u a d r o n s GRAHAM SUMNER was b o r n in 1 9 5 8 . H e s t u d i e d

ORGANIZATION

illustration a t W r e x h a m A r t

• C r e w s - officer r a n k s a n d s p e c i a l i s t s - r e c r u i t m e n t -

S c h o o l a n d h a s s p e c i a l i s e d in archaeological reconstruction drawings.

terms o f service - duties a s h o r e

He has written

a n u m b e r of a r t i c l e s o n t h e R o m a n A r m y for illustrated

8

Military

magazine and

CLOTHING • Cloaks a n d tunics - footwear - h e a d g e a r - distinctions

16

w a s t h e a u t h o r of t h e p o p u l a r Roman

Army:

Empire

in B r a s s e y s ' History

Wars of the

of U n i f o r m s e r i e s . H e is a m e m b e r of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I l l u s t r a t o r s a n d S u r v e y o r s (AAI&S). T h i s

ARMOUR & WEAPONS

20

• T h e early E m p i r e : h e l m e t s - b o d y a r m o u r - s h i e l d s - w e a p o n s • T h e late E m p i r e : helmets - body a r m o u r - shields - w e a p o n s • Miscellaneous equipment

is his fifth book for O s p r e y .

THE SHIPS • C o n s t r u c t i o n - p r o p u l s i o n - s h i p types - a r m a m e n t and decoration • H a r b o u r s a n d naval yards

34

WAR AT SEA

40

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

42

PLATE COMMENTARIES

44

INDEX

48

Men-at-Arms • 45 I

Imperial Roman Naval Forces 31 BC-AD 500

First published in Great Britain in 2009 by Osprey Publishing Midland House, West Way, Botley, Oxford 0X2 OPH, UK 443 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016, USA

E-mail: [email protected] © 2009 Osprey Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should

Dedication To my dear father Nicola and to my beloved mother Irene, who introduced me to the glory of Rome.

Artist's

note

Readers may care to note that the original paintings from which the colour plates in this book were prepared are available for private sale. All reproduction copyright whatsoever is retained by the Publishers. All enquiries should be addressed to:

be addressed to the Publishers.

[email protected]

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

The Publishers regret that they can enter into no correspondence upon this matter.

ISBN 978 1 84603 317 9 ebook ISBN: 978 1 84603 901 0 Editor: Martin Windrow Page layouts by Myriam Bell Design, France Typeset in Helvetica Neue and ITC New Baskerville Index by Peter Finn Originated by PPS Grasmere Ltd Printed in China through World Print Ltd. 09 10 11 12 13

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Acknowledgements A great number of people, museums, and institutions have participated in the realization of this book. Very special thanks must be given to Dr Annamaria Liberati, Director of the Museo della Civilta Romana, in Rome, first of all for her assistance in the museum in order to take vision of the casts of Roman monuments preserved there; and secondly for obtaining the kind permission to publish the related photos and documentation. For the same reason it is my duty to thank the Soprintendente Professor Umberto Broccoli who has kindly given his permission for the publication of such important items. The finds of Comacchio and Voghenza, as well as other material from Ravenna and Classe, have been published only thanks to the precious help and collaboration of the Dr Fede Berti of the Museo Archeologico of Ferrara, to whom I would like to express all my gratitude for the assistance on the field. For Ravenna material special thanks are also due to the D.ssa Maria Grazia Maioli, of the Soprintendenza Archeologica deH'Emilia.

FOR A CATALOGUE OF ALL BOOKS PUBLISHED BY OSPREY MILITARY AND AVIATION PLEASE CONTACT: Osprey Direct, c/o Random House Distribution Center, 400 Hahn Road, Westminster, MD 21157 Email:

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Osprey Direct, The Book Service Ltd, Distribution Centre, Colchester Road, Frating Green, Colchester, Essex, C 0 7 7DW E-mail: [email protected] Osprey Publishing is supporting the Woodland Trust, the UK's leading Woodland conservation charity, by funding the dedication of trees.

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IMPERIAL ROMAN NAVAL F O R C E S 31 B C - A D 5 0 0

INTRODUCTION Nothing is so productive of surprises as the sea.... ( T a c i t u s , Annals, X I V , 3) Roman warship, from an Etruscan urn of t h e 1st c e n t u r y B C , Volterra. N o t e t h e

rostrum

or r a m m i n g b e a k ; a b o v e t h i s is t h e protruding

acrostolium

b e a m , d e c o r a t e d w i t h a lionh e a d protoma

image. An eye

is p a i n t e d on t h e p r o w t o w a r d off ill-fortune - a n a n c i e n t f e a t u r e of M e d i t e r r a n e a n s h i p s , long p r e d a t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e of a R o m a n navy. N o t e t o o t h e turret-shaped superstructure on t h e f o r e c a s t l e , a n d t h e m a s t a n d m a i n spar w i t h t h e f u r l e d sail. ( M u s e o G u a r n a c c i ; photo author's collection)

T

h e g l o r y o f I m p e r i a l R o m e was b u i l t by t h e l e g i o n s t h a t c o n q u e r e d m o s t o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n d t h e M i d d l e E a s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , to h e l p c r e a t e a n d p r e s e r v e this e m p i r e R o m e h a d to e s t a b l i s h itself as a s t r o n g naval p o w e r , a b l e b o t h to t r a n s p o r t a n d s u p p l y h e r a r m i e s a n d to strike decisively at a n y p o t e n t i a l rivals.

Incredibly, in t h e 3 r d c e n t u r y B C R o m e h a d little o r n o navy to s p e a k o f w h e n s h e e m b a r k e d o n t h e first o f t h r e e titanic s t r u g g l e s with t h e f o r e m o s t s e a f a r i n g p o w e r o f t h e day, C a r t h a g e . E q u a l l y r e m a r k a b l y , t h e R o m a n s at first c o p i e d a n d t h e n s u r p a s s e d t h e b e t t e r t e c h n o l o g y o f their C a r t h a g i n i a n e n e m i e s . T h e R o m a n s ' a d m i r a b l e c a p a c i t y for o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o m b i n e d with their p r a c t i c a l c o m m o n s e n s e , m o r e t h a n m a d e u p for their early d e f i c i e n c i e s in naval e q u i p m e n t a n d tactics, a n d they d e s t r o y e d C a r t h a g i n i a n m a r i t i m e p o w e r forever. T h i s victory o p e n e d t h e way for R o m e ' s r e l e n t l e s s rise, a n d h e r d o m i n a n c e o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n f o r t h e n e x t seven c e n t u r i e s . A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e civil w a r s t h a t b r o u g h t t h e R e p u b l i c to a n e n d in t h e l a t e 1st c e n t u r y B C , C a e s a r O c t a v i a n , s o o n styled A u g u s t u s , a c h i e v e d i m p e r i a l p o w e r after t h e d e c i s i v e n a v a l b a t t l e a t A c t i u m . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f E m p i r e , R o m e ' s fleets w e r e u s e d to m a i n t a i n i n t e r n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d to h e l p s p r e a d R o m a n civilization t h r o u g h o u t t h e k n o w n w o r l d a n d b e y o n d , as h e r s e a - c a p t a i n s v e n t u r e d a s far as S c a n d i n a v i a , A f r i c a a n d I n d i a . Even after the disintegration o f the Western E m p i r e in t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 5 t h c e n t u r y A D R o m e ' s s e a p o w e r w a s still s t r o n g e n o u g h t o e n a b l e J u s t i n i a n to r e c o n q u e r Italy, N o r t h A f r i c a a n d p a r t s o f S p a i n in t h e 6 t h c e n t u r y , a n d to d o m i n a t e the E a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n until the rise o f t h e A r a b s in t h e 7th c e n t u r y . Despite these remarkable achievements, the R o m a n navy h a s r e c e i v e d s c a n t a t t e n t i o n by c o m p a r i s o n with t h e l a n d f o r c e s o f t h e E m p i r e . T h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n in this b o o k is to illustrate the world o f R o m a n sailors a n d s e a b o r n e soldiers, by r e f e r e n c e to a n c i e n t w r i t t e n a n d a r t i s t i c s o u r c e s , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d s - m a n y p r e s e n t e d to

t h e g e n e r a l r e a d e r f o r t h e first t i m e h e r e - a n d c a r e f u l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s b a s e d o n this e v i d e n c e . ( T h e e x a c t r e f e r e n c e s to t h e a n c i e n t written s o u r c e s listed in t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y a r e e m b e d d e d in t h e text at the r e l e v a n t p o i n t s . ) W h i l e this is n o p l a c e for a t t e m p t i n g to a d d r e s s the m u c h w i d e r s u b j e c t o f t h e tactics e m p l o y e d in naval w a r f a r e , a s h o r t c h a p t e r d e s c r i b i n g t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v a r i o u s types o f s h i p s u s e d by t h e R o m a n s is i n c l u d e d .

CHRONOLOGY 31 B C

2 S e p t e m b e r : fleet o f C . G . C . O c t a v i a n u s a n d M.V. A g r i p p a , f o r m e d o f light, fast liburnae, d e f e a t s h e a v i e r ships of M. Antonius a n d Cleopatra (Dio Cassius, L , 1 8 , 5 ; H o r . Epod. I, 1,1), c a p t u r i n g 3 0 0 vessels (Plut. Ant. 6 8 ) .

30 B C 27-20 B C 15 B C 12 B C

4-5 AD 14 A D

G a l a t i a n K i n g A m i n t a is c h a r g e d by O c t a v i a n u s to f i g h t t h e W e s t e r n C i l i c i a n p i r a t e s . N a v a l o p e r a t i o n s by A g r i p p a a g a i n s t t h e C a n t a b r i in H i s p a n i a . R o m a n t r i r e m e s o n L a k e C o n s t a n c e d e s t r o y fleet of the Vindelici during Raetian campaign. D u r i n g D r u s u s ' e x p e d i t i o n in G e r m a n i a , R o m a n s q u a d r o n d e f e a t s r o w i n g - b o a t fleet o f t h e B r u c t e r i o n River E m s ; naval o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e C h a t t i a i d e d by t h e F r i s i a n s . O p e r a t i o n s by R o m a n N o r t h S e a fleet a r o u n d Jutland peninsula. Germanicus' operations against Arminius include embarkation of four legions.

16 A D

G e r m a n i c u s e m p l o y s N o r t h S e a fleet to a v o i d d a n g e r o u s rivers, e m b a r k i n g a r m y in R h i n e d e l t a a b o a r d c. 1,000 s h i p s . H e a t t a c k s G e r m a n s at A m i s i u s river e s t u a r y , u s i n g s h i p s a s m i l i t a r y c a m p s . G e r m a n s a r e d e f e a t e d at t h e Weser, b u t d u r i n g its r e t u r n the R o m a n fleet is partially d e s t r o y e d by s t o r m s .

28 A D

L e g i o n s in G e r m a n i a t r a n s p o r t e d by fleet to fortress

47 A D

o f F l e v u m o n t h e R h i n e to o p e r a t e a g a i n s t t h e rebellious Frisians. C a u c i p i r a t e s l e d by R o m a n d e s e r t e r G a n n a s c u s ravage Gallic coasts; G n . Domitius C o r b u l o uses R h i n e fleet a g a i n s t t h e m . G a n n a s c u s e x e c u t e d , Frisian revolt s u p p r e s s e d .

50 A D 59 A D

F o r m a t i o n o f R o m a n D a n u b e fleet. Involvement of Classis Praetoriae Misenatis

67 A D

( M i s e n u m F l e e t ) p e r s o n n e l in N e r o ' s m u r d e r o f his m o t h e r E m p r e s s A g r i p p i n a . R o m a n n a v a l o p e r a t i o n in J u d a e a a g a i n s t p i r a t e s on Sea of Galilee. C r e a t i o n o f L e g i o I A d i u t r i x with m a r i n e s o f Classis

68 A D

M i s e n a t i s ; f o l l o w i n g G a l b a ' s d e a t h t h e fleet b a c k s O t h o , c a r r i e s o u t o p e r a t i o n s in L i g u r i a n Gulf.

69 A D

N a v a l c l a s h e s d u r i n g civil w a r b e t w e e n Vitellius a n d V e s p a s i a n u s .

69-70 AD

Naval clashes o n R h i n e d u r i n g Batavian revolt o f J u l i u s Civilis; c r e w o f c a p t u r e d R o m a n f l a g s h i p i m p r i s o n e d at A u g u s t a T r e v i r o r u m ; c r e a t i o n o f L e g i o II A d i u t r i x f r o m m a r i n e s o f Classis R a v e n n a t i s ( R a v e n n a F l e e t ) . L e g i o n e s I a n d II A d i u t r i c e s a n d B r i t a n n i c a fleet o p e r a t e against the rebels; m i n o r victory o f the G e r m a n i c Cannenefati against the Classis B r i t a n n i c a ; L e g i o II A d i u t r i x a w a r d e d title ' P i a F i d e l i s ' .

79 A D

R o m a n fleet b a s e d at M i s e n u m , c o m m a n d e d by t h e h i s t o r i a n Pliny the Elder, evacuates refugees f r o m e r u p t i o n o f M o u n t Vesuvius; Pliny d i e s a t S t a b i a e after i n h a l i n g v o l c a n i c f u m e s .

80 A D

G n . J u l i u s Agricola creates fleet for c o n q u e s t

r e p r e s e n t i n g a w a r s h i p in b a t t l e

o f C a l e d o n i a - finally p r o v e s B r i t a i n is a n i s l a n d . L e g i o II A d i u t r i x s t a t i o n e d a t L i n d u m ( L i n c o l n ) .

w i t h a n a r m o u r e d c r e w . (British

90 A D

L e g i o n e s A d i u t r i c e s p a r t i c i p a t e in D o m i t i a n u s ' Dacian campaign.

105 A D

T r a j a n u s l e a v e s with fleet f r o m B r u n d u s i u m ( B r i n d i s i ) f o r his s e c o n d D a c i a n c a m p a i g n , in w h i c h L e g i o n e s Adiutrices participate; from 2nd C AD, p e r m a n e n t castrum o f L e g i o II A d i u t r i x at A q u i n c u m .

116 A D

Q. M a r c i u s T u r b o s e n t by T r a j a n u s with a n a r m y a n d fleet a g a i n s t L u c u a s , ' k i n g ' o f t h e J e w s . Increasing strategic i m p o r t a n c e of R a v e n n a d u r i n g M a r c o m a n n i c Wars.

167 A D 169 A D

Legio I Adiutrix from Pannonia, u n d e r c o m m a n d o f P. Elvius P e r t i n a x , r e s t o r e s n o r t h e r n Italy f r o m control of the M a r c o m a n n i a n d Quadi.

171 A D

S a m e legion recaptures N o r i c u m a n d Raetia from Germanic peoples. E m p e r o r S e p t i m i u s Severus f o r m s new naval unit, m a n n i n g all t h e t r i r e m e s in Italy with heavily a r m e d t r o o p s f o r w a r in t h e E a s t a g a i n s t t h e u s u r p e r P e s c e n n i u s N i g e r ( H e r o d i a n , II, 14,7; III, 1,1). T r o o p s e m b a r k e d o n artificial c a n a l b e t w e e n T i g r i s a n d E u p h r a t e s rivers: R o m a n a r m y l o o t s P a r t h i a n royal p a l a c e a t C t e s i p h o n .

196-197 AD

238 A D 238-251 AD

261 A D

E m p e r o r P u p p i e n u s c h o o s e s R a v e n n a as b a s e f o r operations against Maximinus. First G o t h i c War; s e a a n d l a n d r a i d s by t h e G o t h s , p i r a t e activity in B l a c k S e a . E m p e r o r C l a u d i u s II a w a r d s L e g i o II A d i u t r i x t h e title ' C o n s t a n s ' . P e r s i a n War; u s u r p e r B a l i s t a c o l l e c t s s h i p s f r o m Cilician ports a n d defeats Persians n e a r P o m p e i o p o l i s . capturing harem of Sassanian King Shapur I (Zon., XII, 630; Syncellus, 7 7 4 2 - 7 7 4 3 ) .

T e r r a c o t t a l a m p of c . 3 0 B C ,

Museum)

262-266 AD

268 A D 269 A D

S e c o n d G o t h i c i n v a s i o n by s e a ; H e r u l i a n s , B o r a n i , G o t h s a n d o t h e r G e r m a n i c p e o p l e s attack B o s p h o r e a n towns u n d e r R o m a n control. S o m e 2,000 ships a n d 3 2 0 , 0 0 0 m e n f r o m t h e D a n u b e e n t e r R o m a n territory. M . A u r e l i u s C l a u d i u s d e f e a t s t h e i n v a d e r s by s e a a n d by l a n d ; R o m a n fleet r e b u i l t .

270 A D

B o r a n i a r m B o s p h o r e a n s h i p s , c o n s c r i p t captive sailors a n d r a v a g e B l a c k S e a c o a s t s a s far as T r a p e z u n t e ; p o r t falls, m a n y R o m a n w a r s h i p s lost.

278 A D

Piracy by t h e I s a u r i a n L i d i u s ( P a l f u e r i u s ) a l o n g c o a s t s o f A s i a , P a m p h i l i a a n d L y c i a ; b e s i e g e d in t h e city o f C r e m n a o f P i s i d i a by R o m a n l e g i o n s , h e sacrifices m e n , w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n b e f o r e h e is killed by a t r a i t o r w h o allows t h e R o m a n s to e n t e r t h e city. T h e o l d L e g i o I A d i u t r i x is d i v i d e d i n t o o n e L e g i o Comitatensis and one of Limitanei.

F r a g m e n t s of a relief f r o m N o l a , r e l a t e d t o t h e naval v i c t o r y of O c t a v i a n over A n t o n y a n d Cleopatra's fleet at Actium, 3 1 B C . ( M u s e o d e l l a Civilta R o m a n a , R o m e ; a u t h o r ' s photo)

M o e s i a a n d T h r a c i a u n d e r G o t h i c t h r e a t ; fleet o f 5 0 0 H e r u l i a n s h i p s d e s t r o y e d by R o m a n o - B y z a n t i n e fleet o f f B y z a n t i u m . B a r b a r i a n s r a v a g e G r e e c e , sacking Athens, Corinth, Argos and Sparta; Athenian l e a d e r P. E r e n n i u s D e x i p p u s , with 2 , 0 0 0 m e n a n d h e l p o f R o m a n fleet, a m b u s h e s t h e b a r b a r i a n s o n t h e i r r e t u r n j o u r n e y . T h e i r a r m y a n d fleet a r e finally d e s t r o y e d by E m p e r o r G a l l i e n u s in T h r a c i a . R o m a n navarcha P r o b u s d e f e a t s P a l m y r e n e a r m y before Alexandria.

Beginning of 4th C A D

323 AD

Crispus, son of E m p e r o r C o n s t a n t i n u s , d e f e a t s fleet o f E m p e r o r L i c i n i u s in the Dardanelles, capturing Byzantium a n d s i n k i n g 130 e n e m y ships. S e c o n d h a l f o f P i r a t e activity by t h e I s a u r i a n s 4th C A D in Cilicia.

I

400 AD

I m p e r i a l fleet o f A r c a d i u s

Beginning of 5th C A D

d e s t r o y s fleet o f t h e G o t h i c Magister Militum G a i n a s in Sea of Marmara. Piracy by t h e M a n g o n e s , slavet r a d e r s f r o m G a l a t i a , a l o n g the c o a s t s o f R o m a n N o r t h Africa. T h e o l d L e g i o II A d i u t r i x , p a r t o f w h i c h h a d always b e e n s t a t i o n e d at A q u i n c u m , is d i v i d e d into two

419 & 438 AD

440 AD

L e g i o n e s Comitatenses stationed in B r i t a n n i a . E m p e r o r T h e o d o s i u s II f o r b i d s t h e d i v u l g i n g o f s e c r e t s o f naval c a r p e n t r y , p r o b a b l y to a v o i d its s p r e a d to r i s i n g V a n d a l p o w e r in N o r t h Africa. S e a a n d l a n d f o r c e s s e n t by T h e o d o s i u s II to t h e West.

445-450 AD

2,000 conscripts transported on warships f r o m

457 A D

C o n s t a n t i n o p l e to A l e x a n d r i a to p u t d o w n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l disorders. W e s t e r n E m p e r o r M a j o r i a n u s d e f e a t s V a n d a l fleet

468 AD

c o m m a n d e d by relative o f K i n g G e n s e r i c , n e a r S i n u e s s a in C a m p a n i a . J o i n t naval e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t V a n d a l s by W e s t e r n a n d E a s t e r n fleets u n d e r G e n e r a l B a s i l i s c o s e n d s in d i s a s t e r ; G e n s e r i c u s e s f i r e s h i p s a g a i n s t R o m a n fleet.

T h e 1 s t - or 2 n d - c e n t u r y A D f u n e r a r y s t e l e of M a r c u s lulius

THE FLEETS

S a b i n i a n u s , of t h e P r a e t o r i a n M i s e n u m F l e e t , f o u n d in A t h e n s n e a r t h e c h u r c h of H a g h i a T r i a d a .

In the a f t e r m a t h o f A c t i u m s o m e 8 0 0 w a r s h i p s w e r e in active s e r v i c e , a n d when O c t a v i a n / A u g u s t u s took power h e m a i n t a i n e d naval strength a n d undertook a serious p r o g r a m m e of reorganization. T h e navy was d i s t r i b u t e d in t h r e e p e r m a n e n t P r a e t o r i a n ( o r ' h i g h s e a s ' ) Fleets, s t a t i o n e d at F o r u m Iulii ( m o d e r n F r e j u s in s o u t h e r n F r a n c e ) , at R a v e n n a o n the Adriatic c o a s t o f north-east Italy, a n d at M i s e n u m n e a r N a p l e s in the south-west to d e f e n d the T y r r h e n i a n S e a . ( S u e t . Div. Aug., X L I X ) . T h e b u l k o f the A n t o n i a n fleet c a p t u r e d at A c t i u m was initially b a s e d at F r e j u s , b u t b o t h the b a s e a n d the fleet w e r e s o o n d i s b a n d e d as u n n e c e s s a r y . T h e o t h e r two fleets w e r e m a i n t a i n e d , their m a i n d u t i e s b e i n g p o l i c i n g a n d convoy escort. Until t h e start o f t h e 5th c e n t u r y t h e Classis P r a e t o r i a Misenatis o r M i s e n u m F l e e t ( b e a r i n g the title 'Pia V i n d e x ' u n d e r C a r a c a l l a ) was the m a i n i m p e r i a l naval f o r c e , thereafter l o s i n g i m p o r t a n c e to the Classis R a v e n n a t i s ( R a v e n n a F l e e t ) . E a c h o f t h e s e fleets c o u n t e d a b o u t 10,000 m e n , a n d the R a v e n n a F l e e t was c o n s i d e r a b l y e n l a r g e d u n d e r Vespasian.

T h i s ' f l e e t soldier' or m a r i n e w a s r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e Bessi t r i b e of T h r a c e ; h e s e r v e d for f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e dying a t t h e a g e of 3 0 . H e w e a r s a t his hip a

pugio

resembling the weapon found w i t h t h e r e m a i n s of t h e f a m o u s ' H e r c u l a n e u m soldier'. N o t e also t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c paenula

cloak,

the apron straps and pendants showing below the belt, the caligae

sandals, the javelin

and t h e round shield. T h e original c a s t of t h e s c u l p t u r e still s h o w s t r a c e s of r e d - b r o w n colour on t h e tunic and

paenula.

( C a s t , M u s e o d e l l a Civilta Romana, Rome)

Provincial Fleets, to d e f e n d t h e f r o n t i e r s a n d s u p p o r t t h e l e g i o n s in the different provinciae, w e r e s o o n a d d e d . O n e o f t h e first a n d strategically m o s t i m p o r t a n t was t h e R h i n e F l e e t in G e r m a n i a , w h o s e military p o r t s w e r e l i n k e d by r o a d with t h o s e in G a u l ( F r a n c e ) . At t h e t i m e o f D r u s u s ' e x p e d i t i o n in 12 B C we r e a d f X-CLUT RAET ORI kt • /vMJTN'-nJ that the military p o r t o f B o n n a ( m o d e r n B o n n ) , p e r h a p s 6 A N T O N [fR!iC!;V/XlTMIN«rXXX the m a i n b a s e o f t h e R h i n e Fleet, was directly l i n k e d with Gessoriacum ( m o d e r n B o u l o g n e - Florus 2,30). U n d e r the early E m p i r e the R h i n e F l e e t was a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e a r m y o f G e r m a n i a Inferior, c o m p o s e d o f f o u r l e g i o n s in t h e 1st c e n t u r y A D , i n c l u d i n g L e g i o X I ; this m e a n s t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s o f these l e g i o n s c o u l d b e u s e d in t h e fleet as milites classiarii (fleet soldiers o r ' m a r i n e s ' ) . D u r i n g t h e Civilis revolt we f i n d in the a r m y o f G e r m a n i a I n f e r i o r t h e L e g i o n e s V a n d X V at Vetera, X V I a n d I at N o v a e s i u m ( N e u s s ) a n d B o n n a , s e r v i n g with the R h i n e Fleet. A m o n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l l e g i o n s s e n t to c r u s h the revolt we find I A d i u t r i x a n d II A d i u t r i x f o r m e d f r o m fighting sailors: later I A d i u t r i x was t e m p o r a r i l y s e n t to H i s p a n i a , b u t by 8 8 A D we f i n d it b a c k in G e r m a n i a S u p e r i o r , then in P a n n o n i a u n d e r D o m i t i a n . After t h e Civilis revolt II Adiutrix was s e n t to Britain, a n d t h e n a l s o to P a n n o n i a by D o m i t i a n . A later i n s c r i p t i o n f o u n d at B a d e n B a d e n c o n f i r m s the p r e s e n c e o f this l e g i o n in G e r m a n i a u n d e r T r a j a n .

A d d i t i o n a l fleets i n c l u d e d t h e Classis A l e x a n d r i n a ( A l e x a n d r i a ) , S i r i a c a ( S y r i a ) , M o e s i c a ( p a t r o l l i n g t h e D a n u b e ) , P a n n o n i c a (also o n t h e D a n u b e ) , a n d B r i t a n n i c a ( i m p r o v e d at the t i m e o f A g r i c o l a ' s i n v a s i o n o f S c o t l a n d ) . A s m a l l fleet also p a t r o l l e d the E u p h r a t e s .

O f f i c e r s of t h e D a n u b e F l e e t e n g a g e d in m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s against the barbarians, as seen on a sarcophagus dating f r o m t h e 1st or 2 n d c e n t u r y A D that w a s once preserved near t h e c h u r c h of S a n D o m e n i c o in S o r a . (Photo c o u r t e s y Dr A l e s s a n d r a Tanzilli)

T h e Classis P o n t i c a , with 4 0 s h i p s b a s e d at T r a p e z u n t e ( T r a b z o n , T u r k e y ) , was t h e m a i n naval f o r c e for the d e f e n c e o f Asia Minor, to k e e p u n d e r c o n t r o l t h e t r o u b l e s o m e Pisidians, d e f e n d the n o r t h - e a s t e r n b o r d e r s o f t h e E m p i r e a n d p a t r o l the B l a c k S e a c o a s t as far as t h e a l l i e d B o s p h o r e a n k i n g d o m o f P a n t i c a p e a ( t h e m o d e r n C r i m e a ) . It was always n e c e s s a r y to k e e p a fleet o n t h e a l e r t in this r e g i o n b e c a u s e o f c o n t i n u o u s piracy; f r o m the time o f T i b e r i u s , S a r m a t i a n s , S c y t h i a n s a n d later G o t h i c p i r a t e s r a v a g e d t h e B l a c k S e a c o a s t s a n d i n l a n d towns. W h o l e fleets o f p i r a t e s r a n g e d t h e B l a c k S e a as well as t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n . A m m i a n u s ( 3 1 , 5 , 1 5 ) tell u s t h a t in t h e t i m e o f D e c i u s the B o s p h o r e a n a n d P r o p o n t e a n c o a s t s w e r e r a v a g e d by Scythian p e o p l e s ( G o t h s ) in 2 , 0 0 0 s h i p s , w h o w e r e e v e n a b l e to b e s i e g e m a j o r cities. U n d e r T r e b o n i a n u s G a l l u s t h e r e w e r e f u r t h e r p i r a t e i n c u r s i o n s as far as A s i a M i n o r a n d E p h e s u s . T w o l a r g e G o t h i c invasions in 2 5 0 - 2 6 9 A D c o n v i n c e d t h e R o m a n s o f t h e n e e d to m a i n t a i n a p o w e r f u l fleet in this vital c r o s s r o a d s r e g i o n , a n d this b e c a m e the basis o f the p e r m a n e n t I m p e r i a l fleet b a s e d at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e from 330 A D onwards. I n t h e 3 r d c e n t u r y t h e c o a s t o f B r i t a i n f a c i n g t h e N o r t h S e a was fortified against the incursions of sea-borne raiders including Saxons, Frisians a n d Angles, a n d the Litus Saxonici (Saxon Coast c o m m a n d , led by a comes) was c r e a t e d . F r o m t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y w e a l s o f i n d a small fleet o r s q u a d r o n a t A q u i l e i a in n o r t h e r n Italy a n d o n L a k e C o m o . S q u a d r o n s p a t r o l l e d t h e R h o n e , S e i n e , a n d o t h e r m a j o r rivers in G a u l . A s m a l l fleet in t h e B l a c k S e a d e f e n d e d t h e G r e c o - R o m a n i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e w e s t e r n a n d e a s t e r n s h o r e s o f t h e B o s p h o r u s a n d A s i a M i n o r . A s q u a d r o n at the e x t r e m i t y o f t h e limes still p a t r o l l e d t h e R h i n e a n d was u s e d for military o p e r a t i o n s b e y o n d t h a t frontier, s u c h as t h e e x p e d i t i o n s o f t h e E m p e r o r J u l i a n in 3 6 1 A D , as well a s f o r s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t m i s s i o n s .

ORGANIZATION We k n o w f r o m C a e s a r t h a t in t h e late C o n s u l a r p e r i o d w a r s h i p s w e r e e n t r u s t e d to t r i b u n e s a n d c e n t u r i o n s , u n d e r fleet c o m m a n d e r s o r navarcha. T h e crew o f a w a r s h i p was usually c o m p o s e d o f a c o n t i n g e n t o f s o l d i e r s (milites classiarii), a r m e d sailors {nautae) - the s e a m e n responsible for the technical duties of ship-handling but n o t e x c l u d e d f r o m f i g h t i n g - a n d o a r s m e n (remiges). T r a d i t i o n a l G r e e k t e r m s a r e f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y e d a n d i n t e r c h a n g e d with t h e L a t i n t e r m s by R o m a n a u t h o r s to d e s c r i b e c a t e g o r i e s o f s o l d i e r s a n d sailors, s u c h as t h e heavily a r m o u r e d oplitai, t h e epibatai, t h e nautai ( s a i l o r s ) a n d t h e eretai ( o a r s m e n ) . S o m e t i m e s the e m b a r k e d troops c a m e from land-based l e g i o n s , a s o c c u r r e d at A c t i u m . U n d e r A u g u s t u s a n d T i b e r i u s the crews a n d c o m m a n d e r s o f s h i p s all b e l o n g e d to t h e familia imperatoris, a n d their m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s e e m s h a v e b e e n e m b r y o n i c . It was only u n d e r C l a u d i u s t h a t t h e naval f o r c e s w e r e s u b j e c t e d to a m o r e r e g u l a r r e g i m e .

Officer ranks and specialists T h e m o s t s e n i o r f i g u r e s in t h e naval h i e r a r c h y u n d e r the E m p i r e w e r e t h e c o m m a n d e r s o f t h e two m a i n Italian fleets, praefecti o f e q u e s t r i a n r a n k w h o were directly r e s p o n s i b l e to t h e e m p e r o r . T h e i r immediate subordinates were the subpraefecti, s o m e t i m e s o f e q u e s t r i a n r a n k , with s o m e p r e v i o u s military e x p e r i e n c e b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y naval. T h e praefecti o f the provincial fleets h a d lower r a n k t h a n t h o s e o f the Italian fleets. T h e r e a l s o e x i s t e d d e t a c h e d c o m m a n d s (vexillationes) comprising a p a r t o f a fleet, c o m m a n d e d by praepositi directly a p p o i n t e d by t h e fleet p r e f e c t . A c c o r d i n g to V e g e t i u s , t h e R a v e n n a a n d M i s e n u m fleets e a c h h a d o n e l e g i o n a t t a c h e d ( V , l ) . H e p r o b a b l y r e f e r s to t h e division o f t h e 10,000 m a r i n e s into c o h o r t s for their service o n l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y in R o m e , w h e r e they h a d p e r m a n e n t barracks a n d special duties. E a c h cohorswas c o m m a n d e d by a 'fleet c e n t u r i o n ' ; this r a n k is f o u n d in i n s c r i p t i o n s in several localities, chiefly R o m e b u t a l s o Civita V e c c h i a a n d P o r t u s ( O s t i a ) in Italy a n d A t h e n s in G r e e c e . N u m e r o u s i n s c r i p t i o n s m e n t i o n i n g centuriones classiarii or classici o f t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t a r e f o u n d in localities far f r o m t h a t fleet's b a s e , w h e r e they c o m m a n d e d vexillationes. T h e leader of naval t r o o p s a s s i g n e d to a l a n d c a m p a i g n w a s c a l l e d t h e praepositus vexillationis, as in a n i n s c r i p t i o n from Rome. F r o m at least t h e t i m e o f N e r o t h e s o u r c e s d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t r a n k s in t h e fleet: t h e navarchus, t h e trierarchus ( c o m m a n d e r o f a t r i r e m e ? ) , a n d t h e centurio classiarius o r classicus ( T a c i t u s , Ann., X I V , 8 - XV, 5 1 ; S u e t . Nero, X X I V ) . In i n s c r i p t i o n s s o o n after t h a t r e i g n t h e t e r m centuria was u s u a l l y s y n o n y m o u s with a w a r s h i p . We k n o w f r o m the i n s c r i p t i o n o f C . S u l g i u s C a e c i l i a n u s t h a t in t h e 3 r d c e n t u r y t h e r a n k o f centurio navarchus was i n f e r i o r to t h a t o f t h e l e g i o n a r y c e n t u r i o n ( C I L VIII, 1 4 8 5 4 ) . S o it s e e m s t h a t all t h e t h r e e r a n k s w e r e g r a d e s o f c e n t u r i o n s , b u t h o w they w e r e g r a d u a t e d , a n d their r e l a t i o n s h i p to o n e a n o t h e r within t h e fleet o r a s i n g l e crew, r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . A n i n s c r i p t i o n from Baia records that the E m p e r o r Antoninus c o n f e r r e d the rank of centurio o n t h e trierarchi a n d navarchi o f t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t , a n d M a r c u s A u r e l i u s a n d L u c i u s V e r u s e x t e n d e d it to t h e principes classis. S o , f r o m that p e r i o d , t h e r e w e r e at l e a s t t h r e e c e n t u r i o n ' s r a n k s o n a s h i p : t h e trierarchus, t h e navarchus a n d t h e princeps. Naval f o r c e s a n d w a r s h i p s w e r e e n t r u s t e d to t h e centuriones w h o w e r e d e s i g n a t e d as navarchi o f ordo tertius ( c o m m a n d e r s o f l a r g e fleets, in t h a t c a s e with t h e s a m e r a n k s as t h e praepositi a n d praefecti o f p r o v i n c i a l f l e e t s ) ; o f ordo secundus ( s m a l l fleets o r s q u a d r o n s ) ; a n d o f ordo primus o r trierarchi ( t r i r e m e o r liburna s h i p c o m m a n d e r s ) . L o w e r r a n k s w e r e h e l d by centuriones classici, w h o c o m m a n d e d a u n i t o f 1 0 0 nautae, a n d f r o m t h e 2 n d c e n t u r y A D c o r r e s p o n d e d in r a n k with t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s o n l a n d .

1

S t e l e of M . T i t i u s H o n o r a t u s , a classiarius

('marine') of t h e

Ravenna Fleet; probably from Classe, late 2nd century AD. ( M u s e o C i v i c o , P a d u a , by k i n d p e r m i s s i o n of t h e C o m u n e di P a d o v a , A s s e s s o r a t o ai M u s e i , Politiche Culturali e Spettacolo)

The Hadrianic-period funerary m e m o r i a l of M . H e r e n n i u s V a l e n s , of t h e T r o m e n t i n a t r i b e f r o m S a l o n a . T h e cursus

honorum

(career summary) records that h e w a s a n evocatus

of Legio

XI Claudia after serving as a centurio

of t h a t l e g i o n ; a

c e n t u r i o n in b o t h L e g i o n e s I a n d II A d i u t r i c e s , t h e n in L e g i o X V A p o l l i n a r i s , o n c e a g a i n in Legio I Adiutrix, t h e n in L e g i o IV Flavia in t h e 5 t h C o h o r t of posteriores.

hastati

T h e relief c a r v i n g

s h o w s t h e vitis or staff of centurial rank, a fringed

sagum

cloak, a heavy tunic with wide s l e e v e s , a n d a l a r g e ring o n t h e little f i n g e r of his left h a n d . Left of t h e c e n t u r i o n ' s h e a d , a n d e n l a r g e d in t h e d e t a i l a t right, is a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c a / o (servant) c a r r y i n g a ansatus

codex

or c a s e for w r i t i n g -

tablets - a common feature o n m i l i t a r y g r a v e s t o n e s of t h e 1st a n d 2 n d c e n t u r i e s A D . T h i s f i g u r e is p r o b a b l y t h e centurion's freedman

(libertus)

M . Helius Herennius, w h o dedicated the gravestone. (Author's p h o t o s , c o u r t e s y of Archaeological M u s e u m , Zagreb)

J u n i o r o f f i c e r s o n t h e s h i p s w e r e t h e optio, t h e suboptio, t h e a r m o u r e r (armorum custos), t h e s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r s (signiferi) a n d t h e t r u m p e t e r s (tubicines a n d cornicines). P a r t i c u l a r d u t i e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d by the beneficiarius stolarchi ( o r stolarchus), with r a n k c o r r e s p o n d i n g to that o f beneficiarius in t h e l a n d f o r c e s ; t h e secutor trierarchi; t h e pitulus ( p i t c h e r ? ) ; t h e coementarius ( c a u l k e r ) , a n d t h e subunctor a n d coronarius - with u n c e r t a i n d u t i e s , b u t p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d to s h i p m a i n t e n a n c e . M o r e j u n i o r levels w e r e t h e principales o r immunes, w h o p e r f o r m e d d i f f e r e n t d u t i e s r e l a t e d to t h e e q u i p m e n t a n d t h e r u n n i n g o f t h e s h i p . A m o n g t h e s e w e r e t h e h e l m s m a n (gubernator), his d e p u t y o r proreta, t h e nauphylax, the m a n w h o g a v e t h e t i m i n g to t h e o a r s m e n (hortator), a n d a m u s i c i a n w h o g a v e t h e r h y t h m f o r o a r m o v e m e n t s (symphoniacus). T h e lower r a n k s and w e r e t h e f l e e t s o l d i e r s / m a r i n e s (milites classiarii), sailors (nautae) remiges ( o a r s m e n ) . T h e L a t i n j u r i s t U l p i a n says t h a t 'in t h e fleet all the s a i l o r s a n d r o w e r s a r e s o l d i e r s ' (Dig. X X X V I I , 1 3 ) . S o t h e f i g h t i n g crew o f a w a r s h i p c o n s i s t e d n o t o n l y o f t h e s o l d i e r s - i n c l u d i n g t h e elite propugnatores, t h e balistarii ( c a t a p u l t crews) a n d sagittarii ( a r c h e r s ) - b u t a l s o all t h e o a r s m e n a n d o t h e r s e a m e n . T w o medici ( d o c t o r s ) w e r e e m p l o y e d o n e a c h s h i p , t o g e t h e r with a t t e n d a n t s to the sacrifices (victimarii), a t t e n d a n t s to the o r d e r s , scribes a n d clerks. We also find m e n t i o n s in s o u r c e s o f v a r i o u s o t h e r specialists. T h e s e w e r e u n d e r the c o m m a n d o f a n optio a n d the d i r e c t i o n o f a n architectus, the shipwright o f the fleet, a n d w e r e d i v i d e d into fabri navaks ( c a r p e n t e r s ) , artifices ( w o r k e r s ) a n d velarii ( s a i l - m a k e r s o r s a i l - h a n d l e r s ) . T h e s e s p e c i a l i s m s reflect the d e m a n d i n g t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e o f ship-handling; they e x p l a i n why, for e x a m p l e , e x p e r t classiarii o f t h e M i s e n u m Fleet were e m p l o y e d to o p e r a t e the velarium o r c a n o p y that p r o t e c t e d spectators in t h e C o l i s e u m f r o m s u n a n d rain, which was r i g g e d in sections.

T h e r e w e r e a l s o a c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f naval f u n c t i o n a r i e s d e a l i n g with b u r e a u c r a t i c d u t i e s . S o u r c e s m e n t i o n t h e exceptor, t h e exactus, t h e scriba, the librarius a n d the rationalis, all o f t h e m e m p l o y e d o n active service with t h e fleet. By c o n t r a s t , t h e dispensator classis (fleet p a y m a s t e r ) a n d t h e tabularius (file clerk) w e r e I m p e r i a l f r e e d m e n o r slaves n o t e m p l o y e d o n active s e r v i c e . A m a n ' s p l a c e in t h e cursus honorum (rank s t r u c t u r e ) d e p e n d e d n o t o n l y u p o n his p e r s o n a l capabilities or military e x p e r i e n c e b u t also o n the favour o f t h e e m p e r o r . C e n t u r i o n A q u i l i u s , little m o r e t h a n a n a s s a s s i n h i r e d by S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s , was a p p o i n t e d f r o m t h e r a n k s to c o m m a n d o f the frumentarii o r s p i e s ; to primuspilus o f L e g i o X I C l a u d i a ; to t h e c o m m a n d o f a vexillatio; a n d finally, by way o f s o m e f u r t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l h o n o u r s , w a s a p p o i n t e d as Praefectus Classis Praetoriae Ravennatis. S o m e t i m e s t h e quality o f n a v a l c o m m a n d e r s w a s s u s p e c t . F o r e x a m p l e , at t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 5 t h century the d e f e n c e of the N o r t h African coasts a g a i n s t p i r a t e s was d e l e g a t e d to a c e r t a i n T r i b u n e L i t u s , w h o was a c c u s e d by S t A u g u s t i n o f t a k i n g b r i b e s f r o m t h o s e s a m e M a n g o n e s p i r a t e s a n d slavet r a d e r s . A s i m i l a r a c c u s a t i o n was a l s o l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t the c o m m a n d e r o f t h e British F l e e t , C a r a u s i u s . A c c o r d i n g to t h e Notitia Dignitatum, in t h e W e s t e r n E m p i r e in 4 3 0 A D t h e fleets o f R a v e n n a , A q u i l e i a , C o m o , M i s e n u m , t h e river fleet o f the R h o n e a n d t h e barcariorum at E b r o d u n u m ( m o d e r n Y v e r d o n on Lake Neuchatel) were placed u n d e r the s u p r e m e c o m m a n d of the Magister Peditum c l o s e to t h e I m p e r i a l C o u r t .

Recruitment In the early years the p o s t i n g o f R o m a n milites o n w a r s h i p s was r e g a r d e d as a punitive m e a s u r e (militiae mutatio), b e c a u s e t h e s o l d i e r s d i d n o t like to fight at sea; conversely, d e p l o y m e n t o f the fighting sailors o n l a n d was r e g a r d e d as a p r o m o t i o n . S u c h c r o s s - d e p l o y m e n t s w e r e , however, a n o r m a l military duty; nautae and milites classiariiwere often e n g a g e d in l a n d battles, a n d l a n d t r o o p s w e r e often e m b a r k e d o n ships. O n e o f the 3 0 l e g i o n s raised by A n t o n i u s , the X V I I , was n a m e d ' C l a s s i c a ' f o r its service at sea. In the early p e r i o d the o a r s m e n (remiges) a n d sailors w e r e usually r e c r u i t e d f r o m a m o n g allied p e o p l e s (socii navales), o r a m o n g s t the lowest class o f citizens, listed by the census, a n d t h e liberti ( f r e e d m e n ) . A c c o r d i n g to Livy, they f o r m e d the d e t a c h m e n t s o f m e n in classe scripti ( X X I I , 5 7 ) . C o n t r a r y to p o p u l a r belief, service as r o w e r s o n w a r s h i p s was g e n e r a l l y fulfilled by f r e e d m e n a n d only in e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s by slaves. A c c o r d i n g to D i o Cassius, d u r i n g the civil wars slaves w e r e e n r o l l e d in t h e fleet (XLVIII, 4 9 ) ; however, a c c o r d i n g to A p p i a n a n d S u e t o n i u s , b e f o r e they were a r m e d they w e r e m a d e f r e e d m e n {Bell. Civ., V, 1; Div. Aug, X V I ) . In the late C o n s u l a r p e r i o d R o m e still r e l i e d heavily u p o n t h o s e n o n R o m a n p e o p l e s w h o h a d a s t r o n g m a r i t i m e tradition: C i c e r o , in his Philippica ( X I , 5 ) u r g e d the S e n a t e that t h e P r o c o n s u l C. C a s s i u s s h o u l d b e

A m i l i t a r y d i s c h a r g e d i p l o m a in bronze from Voghenza, dated 12 J u n e 1 0 0 A D , and relating to t h e gregalis

Lucius Bennius Beuza,

a Dalmatian serving with t h e R a v e n n a F l e e t . It r e a d s , in p a r t : 'The Emperor... Trajanus... to t h o s e w h o a r e m e m b e r s of t h e Classis P r a e t o r i a R a v e n n a t i s u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d of L u c i u s Cornelius Gratus and have c o m p l e t e d 2 6 or m o r e y e a r s of s e r v i c e , w h o s e n a m e s a r e h e r e w i t h listed - t o t h e m , t o their sons [and] descendants, [he] has given Roman citizenship a n d t h e h o n o u r of [legally recognized] marriage with the wives they have at t h e m o m e n t of t h e c o n c e s s i o n of c i t i z e n s h i p . . . . To t h e G r e g a l i s Lucius Bennius Beuza, son of L i c c a , a D a l m a t i a n , a n d his wife Moca...'. (Archaeological M u s e u m , Ferrara; author's p h o t o , c o u r t e s y of D r F e d e Berti)

a p p o i n t e d to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Syria a n d o f the war a g a i n s t D o l a b e l l a , with t h e p o w e r to r e c r u i t sailors in Asia, Bithynia, P o n t u s a n d Syria. O n e r e a s o n given for the d e f e a t o f A n t o n y at A c t i u m was that his crews were ' m a d e u p o f all sorts o f r a c e s ' , a n d that they w e r e n o t reliable b e c a u s e 'as they h a d b e e n w i n t e r i n g at a d i s t a n c e f r o m h i m , they h a d h a d n o practice a n d their n u m b e r s h a d b e e n d i m i n i s h e d by d i s e a s e a n d d e s e r t i o n s ' . T h e fleets o f vassal k i n g s w e r e often u s e d to p r e v e n t piracy, like that o f t h e B o s p h o r e a n K i n g S a u r o m a t e s w h o , at t i m e o f A u g u s t u s , o p e r a t e d with his own fleet a g a i n s t t h e T a u r i a n d o t h e r p i r a t e s in the B l a c k S e a .

Milites

classiarii

of t h e D a n u b e

F l e e t e n g a g e d in building earthworks, 105 AD; from Trajan's C o l u m n , s c e n e LXIV. Note the typical bunched neckk n o t of t h e t u n i c . T h e n e a r e s t of t h e display of s h i e l d s h a s a trident device at the top and b o t t o m of t h e s y m m e t r i c a l blazon. (Cast, M u s e o della Civilta R o m a n a , R o m e )

A t the e n d o f t h e R e p u b l i c r e c r u i t m e n t a m o n g s t allies was s o o n the only s o u r c e for t h e classiarii a n d nautae, b e c a u s e the f o r m e r l y u n e m p l o y e d slaves, liberti a n d proletarii w h o h a d b e e n the p o t e n t i a l recruits now h a d n u m e r o u s e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s d u r i n g the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the R o m a n state after the c h a o s o f the civil wars. F o r a while the classiarii c o n s e q u e n t l y d i d n o t e n j o y t h e s a m e level o f p r e s t i g e as the l a n d forces; a v e t e r a n o f A n t o n y ' s a r m y b e f o r e the battle o f A c t i u m was q u o t e d thus: '.. . a n infantry c e n t u r i o n , a m a n w h o h a d f o u g h t m a n y a battle for A n t o n y a n d was c o v e r e d with scars, b u r s t into l a m e n t s as A n t o n y was p a s s i n g by, a n d said, " G e n e r a l , why d o s t t h o u distrust t h e s e w o u n d s a n d this sword a n d p u t thy h o p e s in m i s e r a b l e l o g s o f w o o d ? L e t E g y p t i a n s a n d P h o e n i c i a n s d o their f i g h t i n g at sea, b u t give u s l a n d , o n w h i c h we a r e a c c u s t o m e d to stand a n d either c o n q u e r our e n e m i e s or die'". In t h e early E m p i r e it was s e e n as r a i s i n g the status o f the naval soldiers w h e n e m p e r o r s i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e m i n t o the l e g i o n s , o r c r e a t e d ' a d d i t i o n a l ' legions f r o m a m o n g s t their n u m b e r s ; such legions were uniquely d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e title adiutrices. Conversely, it was a p u n i s h m e n t for m u t i n o u s s o l d i e r s to b e i n c o r p o r a t e d into the naval forces. A c c o r d i n g to S u e t o n i u s , N e r o m a d e r e g u l a r soldiers (classiarii o r iuxti milites) f r o m rowers a n d m a r i n e s o f the M i s e n u m Fleet, enlisting t h e m in a r e g u l a r infantry c o r p s (Galba, X I I ) . W h e n G a l b a w a n t e d to r e t u r n t h e m to their f o r m e r d u t i e s they r e f u s e d , a n d d e m a n d e d b a c k the e a g l e a n d s t a n d a r d s , so they w e r e s l a u g h t e r e d after a cavalry c h a r g e at the Milvian B r i d g e a n d the survivors d e c i m a t e d . However, t h e r e w e r e still e n o u g h left for G a l b a to f o r m t h e n u c l e u s o f L e g i o I Adiutrix. W h e n O t h o t o o k p o w e r after the a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f G a l b a h e d e c i d e d to i n v a d e N a r b o n e s e G a u l by sea, a n d his fleet, a c c o r d i n g to T a c i t u s , was 'a s t r o n g a n d reliable army, d e v o t e d to the c a u s e ' (Hist., I, 8 7 ) . H e g r a n t e d to all m a r i n e s h o p e s o f h o n o u r a b l e service, a n d s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e l e g i o n with s o m e o f the survivors o f the Milvian B r i d g e m a s s a c r e w h o h a d b e e n i m p r i s o n e d by G a l b a . By contrast, L e g i o II

Adiutrix was f o r m e d f r o m a m o n g s t t h e elite o f t h e m a r i n e s o f the R a v e n n a Fleet, w h o s e crews w e r e c o m p o s e d o f D a l m a t i a n s ; t h e s e p a s s e d in t u r n f r o m Vitellius' to V e s p a s i a n ' s s e r v i c e , a n d d e m a n d e d p e r m i s s i o n to s e r v e in his l e g i o n s ( T a c , Hist, III, 5 0 ) . O v e r t i m e , s e r v i c e in t h e n a v a l a r m g r e w in status. L o c a l Italians w e r e even r e c r u i t e d as sailors for provincial ships, a l t h o u g h the crews w e r e m u l t i n a t i o n a l a n d usually f o r e i g n e r s w e r e p r e f e r r e d . D u r i n g a naval clash o n the R h i n e d u r i n g the Civilis r e b e l l i o n o f 69 A D the r e b e l s a t t a c k e d a s q u a d r o n o f t h e R h i n e Fleet, a n d the crews, mainly c o m p o s e d o f Batavi a n d a T u n g r i a n c o h o r t , j o i n e d the revolt a n d killed their Italic f o r m e r c o m r a d e s . T h a t the m a i n r e c r u i t m e n t was a m o n g s t provincials rather t h a n citizens (peregrini) is p r o v e d by n u m e r o u s finds o f military d i p l o m a s giving t h e s e m e n R o m a n citizenship u p o n their d i s c h a r g e . O n g r a v e s t o n e s their n o n - R o m a n origin is p r o v e d by the a b s e n c e o f t h e praenomen o f the father, which was u s u a l in t h e c a s e o f citizens. E p i g r a p h i c d o c u m e n t s also show that for t h e m o s t p a r t the classiarii w e r e r e c r u i t e d in p r o v i n c e s w h e r e t h e r e was a l o n g s e a f a r i n g tradition, m a i n l y in the G r e e k - s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c e s s u c h as E g y p t , A s i a Minor, P a p h l a g o n i a , T h r a c e a n d especially Syria. In Egypt the r e c r u i t m e n t o f G r e e k citizens into t h e auxiliary militia was the r u l e , while a g r e a t n u m b e r o f native Egyptians w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d into the fleet, especially in later centuries. T h e L a t i n - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s f a v o u r e d for classiarii r e c r u i t m e n t were S a r d i n i a , C o r s i c a , P a n n o n i a , a n d especially Illyria-Dalmatia. D i o o f P r u s a in Bithinia r e m e m b e r s how, in the 2 n d c e n t u r y A D , t h e R h o d i a n s were o b l i g e d to p r o v i d e the R o m a n fleet at C o r i n t h with o n e o r two small ships (Orationes, 3 1 , 6 2 0 ) , b u t h e c o m m e n t e d that s i n c e their p r e v i o u s o b l i g a t i o n s h a d b e e n m u c h g r e a t e r they s h o u l d b e h a p p y that their d u t i e s had been much reduced.

T e r m s of s e r v i c e T h e t e r m s o f s e r v i c e v a r i e d o v e r t i m e . M o s t m i l i t a r y d i p l o m a s attest a l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e o f 2 6 y e a r s , w h i c h was r a i s e d to 2 8 u n d e r t h e 3rdc e n t u r y e m p e r o r s P h i l i p p u s a n d T r a j a n D e c i u s - after 2 6 y e a r s ' s e r v i c e t h e miles was c a l l e d a veteranus a n d r e c e i v e d d o u b l e p a y (duplarius). A s p l e n d i d s p e c i m e n o f m i l i t a r y d i p l o m a to t h e gregalis L u c i u s B e n n i u s B e u z a , o f D a l m a t i a n o r i g i n , h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n f o u n d in V i c u s H a b e n t i a ( m o d e r n V o g h e n z a , Italy). S u c h d o c u m e n t s , c o m p a r a b l e to a m o d e r n n o t a r i z e d certificate a t t e s t e d by w i t n e s s e s , w e r e e n g r a v e d o n two b r o n z e tablets l i n k e d like a b o o k l e t . T h e d i p l o m a c o n f e r r e d u p o n t h e r e c i p i e n t a n d his s o n s R o m a n c i t i z e n s h i p , a n d r e c o g n i z e d t h e v e t e r a n ' s connubium ( m a r r i a g e , i.e. usually a n a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f a u n i o n w h i c h a l r e a d y existed). Before 213 AD, when Caracalla conferred R o m a n citizenship o n all f r e e - b o r n p e o p l e living within t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e E m p i r e , it was p r e s e n t e d - f o r a f e e - to a u x i l i a r y c a v a l r y m e n , i n f a n t r y m e n a n d m a r i n e s at the t i m e o f their d i s c h a r g e . T h e t e x t was i m p r e s s e d in d u p l i c a t e : o n e

Miles

of a Legio A d i u t r i x , f r o m

a m o n u m e n t of t h e t i m e of M a r c u s A u r e l i u s , s e c o n d half of 2 n d c e n t u r y A D . T h e s h i e l d b l a z o n is s i m i l a r t o o n e s e e n o n t h e P r a e n e s t e relief of a l m o s t 2 0 0 y e a r s earlier. [in situ, C o n s t a n t i n e A r c h , Rome; author's collection)

c o p y e n g r a v e d in s m a l l letters o n t h e e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e so that it was p o s s i b l e to r e a d it a t a g l a n c e , t h e s e c o n d o n t h e i n s i d e s u r f a c e t o g e t h e r with t h e n a m e s o f t h e w i t n e s s e s , w h i c h c o n f i r m e d its legitimacy. A f u r t h e r c o p y was r e t a i n e d in t h e T a b u l a r i u m in R o m e itself. L i k e veterani o f t h e l a n d f o r c e s , n a v a l v e t e r a n s c o u l d a l s o b e r e c a l l e d to service at n e e d , as h a p p e n e d to C . N o n i u s Calvisius o f t h e M i s e n u m Fleet, w h o r e c e i v e d t h e title o f veteranus evocatus. In t h e I m p e r i a l p e r i o d , while s e r v i n g in the fleets, m a r i n e s h a d all the s a m e l e g a l rights as l a n d t r o o p s . Navarchi a n d trierarchi w e r e allowed to d r a w u p their wills f o l l o w i n g t h e military law (de iure militari). E a c h soldier r e c e i v e d t h e u s u a l b a s i c pay, as a t t e s t e d o n the g r a v e s t o n e o f L. D i d i u s R u b e r , miles simplarius s e r v i n g in t h e R a v e n n a F l e e t a b o a r d the t r i r e m e ' N e p t u n u s ' . T h e i r p a y was a u g m e n t e d in the c a s e o f p r o l o n g e d service. T h e r e a r e a l s o a t t e s t e d m a r i n e s with t h e qualification o f duplicarii o r duplarii, a n d a l s o a librarius sesquiplaris f r o m t h e t i m e o f D e c i u s ( C I L III L V I ) ; this c o r r e s p o n d s to t h e d i s t i n c t i o n m a d e by Vegetius b e t w e e n simplares, duplares a n d sesquiplares in t h e l a n d army, m e a n i n g s o l d i e r s r e c e i v i n g twice o r e v e n six t i m e s t h e b a s i c p a y r a t e (II, 7 ) . T h e state s u p p l i e d f o o d a n d c l o t h i n g . T h e i r r a t i o n s c o m p r i s e d a special b r e a d very similar to t h e m o d e r n s h i p ' s biscuit, a n d s t r o n g w i n e . L i k e the u s u a l military b r e a d t h e sailors' r a t i o n was p r o b a b l y m a d e with c o a r s e f l o u r (Pliny t h e Elder, Hist. Nat. X X I I , 6 8 ) . P l a u t u s i n f o r m s u s that the sailors m a d e heavy u s e o f g a r l i c a n d l e e k s in their d i e t (Poenulus, V, 5 ) . Pliny t h e E l d e r a l s o s a i d t h a t they d r a n k a very p o o r w i n e - as a sign o f his soldierly h a r d i n e s s C a t o b o a s t e d that h e c o u l d d r i n k even that (Hist. Nat. XIV, 2 3 ) .

Duties ashore A p a r t f r o m their service with the fleets sailors a n d m a r i n e s w e r e e m p l o y e d for a r a n g e o f civil d u t i e s . F r o m t h e t i m e o f C l a u d i u s two c o h o r t s were p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d in P u t e o l i ( m o d e r n Pozzuoli) a n d Ostia, to g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e d a n g e r o f fires (Suet., Claud., 2 5 ) . As a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , sailors o p e r a t e d the g r e a t velarium o f the C o l i s e u m , by m e a n s o f pulleys (trochlea) a n d r o p e s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h o n e o r m o r e b l o c k s . In the t i m e o f C o m m o d u s they w e r e still e m p l o y e d in this capacity, p e r h a p s even in the Circus M a x i m u s as well, s i n c e o n o n e o c c a s i o n that e m p e r o r o r d e r e d t h e m to slay s p e c t a t o r s w h o m h e b e l i e v e d w e r e l a u g h i n g at h i m ( S H A , Comm., 1 5 ) . Classiarii also a p p e a r in a list o f s o l d i e r s m o v i n g the s c e n e r y at a n o t h e r v e n u e in 2 1 2 A D . T h e s e classiarii w e r e g a r r i s o n e d in R o m e specifically for t h e s e p e r f o r m a n c e s , a n d t h e r e f o r e h a d their own castra ( c a m p ) within t h e city. T h a t o f p e r s o n n e l f r o m t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t was l o c a t e d in the 3 r d r e g i o n (Isis a n d M o n e t a ) , that o f t h e R a v e n n a m e n o n the o t h e r side o f the Tiber. T h e s e classiarii w e r e also e n t r u s t e d with the transportation o f w e a p o n s t h r o u g h the city, often by m e a n s o f b o a t s (Suet., Otho, VIII). W h e n o n c a m p a i g n o n l a n d t h e classiarii p a r t i c i p a t e d t o g e t h e r with t h e l a n d t r o o p s in t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e a r t h w o r k s , as clearly s t a t e d by P s e u d o - H y g i n u s in his w o r k ' O n t h e f o r t i f i c a t i o n s o f military c a m p s ' (De Munitionis Castrorum). T h i s a u t h o r , w r i t i n g at t h e t i m e o f T r a j a n , says t h a t t h e classici ( n a v a l t r o o p s ) w e r e p o s i t i o n e d at t h e h e a d o f t h e c o l u m n b e c a u s e it w a s t h e i r d u t y to g o o u t first, to o p e n a n d c l e a r t h e way for the r e s t o f t h e a r m y , in e f f e c t a c t i n g like t h e p i o n e e r s o f later a r m i e s ( 2 4 ) : ' T h e alae miliariae a n d t h e quingenariae a r e s t r e t c h i n g o u t , as well as the

Equites Mauri, t h e Pannonii Veredarii a n d all t h e n a v a l t r o o p s , w h o first g o o u t to c l e a r t h e ways... while w o r k i n g , they a r e p r o t e c t e d by t h e Equites Mauri a n d t h e Pannonii Veredarii '. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n f i n d s a p e r f e c t m a t c h on Trajan's C o l u m n , where the sailors are r e p r e s e n t e d b e s i d e their shields c l e a r i n g t h e D a c i a n f o r e s t f o r t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e t r o o p s . M a n y s o u r c e s r e c o r d t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f classiarii in b u i l d i n g w o r k . Sailors o f t h e A f r i c a n F l e e t t o o k p a r t at t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e a q u e d u c t o f S a l d a e in m o d e r n T u n i s i a , while t h e British F l e e t s e n t a d e t a c h m e n t to h e l p in t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f H a d r i a n ' s Wall. A n i n s c r i p t i o n f r o m S a l o n a m e n t i o n s t h e sailors o f t h e t r i r e m e ' C o n c o r d i a ' , o f t h e R a v e n n a Fleet, p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e city's walls. A vexillatio o f the G e r m a n i c F l e e t at B r o h l was a l s o e m p l o y e d to w o r k in l o c a l q u a r r i e s , u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d o f a trierarchus fulfilling t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a centurion. O n e o f the m o s t i n t r i g u i n g d i s c o v e r i e s r e l a t e d to t h e naval f o r c e s was m a d e in 1982 d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n o f t h e a n c i e n t h a r b o u r at H e r c u l a n e u m . A skeleton was f o u n d s p r a w l e d f a c e d o w n o n t h e p u m i c e - c o v e r e d s a n d ; it was the b o d y o f a m a n c a u g h t by t h e s u d d e n e r u p t i o n o f Vesuvius o n 2 5 A u g u s t 79 A D , a n d b e e n b u r i e d u n d e r 8in o f a s h . H i s m i s f o r t u n e was a g o l d e n o p p o r t u n i t y for a r c h a e o l o g y , b e c a u s e h e was a r m e d with a sword a n d d a g g e r o n military belts, a n d h a d a b a g o f c a r p e n t e r ' s tools that survived relatively intact. T h e s e w e r e o n his s h o u l d e r s , e n c l o s e d in a l e a t h e r b a g that a p p e a r e d to h a v e b e e n s l u n g o v e r t h e m a n ' s b a c k . T o g e t h e r with the w e a p o n s they w e r e h e l p f u l in identifying h i m as a faber navalis o f the only p o s s i b l e fleet in this r e g i o n , t h e Classis M i s e n a t i s . H e also h a d , w o r n in t h e ventralis o f his belt, g o l d a n d silver c o i n s o f t h e E m p e r o r Nero. T h e skeleton revealed three missing front teeth, probably

During the Severan period, at the t u r n of t h e 2 n d / 3 r d c e n t u r i e s A D , Marcus Annius Severus from Philippopolis w a s a n e x - c e n t u r i o n a n d a veteranus

of t h e M i s e n u m

Fleet. W e read that a certain S e v e r u s , miles

classiarium,

accused the future Emperor Didius J u l i a n u s of plotting against Commodus; perhaps he is our m a n , a n d h e w a s p r o m o t e d c e n t u r i o n as a r e w a r d ? T h e s t e l e shows a short-sleeved, belted, knee-length tunic worn with a short paenula,

a gladius

on his left hip, caligae, t h e usual c e n t u r i o n ' s

slung and

vitis.

(Courtesy Prof I. Topalilov)

lost in a fight, while a n a b n o r m a l l u m p in t h e f e m u r o f his left l e g was possibly t h e r e s u l t o f a h e a l e d s t a b b i n g w o u n d ; n e v e r t h e l e s s the r o u n d e d shaft o f t h e f e m u r was a sign o f g o o d n u t r i t i o n a n d all-round healthy m u s c u l a r c o n s t i t u t i o n . H i s a d d u c t o r t u b e r c l e was slightly e n l a r g e d , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e , as a m a r i n e soldier-carpenter, h e usually h e l d heavy t i m b e r s b e t w e e n his k n e e s .

CLOTHING Cloaks and tunics T h e g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n is that fighting sailors (nautae) a n d e m b a r k e d t r o o p s w e r e slightly b e t t e r d r e s s e d t h a n n o r m a l infantry, even with clothing r e i n f o r c e d to h e l p resist w e a r a n d salt water. C a s s i u s D i o specifically speaks a b o u t t h e u s e o f pachea imatia, i.e. heavy c l o a k s ( L , X X X I V , 5 ) . C l o t h i n g obviously v a r i e d with c l i m a t e : for i n s t a n c e , crews o f t h e nautae Parisiaci are s h o w n with heavy c l o a k s o f the paenula o r lacerna type, while the sailors o f t h e D a n u b e F l e e t r e p r e s e n t e d u p o n T r a j a n ' s C o l u m n ( s c e n e L X I X ) are c l a d in t h e typical short-sleeved o r sleeveless tunic with the b u n c h e d , k n o t t e d n e c k . T h i s tunic was w o r n like a G r e e k exomis, leaving the right s h o u l d e r u n c o v e r e d , a n d was a practical g a r m e n t for m a n u a l workers, soldiers, sailors a n d f i s h e r m e n . 1 P a r t of a l e a t h e r g a r m e n t , p r o b a b l y a military j e r k i n {subarmale),

from the Comacchio

s h i p , last q u a r t e r of t h e 1st c e n t u r y B C . It s h o w s signs of s t i t c h e d - o n r e p a i r p a t c h e s a n d / o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t . (From original e x c a v a t i o n d r a w i n g s ; Archaeological M u s e u m , Ferrara, c o u r t e s y Dr F e d e Berti)

G r a v e s t o n e s f r o m A t h e n s s h o w m a r i n e s in t h e s h o r t sleeveless tunic a n d sagum c l o a k . Statius R u f i n u s , w h o s e t o m b s t o n e was f o u n d in the K e r a m i k o s c e m e t e r y in A t h e n s , was p r o b a b l y o f G r e e k o r i g i n , a n d served as a classiarius o f t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t in t h e m i d - 2 n d c e n t u r y A D ; his sagum h a s a s m a l l tassel visible o n t h e lower left c o r n e r . In a p a p y r u s letter f r o m K a r a n i s , d a t i n g f r o m t h e first h a l f o f t h e 2 n d c e n t u r y A D , the classiarius C l a u d i u s T e r e n t i a n u s s e r v i n g with t h e A l e x a n d r i a F l e e t t h a n k s his father f o r a paenula, a tunica a n d fasciae for t h e legs, a n d also asks h i m to s e n d a byrrus castalinus, w h i c h was a s h o r t , p e r h a p s h o o d e d c l o a k ( M i c h i g a n VIII 4 6 7 , i n v e n t o r y C o d e 5 3 9 1 - M i c h i g a n A P I S r e c o r d 2 4 4 5 ) . A l t h o u g h the m e a n i n g o f t h e a d j e c t i v e castalinus is u n c l e a r it m i g h t b e a n alternative s p e l l i n g o f castorinus - t h e r e f o r e a byrrus m a d e o f b e a v e r s k i n , which would b e p e r f e c t l y p l a u s i b l e f o r a g a r m e n t w o r n at s e a . M o r e o v e r , h e asks for a tunica bracilis (i.e. with sleeves) a n d bracae ( s h o r t t r o u s e r s ) , which c o r r e s p o n d s with i m a g e s o n 2 n d - c e n t u r y t o m b s t o n e s , a n d with o t h e r s o n T r a j a n ' s C o l u m n s h o w i n g t h e classiarii w e a r i n g s h o r t t r o u s e r s o r feminalia as u s e d by t h e o t h e r milites a n d auxilia. L i k e t h o s e o f o r d i n a r y soldiers, the paenulae cloaks o f m a r i n e s c a m e in s h o r t e r a n d l o n g e r versions. T h a t r e p r e s e n t e d o n the Severan-period stela (gravestone) o f the f o r m e r C e n t u r i o n M. A n n i u s Severus, from P h i l i p p o p o l i s , is very short, r e a c h i n g only to the waist; that o f the Centurion C . A e m i l i u s S e v e r u s is also very short, a n d d e c o r a t e d with two vertical stripes o r clavi, originally in a c o n t r a s t i n g colour. A f r a g m e n t o f illustrated papyrus roll (Paris, Bibl. N a t . S u p p l . Gr. 1 2 9 4 ) , variously d a t e d b e t w e e n the 2 n d a n d 4th c e n t u r i e s A D , r e p r e s e n t s a soldier in the E a s t - p r o b a b l y a m a r i n e from E g y p t o r Syria - q u a r r e l l i n g with a w o m a n over a l a r g e a m o u n t o f money;

1 For detailed information on types of Roman garment, see MAA 374, Roman MAA 390, (2) AD 200-400; and MAA 425, (3) AD 400-640.

Military

Clothing

(1) 100 BC-AD

200;

Relief f r o m t h e a l t a r of t h e nautae

Parisiaci,

2 0 - 3 0 AD,

d i s c o v e r e d in 1 7 1 0 a t t h e He d e la C i t e , P a r i s . It w a s e r e c t e d by t h e s e sailors t o J u p i t e r t h e G r e a t e s t a n d B e s t , in t h e reign of T i b e r i u s . T h e y a p p e a r t o w e a r s i m p l e h e l m e t s - or p e r h a p s even felt caps - and

paenula-

type cloaks, and carry Celtic shields and spears. (Musee de T e r m e s e t d e I'Hotel d e C l u n y ; photo author's collection)

h e is d r e s s e d in a b l u e paenula d e c o r a t e d with the s a m e two vertical b a n d s as s e e n o n the S e v e r u s m o n u m e n t , o f a d a r k p u r p l e colour. A l o n g e r version o f the paenula, rolled u p as a sagum a n d w o r n with a small tunica, is visible o n a m o n u m e n t o f the late 2 n d c e n t u r y r e l a t e d to T. H o n o r a t u s , a classiarius o f the R a v e n n a Fleet. A thick tunic, with a heavy sagum a n d s h o r t t r o u s e r s , s e e m s to b e t h e s t a n d a r d d r e s s o f the 3 r d c e n t u r y naval soldier, a n d is well r e p r e s e n t e d o n the stele o f T. Flavius S a b e s t i a n u s . T h i s heavy, p e r h a p s protective type o f clothing is similar to that w o r n by m a n y o t h e r R o m a n s o l d i e r s o f this d a t e a n d r e p r e s e n t e d o n figurative m o n u m e n t s , s u c h as t h e D u r a E u r o p o s frescoes. T h e u s e o f f r i n g e d c l o a k s o f lacerna type by naval p e r s o n n e l is attested by its wear by a c o m m a n d e r o f a d o c k y a r d o r fabrica navalis, r e p r e s e n t e d o n a gilt glass vessel-cover o f T e t r a r c h i c o r C o n s t a n t i n i a n p e r i o d . H i s lacerna, f a s t e n e d o n the r i g h t s i d e by a r o u n d fibula o f b l u e colour, is w o r n over the u s u a l tunica militaris o f late 3 r d - 4 t h c e n t u r y type d e c o r a t e d with r o u n d orbiculi, clavi a n d a c o u p l e o f b a n d s (loroi o r segmenta) at the wrists. S o m e m a r i n e s a r e d e p i c t e d o n their t o m b s t o n e s w e a r i n g a r o u n d the waist a s i m p l e cloth b e l t (zona militaris) with fringes, to w h i c h the sword a p p e a r s to b e f a s t e n e d .

Footwear T h e u s e o f caligae ( s a n d a l s ) as military s h o e s is widely a t t e s t e d by b o t h stelae a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l finds f r o m t h e first t h r e e c e n t u r i e s . T h e m o s t a n c i e n t s p e c i m e n s c o m e f r o m t h e C o m a c c h i o (Valle P o n t i ) s h i p . T h e y were strong, f a s t e n e d h i g h o n the a n k l e , low-cut, only s o m e t i m e s f u r n i s h e d with nails, a n d d r e s s e d internally with a small s o c k o r a s l i p p e r o f soft leather. S h o e s w e r e often w o r n t o g e t h e r with w o o l l e n socks, a detail c o n f i r m e d by the t o m b s t o n e o f Statius R u f i n u s a n d by t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d Egyptian p a p y r u s . In a n o t h e r letter to his f a t h e r T e r e n t i a n u s m e n t i o n s a pair o f low-cut l e a t h e r b o o t s (caligae) a n d a p a i r o f udones o r felt stockings. (After r e a d i n g the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f T e r e n t i a n u s , o n e is t e m p t e d to ask what the state actually d i d s u p p l y to its m a r i n e s . . . ) . Caligae are shown o n the feet o f the optio M o n t a n u s in t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e 1st century A D , a n d a r e still w o r n by A n n i u s S e v e r u s s o m e 150 years later.

O t h e r f o o t w e a r visible o n t h e s t e l a e a r e s h o r t , c l o s e d calcei b o o t s ; that o f R u f i n u s s h o w s t h e m w o r n t o g e t h e r with s h o r t braccae ( t r o u s e r s ) . T h e u s e o f calcei is f u r t h e r c o n f i r m e d by t h e r e q u e s t a d d r e s s e d to the E m p e r o r V e s p a s i a n by t h e sailors f r o m t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t d e t a c h e d to w o r k o n t h e C o l i s e u m c a n o p y , to p a y t h e m h i g h e r calciarium o r 'bootm o n e y ' b e c a u s e o f t h e f r e q u e n t w e a r o f their s h o e s o n t h e m a r c h f r o m N a p l e s to R o m e . (In r e p l y t h e thrifty e m p e r o r o r d e r e d t h e m to m a r c h b a r e f o o t - S u e t . , Div. Vesp., V I I I ) . O n t h e d a y o f his d e a t h Pliny the Elder, c o m m a n d e r o f t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t , was w e a r i n g s i m p l e b o o t s c a l l e d soleae (Pliny t h e Y o u n g e r , E p . V I , 16, 5 ) .

Headgear V a r i o u s k i n d s o f h a t s a n d c a p s w e r e typically u s e d by naval p e r s o n n e l . T h e pilos, a c o n i c a l felt h a t u s e d s i n c e t h e E t r u s c a n A g e , is often r e p r e s e n t e d in figurative m o n u m e n t s r e l a t e d to sailors. It was still w o r n in t h e 3 r d a n d 4 t h c e n t u r i e s : in a f a m o u s 3 r d c e n t u r y m o s a i c r e p r e s e n t i n g O d y s s e u s a n d t h e S i r e n s t h e c a p t a i n o f t h e s h i p is r e p r e s e n t e d with a white pilos a n d white exomis. T h e petasus o r scutula, o f G r e e k o r i g i n , was a wide c a p w o r n by travellers a n d sailors: a m a g n i f i c e n t s p e c i m e n in l e a t h e r was r e c o v e r e d f r o m V i n d o n i s s a . S o m e t i m e s in t h e s h a p e o f t h e similar a n c i e n t G r e e k causia, this was still typical o f m a r i n e s in the late 3 r d c e n t u r y A D , at least in B r i t a n n i a . It is n o t only visible o n a c o i n o f C a r a u s i u s b u t also o n t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e g o l d m e d a l l i o n o f C o n s t a n t i u s C h l o r u s d e p i c t i n g his t r i u m p h a l e n t r y i n t o L o n d o n in 2 9 6 A D ; the e m p e r o r is w e a r i n g it, a n d so a r e t h e s o l d i e r s o f his v i c t o r i o u s fleet, r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e m e d a l l i o n by a s i n g l e s h i p . T h e c r e w r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e 5th-century Vergilius Romanus c o d e x a r e w e a r i n g thick felt P h r y g i a n c a p s (kamelaukia), which a r e still m e n t i o n e d f o r f i g h t i n g sailors in t h e 10th-century b o o k De Ceremoniis o f Constantinus Porphyrogenitus. S p e c i m e n s of caligae

from the

C o m a c c h i o s h i p , last q u a r t e r of t h e 1st c e n t u r y B C . (From original e x c a v a t i o n d r a w i n g s ; Archaeological M u s e u m , Ferrara, c o u r t e s y Dr F e d e Berti)

Colours S p e c i f i c c l o t h i n g c o l o u r s i d e n t i f i e d nautae, classiarii a n d naval c o m m a n d e r s . In t h e C o n s u l a r p e r i o d , P l a u t u s (Mil. Glor., IV, 4, 43, 1 1 7 8 f f ) , writing a b o u t t h e o r d i n a r y sailors, m e n t i o n s tunics in a n iron-grey c o l o u r in a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e nauta's d r e s s : ' T a k e c a r e to c o m e h e r e d r e s s e d in t h e g a r b o f a m a s t e r o f a s h i p . H a v e o n a b r o a d - b r i m m e d h a t (scutula) o f iron-grey, a w o o l l e n s h a d e (lanea) b e f o r e y o u r eyes; have o n a n iron-grey (ferrigineum) c l o a k (palliolum) - for t h a t is t h e s e a m a n ' s c o l o u r (thalassicus), h a v e it f a s t e n e d o v e r t h e left s h o u l d e r , y o u r right a r m p r o j e c t i n g o u t o f y o u r c l o t h e s s o m e way well g i r d e d u p - p r e t e n d that you a r e s o m e m a s t e r o f a s h i p . ' S a i l o r s r e t a i n e d their p r e f e r e n c e for a n irong r e y o r d a r k c o l o u r in t h e I m p e r i a l p e r i o d . B l u e s e e m s to h a v e b e e n the favourite c o l o u r for naval soldiers, at least for the s e n i o r ranks. Sky-blue was also a s s o c i a t e d with the navy b e c a u s e it was l i n k e d with N e p t u n e , g o d o f the o c e a n s , a n d Cassius D i o says a c e r u l e a n - b l u e c l o a k o r c o s t u m e was the p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e victorious a d m i r a l (stole kuanosis, X L V I I I , 4 8 ) : in 4 3 B C S e x t u s P o m p e i u s received f r o m t h e S e n a t e the title o f Praefectus Classis et Orae Marittimae ( A d m i r a l o f the Fleet a n d R o m a n S h o r e s ) , a n d w o r e a m i d - b l u e cloak, a c c o r d i n g to

b o t h A p p i a n u s (Hist, V, 100) a n d C a s s i u s D i o . T h i s venetus' was the c o l o u r s a c r e d to N e p t u n e . After his naval victory over O c t a v i a n off t h e c o a s t o f Sicily, S e x t u s P o m p e i u s 'believing h i m s e l f in very t r u t h to b e the s o n o f N e p t u n e . . . p u t o n a d a r k b l u e r o b e . . . ' . T h e s a m e c o l o u r s a r e m e n t i o n e d for A g r i p p a ' s c l o t h i n g , a n d a p p e a r , for e x a m p l e , in the P a l e s t r i n a m o s a i c , if the identification by F u e n t e s is c o r r e c t . F u e n t e s also suggests that the s c a r f (Jocale) was u s e d as a m e a n s o f identification; if s o , it is p o s s i b l e that m a r i n e s w o r e b l u e scarves a n d that l e g i o n s r a i s e d f r o m a m o n g t h e m a r i n e s m a y have r e t a i n e d t h e m . Although various shades of blue were the m o s t widely u s e d they w e r e n o t t h e o n l y c o l o u r s . T r a c e s o f r e d a r e in fact still visible o n f u n e r a r y m o n u m e n t s of marines of the M i s e n u m Fleet, which show the red-brown c o l o u r o f P r a e t o r i a n s o l d i e r s w h o w e r e p r o b a b l y e m p l o y e d for t h e u n i t s o f Italic o r i g i n which also s e r v e d at s e a . O n t h e g r a v e s t o n e o f J u l i u s S a b i n i a n u s , a classiarius o f a v e x i l l a t i o n o f t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t b a s e d at A t h e n s , t r a c e s o f r e d w e r e o n c e visible o n b o t h his t u n i c a n d c l o a k . White s e e m s to h a v e b e e n a p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e E a s t e r n Fleet. S u e t o n i u s m e n t i o n s a n e p i s o d e in w h i c h '...it h a p p e n e d that f r o m a n A l e x a n d r i a n ship which h a d j u s t a r r i v e d t h e r e t h e p a s s e n g e r s a n d sailors (nautae), c l a d in p u r e white (candidus), c r o w n e d with g a r l a n d s , a n d b u r n i n g i n c e n s e , lavished u p o n [ A u g u s t u s ] g o o d w i s h e s a n d t h e h i g h e s t p r a i s e , saying t h a t it was t h r o u g h h i m t h a t t h e y . . . sailed the s e a s ' . W h i t e is t h e m o s t visible c o l o u r f o r t u n i c s in the F a y o u m p o r t r a i t s o f t h e l s t - 2 n d c e n t u r i e s A D ; m a n y o f the s o l d i e r s p o r t r a y e d c o u l d b e m e m b e r s o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a Fleet, a t h e o r y f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e fact t h a t m a n y o f these individuals wear blue cloaks. T h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d 3rd-century m o s a i c o f O d y s s e u s , in t h e B a r d o M u s e u m ( T u n i s i a ) , shows a r m e d sailors o r m a r i n e s c l a d in white tunics with r e d clavi a n d in b l u e - g r e e n (venetus) c l o a k s . T h i s m o s a i c c o u l d h a v e b e e n i n s p i r e d by s o m e o f t h e m a r i n e s operating on the N o r t h African coast (See Plate H ) . In the late E m p i r e the sailors a n d t h e t r o o p s e m b a r k e d o n the naves exploratoriae o r pictae (i.e. t h e p a i n t e d s h i p s for e x p l o r a t o r y d u t i e s ) w o r e tunics o f a b l u e - g r e e n c o l o u r (venetus), at least d u r i n g the lifetime o f V e g e t i u s (IV, 3 7 ) . T h i s c o l o u r was, a c c o r d i n g to C o r i p p u s , t h e s a m e as that o f t h e b l u e f a c t i o n at t h e C i r c u s (veneta). T h e r e a s o n why sailors a n d m a r i n e t r o o p s w o r e s u c h a veneta vestiswas that this c o l o u r was marinis fluctibus similis, 'similar to t h e s e a waves'. V e g e t i u s states that this c o l o u r was u s e d n o t only for t u n i c s b u t also for t h e sails o f the ships, so as to e s c a p e d e t e c t i o n m o r e easily by d a y a n d n i g h t . T h e Vergilius Romanus c o d e x - d a t e d to t h e last q u a r t e r o f t h e 5 t h c e n t u r y a n d o r i g i n a t i n g in Italy, G a u l o r B r i t a i n - s h o w s R o m a n m a r i n e s w e a r i n g heavy c l o a k s in r e d a n d o r a n g e p i n n e d by c r o s s b o w fibulae, a n d tunics with segmenta o f o r a n g e a n d g r e e n .

F u n e r a r y s t e l e of T i t u s Flavius S a b e s t i a n u s , a m a r i n e of t h e Misenum Fleet from Rodosto, Bulgaria, 2 4 4 - 2 4 9 A D , whose inscription identifies him as s e r v i n g o n t h e t r i r e m e 'Victoria*. He w e a r s a notably thick cloak a n d t u n i c , p r o b a b l y of h e a v y wool and felt, over calf-length trousers - see Plate E2. ( C o u r t e s y of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l M u s e u m , Istanbul)

Distinctions L i k e their c o u n t e r p a r t s o n l a n d , c e n t u r i o n s o f the fleet h a d as their m a i n s y m b o l o f authority the vitis o r vine-staff. G r a v e s t o n e s shows different sizes: a shorter, with a ball-like e n d , e.g. o n the m o n u m e n t o f M . A n n i u s S e v e r u s , a n d a l o n g e r a n d typically twisted type, s u c h as that c a r r i e d by C . A e m i l i u s S e v e r u s . A staff o r virga is a l s o h e l d by the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d c o m m a n d e r o f a fabrica navalis o f the T e t r a r c h i c or C o n s t a n t i n i a n p e r i o d ; this h a s the s a m e m u s h r o o m s h a p e d t o p as o t h e r 3rd- o r 4th-century officers' staffs. O n m a n y o t h e r military m o n u m e n t s o f that p e r i o d a m u s h r o o m - t o p p e d staff is also a s s o c i a t e d with a f r i n g e d c l o a k o f lacerna type, a n d they m i g h t t h e r e f o r e b e indicative o f t h e s a m e r a n k . T h e Digestus (I, 6 - 7 ) m e n t i o n s a optio fabricae c h a r g e d to o v e r s e e t h e s o l d i e r s w o r k i n g in t h e d o c k y a r d (fabricenses, C I L VII 4 9 ) ; so p e r h a p s t h e officer s h o w n o n the gilt glass f i n d was a n optio fabricae navalis. T h e m a i n military d e c o r a t i o n for a d m i r a l s w h o w o n g r e a t naval victories was the corona rostrata, a g o l d e n crown o r n a m e n t e d with the prows o f ships (rostra), visible in c o m b i n a t i o n with the castellated corona muralis o n the h e a d o f M. V i p s a n i u s A g r i p p a in c o i n s o f 18 B C . D i o Cassius claims that this ( d o u b l e ? ) a w a r d was 'never a t t r i b u t e d to a n y o n e else, either b e f o r e o r after' ( X L I X , 1 4 ) . A m o n g the o t h e r military d e c o r a t i o n s , the s o u r c e s m e n t i o n the corona navalis a w a r d e d to the victorious I m p e r a t o r w h o achieved s u c c e s s a g a i n s t a n e n e m y f l e e t or, allegorically, a g a i n s t the O c e a n ( S u e t , Div. Claud., X V I I ) , a n d M.V. A g r i p p a is also s h o w n o n m a n y c o i n s with this simpler naval crown. O r d i n a r y soldiers w h o were victors in sea-battles w e r e given a s i m p l e r crown o f olive-leaves.

ARMOUR AND WEAPONS EARLY

EMPIRE

Helmets T h e g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n given by the m o n u m e n t s a n d s o u r c e s r e l a t e d to the classici milites ( C I L , V, 9 3 8 ) a n d the fighting sailors is that o f light t r o o p s with a wide variety o f w e a p o n s ; C a s s i u s D i o says that Octavian's m a r i n e s w e r e g o o d s w i m m e r s a n d h a d light e q u i p m e n t ( X L I X , 3 , 5 ) . However, a l t h o u g h their w e a p o n r y was in g e n e r a l lighter t h a n that o f infantry a n d cavalry, m a n y sea-going soldiers d i d wear heavy e q u i p m e n t (idem, X L I X , 6,4, o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n u n a r m o u r e d m a r i n e s a n d e m b a r k e d oplitai).

Artistic s o u r c e s o f the 1st c e n t u r y B C p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e u s e of helmets of M o n t e f o r t i n o a n d B u g g e n u m type, a n d even L a t e Hellenistic types c o m p l e t e with c h e e k - g u a r d s . T h e P r a e n e s t e s h i p relief today p r e s e r v e d in the Vatican M u s e u m c o m e s f r o m t h e f u n e r a r y m o n u m e n t o f a n A n t o n i a n navarcha, a n d is o n e o f t h e best-known s o u r c e s for the m a r i t i m e e q u i p m e n t o f t h e late C o n s u l a r p e r i o d . T h e s o l d i e r s r e p r e s e n t e d w e a r h e l m e t s o f Attic s h a p e a n d G r e e k typology, s o m e t i m e s f u r n i s h e d with metallic crests, while o t h e r classiarii a r e w e a r i n g t h e E t r u s c o - C o r i n t h i a n h e l m e t u s e d by the R o m a n s s i n c e t h e A g e o f K i n g s . However, only s o m e o f t h e h e l m e t s a r e p e r t i n e n t to t h e o r i g i n a l s c u l p t u r e , a l t h o u g h the h e a d s r e s t o r e d in t h e 19th c e n t u r y i m i t a t e d t h e o r i g i n a l s . O n e original, still in p l a c e , shows t h e u s e o f side-feathers o n a h e l m e t o f E t r u s c o - C o r i n t h i a n type. T h e nautae Parisiaci r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e f a m o u s p i l a s t e r o f T i b e r i a n d a t e f r o m the He d e la Cite in Paris a r e w e a r i n g s i m p l e h e l m e t s o f p r o b a b l e C o o l u s - M a n n h e i m type, o r e v e n felt c a p s . O n e o f the s o l d i e r s o f the L e g i o A d i u t r i x r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e M a i n z c o l u m n b a s e is w e a r i n g a n i n c i s e d h e l m e t o f I m p e r i a l Gallic p a t t e r n (so-called ' W e i s e n a u ' type) with a d o l p h i n e n g r a v e d o n it; this is a c l e a r naval symbol, as is t h e shell fibula t h a t f a s t e n s t h e c l o a k o f t h e signifer r e p r e s e n t e d o n the o t h e r pilaster o f t h e s a m e m o n u m e n t . M a r i n e s o l d i e r s thus r e t a i n e d i m a g e s a n d s y m b o l s o f t h e p o w e r o f N e p t u n e o n their e q u i p m e n t . T h e classiarii officers f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t t h e b a r b a r i a n s o n the D a n u b e , o n a s a r c o p h a g u s variously d a t e d b e t w e e n t h e 1st a n d 2 n d c e n t u r i e s A D , h a v e h e l m e t s o f o l d Italic types c o m p l e t e with geminae pinnae a n d a rigid h o r s e h a i r crest.

Body armour Different types a r e illustrated o n t h e P r a e n e s t e relief. A w a r r i o r with a n E t r u s c o - C o r i n t h i a n h e l m e t w e a r s a m u s c l e d c u i r a s s in m e t a l o r m o l d e d l e a t h e r with a s i m p l e row o f l i n e n l a p p e t s (pteryges), as d o e s a s e c o n d m a n o n the p r o w o f t h e s h i p . T h e u s e o f l i g h t e r l e a t h e r a r m o u r w o u l d b e practical for the mobility r e q u i r e d for f i g h t i n g o n b o a r d s h i p , a n d for a n y o n e u n f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h to fall o v e r b o a r d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r e q u i p m e n t was n o less f u n c t i o n a l t h a n t h a t o f t h e o r d i n a r y i n f a n t r y milites: C a s s i u s D i o w r o t e that O c t a v i a n ' s m e n at A c t i u m w e r e well p r o t e c t e d by their a r m o u r a g a i n s t e n e m y blows ( L , 3 2 ) . T h e s e n i o r officer o n the s e c o n d row o f t h e P r a e n e s t e relief - p e r h a p s a F l e e t P r e f e c t , a n d p r o b a b l y the m a n for w h o m t h e m o n u m e n t was r a i s e d - w e a r s a s p l e n d i d H e l l e n i c thorax lepidotos o r scale a r m o u r , f u r n i s h e d with s h o u l d e r - p i e c e s a n d a d o u b l e skirt o f f r i n g e d pteryges. K n o t t e d o n his b r e a s t by t h e socalled ' k n o t o f H e r c u l e s ' is t h e zona militaris, t h e c l o t h s a s h widely e m p l o y e d by H e l l e n i c officers. A r a r e find f r o m a R o m a n s h i p c o n f i r m s t h e u s e o f m e t a l m u s c l e d a r m o u r . T h i s e x c e p t i o n a l b r o n z e p i e c e was r e c o v e r e d n e a r C u e v a d e l J a r r o , S p a i n , f r o m a R o m a n shipwreck with a s s o c i a t e d a m p h o r a e o f types u s e d in the late 1st to early 3 r d c e n t u r i e s A D ; it m a y h a v e b e l o n g e d to a s e n i o r ship's officer, o r equally to a m a r i n e a r m e d like t h o s e o n t h e P r a e n e s t e relief. T h e f u n e r a r y stele o f the O p t i o M o n t a n u s f r o m C l a s s e shows a m u s c l e cuirass with h a n g i n g pteryges at the s h o u l d e r s a n d a skirt o f f r i n g e d strips. T h i s c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a subarmale ( u n d e r a r m o u r g a r m e n t ) , p r e s u m a b l y m a d e o f felt a n d l i n e n , that t h e s c u l p t o r

M u s c l e d b r o n z e lorica,

1st-3rd

century AD, from a Roman s h i p w r e c k off C u e v a d e l J a r r o , Almunecar, Spain. Height approximately 4 0 c m (15.75in). (Author's p h o t o , c o u r t e s y Museo Arqueologico y Etnologico, Granada) OPPOSITE D e t a i l s of a h e l m e t , marines and a helmsman, from a f u n e r a r y m o n u m e n t of t h e 1st c e n t u r y B C - 1 s t c e n t u r y A D in t h e C i m i t e r o d e i G i o r d a n i , Rome. This remarkable m o n u m e n t s h o w s m a r i n e s in a c t i o n o n a liburna,

armed with

shields and spears. T h e helmet d e t a i l (top) c o r r e s p o n d s t o s p e c i m e n s of t h e L a t e H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d . N o t e t h e h e l m s m a n (third image down) who seems be equipped with muscled armour, p r o b a b l y in v i e w of his v u l n e r a b l y exposed position. Note (bottom image) the castellated bulwark, a n d t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l row of o v e r l a p p i n g oval scuta

to protect

t h e o a r s m e n . (Cast, M u s e o della Civilta R o m a n a , R o m e )

D e t a i l s of t h e a r m o u r a n d s h i e l d s of t h e c r e w of t h e b i r e m e o n t h e Praeneste monument, c.30 BC. T h i s is o u r b e s t i m a g e of m a r i n e s a n d f i g h t i n g sailors classiarii

milites

a n d propugnatores

-

of t h e p e r i o d of t h e b a t t l e of Actium. (Musei Vatican, Rome)

t o o k g r e a t c a r e to r e p r e s e n t as b o t h thick a n d p a d d e d . T h e classiarii officers o n t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d D a n u b e battle s a r c o p h a g u s wear m u s c l e d b r e a s t p l a t e s o f e i t h e r m e t a l o r leather.

Sword from the Comacchio ship, last q u a r t e r of 1st c e n t u r y B C . (From original e x c a v a t i o n drawings; Archaeological Museum, Ferrara, courtesy Dr F e d e Berti)

B e s i d e c u i r a s s e s m a d e o f l e a t h e r (corium) a n d m e t a l , m o n u m e n t s o f l a t e C o n s u l a r a n d early I m p e r i a l d a t e r e p r e s e n t m a r i n e s p r o t e c t e d by a r m o u r s m a d e o f h e a v y strips o f p a d d e d m a t e r i a l , p r o b a b l y felt (coactile). C o r s e l e t s o f felt (coactilia) o r p r e s s e d l i n e n , f o r m i n g a r m o u r s s h a p e d in E g y p t i a n style, a r e r e p r e s e n t e d u p o n a t e r r a c o t t a r e l i e f p r e s e r v e d in t h e British M u s e u m , a s s o c i a t e d with t h e b a t t l e o f A c t i u m . T h e u s e o f p a d d e d m a t e r i a l (neurikd) a s b o d y p r o t e c t i o n is still a t t e s t e d in t h e m e d i e v a l s o u r c e s f o r t h e naval f i g h t e r s o f B y z a n t i u m . T h e a d v a n c i n g l e g i o n a r y o n t h e M a i n z c o l u m n b a s e is p r o t e c t e d only by a heavy t u n i c s u p e r i m p o s e d o v e r a n o t h e r f u r n i s h e d with s h o r t sleeves. T h e u s e o f b o t h l e a t h e r a n d m e t a l l i c v e r s i o n s o f t h e lorica segmentata in t h e l s t - 2 n d c e n t u r i e s A D is r e m e m b e r e d by a o l d relief f r o m M a d r i d o n c e in t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e D u k e o f M e d i n a ; a l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y heavily r e s t o r e d in m o d e r n t i m e s , it r e p r e s e n t s a n a v a l b a t t l e , w h e r e milites classiarii c l a d in s u c h loricae a n d p r o t e c t e d by r e c t a n g u l a r s h i e l d s a r e t h r o w i n g m i s s i l e s a n d s h o o t i n g a r r o w s . T h e i r a r m o u r is w o r n o v e r a subarmalefurnished with l a p p e t s (cymation) a n d h a n g i n g pteryges. T h r e e o f t h e r e p r e s e n t e d a r m o u r e d w a r r i o r s a r e c l a d in m u s c l e a r m o u r , p r o b a b l y o f leather. O n T r a j a n ' s C o l u m n t h e e q u i p m e n t o f two classiarii d e p i c t e d t r a n s f e r r i n g s u p p l i e s to a s m a l l river b o a t is very light; they a r e c l a d in l e a t h e r a n d s h o r t m a i l c o r s e l e t s with s c a l l o p e d e d g e s , a n d t h e i r gladii a r e h a n g i n g o n the r i g h t s i d e o f t h e b o d y like t h o s e o f t h e r e g u l a r l e g i o n a r i e s .

P

Shields

S6

S o u r c e s o f t h e 1st c e n t u r y B C attest to the u s e o f r e c t a n g u l a r a n d oval scuta by classiarii w e a r i n g only s h o r t tunics. T h e o l d ' b a r l e y c o r n ' s h i e l d o f F a y o u m type was still e m p l o y e d by m a r i n e s o f the late 1st c e n t u r y B C , as d e p i c t e d in the British

M u s e u m t e r r a c o t t a relief. T h e shields o f the m a r i n e s r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e P r a e n e s t e b i r e m e a r e oval scuta, a n d a r e a n i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the episemata ( b l a z o n s ) o f naval s o l d i e r s . S o m e o f t h e m have e n g r a v e d motifs, t h e m o s t striking d e p i c t i n g a h a n d h o l d i n g N e p t u n e ' s trident a n d the wings o f a n e a g l e . T h e r e is a d o u b l e g r i p system c o r r e s p o n d i n g with the u p p e r a r m a n d t h e s h i e l d ' s b o s s . T h e s e b l a z o n s m i g h t relate to t h o s e o f the A n t o n i a n l e g i o n s ; o t h e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g v e g e t a l spirals a n d wings, show similarities with shields e n g r a v e d u p o n m o n u m e n t s f r o m N a r b o n n e in F r a n c e , which a r e p r o b a b l y devices o f C a e s a r ' s L e g i o II A l a u d a e a n d L e g i o X I fighting for O c t a v i a n . T h e s h i e l d with N e p t u n e ' s trident is certainly the device o f a l e g i o n o f classiarii, b e c a u s e the s a m e device is visible o n m o n u m e n t s o f the I m p e r i a l p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t i n g m a r i n e s o r soldiers f r o m the legiones adiutrices. T h e f i g u r e s o f nautae Parisiaci o f T i b e r i a n d a t e also h a v e oval a n d r e c t a n g u l a r s h i e l d s o f Celtic type fitted with circular b o s s e s ; their s p e a r s a n d heavy f o l d e d tunics a r e similar to t h o s e o n the M a i n z m o n u m e n t . T h e legionaries on the Mainz c o l u m n base, probably m e n of L e g i o I A d i u t r i x , h a v e r e c t a n g u l a r c o n v e x s h i e l d s typical o f t h e l a t e 1st c e n t u r y A D ; their b l a z o n , f o r m e d by w h a t s e e m s to b e a m e t a l l i c a p p l i c a t i o n , is the stylised w i n g e d e a g l e o f J u p i t e r . T h e s h i e l d s o f t h e classiarii engaged in r o a d - b u i l d i n g in s c e n e LXVTII o f T r a j a n ' s C o l u m n a r e o f h e x a g o n a l s h a p e , d e c o r a t e d with v e g e t a l a n d floral p a t t e r n s e n d i n g in a t r i d e n t . Other iconographic sources show blazons for m a r i n e legions; for L e g i o II A d i u t r i x a votive altar f r o m P a n n o n i a S u p e r i o r r e c o r d s t h e w i n g e d horse Pegasus.

F u l l - l e n g t h gladius

of P o m p e i

type and scabbard detail, found on t h e body of a faber

navalis,

79

A D , H e r c u l a n e u m . (Photos Foglia, Naples; Soprintendenza Speciale ai Beni A r c h e o l o g i c i di N a p o l i e Pompei)

M o s t interesting is the d e p i c t i o n o n s o m e stelae o f w h a t m i g h t b e leather shields. M e d i e v a l s o u r c e s d e s c r i b i n g E a s t e r n R o m a n military e q u i p m e n t state that in the 10th c e n t u r y l e a t h e r s h i e l d s c a l l e d dorkai ( f r o m which the targa o f the later M i d d l e A g e s ) w e r e u s e d by I m p e r i a l naval elite t r o o p s f r o m P a m p h y l i a . T h i s m i g h t s u g g e s t that t h e u s e o f l e a t h e r shields by naval p e r s o n n e l c o u l d have o r i g i n a t e d in the classical R o m a n a g e (e.g. that d e p i c t e d o n the t o m b s t o n e o f S a b i n i a n u s f r o m A t h e n s ) .

Weapons A hasta navalis is m e n t i o n e d a m o n g t h e v a r i o u s types o f s p e a r in u s e in t h e late C o n s u l a r p e r i o d . Its s h a p e is p e r h a p s visible o n a n i n t e r e s t i n g relief d a t e d to the first h a l f o f the 1st c e n t u r y B C s h o w i n g R o m a n m a r i n e s e q u i p p e d with shields f u r n i s h e d with a b o s s a n d r a i s e d s p i n e , M o n t e f o r t i n o h e l m e t s , a n d a s p e a r with a w i d e t r i a n g u l a r b l a d e , s i n c e the s a m e b l a d e is also visible o n the P r a e n e s t e m o n u m e n t . Pila a r e also m e n t i o n e d in s o u r c e s o f the early E m p i r e ( P r o p . , IV, 6,22) as b e i n g u s e d in naval c l a s h e s . T h e e q u i p m e n t o f the sailors in t h e Paris m o n u m e n t is very similar to that o f the Celtic auxiliaries o f late R e p u b l i c a n / e a r l y A u g u s t a n p e r i o d , a n d s p e a r s a n d swords l o a d e d o n a s h i p a r e visible o n a s t o n e f r a g m e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g a ship o n the S e i n e . T h e s e n i o r officer o n the P r a e n e s t e relief is t h e only o n e a r m e d with a sword, w o r n o n a b a l d r i c c r o s s i n g his right s h o u l d e r . S i m i l a r details c a n b e s e e n o n a coin o f 4 6 - 4 5 B C r e p r e s e n t i n g G n . P o m p e i u s o n the d e c k o f a warship. W h e n Tacitus d e s c r i b e s the m u r d e r o f A g r i p p i n a by a c e n t u r i o n a n d a trierarchus o f m a r i n e s , C e n t u r i o n O b a r i t u s is a r m e d with a pugio or gladius while T r i e r a r c h H e r c u l e i u s c a r r i e s a c u d g e l (fustis). A g o o d s c a b b a r d e d s p e c i m e n o f sword was f o u n d o n t h e H e r c u l a n e u m m a r i n e ' s

M i l i t a r y pugio

found on t h e s a m e

b o d y f r o m H e r c u l a n e u m . (Photo Foglia, N a p l e s ; S o p r i n t e n d e n z a S p e c i a l e ai B e n i A r c h e o l o g i c i di N a p o l i e P o m p e i )

b o d y ; this s i n g l e - e d g e d w e a p o n o f P o m p e i a n type was p l a c e d o n t h e r i g h t s i d e o f the body, a n d a pugio was still a t t a c h e d to a s e c o n d p l a t e d cingulum. T h e quality o f t h e g e a r shows that m a r i n e s o f the Italian fleets m i g h t b e e q u i p p e d with costly i t e m s a n d that these w e r e n o t solely r e s e r v e d to the officer class. T h e silverp l a t e b e l t a n d sword s c a b b a r d fittings, i n c l u d i n g a c h a p e with p a l m a t e details, w e r e p r o b a b l y p r o d u c e d by local s m i t h s a r o u n d M i s e n u m . O n the M o n t a n u s cippus a sword is also visible; a curiosity o f this i m a g e is t h e l o n g d e c o r a t e d b a l d r i c over the right shoulder, p r o b a b l y n o t m e a n t to s u p p o r t a w e a p o n b u t p e r h a p s s o m e f o r m o f military d e c o r a t i o n . O n e o f the officers o f t h e D a n u b e F l e e t r e p r e s e n t e d o n the 2nd-century A D s a r c o p h a g u s is a r m e d with a l o n g knife (culter) h a v i n g a slightly c u r v e d b l a d e .

Silver fittings f r o m

cingula

w e a p o n s b e l t s also f o u n d o n t h e body f r o m H e r c u l a n e u m , n o w in M u s e o A r c h e o l o g i c o Nazionale, Naples. Both ends of t h e belt p l a t e s w e r e rolled over t o f o r m a t u b e f o r a s p i n d l e with bulbous terminals, passing t h r o u g h p s e u d o - h i n g e s . (Photos G. D'Auria; S o p r i n t e n d e n z a S p e c i a l e ai B e n i A r c h e o l o g i c i di Napoli e P o m p e i )

Relief w i t h naval a n d cornicen,

T h e a x e (dolabrd) w a s a p p a r e n t l y o n e o f the favourite w e a p o n s o f m a r i n e s f r o m very early times. It was u s e d w h e n the dolatores c u t the r o p e s a n d sails o f e n e m y s h i p s a n d also t h o s e o f g r a p n e l s thrown a b o a r d their own vessels. A c c o r d i n g to Cassius D i o , sailors at A c t i u m w e r e a r m e d with a x e s (axinai L, 3 3 , 7 ) . In the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d letter f r o m K a r a n i s , T e r e n t i a n u s asks his f a t h e r for a battle s w o r d (gladius pugnatorius), a n a x e {dolabrd), a g r a p n e l (copula) a n d two s p e a r s (longae). H i s father evidently s u p p l i e d h i m with g o o d - q u a l i t y e q u i p m e n t ; in t h e n e x t surviving letter T e r e n t i a n u s asks for a n e w dolabra, b e c a u s e the first o n e h a d b e e n a p p r o p r i a t e d by his optiol O t h e r o b v i o u s w e a p o n s f o r f i g h t i n g at s e a w e r e b o w s a n d slings. A n t o n y e m b a r k e d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f a r c h e r s (toxotai) a n d slingers (sphendonitai), t o g e t h e r with heavily a r m e d oplitai ( D i o C a s s i u s , L, 18, 2 3 , 3 3 ) ; ' h e h a d b u i l t lofty towers, a n d h e h a d p u t a b o a r d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f m e n , w h o c o u l d t h u s f i g h t f r o m walls'. O c t a v i a n p r e f e r r e d especially heavily a r m o u r e d i n f a n t r y (tetragmenoi L, 31,3; 3 2 , 2 ) . During the b a t t l e o f A c t i u m t h e A n t o n i a n s b o m b a r d e d t h e a p p r o a c h i n g s h i p s with d e n s e s h o w e r s o f s t o n e s a n d a r r o w s , a n d cast-iron g r a p n e l s ('iron h a n d s ' ) . L o n g p i k e s (kontoi) w e r e a l s o u s e d in t h e f i g h t i n g b e t w e e n sailors a n d m a r i n e s (L, 34, 7 ) .

tubicen

from Ostia,

1st c e n t u r y A D . (Photos c o u r t e s y Dr S t e f a n o Izzo)

(continued on page 33)

T H E CIVILIS REVOLT, G E R M A N I A , 6 9 - 7 0 A D 1: L. Lucretius Celeris, miles of Legio I Adiutrix 2: Optio, Legio I Adiutrix 3: Batavian rebel auxiliary 4: Gallo-Roman

nauta

T H E D A N U B E FLEET, A N T O N I N E P E R I O D 1: Tribunus of a Legio

Adiutrix

2: Q. Statius Rufinus 3: Centurio

Herennius

3

LATER EMPIRE A r m o u r and shields H e l m e t s a n d c a p s o f t h e British F l e e t m a r i n e s a r e well illustrated in t h e f a m o u s 4th-century m o s a i c f r o m L o w H a m Villa in S o m e r s e t r e p r e s e n t i n g scenes f r o m the A e n e i d ; a m e t a l h e l m e t o f Intercisa style, with r e d crest, a n d a r e d P h r y g i a n c a p a r e visible b e h i n d the sides o f a w a r s h i p . A very interesting detail f r o m the late 5th-century Vergilius Romanus c o d e x shows the continuity o f t h e e q u i p m e n t d e s c r i b e d by Vegetius for I m p e r i a l sailors a n d m a r i n e s ; it r e p r e s e n t s historic ' T r o j a n ' w a r r i o r s as late R o m a n fighting sailors, w e a r i n g P h r y g i a n c a p s o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s . M i d d l e E m p i r e pictorial s o u r c e s show a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y to e q u i p t h e m a r i n e s in a lighter way than l a n d - b a s e d t r o o p s . A thick tunic, with a heavy b u t s h o r t sagum a n d trousers, s e e m s to b e the u s u a l d r e s s o f the miles classiarius o f t h e 3 r d century; this is well r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e stela o f T Flavius S a b e s t i a n u s f r o m R o d o s t o ( B u l g a r i a ) . Vegetius, however, r e c o m m e n d e d that m a r i n e s s h o u l d b e e q u i p p e d with a c o m p l e t e a r m o u r (cataphracti), o r at very least halfa r m o u r (loricati), with h e l m e t s (galeati) a n d g r e a v e s (ocreis muniti). In N o r t h A f r i c a n a n d B r i t i s h m o s a i c s o f t h e 3 r d a n d 4 t h c e n t u r i e s m e n o n b o a r d w a r s h i p s a r e p r o t e c t e d by r o u n d p o l i s h e d s h i e l d s . Vegetius r e c o m m e n d s large, heavy shields against thrown stones, a n d w i d e s h i e l d s a g a i n s t t h e u s e o f fakes a n d h o o k s m o u n t e d o n p o l e s (harpagones - Ep., V, 1 4 ) . S u r v i v i n g f r a g m e n t s o f t h e C o l u m n o f Arcadius show the naval battle f o u g h t o n the B o s p h o r u s against the G o t h s in 4 0 0 A D , with h e a v y I m p e r i a l i n f a n t r y m e n p r o t e c t e d b y t h e typical l a t e R o m a n oval s h i e l d s . T h e n a v a l f i g h t e r s f r o m t h e Vergilius Romanus m a n u s c r i p t h a v e oval s h i e l d s a n d s p e a r s ; s h i e l d s u r f a c e s a r e p a i n t e d in g r e e n , o r a n g e , r e d a n d yellow, with b o s s e s o f L i e b e n a u t y p e .

Weapons Milites classiarii o f t h e 2 n d - 3 r d c e n t u r i e s c a r r i e d s h o r t s w o r d s a n d d a g g e r s , as a t t e s t e d in t h e f u n e r a r y reliefs; s w o r d s a r e usually w o r n o n the r i g h t s i d e o f t h e b o d y at least u n t i l t h e 3 r d c e n t u r y . W h i l e t h e d a g g e r follows t h e t r a d i t i o n a l I m p e r i a l f o r m t h e s w o r d s e e m s to a n t i c i p a t e t h e semi-spatha o f t h e later E m p i r e . T h i s is visible o n , e.g., t h e t o m b s t o n e o f S e v e r u s f r o m P h i l i p p o p o l i s ; t h e s c a b b a r d t e r m i n a t e s in a stylised i m a g e o f i n t e r l a c e d f a c i n g typical o f t h o s e o f t h e e a r l y 3 r d c e n t u r y . Baltea a n d cingula (belts s y m b o l i c o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e a n d o f p r a c t i c a l u s e ) a r e clearly visible o n s u c h m o n u m e n t s . T h e u s e o f t h e j a v e l i n a n d s p e a r by n a v a l t r o o p s is well a t t e s t e d f r o m t o m b s t o n e s o f t h e 2 n d - 3 r d centuries, a n d mosaics of the s a m e period from M a u r e t a n i a also show the use of j a v e l i n s a n d war-axes by s a i l o r s . T h r o w i n g s p e a r s a r e widely m e n t i o n e d by V e g e t i u s , as well as s t o n e s , a r r o w s , o t h e r m i s s i l e s a n d e v e n plumbatae ( l e a d - w e i g h t e d d a r t s ) . A r c h e r s a n d missile-throwers o p e r a t e d f r o m the u s u a l w o o d e n towers; t h e f r a g m e n t s a n d d r a w i n g s o f t h e now-lost A r c a d i u s C o l u m n s h o w two s h i p s full o f a r m e d m e n , a n d a r c h e r s a r e visible in t h e b a t t l e s c e n e s .

B r o n z e f r a g m e n t s of a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t , possibly r e l a t i n g t o t h e gregalis

L. B e n n i u s

Beuza, from Voghenza, 100 AD. (Author's p h o t o , c o u r t e s y Archaeological M u s e u m , Ferrara)

o

V e g e t i u s m e n t i o n s t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f a x e , t h e bipennis o r d o u b l e - h e a d e d a x e with a v e r y w i d e a n d s h a r p i r o n b l a d e , u s e d to c u t the r o p e s o f t h e e n e m y ' s s h i p s (Ep., IV, 4 6 ) . T h i s was a f a v o u r i t e w e a p o n o f t h e m a r i n e s in c l o s e q u a r t e r - f i g h t i n g , t o g e t h e r with t h e s w o r d (Ep. V, 1 5 ) . T h e falx was p r o b a b l y widely u s e d by late I m p e r i a l m a r i n e s , at least in the Classis Britannica, as s h o w n by a c o i n o f C a r a u s i u s . V e g e t i u s e x p r e s s l y m e n t i o n s it a m o n g t h e i r w e a p o n s , s a y i n g t h a t its s h a r p , c u r v e d b l a d e was u s e f u l in s e a b a t t l e s f o r c u t t i n g t h e o p p o n e n t s ' r i g g i n g w h e n a t t a c h e d to a p o l e . It s u r v i v e d i n t o t h e R o m a n n a v a l a r m a m e n t o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s u n d e r t h e n a m e o f drepanion.

MISCELLANEOUS

Naval mallet from the Comacchio s h i p , last q u a r t e r of 1st c e n t u r y B C . T h i s ship f i n d y i e l d e d f o u r d i s t i n c t t y p e s of m a l l e t : (1) p a r a l l e l e p i p e d h e a d , in w h i c h t h e h a n d l e is i n s e r t e d a n d r e i n f o r c e d by t w o w e d g e s p r o t r u d i n g f r o m t h e hole extremities; (2) p r i s m a t i c h e a d ; (3) h o r i z o n t a l h e a d ; (4) cylindrical h e a d , m a d e f r o m a s i n g l e p i e c e of w o o d . T h e y h a v e t h e t y p i c a l s h a p e of c a u l k i n g m a l l e t s , or t h o s e u s e d in t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d for r e p a i r s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e w i t h nails a n d p e g s . In all t h e c o n s i d e r e d s p e c i m e n s t h e axis of t h e h a n d l e is o f f s e t f r o m t h a t of t h e h e a d , probably for a more effective e m p l o y m e n t of t h e t o o l . S o m e of t h e m had notches on t h e handle, p e r h a p s o w n e r s ' m a r k s . (From original e x c a v a t i o n d r a w i n g s ; Archaeological M u s e u m , Ferrara, c o u r t e s y D r F e d e Berti)

EQUIPMENT

T h e u s e o f t r u m p e t s (tubae) for p a s s i n g o r d e r s at s e a is a t t e s t e d f r o m b o t h i c o n o g r a p h i c a n d literary s o u r c e s ( D i o C a s s i u s , L , 3 1 , 4 ) . A s c u l p t u r e f r o m N o l a , Italy, c e l e b r a t i n g t h e naval victory at A c t i u m shows tubicines b e h i n d O c t a v i a n w h o is p r a y i n g to A p o l l o A z i a c u m . In t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d relief f r o m M a d r i d a tubicen is p r o t e c t e d by w h a t s e e m s to b e a l e a t h e r lorica segmentata. R e c e n t e x c a v a t i o n s in n o r t h e r n Italy h a v e r e c o v e r e d l a r g e f r a g m e n t s o f a b r o n z e m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t p r o b a b l y b e l o n g i n g to a classiarius o f D a l m a t i a n o r i g i n . Specific naval s t a n d a r d s (signa) a r e r e c o r d e d by the s o u r c e s ( P r o p . , IV,24). S u e t o n i u s also writes that the classiarii h a d their own aquila a n d signa. T h e c o l o u r o f t h e vexillum (semeion) o f the a d m i r a l ' s flagship was d a r k b l u e , as was that given to A g r i p p a by O c t a v i a n after a naval victory (Cassius D i o , L I , 9 , 3 ) . S u e t o n i u s (Div. Aug. X X V ) states that Octavian p r e s e n t e d a caeruleum vexillum (sky-blue flag) to A g r i p p a after his victory at A c t i u m . S t a t i u s R u f i n u s , w h o s e m i d - 2 n d c e n t u r y A D t o m b s t o n e was f o u n d in A t h e n s , s e r v e d a s a classiarius o f t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t . H i s stele r e p r e s e n t s h i m h o l d i n g e i t h e r with a b o x o f w a x t a b l e t s (codex ansatus), or, by a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a l a m p (lanterna), an important means of s i g n a l l i n g o n s h i p s . S h i p ' s l a m p s like t h o s e r e p r e s e n t e d o n T r a j a n ' s C o l u m n h a v e b e e n f o u n d o n t h e C o m a c c h i o s h i p w r e c k in Italy. O t h e r n e c e s s a r y i t e m s o n w a r s h i p s i n c l u d e d b u c k e t s o f water (essential f o r p u t t i n g o u t f i r e s ) , h o o k s a n d h a r p o o n s , a n d w o o d e n bailers. A shorth a n d l e d , l o n g - h e a d e d w o o d e n m a l l e t ( P l a u t , Men., 2,3,52; lat. malleus, marcus, marcellus, marculus, marceolus, martiolus) was u s e d for m a i n t e n a n c e , e.g. f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f n e w c o r d a g e , a n d - with a n awl - for c l e a n i n g b a r n a c l e s off t h e hull. A x e s w e r e u s e d for m a i n t e n a n c e , a n d o n e is clearly visible as a n i n s t r u m e n t o f naval c a r p e n t e r y in t h e f a m o u s stele o f the faber navalis P. L o n g i d i e n u s f r o m C l a s s e . T h e p l a n e (runcina) was u s e d to s m o o t h w o o d ; t h e late l s t - c e n t u r y B C C o m a c c h i o s h i p y i e l d e d a bailer, a plane, an axe, a n d nine mallets.

T H E SHIPS Construction A n c i e n t M e d i t e r r a n e a n shipwrights u s e d the 'carvel' o r 'shell first' m e t h o d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n for their l o n g , n a r r o w w a r s h i p s ( navis longa, Vitruvius, X , 14, 6 ) . F r o m t h e k e e l (carinae, C a s s i u s D i o X L V I I I , 3 8 ) , with its a t t a c h e d stem- a n d stern-posts, they built the p l a n k i n g u p w a r d s , inserting transverse

ribs o f varying sizes as they p r o g r e s s e d , their c u r v e d axis f o r m i n g the cross-sectional s h a p e o f t h e hull. U n l i k e t h e hulls o f the 'clinker-built' ships o f n o r t h e r n E u r o p e , t h e planks d i d n o t o v e r l a p e a c h o t h e r f r o m t o p to b o t t o m ; t h e skin (alveus) was f o r m e d o f p l a n k s (trades) h e l d t o g e t h e r e d g e to e d g e by a system o f m o r t i s e - a n d - t e n o n j o i n t s . T o reinforce the w h o l e s t r u c t u r e cinctae (zostheres) - g i r d l e s w e r e a r r a n g e d to s t r e n g t h e n t h e s h i p ' s s i d e s , a l s o providing resistance against missiles a n d r a m m i n g . A n i n n e r keel o r k e e l s o n i n c o r p o r a t e d the f o o t i n g o r step (modius, mesodme) for the m a i n m a s t , w h i c h p a s s e d u p t h r o u g h the d e c k p l a n k i n g , a n d transverse s u p p o r t b e a m s r e i n f o r c e d the u p p e r p a r t o f t h e hull. O n e o f t h e excavated N e m i ships - pleasurecraft of the E m p e r o r Caligula, which i m i t a t e d w a r s h i p s - shows that t h e hull p l a n k i n g was s o m e t i m e s c o v e r e d with l e a d s h e e t a t t a c h e d by small c o p p e r nails; s u c h s h e a t h i n g p r o t e c t e d t h e u n d e r w a t e r p a r t s o f the hull f r o m t h e a c c r e t i o n o f b a r n a c l e s a n d d a m a g e by m a r i n e lifeforms. In t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n t h e w o o d m o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d for the p l a n k i n g was f r o m c o n i f e r o u s trees, while h a r d w o o d s s u c h as o a k a n d b e e c h w e r e e m p l o y e d f o r t h e keel a n d f r a m e s ; to r e d u c e w e i g h t t h e cinctae w e r e m a d e f r o m lighter t i m b e r s s u c h as p l a n e - t r e e o r l a r c h . Pitch a n d v e g e t a b l e g l u e w e r e u s e d f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s to c a u l k ( w a t e r p r o o f ) s h i p s ' hulls, as s h o w n by a n a m p h o r a filled with p i t c h f o u n d in o n e o f t h e s h i p s n o w p r e s e r v e d in t h e Fiumicino M u s e u m . Vegetius gives us the materials e m p l o y e d for t h e b u i l d i n g o f liburnae ( s e e b e l o w ) : c y p r e s s , l a r c h , fir o r p i n e w o o d , a n d c o p p e r nails i n s t e a d o f i r o n to avoid c o r r o s i o n (V,4).

Propulsion O n the m a s t t h e m a i n s q u a r e d sail o f t h e s h i p was r i g g e d from a main yard; the C o m a c c h i o ship h a d c o r d a g e woven f r o m e s p a r t o g r a s s . A s e c o n d t r i a n g u l a r sail was o f t e n a t t a c h e d to t h e m a i n mast, w h e r e s t a n d a r d s w e r e d i s p l a y e d . A t t h e p r o w a s l a n t i n g f o r e m a s t o r bowsprit was o f t e n r i g g e d with a s q u a r e d sail (artemon) d e s i g n e d to s u p p o r t the h e l m (gubernaculum, S u e t . , Div. Aug., X V I I ) in c o n t r o l l i n g the m a n o e u v r i n g o f t h e s h i p . T h e h e l m c o n s i s t e d o f two s t e e r i n g - o a r s p r o t r u d i n g t h r o u g h slots o n the o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f t h e s t e r n ; a s i n g l e h e l m s m a n usually c o n t r o l l e d t h e m b o t h , if n e c e s s a r y - b e c a u s e o f their weight a n d d i m e n s i o n s - by m e a n s o f a n e x t r a t r a n s v e r s e tiller ( iugum). T h e m a i n p r o p u l s i o n o f the s h i p was p r o v i d e d by t h e o a r s . B a s e d u p o n the d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e rowlocks, t h e d i a m e t e r o f t h e o a r shaft was n o t less than 1 0 c m ( 3 . 9 i n ) , a n d d u r i n g the early E m p i r e - b a s e d o n t h e P r a e n e s t e relief - their a v e r a g e l e n g t h was a b o u t 4 . 5 m ( 1 4 . 7 5 f t ) , a l t h o u g h t h e l e n g t h varied in relation to t h e w a t e r l i n e . T h e n u m b e r o f o a r s v a r i e d with t h e ship's hull l e n g t h , a n d t h e o a r s m e n w e r e s e a t e d in levels a r r a n g e d o n e a b o v e the other. T h e o a r s o f t h e lower level (if p r e s e n t ) p r o t r u d e d t h r o u g h h o l e s in the p l a n k i n g f u r n i s h e d with l e a t h e r ' b o o t s ' o r collars a r o u n d the o a r to k e e p water o u t . T h o s e o f t h e u p p e r level o f r o w e r s w e r e

Satchel-like leather bags from t h e C o m a c c h i o s h i p , last q u a r t e r of 1st c e n t u r y B C ; a n u m b e r of l e a t h e r s a c k s

(marsupia)

of v a r i o u s s i z e s w e r e also r e c o v e r e d . (From original excavation drawings; Archaeological M u s e u m , F e r r a r a , c o u r t e s y D r F e d e Berti)

Roman trireme depicted on a marble fragment from Pozzuoli, 1st c e n t u r y A D , possibly r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f l a g s h i p of t h e a d m i r a l of t h e M i s e n u m Fleet. Rome owed the design of h e r w a r s h i p s t o t h e s t e a d y e v o l u t i o n of G r e e k a n d o t h e r M e d i t e r r a n e a n patterns over many centuries; both the beaked r a m m i n g p r o w (rostrum)

and the

decorative upswept extension from the stern timbers

(aplustre)

a r e f o u n d in v a s e p a i n t i n g s a s early as the 8 t h century BC. Note here t h e circular ornament a t t a c h e d t o t h e aplustre;

the

d e c o r a t e d s i d e - p a n e l s high at t h e bow and stern; the acrostolium

protruding above

t h e rostrum

beak, and the

turret-like superstructure on t h e forecastle. RIGHT A n o t h e r p a n e l s h o w s a s t a n d a r d (signa

or

mounted above the

vexilla) aplustre.

( C a s t s , M u s e o d e l l a Civilta Romana, Rome)

f i x e d to r o w l o c k s in a p r o t r u d i n g o u t r i g g e r g a l l e r y at t h e u p p e r e d g e o f t h e hull - this o u t r i g g e r g u a r a n t e e d m a x i m u m r o w i n g efficiency a n d , t o g e t h e r with t h e cross-sectional c u r v a t u r e o f the hull, m e a n t that rowers w e r e n o t s e a t e d directly b e l o w o n e a n o t h e r b u t ' s t a g g e r e d ' o u t w a r d s f r o m b o t t o m to t o p levels. T o p r o t e c t t h e o a r s m e n in t h e t o p level the o u t r i g g e r g a l l e r y was c o v e r e d by b o x h o u s i n g s (catafractae), a n d often t h e s e were f u r t h e r p r o t e c t e d by rows o f t h e o a r s m e n s ' shields. T h e sails w e r e e m p l o y e d in f a v o u r a b l e w i n d c o n d i t i o n s , b u t w e r e always h a u l e d d o w n b e f o r e j o i n i n g b a t t l e . B e f o r e t h e b a t t l e o f A c t i u m , A n t o n y ' s o r d e r s to r a i s e t h e sails c o n f u s e d t h e crews, s i n c e this c o u l d o n l y h a v e t h e p u r p o s e o f a v o i d i n g a c t i o n , w h i c h m a y in fact h a v e b e e n A n t o n y ' s i n t e n t i o n . T h e sails, usually o f l i n e n b u t a l s o o f c o t t o n , w e r e r e i n f o r c e d by l e a t h e r strips a n d f u r n i s h e d with r e i n f o r c e d h o l e s for the r u n n i n g r o p e s t h a t a l l o w e d t h e a s p e c t o f t h e sail to b e a d j u s t e d to suit w i n d c o n d i t i o n s . T h e t r i a n g u l a r ' L a t i n ' sail, r i g g e d slantwise a n d slightly a d v a n c e d t o w a r d s t h e bow, was l a t e r d e s t i n e d to r e p l a c e t h e s q u a r e d sail, a n d was t h e m a i n sail o f t h e R o m a n dhromona o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s as well a s o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n galerae. (When necessity arose, ships c o u l d b e m o v e d a certain distance from o n e b o d y o f w a t e r to a n o t h e r o v e r l a n d , by m a n p o w e r o r a n i m a l t e a m s . B e f o r e t h e b a t t l e o f A c t i u m t r i r e m e s o f A n t o n y ' s fleet w e r e t r a n s p o r t e d f r o m t h e o u t e r s e a to t h e G u l f o f P a t r a s by way o f t h e fortifications, a l o n g a t r a c k o f newly flayed h i d e s s m e a r e d with olive oil.)

Ship types W a r s h i p s w e r e classified as biremi, triremi, quadriremi a n d quinquiremi. T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e o n c e a s s u m e d to refer to b e t w e e n two a n d five horizontal ' b a n k s ' o r levels o f o a r s , b u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the n u m b e r o f levels o f o a r s a n d their d i s p o s i t i o n is difficult to d e t e r m i n e today, especially s i n c e e v e n h i g h e r n u m b e r s t h a n five a r e m e n t i o n e d . F o r the battle o f A c t i u m , w e a r e t o l d t h a t A n t o n y c o n s t r u c t e d 'only a few triremes, b u t i n s t e a d s o m e s h i p s with f o u r a n d s o m e with ten b a n k s o f o a r s , a n d all the r e m a i n d e r in b e t w e e n t h e s e two'. Today, however, it is g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h r e e p a r a l l e l , s u p e r i m p o s e d levels o f rowers was the m a x i m u m n u m b e r p o s s i b l e f o r p r a c t i c a l s h i p - h a n d l i n g , a n d ten s e p a r a t e levels o f o a r s is clearly a physical impossibility. J u d g i n g f r o m G r e e k s o u r c e s a n d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s in r e c e n t y e a r s , it is n o w b e l i e v e d that t h e

r e f e r e n c e s to q u a d r i r e m e s a n d q u i n q u i r e m e s m u s t r e f e r to ships with t h r e e levels o f o a r s , b u t with m u l t i p l e r o w e r s pulling s o m e of those oars. T r i r e m e a n d q u i n q u i r e m e were o f a b o u t the s a m e hull size, i.e. a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 m l o n g a n d 5 m w i d e (c. 130ft by 16ft). It h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d that the 'fours, fives, sixes', etc, m a y refer to the total n u m b e r o f m e n p u l l i n g t h e t h r e e oars in a single vertical 'stack' o n the t h r e e levels. In t h e b i r e m e the b o t t o m level o f rowers w e r e s e a t e d low d o w n , the t o p level at bulwark-height a b o v e t h e m a n d in t h e intervals b e t w e e n t h o s e o f the b o t t o m level. In t h e t r i r e m e , e a c h o a r s m a n in the central level was s e a t e d slightly f o r w a r d o f the rower a b o v e h i m a n d slightly to t h e r e a r o f the rower below h i m , e a c h m a n ' s h e a d r o u g h l y level with the seat o f the m a n a b o v e . T h e 4th-century B C A t h e n i a n naval inventories f r o m P e i r a i e u s tell u s that t h e t r i r e m e h a d 170 o a r s m e n , thus 85 p e r side. O f the 8 5 , 31 r o w e d in the u p p e r level, a n d 2 7 in b o t h the m i d d l e a n d b o t t o m levels. T h e q u i n q u i r e m e h a d 2 7 0 o a r s m e n , t h u s 135 p e r side, o f which 2 3 r o w e d in the b o t t o m level. T h e r e m a i n i n g 112 c o u l d thus have m a n n e d 28 two-man o a r s in b o t h t h e t o p a n d c e n t r a l levels, a n d a single vertical 'stack' o f t h r e e o a r s w o u l d total five rowers. T h r o u g h o u t t h e I m p e r i a l p e r i o d t h e m o s t typical w a r s h i p was t h e liburna, which f o l l o w e d t h e m o d e l o f t h e Illyrian p i r a t e s ' lemboi a n d t h e vessels o f L a t e H e l l e n i s t i c fleets. T h e s e s h i p s w e r e o f s m a l l d i m e n s i o n s , n i m b l e a n d highly m a n o e u v r a b l e , b e i n g t h e p r o t o t y p e s for t h e later dhromona. In particular, liburnae b e c a m e t h e typical s h i p s o f all t h e provincial fleets, t h o u g h with a t r i r e m e as f l a g s h i p . O n e o f t h e L a k e N e m i ships was actually as m u c h as 7 3 m l o n g a n d 2 4 m w i d e (c.239ft x 7 9 f t ) , b u t that f o u n d in the o l d h a r b o u r o f Pisa, substantially intact, was only 1 2 m (39ft) in l e n g t h . It still r e t a i n s its keel, k e e l s o n , m a s t f o o t i n g , f r a m e s , a n d the e d g e o f the bulwark, a n d it is e x t e r n a l l y r e i n f o r c e d by two s q u a r e d a n d parallel cinctae. T h e h o l e s for o a r s a r e still visible, with a well-built r o w l o c k a n d traces o f t h e l e a t h e r s h e a t h s t h a t w e r e f i x e d to t h e b u l w a r k with s m a l l b r o n z e nails to f o r m a s o r t o f p a d d i n g b e t w e e n t h e o a r a n d t h e r o w l o c k a n d to p r e v e n t water e n t e r i n g t h e hull. Five r o w i n g b e n c h e s a r e still p r e s e r v e d , o n e o f w h i c h h a s a n i n c i s e d i n s c r i p t i o n . However, t h e m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r p a r t o f this small liburna is t h e p e r f e c t l y p r e s e r v e d rostrum o r b e a k at the bow; m a d e f r o m a o a k t r e e , it is c o v e r e d with s h e e t i r o n , a n d inside this a r e n a i l e d t h e f o r w a r d e n d s o f t h e hull p l a n k s . T o c o u n t e r the t h r e a t o f S a x o n i n c u r s i o n s in B r i t a i n e i t h e r C a r a u s i u s o r Allectus, the u s u r p e r s o f B r i t a n n i a , c r e a t e d a n e w k i n d o f s h i p . K n o w n as lusoriae, t h e s e w e r e small a n d fast, with a n a r m e d crew m a n n i n g a s i n g l e

P a r t of a m o n u m e n t r e l a t e d t o a naval b a t t l e , O s t i a , 1st c e n t u r y AD. T h e small circles carved in t h r e e s a t t h e t o p s of t h e oars almost certainly indicate a t r i r e m e . (Photo c o u r t e s y Dr S t e f a n o Izzo)

T h r e e a n g l e s o n a ship's p r o w w i t h rostrum,

a f r a g m e n t of a

lost m o n u m e n t of t h e A u g u s t a n period from Aquileia. The prow of t h i s liburna

is d e c o r a t e d w i t h

griffins a n d s c a l e s . ( M u s e o d e l l a Civilta R o m a n a , R o m e )

37

b a n k o f o a r s ; they w e r e p r o b a b l y t h e high-water m a r k o f the d e v e l o p m e n t o f naval t e c h n o l o g y in antiquity. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e visible o n the u s u r p e r s ' c o i n s , as well o n t h e m e d a l l i o n o f C o n s t a n t i u s C h l o r u s c e l e b r a t i n g his r e c a p t u r e o f L o n d o n , a n d o n t h e c o i n s o f C o n s t a n t i n e I c o m m e m o r a t i n g his victory over t h e fleet o f L i c i n i u s in 3 2 3 A D .

D e t a i l s f r o m t h e A r c h of O r a n g e showing the beaks, stern ornaments and other trophies f r o m c a p t u r e d ships of A n t o n y and Cleopatra's fleet taken to

S c o u t s h i p s w e r e u s e d f r o m the late C o n s u l a r p e r i o d (Cassius D i o , L, 9 ) . F o u r small w a r s h i p s o f this type f r o m the R h i n e Fleet, today in the M u s e u m fur A n tike Schiffart at M a i n z , give u s a g o o d i d e a o f the s h a p e o f the lusoriae a n d o f t h e river w a r s h i p s u s e d for p a t r o l l i n g a n d p o l i c e duties in the 4th c e n t u r y A D . O n e o f t h e s e vessels was like a small u n d e c k e d warship less t h a n 2 0 m (c.65ft) l o n g , with o n e row o f o a r s for a b o u t 20 m e n ; it was p r o v i d e d with a mast-step a n d a towing-stake. A n a r r o w h o l d a r e a in the c e n t r e o f o n e o f t h e s e hulls shows that it c o u l d b e u s e for t r a n s p o r t i n g g o o d s , o r this m a y e v e n b e to a c c o m m o d a t e the b a s e o f a d a i s for the u s e o f i m p o r t a n t d i g n i t a r i e s . A n o t h e r s p e c i m e n f r o m this g r o u p was a m u c h l a r g e r s h i p d e s i g n e d to t r a n s p o r t t r o o p s .

t h e h a r b o u r of F o r u m lulii in Narbonensis (southern France). S u c h p a r t s of c a p t u r e d s h i p s , together with weapons and armour taken from their crews, w e r e used to erect triumphal displays - spoliae

navales

-

t o c e l e b r a t e naval v i c t o r i e s s u c h as t h o s e of A g r i p p a a n d t h e G e n s Julia in t h e A c t i u m campaign. Similar trophies adorn monuments to the gods M a r s a n d N e p t u n e e r e c t e d by O c t a v i a n in N i c o p o l i s , E g y p t , to m a r k his d e f e a t of A n t o n y a n d C l e o p a t r a (Suet., Div. Aug., (Photos a u t h o r ' s c o l l e c t i o n )

XVIII).

A r m a m e n t and decoration E a c h s h i p was f u r n i s h e d with a b e a k (rostrum), originally a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e k e e l ( a c c o r d i n g to Pliny the Elder, it was u s e d first by the E t r u s c a n s ) . T h i s was a b o w r a m , very occasionally o f w o o d l i n k e d laterally to the stemp o s t b u t m a i n l y o f b r o n z e o r i r o n (Vitruvius, X , 14, 6 ) , with o n e o r m o r e p r o m i n e n t p o i n t s (usually t h r e e ) . T h e a v e r a g e p r o t r u d i n g l e n g t h was 1 . 7 0 - 1 . 7 2 m (c.5.5ft), a n d it was p o s i t i o n e d centrally at a n d i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w t h e w a t e r l i n e . A b r o n z e t h r e e - p o i n t e d original h a s b e e n f o u n d in Israel, n e a r Athlit; this is 2 m (6.5ft) l o n g a n d w e i g h s 6 0 0 k g (1,320 p o u n d s ) . In a d d i t i o n to t h e rostrum s o m e s h i p s w e r e f u r n i s h e d with a proembolium, a l o n g , s t r o n g b e a m u s e d as a r a m m i n g w e a p o n a g a i n s t the o a r b a n k s o f e n e m y ships. T u r r e t s (pyrgoi), to p r o t e c t m e n a n d artillery, w e r e erected before battle o n the stern a n d forecastle, a n d m i g h t m o u n t c a t a p u l t s - onagri a n d scorpiones. T h e w a r s h i p s w o u l d a p p r o a c h t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s f r o m several d i r e c t i o n s a t o n c e , u s i n g a r t i l l e r y to h u r l f r o m a distance incendiary pots of charcoal a n d pitch, shooting b l a z i n g m i s s i l e s a n d finally h u r l i n g fire-javelins. A r c h e r s a n d s l i n g e r s w e r e a l l o c a t e d to t h e towers, w h i c h c o u l d b e d i s m a n t l e d if t h e s h i p n e e d e d to sail o u t o f b a t t l e q u i c k l y ( C a s s i u s D i o , L , X X X I I I , 4 ) . O f t h e s h i p s that O c t a v i a n h a d b u i l t f o r his n a v a l w a r s a g a i n s t S e x t u s P o m p e i u s , D i o ( X L I X , 1,2) writes that: H i s c h i e f g r o u n d o f c o n f i d e n c e lay in t h e h e i g h t o f his v e s s e l s a n d t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e i r t i m b e r s ; they h a d b e e n b u i l t u n u s u a l l y s t o u t a n d u n u s u a l l y h i g h , in o r d e r n o t o n l y to c a r r y t h e l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e n u m b e r o f m a r i n e s (in fact they h a d towers o n t h e m , in o r d e r t h a t t h e m e n m i g h t f i g h t f r o m h i g h e r g r o u n d , as if f r o m a w a l l ) , b u t a l s o to w i t h s t a n d t h e a t t a c k s o f t h e o p p o s i n g vessels a n d at the s a m e time b e n d back t h e i r b e a k s , s i n c e t h e v i o l e n c e o f their collision w o u l d b e i n c r e a s e d thereby.

G r a v e s t e l e of t h e c a r p e n t e r P. Longidienus, Augustan period, f r o m C l a s s e . (Right) d e t a i l of t h e i m a g e of t h i s faber

navalis

working on t h e construction of a s m a l l w a r s h i p ; h e w a s p r o b a b l y e m p l o y e d n e a r b y in t h e y a r d s of t h e R a v e n n a F l e e t . T h e p r e s e n c e of a f l e e t b a s e p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t in local economic and demographic development; the Ravenna F l e e t n e e d e d c o p i o u s provisions for its 1 0 , 0 0 0 m e n , a n d m a t e r i a l s including t i m b e r a n d p i t c h for

Heavy artillery was a l s o to b e f o u n d o n t h e fighting d e c k , a b l e to s h o o t missiles at t h e e n e m y r o w i n g a r e a . B o a r d i n g - h a r p o o n s with c a b l e s c o u l d b e p r o j e c t e d by balistae to c o u p l e with t h e e n e m y s h i p ; a s p e c i a l type o f h a r p o o n , t h e harpax, was d e v i s e d by A g r i p p a a n d was f u n d a m e n t a l to t h e naval victories o f O c t a v i a n . T h e sideroi cheiroi ( ' i r o n h a n d s ' ) w e r e g r a p p l i n g i r o n s a b l e to g r a s p i n d i v i d u a l s a i l o r s o r p a r t s o f t h e i r s h i p s . C a s s i u s D i o d e s c r i b e s a naval a c t i o n in w h i c h :

t h e s h i p s , l i n e n for t h e sails, h e m p for t h e r o p e s , w o o l a n d l e a t h e r for t h e c l o t h e s a n d e q u i p m e n t of t h e m e n . By t h e e n d of t h e 1st c e n t u r y A D t h e a r e a of t h e Po river d e l t a on the Adriatic had a t t r a c t e d large n u m b e r s of c r a f t s m e n , retailers, merchants, and t r a n s p o r t e r s of g o o d s a l o n g

T h e followers o f S e x t u s P o m p e i u s a l a r m e d t h e i r o p p o n e n t s by t h e way they d a s h e d a c r o s s t h e waves, a n d they a l s o d a m a g e d s o m e s h i p s by a s s a i l i n g t h e m with a r u s h a n d r i p p i n g o p e n t h e p a r t s t h a t were beyond the banks of oars; but since [Sextus' ships] were a s s a i l e d with m i s s i l e s f r o m t h e towers a t t h e m o m e n t o f a t t a c k a n d w e r e b r o u g h t a l o n g s i d e by g r a p p l i n g i r o n s , they s u f f e r e d n o less h a r m t h a n they inflicted. A n d C a e s a r ' s f o r c e s , w h e n they c a m e i n t o c l o s e conflict a n d b o a r d e d t h e e n e m y s h i p s , p r o v e d s u p e r i o r . T h e ' d o l p h i n s ' t h a t a r e m e n t i o n e d in s o m e s o u r c e s w e r e i n c e n d i a r y pots, s u s p e n d e d a n d sometimes d r o p p e d from a b e a m raised over the rostrum; t h e s e w e r e successfully u s e d by O c t a v i a n ' s f l e e t at A c t i u m . B e a m - h e a d s w e r e o f t e n s t r e n g t h e n e d a n d d e c o r a t e d with b r o n z e a n i m a l h e a d s (protomo), a n d t h e b a l u s t r a d e s by d o u b l e - f a c e d Hermae, as in t h e s p e c i m e n f r o m N e m i . S o m e t i m e s a divinity protoma o r a s t a t u e like a l a t e r f i g u r e h e a d (polena) w a s p l a c e d u n d e r o r c o r r e s p o n d i n g with t h e acrostolium, t h e m a i n o r n a m e n t a l p r o t u b e r a n c e a t t h e p r o w . F r o m t h e 1st c e n t u r y B C w a r s h i p s w e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u l a r e m b l e m p l a c e d o n t h e aplustre, t h e f i s h t a i l - s h a p e d o r n a m e n t a l structure rising f r o m the stern. T o ward off b a d luck, large eyes were p a i n t e d o n the prow. After a naval victory the p r o w o f the ship was d e c o r a t e d with f l o w e r - g a r l a n d s ( D i o C a s s i u s , L I , 5 , 4 ) ; a f t e r a d e f e a t a n d c a p t u r e its b e a k m i g h t b e h a c k e d o f f f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n in t h e v i c t o r ' s t r i u m p h a l m o n u m e n t , a s h u n t e r s d i s p l a y t h e h e a d s o f t h e i r kills. T h e w o r l d o f t h e m a r i n e s , like t h a t o f all R o m a n s o l d i e r s , was full o f r e l i g i o n a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n : o n t h e s t e r n o f t h e s h i p a n a l t a r was o f t e n p l a c e d in h o n o u r o f t h e p r o t e c t i v e divinity o f t h e s h i p , f r o m w h i c h it t o o k its n a m e . T h i s n a m e was n o r m a l l y i n d i c a t e d o n t h e s i d e o r o n a sty Its, a k i n d o f t a b l e t fixed to t h e s t e r n p o s t . T h e g o d d e s s Isis was o n e t h e m o s t p o p u l a r a m o n g sailors, t o g e t h e r with B a c c h u s , A p o l l o , M i n e r v a , t h e Dioscuri and, of course, Poseidon ( N e p t u n e ) . W o m e n or other p e r s o n s

rivers a n d r o a d s . ( M u s e o Archeologico, Ravenna)

c o n s i d e r e d i m p u r e were not allowed o n b o a r d ship. In m o m e n t s o f t h e g r e a t e s t d a n g e r a n d as a last resort the whole ship's c o m p a n y would pray to t h e s a c r e d a n c h o r , t h e l a r g e s t o f t h o s e on b o a r d . D u r i n g the E m p i r e anchors (agkurai) were of iron, harpoon-shaped, b u t s o m e t i m e s c o v e r e d with w o o d e.g. t h e s p e c i m e n f r o m L a k e N e m i . A p i c t u r e o f a l a t e - R o m a n liburna in t h e Notitia Dignitatum m a n u s c r i p t in the B o d l e i a n Library, O x f o r d , represents t h e d e c o r a t i o n a n d a r m a m e n t o f a 5thc e n t u r y w a r s h i p u s e d in t h e d e s p e r a t e w a r s a g a i n s t b a r b a r i a n r a i d e r s . It shows a b r o n z e rostrum in m u l t i c o l o u r e d steps s u r m o u n t e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n s y m b o l , a n d catafractae a l o n g t h e s i d e s .

Harbours and naval yards

A g i l d e d g l a s s c o v e r of T e t r a r c h i c or C o n s t a n t i n i a n d a t e , e a r l y 4 t h c e n t u r y A D . It s h o w s a n o f f i c e r of a n a v a l d o c k y a r d

[fabrica

navalis),

wearing a fringed

lacerna

cloak and carrying

a staff of c o m m a n d . All t h e t u n i c s of t h e m e n in t h e background are confined by m i l i t a r y b e l t s f a s t e n e d with old-fashioned buckles of 3 r d - c e n t u r y t y p e . (Musei Vaticani, Rome)

Navy y a r d s w h e r e w a r s h i p s w e r e b a s e d o r r e p a i r e d w e r e c a l l e d navalia. O r i g i n a l l y two w e r e l o c a t e d in R o m e itself: t h e navalia superiora ( n e a r the C a m p u s M a r t i u s ) , a n d inferiora ( n e a r t h e m o u t h o f t h e C l o a c a M a x i m a , a n d l i n k e d with the c o m m e r c i a l q u a r t e r c a l l e d t h e E m p o r i u m ) . However, by the 1st c e n t u r y A D they w e r e a l r e a d y little m o r e t h a n m u s e u m s ( a n d P r o c o p i u s , writing in t h e 6 t h c e n t u r y , e v e n says t h a t t h e w a r s h i p b e l i e v e d to h a v e b e e n u s e d by t h e l e g e n d a r y h e r o A e n e a s was k e p t in o n e o f t h e m ) . I m p o r t a n t military h a r b o u r s in Italy i n c l u d e d the P o r t u s Iulius, n e a r C u m a , c r e a t e d by A g r i p p a in 3 7 B C . T h e P o r t u s Misenatis, b a s e o f the M i s e n u m Fleet, was f r o m 31 B C t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t naval b a s e in t h e w e s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n . It was l a r g e e n o u g h to a c c o m m o d a t e the a d m i r a l ' s f l a g s h i p , d e s c r i b e d as a hexeres (six b a n k s o f o a r s ) , triremi, quadriremi (Pliny t h e Y o u n g e r , E p . VI, 16, 8 ) , quinquiremi a n d liburnae. T h e P o r t u s R a v e n n a t i s , h o u s i n g t h e R a v e n n a fleet, c o u l d a c c o m o d a t e u p to 250 ships. T o h e l p t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e h a r b o u r a c a n a l was built to link it to t h e River P o ; d u e to p r o g r e s s i v e silting o f the h a r b o u r , f r o m the 2 n d c e n t u r y A D a n e w military h a r b o u r was built at C l a s s e a few miles away, partially over t h e C a s t r a Classis P r a e t o r i a e R a v e n n a t i s o r fleet c a m p .

WAR AT SEA T h e m a i n R o m a n m e t h o d o f naval f i g h t i n g , f r o m the P u n i c Wars o n w a r d s , was to t r a n s f e r their s u p e r i o r l a n d tactics to t h e naval e n v i r o n m e n t by d r a w i n g a l o n g s i d e e n e m y s h i p s a n d b o a r d i n g t h e m . T o this e n d they fitted g a n g p l a n k s c a l l e d corvi ( r a v e n s ) at t h e s h i p s ' e x t r e m i t i e s , the corvus b e i n g a t t a c h e d to a r a i s e d , p i v o t i n g p o s t a b o u t 8 m (26ft) h i g h at the s h i p ' s b o w a n d / o r s t e r n . T h i s b o a r d i n g b r i d g e , a b o u t 1.20m (c.4ft) wide, was c o n s t r u c t e d in two s e c t i o n s , with p a r a p e t s o n e i t h e r s i d e . T h e e n d was swivelled o u t a n d d r o p p e d by m e a n s o f a r o p e a n d pulley, driving a spike u n d e r t h e e n d i n t o t h e e n e m y s h i p ' s d e c k ; two files o f s o l d i e r s c o u l d then c r o s s over, p r o t e c t e d by their own s h i e l d s a n d t h e p a r a p e t s . S o m e m o d e r n

historians a r g u e t h a t t h e corvus m u s t h a v e m a d e R o m a n s h i p s a n d cite as e v i d e n c e t h e heavy losses i n c u r r e d by R o m a n s h i p s d u r i n g the P u n i c Wars. However, Vitruvius writing in t h e p e r i o d still i n c l u d e d t h e corvus a m o n g t h e marinae machinae boarding (X, 1 3 , 8 ) .

unstable, to s t o r m s Augustan u s e d for

B e f o r e battle, it was u s u a l to o r d e r the rowers to let their o a r s rest in the water. W h e n the attack b e g a n the fleets usually tried to a d v a n c e with b o t h their wings f o r w a r d in a c r e s c e n t f o r m a t i o n , h o p i n g to e n v e l o p the e n e m y o r otherwise to b r e a k their f o r m a t i o n . T h e typical naval tactic o f r a m m i n g a n d the u s e o f artillery to set fire to e n e m y s h i p s is well e x e m p l i f i e d in the battle o f A c t i u m . We a r e told that A n t o n y h a d built o n his s h i p s 'lofty towers, a n d h e h a d p u t a b o a r d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f m e n , w h o c o u l d t h u s fight f r o m walls'. A n t o n y ' s heavy s h i p s s t o o d like a w o o d e n wall o n t h e sea, b u t m a d e a n easy t a r g e t for t h e artillery s h o o t i n g f r o m a d i s t a n c e ; they were t h e n r i p p e d o p e n by the b e a k s o f O c t a v i a n ' s m o r e m a n o e u v r a b l e liburnae, a n d set a b l a z e by i n c e n d i a r y missiles l a u n c h e d f r o m t h e machinae p l a c e d o n the latters' d e c k s . A l t h o u g h s m a l l e r a n d swifter, O c t a v i a n ' s s h i p s were still a r m o u r e d o n all sides; even if they d i d n o t sink a vessel at t h e first r a m m i n g attack they c o u l d b a c k their o a r s a n d withdraw, b e f o r e e i t h e r r a m m i n g the s a m e vessel a g a i n o r a t t a c k i n g a n o t h e r s h i p ,

Warships and crews, from the Vergilius

Romanus

codex, late

5th century AD. The earliest r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e light waships termed

dhromones

is s h o w n in t h i s m a n u s c r i p t , p r o d u c e d e i t h e r in Italy or in Britain in a b o u t 5 0 0 A D . T h e

. . . a n d t h e n a g a i n s t still o t h e r s , in o r d e r t h a t t h e i r a s s a u l t u p o n a n y vessel m i g h t b e s o far as p o s s i b l e u n e x p e c t e d . F o r s i n c e they d r e a d e d t h e l o n g - r a n g e m i s s i l e s o f t h e e n e m y n o less t h a n t h e i r f i g h t i n g at c l o s e q u a r t e r s , they w a s t e d n o t i m e e i t h e r in t h e a p p r o a c h o r in t h e e n c o u n t e r , b u t r u n n i n g u p s u d d e n l y s o a s to r e a c h their t a r g e t b e f o r e t h e e n e m y ' s a r c h e r s c o u l d d o t h e i r w o r k , they w o u l d inflict d a m a g e o r e l s e c a u s e j u s t e n o u g h d i s t u r b a n c e to escape b e i n g held, a n d then would retire o u t of r a n g e .

marines w e a r thick felt Phrygian c a p s (kamelaukia),

heavy cloaks

and tunics; the different colours of t h e shields m a y r e p r e s e n t t h e d i f f e r e n t contubernia

or s q u a d s .

S i m i l a r t r o o p s to t h e s e p a r t i c i p a t e d in a d i s a s t r o u s expedition against the Vandals in 4 6 8 A D . ( M s Lat 3 8 6 7 , Biblioteca Apostolica, C i t t a d e l Vaticano)

T w o o r t h r e e s h i p s m i g h t fall u p o n t h e s a m e e n e m y vessel at o n c e , s o m e d o i n g all t h e d a m a g e they c o u l d while t h e o t h e r s d r e w the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e e n e m y ' s w e a p o n s crews. In O c t a v i a n ' s fleet t h e s h i p - h a n d l i n g s a i l o r s a n d the rowers e n d u r e d the m o s t h a r d s h i p a n d f a t i g u e , while o n A n t o n y ' s s i d e it was t h e marines who b o r e the b r u n t of the fighting: Consequently each gained advantages over the o t h e r ; t h e o n e p a r t y w o u l d r u n in u p o n the lines o f o a r s p r o j e c t i n g f r o m t h e ships a n d shatter t h e b l a d e s , a n d the o t h e r party, f i g h t i n g f r o m t h e h i g h e r level, w o u l d sink t h e m with s t o n e s a n d e n g i n e s . O n the other h a n d , there were also d i s a d v a n t a g e s o n e a c h s i d e : t h e o n e party m i g h t d o n o d a m a g e to the e n e m y w h e n it a p p r o a c h e d , a n d the o t h e r party, if it failed to sink a vessel w h i c h it r a m m e d , m i g h t b e h e m m e d in a n d f i g h t i n g a n unequal contest.

41

We c a n i m a g i n e f r o m this d e s c r i p t i o n h o w t e r r i b l e a naval b a t t l e in ancient times c o u l d b e . Warships, s o m e of t h e m already blazing, s m a s h e d a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r with a h o r r i f i c n o i s e o f b r o k e n w o o d a m i d the shouts, trumpet-blasts a n d s c r e a m s o f m e n fighting u p o n the decks. T h e s e a was l i t t e r e d with w r e c k a g e a n d b r o k e n h u m a n b o d i e s ; sailors w h o t r i e d to swim f o r it w e r e hit with o a r s , while m a r i n e s w e a r i n g heavy a r m o u r f a c e d d e a t h by d r o w n i n g . T h e s a v a g e r y o f s u c h a fight is well d e s c r i b e d by D i o : . . . C a e s a r ' s m e n d a m a g e d t h e l o w e r p a r t s o f t h e s h i p s all a r o u n d , c r u s h e d the oars, s n a p p e d off the r u d d e r s , a n d , climbing on the decks, seized hold of s o m e of the foe a n d pulled them down, p u s h e d o f f o t h e r s , a n d f o u g h t with y e t o t h e r s , s i n c e they w e r e n o w e q u a l to t h e m in n u m b e r s . . . S o m e , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s a i l o r s , p e r i s h e d by t h e s m o k e b e f o r e t h e f l a m e s o m u c h as a p p r o a c h e d t h e m , w h i l e o t h e r s w e r e r o a s t e d in t h e m i d s t o f it as t h o u g h in o v e n s . O t h e r s w e r e c o n s u m e d in t h e i r a r m o u r w h e n it b e c a m e h e a t e d . T h e r e w e r e still o t h e r s , w h o , b e f o r e t h e y s h o u l d suffer s u c h a d e a t h , or w h e n they were half-burned, threw off t h e i r a r m o u r a n d w e r e w o u n d e d by s h o t s f r o m a d i s t a n c e , o r a g a i n l e a p e d i n t o t h e s e a a n d w e r e d r o w n e d , o r w e r e s t r u c k by t h e i r o p p o n e n t s a n d s a n k , o r w e r e m a n g l e d by s e a - m o n s t e r s [sic]. T h e only o n e s to find a tolerable d e a t h , c o n s i d e r i n g the s u f f e r i n g s w h i c h p r e v a i l e d , w e r e t h o s e k i l l e d by t h e i r fellows in return for the s a m e service, or else who killed themselves, before a n y s u c h f a t e c o u l d b e f a l l t h e m . T h e s e h a d n o t o r t u r e s to e n d u r e , a n d w h e n they w e r e d e a d they h a d the b u r n i n g ships for their funeral pyres. W h e n a s h i p c a u g h t fire u n d e r a n y c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e m e n first u s e d first t h e d r i n k i n g - w a t e r b u t t s to try to e x t i n g u i s h t h e f l a m e s , a n d if this f a i l e d t h e y t r i e d to u s e s e a w a t e r , b u t this w a s n o t p r a c t i c a l in t h e c h a o s o f a b a t t l e (it w a s e v e n c l a i m e d t h a t salt w a t e r a c t u a l l y m a d e t h e f l a m e s b u r n m o r e v i g o r o u s l y ) . T h e n , a s C a s s i u s D i o w r o t e , ' w h e n they f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s g e t t i n g t h e w o r s t o f it in this r e s p e c t a l s o , they h e a p e d o n the blaze their thick m a n t l e s a n d the c o r p s e s . . . b u t later... when the w i n d r a g e d furiously, t h e f l a m e s f l a r e d u p m o r e t h a n ever, f e d by this very fuel'.

S E L E C T BIBLIOGRAPHY B e j a o u i , R , S. M a n s o u r , e t al, Mosaici Romani di Tunisia (Paris, 1 9 9 4 ) B i a s d e R o b l e s , J . M . , & C . S i n t e s , Sites et Monuments Antiques de VAlgerie (Aix e n P r o v e n c e , 2 0 0 3 ) C h i a r u c c i , P., Settimio Severo e la Legione Seconda Partica (Albano Laziale, 2006) C o u s s i n , P, Les Armes Romaines ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 6 ) C o w a n , R., Roman Legionary 58 BC-AD 69, ( W a r r i o r 7 1 ) ( O x f o r d , 2 0 0 3 ) D a r e m b e r g - S a g l i o , Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines (Paris, 1 8 7 7 - 1 9 1 9 )

F e d e B e r t i , Fortuna Maris, la nave romana di Comacchio ( B o l o g n a , 1 9 9 0 ) Forestier, A., The Roman Soldier ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 8 ) F r a n z o n i , C , Habitus atque habitude militis, monumenti funerari di militari nella Cisalpina Romana ( R o m e , 1 9 8 7 ) G o r e , R., ' T h e d e a d d o tell tales a t V e s u v i u s ' in National Geographic, Vol.165 (May 1 9 8 4 ) 5 5 7 ff G u z z o , G . R , Storie da un 'eruzione: Pompei, Ercolano, Oplontis (Milan, 2003) H e n n i q u i a u , M. & J . M a r t i n , La Marine Antique, 2 ( P a n t i n , 1 9 9 9 ) L e B o h e c , Y., Varmee Romaine ( P a r i s , 1 9 8 9 ) L i b e r a t i , A . M . , ' N a v i g a r e c o n gli a n t i c h i ' , in Archeo 8 ( 1 9 9 7 ) 4 5 - 9 3 L i b e r a t i , A . M . , E. Silverio 8c F.Silverio, ' L ' e s e r c i t o e la m a r i n a m i l i t a r e n e l l ' a n t i c a R o m a ' , in Roma Archaeologica 18-19 (July 2 0 0 3 ) 236-565 AD, W a r r i o r 9 M a c D o w a l l , S., Late Roman Infantryman ( L o n d o n , 1994) M a s o n , D.J.P., Roman Britain and the Roman Navy ( P o r t S t r o u d , 2 0 0 3 ) M e n d e l , G., Catalogue des sculptures grecques, romaines et byzantines, 3 vols ( R o m e , 1 9 6 6 ) Parker, A.J., Ancient Shipwrecks of the Medierranean and the Roman Provinces, B A R I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r i e s 5 8 0 ( O x f o r d , 1 9 9 2 ) S a n t a M a r i a S c r i n a r i , V , Sculture Romane di Aquileia ( R o m e , 1 9 7 2 ) S a x t o r p h , N . M . , Warriors and Weapons 3000 BC-AD 1700 ( L o n d o n , 1972) S e k u n d a , N . , Republican Roman Army 200-104 BC, ( M e n - a t - A r m s 2 9 1 ) ( L o n d o n , 1996) S u m n e r , G., Roman Military Clothing (1) 100 BC-AD 200, ( M A A 3 7 4 ) (Oxford, 2002) S u m n e r , G., Roman Military Clothing (2) AD 200-400, ( M A A 3 9 0 ) (Oxford, 2003) v a r i o u s , in Genti nel Delta, Uomini, territori e culto dalTantichitd allAlto Medieovo ( F e r r a r a , 2 0 0 7 ) v a r i o u s , in Le tre vite del Papiro di Artemidoro, voci e squardi daWEgitto Greco-Romano ( M i l a n , 2 0 0 6 ) Walker, S. & P. H i g g s , Cleopatra regina d'Egitto ( M i l a n , 2 0 0 0 )

Principal ancient sources (see L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n s ) : A m m i a n u s M a r c e l l i n u s , Res Gestae; A p p i a n , Civil Wars, Roman History; C a s s i u s D i o , Roman History; C i c e r o , Philippicae; C o n s t a n t i n e P o r p h y r o g e n i t u s , De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinaer, F l o r u s , Epitome of Roman History; H e r o d i a n , History of the Empire from the Time of Marcus Aurelius; H o r a t i u s , Odes, Epodes; J u s t i n i a n , Digest or Pandects; Livy, History of Rome from the Founding of the City; P l a u t u s , Poenulus, Menaechmi, Miles Gloriosus; Pliny t h e E l d e r , Historia Naturalis; Pliny t h e Y o u n g e r , Epistulae, P l u t a r c h , Parallel Lives (Antonius); P r o p e r t i u s , Elegies; P s e u d o - H y g i n u s , The Fortifications of the Camp; S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ( S H A ) ; Synkellos, The Chronography; S u e t o n i u s , The Twelve Caesars; T a c i t u s , Annals, Histories; U l p i a n , Institutiones in Digestum; V e g e t i u s , The Military Art, Vitruvius, De Architecture, Z o n a r a s , Extracts from History.

A 4 : Miles

PLATE C O M M E N T A R I E S A : B A T T L E O F A C T I U M , 31 B C A 1 : M. V i p s a n i u s A g r i p p a Reconstruction based upon his portraits and statues, and the Praeneste mosaic. Following Virgil's description, he wears a corona rostrata, the decoration for a victorious admiral. His muscled armour, worn over a leather subarmale arming doublet, is copied from the exceptional specimen from Cueva del Jarro, Spain. His tunica of pale blue is decorated with the purple clavi typical of his senatorial rank; at the time of Augustus the laticlavius was reduced to two parallel clavi of red-purple. In the right hand he holds a hasta navalis; the sword illustrated is copied from the specimen from Comacchio. Plausible footwear would be soft white leather cothurni or calcei mullei of Greek type.

A2: C.G. Caesar Octavianus The future Emperor Augustus, also reconstructed from the Praeneste mosaic and from the statue of Cirta, holds an Attic helmet with the 'shining cheekguards' mentioned by Virgil decorated with embossed thunderbolts and, on the skull, the Sidus Julium, symbol of the Gens Julia. The colour of his armour - obviously painted, with appliques realized in gilded brass or even gold - is from the Palestrina mosaic. The two elements of the lorica are fastened on both sides, by a system identical to that of the Prima Porta armour. Under it he wears a leather subarmale with linen pteryges. His dyed wool tunic is decorated with purple laticlavi and gold thread damask, while his scarlet paludamentum is pinned to the leather armour with a gold fibula. He has a small parazonium with an eagle-head hilt worn at his right side, copied from the Arch of Orange, and his gladius is a Pompei specimen. The sources describe Octavian with the hasta summa imperii (spear of supreme command) during the battle of Actium. Note his elaborate yellow cothurni footwear.

A 3 : Navarcha

of t h e A n t o n i a n f l e e t

This defeated senior officer is copied from the famous monument of Praeneste, representing a warship of Antony's fleet surrendering to Octavian. He wears a thorax pholidotos (scale armour) of Hellenistic style, with humeralia (shoulder pieces) fastened with laces on the breast. The metal scales are fixed to a leather jupon to which are sewn rows of linen pteryges; and note the military zoni (sash) around the breast, j' and the off-white angusticlavia t tunic with the usual couple of clavi. The hasta navalis is a specimen from Ornavasso. The greaves represented on the monument are similar to those of the Aquileia reliefs, showing trophies of naval warfare. His shield is still of the old late Consular type, reinforced with a wooden 'barleycorn' boss and with bronze guttering at top and bottom only. 1

classiarius

of t h e O c t a v i a n fleet

This marine is also copied from the Praeneste relief. The main characteristics of his protective equipment are the pseudoCorinthian bronze helmet with leather cheek-guards; his leather muscled cuirass with directly attached leather pteryges; and his large oval shield, decorated with Neptune's trident. The Musolina-style tunic is of the blue-grey (iron-blue) colour described by Plautus. Closed calcei in brown leather have been reconstructed after a fragment found in the Comacchio ship.

A 5 : Miles

classiarius

of t h e A n t o n i a n f l e e t

From a terracotta lamp in the British Museum. Note his felt armour (coactile) and the subarmale. This armour is probably identical to that of contemporary Egyptian bodyguards, made of felt strips and thickly padded; similar armour is also shown on gravestones from Sora (Frosinone) and Modena. His sword is from the Idria specimen, and the caligae - worn here over socks - are from the Comacchio ship. His shield is decorated on its upper part with Cleopatra's cartouche painted in natural colours. Note also the Egyptian bracelet on his right arm.

B: T H E CIVILIS REVOLT IN GERMANIA, 6 9 - 7 0 AD B 1 : L. L u c r e t i u s C e t e r i s , miles I Adiutrix

of

Legio

Some of the figures on the Mainz Praetorium pillars represent soldiers of this legion, newly raised among the milites classiarii of the Misenum Fleet. His helmet of Weisenau type is decorated with the embossed dolphins visible on the sculpture. He wears two garments: an over-tunic, of muslin cloth in a blue colour, and a sleeveless leather arming doublet (corium), which is reconstructed after fragments from Vindonissa and also visible on Rhine tombstones. Note his sword, still of old Mainz type. The boots (calcei) are after the Martre de Veyre specimen, which appears identical to those visible in the Mainz sculpture; ancestors of the later campagus, they left the upper part of the feet visible. The device on his shield has been reconstructed following the original source, where the motifs flanking the eagle are not thunderbolts but wings.

B 2 : Optio,

Legio

I

Adiutrix

From the same source, this optio wears a lorica ferrata (mail armour) over a subarmale. The shape of the armour is copied from finds at Vindonissa: made from alternate rows of very small punched and riveted bronze rings, each about 0.5cm (0.2in) in diameter. The linen subarmale is copied from Trajan's Column: a sort of tunic, furnished with small pteryges at the shoulders only, and with side vents to ease movement, corresponding to those of the mail armour. Aureus

(gold coin) of M .

Vipsanius A g r i p p a , 1 8 B C . This c o m m a n d e r , victorious by sea a n d l a n d , is s h o w n h e r e w e a r i n g b o t h t h e corona muralis

rostrata

and

corona

- compare with Plate A 1 .

( M u s e o della Civilta R o m a n a , Rome)

C: S A I L O R S ON S H O R E DUTY, 1 st/EARLY 2nd C E N T U R Y A D

Recently f o u n d a t R a v e n n a d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n s of C l a s s e harbour, t h i s m i d - t o l a t e - 1 s t c e n t u r y A D m o n u m e n t or cippus

commemorates Montanus Capito,

an optio serving o n a liburna

n a m e d ' A u r a t a ' ('Golden') -

s e e Plate C 1 . T h e baldric m a y b e a n insignia of s o m e kind r a t h e r t h a n a w e a p o n b e l t

B3: Batavian rebel auxiliary This warrior of Civilis' forces is also based mainly on the Mainz reliefs. He is outfitted with a Krefeld-Gelduba helmet, comprising a skull of Weisenau type trimmed with fur. The army of Civilis was highly Romanized, so this warrior is dressed like a Roman auxiliarius,

though with a Germanic

tunic copied from a specimen from Bernuthsfeld - despite Tacitus' claim that 'For their covering all they wear is a mantle fastened with a clasp or, for want of it, with a thorn.'. Over the tunic he wears a leather corselet, scalloped at the lower hem and the short sleeves, with a double reinforcement border in leather and small bronze bosses, as visible on Trajan's Column. He is armed with three spears, and a sword worn from a baldric and copied from a 1 st-century AD specimen now in Njimegen Museum. His shield is a parallel-sided oval reconstructed from fragments found in Batavia; the blazon is hypothetical^ reconstructed from the stele of a Batavian in Roman service, with the colours given for the Batavi in the much later Notitia

Dignitatum.

B 4 : G a l l o - R o m a n nauta,

1st c e n t u r y

AD

The main source for this reconstruction is the Paris pilaster depicting sailors. Besides his helmet of Coolus-Mannheim type this fighting seaman is armed with a spear and a trapezoidal Celtic shield with a central spina.

He wears

a paenula cloak but woven with a Celtic pattern, taken from a mantle fragment from Dydimoi. The Celtic trousers, in wool and linen, are typically baggy; the tunic is copied from the La Vacheres warrior specimen, with long sleeves and cuffed wrists. Heavy embossed and padded leather armour, as visible on Celtic coins of King Dumnorix, consists of a coat open in front, divided in rhomboidal patterns and reinforced with bronze nails. His closed boots of Celtic pattern are copied from a fragment of a Gallo-Roman shoe, in natural leather and furnished with loops for the laced fastening.

LATE

C 1 : M o n t a n u s C a p i t o , Optio of t h e liburna ' A u r a t a ' ; s e c o n d half of 1st c e n t u r y This marine junior officer is copied from his Ravenna memorial. Under bronze muscled armour with nipples of inlaid silver he wears a padded garment furnished with thick pteryges. A particularity of his hasta navaiis is the presence of two spheroids in the middle, similar to later representations of weighted p/'/a; the spearhead visible on the memorial suggests a kind of command spear or perhaps a sort of pilum navaiis. A leather baldric with gold and silver bosses impressed with the image of the Emperor Vespasian runs over his right shoulder, supporting a Pompei-type sword. Sculpted elements on the cingulum make clear that it was a plated belt with an attached pugio and two apron straps, here all reconstructed after Pompei specimens. The open caligae, with incorporated perones, are from the Comacchio finds.

C 2 : L. B e n n i u s B e u z a , miles liticen, c. 1 0 0 A D

gregarius

The Dalmatian marine reconstructed here, from a frieze of marine musicians at Ostia, wears a tunic similar to that worn by other Dalmatian soldiers on 1st century stelae, in the colour mentioned by Plautus (this iron-grey shade in a military context is visible on some cloth fragments from Mons Claudianus). His leather belt with simple apron straps is hidden here by a satchel of a type found with the Comacchio ship. The feet are enclosed in socci - shoes without laces and with the upper part closed, low on the ankle.

C 3 : Faber Misenatis,

navaiis, 79 A D

Classis

Praetoria

This marine craftsman of the Misenum Fleet is based on the famous skeletal remains found on the beach at Herculaneum, whose physical aspects were reconstructed by the archaeologists (see Gore in Bibliography); he was about 37 years old and 1.8m (5ft 10in) tall. Here he is dressed in a sleeveless leather garment based on fragments from Comacchio, with small oval or round patches sewn on to protect the weaker areas; this is worn over a subarmale. He wears a red-brown lacerna cloak fringed at the extremities. The marine has two belts, completely faced with 21 silver embossed plates, to which are attached his pugio and gladius; the apron straps terminate in hinged pendants, identical to a specimen from Tekjie. Carpentry tools found in a bag on his back included a hammer with attached adze, two chisels, and a hook.

C 4 & 5 : Milites, Classis Ravennatis, 103 AD

Praetoria

E: T H E Y E A R S OF A N A R C H Y , 3rd C E N T U R Y AD

Overall these marines of the Ravenna Fleet are copied from Trajan's Column. Their tunics are based on specimens from Dydimoi, showing the famous bunched neck knot typical of the period. One of them wears a leather belt with apron pendants copied from Tekjie specimens, just visible at the waist. On the back, attached to the belt, a small dagger (clunaculum) might be worn. The pickaxes (dolabrae) are copied from Vindonissa specimens, as is the bronze bladecase (C5). Of interest is the hexagonal shield (C4), with appliques in copper alloy and embossed friezes, showing a trident and four successive floral/vegetal patterns centred on the umbo. The naval lanterna is from the Comacchio finds.

D: T H E D A N U B E F L E E T , A N T O N I N E D 1 : Tribunus

of a Legio

PERIOD

Adiutrix

This marine officer has a pseudo-Attic type helmet with a bronze skull decorated in gilded silver and cheekguards complete with ears. The body protection is a magnificent subarmale and a rigid leather corium corselet; the subarmale is formed from layers of linen, and especially decorated with fringed pteryges at the shoulders and waist. He wears silver phalerae awards. The dagger belt (cingulum) has squared openwork plates copied from a find from Viminacium, and balteola apron straps fitted with bronze nails and ending in half-moons and leaf-shaped pendants. Note the ringpommel sword just visible behind his hexagonal scutum, which has applique decorations in copper alloy of dolphins and tridents and an embossed mask. His closed boots (cothurni venatici) are from Dydimoi specimens; these did not have laces.

D 2 : Q. Statius Rufinus The tunic of this classiarius (whose name translates literally as 'Statius the small red one') has short sleeves, and considering that this man was in service in Athens he probably wears some local clothing. The colour of the tunic is that described by Plautus for the nautae. A fringed cloth sash knotted around the waist (zona militaris) was undoubtedly used to hold the short dagger. He holds a codex ansatus (box with handle for carrying writing tablets) in his left hand. On his feet he wears a sort of calcei-perones over socks (udones), here copied from Mons Claudianus and Vindolanda specimens.

D3: Centurio Herennius On his grave stele Herennius is shown in a woollen mantle, and a very broad tunic with wide sleeves, probably a dalmatica. The baldric with gold bosses (cingulum bu I latum), just visible under the mantle, is copied from that of the Fayoum Hadrianic officer from Hawara. His staff of rank is in gilded wood.

E 1 : A e m i l i u s S e v e r u s , centurio of the trireme ' H e r c u l e s ' ; Classis Praetoria Ravennatis, late 2nd/first q u a r t e r 3rd c e n t u r y The centurion's tunica is a short dalmatica of red colour, decorated with clavi. It is hidden here by his paenula cape of semicircular or oval shape, made of heavy wool (gausape); bronze buttons and loops for fastening have been found in the Adriatic context, and the lower edge was knotted with a leather thong which passed through fasteners. The blue (venetus) cape is also decorated with clavi, based on the probable mariner represented in an illuminated papyrus. The nailed shoes (calcei) reach to the ankle and are cut from a single piece of leather; the laceholes and the back were reinforced with sheepskin lining, and an additional reinforcement strip was sewn right round the bottom part of the uppers.

E 2 : T . F l a v i u s S a b e s t i a n u s , miles, Classis Praetoria Pia Vindex Misenensis, of t h e Centuria Philippiana, in s e r v i c e on t h e trireme 'Victoria', 2 4 4 - 2 4 9 The marine Sabestianus wears a heavily folded or padded tunic, visible on other monuments of that century and similar to some Sarmatian heavy coats. On his stele the heavy rectangular cloak (sagum) shows a small tassel or knot at the lower corner (see page 19), where a bronze ring was possibly attached to allow the fastening of the cloak to the other shoulder. The monument also shows shows a simple waist belt and a semispatha sword at his left side. The small round shield has been reconstructed after specimens and fragments from Dura Europos, made of poplar planks glued edge to edge and finished with a leather border sewn all around; a mosaic from Cirta shows marines with a similar shield painted in dark green with a decorative border of laurel leaves. His nailed socci are copied from a find from Portchester Castle, England. Here the upper is composed of two pieces, and the boot is fastened by a side thong; there were at least two soles, the thinner inside, the thicker outside. The short naval javelin, in ash wood with an iron point, is painted dark green like those in the Cirta mosaic.

E 3 : M. Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius, 2 8 6 - 2 9 3 The coins of Carausius, the usurping ruler of Britannia, shed light on his military equipment, inspired by the sea-god Neptune and with distinctive symbols of imperial power. His helmet is a cavalry sports Heddernheim type. Just visible in his left hand he holds a Greek causia flat cap - here modelled on the specimen recovered at Vindonissa - as a further symbol of seapower. His armour is a squama, the scales fixed to a linen backing with linen cords and stitches as in the Carpow fragment. The leather thoracomacus beneath it is from the Tetrarchs monument. The greaves, copied from the 3rdcentury specimen from the Rhine near Noviomagus, are of silvered bronze and embossed with a three-dimensional figure of Mars. Imperial garments comprise a large circular purple-fringed paludamentum, pure white (Candida) tunic, and very close-fitted anaxyrides. The low calcei boots are in 2 n d - c e n t u r y A D g r a v e s t e l e of S t a t i u s R u f i n u s , a miles classiarius

of t h e M i s e n u m F l e e t , f o u n d in A t h e n s -

s e e P l a t e D 2 . ( D r a w i n g by G r a h a m S u m n e r )

Romano-British style, made of soft leather, coloured in purple with stitched gold fasteners around the elaborate openwork. The splendid signum held by Carausius is copied from his coinage; it is decorated with bronze, copper alloy, silver and gilded glass elements, with a platform surmounted by two winged victories.

S e v e r a n period s t e l e of C. A e m i l i u s S e v e r u s , from Classe. This c e n t u r i o n , of P a n n o n i a n

F: T H E S A C K I N G O F T H E H A R E M O F S H A P U R I, 261 A D F1 &2: MMies classiarii Alexandrian Fleet

origin, s e r v e d on t h e trireme 'Hercules' for 2 2 y e a r s . H e is

of t h e C i l i c i a n o r

These marines are based on the Dougga (Thugga) mosaic see Plate H. Their woollen sleeved tunics follow Dura specimens, and show two vertical clavi. They are worn together with a thick woollen sagum cloak and Eastern-style trousers. Belts and weaponry have also been borrowed from Dura specimens. The external surface of the shield obscured here - was covered with hide and lavishly painted.

F 3 : E a s t e r n R o m a n officer, Legio

llll

Scytica

Reconstructed from a imposing statue from Urfa-Edessa, this figure - perhaps a tribunus or primipilus? - is dressed in an eastern Persian style of tunic and a linen cloak, both reconstructed from fragments found in Palmyra. The tunic is decorated vertically down from the shoulder with red-purple lanceolae, probably rank symbols. He wears baggy Persian trousers (sarabara) decorated with woollen applique in dark purple. The original source shows the tunic fastened with a double cloth belt around the waist, closed by a unique buckle pointing towards the left side of the body - a system visible on different statues from Palmyra. The boots are copied from 3rd-century specimens from Achmim-Panopolis.

F4: Sassanian c o n c u b i n e She is reconstructed after the Bishapur and Dura frescoes.

G: NAVAL O P E R A T I O N S ON T H E R H I N E , 3 5 7 A D G1: Alaman w a r r i o r This reconstruction follows the rich graves of the Rhine border and the descriptions of the ancient authors. Ammianus describes long, thick hair dyed red with natural substances. The narrow, long-sleeved woollen tunic is decorated with trim in red-purple silk. Note his woollen close-fitting trousers, and typical Germanic boots copied from specimens found in Marx-Etzel. The shield is brightly painted, copied from the insignia of an Alamanic tribe, the Bucinobantes, recruited as auxilium palatinum into the Roman army. We illustrate a typical Germanic javelin or angon (jaculum); other weapons might include a throwing axe or francisca tucked into the belt, and a yew-wood Germanic bow about 2m (6ft 6in) long.

G 2 : R o m a n o f f i c e r of t h e R h i n e F l e e t He wears an iron helmet of Ausburg-Pfersee type, sheathed in gilded silver. His imposing muscled armour might have mobile shoulder-guards, and shows lappets around the lower abdomen. It is worn over a thoracomacus of felt lined with cotton or coarse silk, and the pteryges hanging from the waist are like those represented on the Ilias Ambrosiana, fringed with dark purple. According to Vegetius the marines and sailors of the lusoriae or exploratoriae scaphae were dressed completely in i/enefrvs-colour, i.e. sea-blue. His clothing, especially the sagum and the bracae, presents a mixed Romano-Germanic style, as was usual on the limes.

r e p r e s e n t e d holding t h e vitis in his right h a n d a n d a scroll in t h e left. ( M u s e o

QAEMILlOpVERH 7NfAN-V)XAN-XJJ]

Arcivescovile, R a v e n n a ; photo c o u r t e s y Dr F e d e Berti)

G3: R o m a n o - G e r m a n i c naval scout Apart from his ridged Sassanian-style helmet, copied from the Worms specimen, his whole armament and clothing is mainly Germanic in fashion, although his military belt in Kerbschnitt style and the shield pattern are typical of the late Roman limitanei along the Rhine and Danube frontiers.

G 4 : R o m a n classiarius

of t h e R h i n e F l e e t

This marine is reconstructed after the Lyon seal that shows the city of Mainz, but supplemented with other archaeological details. The ridge-style helmet from Augst fits well with the classiarius helmet visible on the Ham mosaic, furnished with a red crest. His simple mail armour is worn over a leather jerkin of the same shape; a recent interpretation of the Thorsberg find by German archaeologists suggests that silvered clasps were used for shoulder fastenings while small hooks were used for fastening the breast. The sleeved tunic is made of an undyed wool-linen mix and decorated with typical orbiculi and segmenta of the late Empire. His weapons are a culter venatorius and a sword, here copied from the Idesheim specimen, and a light javelin (verutum).

H: M O S A I C , ' O D Y S S E U S A N D T H E S I R E N S ' , 3rd C E N T U R Y AD This famous mosaic from Thugga (Dougga), now in the Bardo Museum, Tunisia, is one of the best representations of a 3rd-century warship and lightly-equipped fighting seamen. The captain is dressed in a white exomis and a conical p/'/os cap of white felt. The mariners may represent seamen of the Classis Alexandrina or Syriaca. They wear off-white, longsleeved tunics, two of which show red clavi. Their rectangular cloaks are in light green, and are fastened with a fibula at the right shoulder; they are arranged so as to leave the neck of the tunic visible. The oval shields - which find a parallel in the Dura specimens - seem to have brown leather rims sewn all round, and are decorated with at least three devices.The vessel itself shows exceptional details of Roman African and Eastern warships. Note the small beak shaped like an extension of the keel; above this, a divine image, probably identified with the name of the ship; the catafractae covering the rowlocks; the steering oar; the cabin-like superstructure ahead of the upswept stern decoration; and the general impression of decorative painting. Note also the aurica foresail rigged in addition to the squared mainsail, and the spars painted in yellow and green.

INDEX References to illustration c a p t i o n s are s h o w n in b o l d . Actium, battle of (31 B C ) 3, 6, 7, 8, 12, 2 1 , 22, 2 2 , 24, 34, 36, 3 9 , 40, 4 1 , 4 4 Africa, North 3, 11, 19, 33, 4 7 Agricola (Gn. Julius Agricola), Emperor 5, 8 Agrippa, Emperor M . Vipsianus 4, 19, 20, 34, 3 9 , 40, 4 4 Alexandria 6, 7, 8, 19 Antonian (Antonine) period 2 1 , 23, 4 6 Antonius, Emperor 9, 11, 21 Aquileia, Italy 8, 11, 3 7 , 4 4 archers [sagittam) 10, 33, 39, 40, 41 arms and armour 23, 24, 40

Egypt 13, 16, 22 equipment, ship's 34, 40, 3 4 , 3 5 , 42, 4 5 Etruscans 3, 18, 39 Fayoum (Fayum), Egypt 19, 22, 4 6 'fleet soldiers' (marines; singular miles classiarium, plural milites classiarii) 4, 7, 8, 9, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12, 13, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 2 0 - 2 1 , 2 1 , 22, 2 2 , 23, 24, 33, 34, 39, 40, 4 1 , 42, 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 4 7 fleets 7, 8, 8, 15, 4 7 Alexandria Fleet [Classis Akxandrind) 8, 16, 1 9 , 4 7 British Fleet [Classis Bntannica) 5, 8, 11, 15, 33, 34 Danube Fleet 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 4 6

armour 20, 2 0 - 2 1 , 22, 2 2 , 33, 34, 42, 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 4 7 arrows and bows 22, 24, 33, 4 7

Praetorian Misenum Fleet [Classis Praetoriae Misenatus Tia Vindex) 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 15, 16, 18, 19, 19, 24, 34, 3 6 , 4 0 , 4 5 , 4 6

belts (balteus, plural baltea; cingulum, plural cingula) 24, 2 4 , 33, 4 0 , 4 5 , 4 6 axes 24, 33, 34, 4 6

Praetorian Ravenna Fleet [Classis Praetoria Ravenatis) 5, 7, 9, 9, 11, 1 1 , 13, 14, 15, 17, 24, 40, 4 6 Rhine Fleet 4, 7, 13, 39, 4 7

corselets 22, 4 5 , 4 6 daggers and knives 7, 23, 2 3 , 24, 33, 4 5 , 4 7 helmets 17, 20, 2 0 - 2 1 , 2 1 , 23, 33, 4 4 , 4 5 , 46, 4 7 incendiaries 40, 41 spears and javelins 7, 24, 33, 39, 4 6 , 4 7 shields [scutum, plural scuta) 7, 12, 15, 17, 2 0 - 2 1 , 2 1 , 22, spears swords Athens 6,

2 2 , 33, 36, 40, 4 4 , 4 5 , 46, 4 7 17, 2 0 - 2 1 , 23, 33, 44, 4 5 17, 2 3 - 2 4 , 2 3 , 33, 34, 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 4 7 7, 9, 16, 19, 23, 34, 37, 4 6

Augustan period 23, 3 7 , 40, 41 Augustus, Emperor 7, 8, 12, 19, 23, 4 4 auxiliary troops (auxilia, auxiliaris) 13, 16, 23, 4 4 , 4 7 awards 20, 4 4 , 4 6 Batavians (Batavi) 5, 13, 4 5 Beuza, Lucius Bennius 1 1 , 13, 3 3 , 4 5 Black Sea 5, 6, 8, 12 Bosphorus 6, 8, 12, 33 Britain (Britannia) 5, 6, 8, 18, 19, 33, 37, 4 1 , 4 6 British M u s e u m 2 2 - 2 3 , 4 4 Carausius, M . Aurelius Mausaeus, commander of British fleet and usurper 11, 18, 34, 37, 4 6 , 4 7 carpenters, naval [faber navaiis, plural fabri navales) 10, 15, 23, 34, 4 0 , 4 5 , 4 3 catapults (machinae) 10, 39, 40 centurions 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 15, 20, 23, 4 6 , 4 7 Civilis, revolt of (69 AD) 7, 13, 4 4 Classe, naval base, Italy 9, 2 1 , 34, 40, 40, 4 5 Claudius, Emperor 8, 14 Cleopatra 4, 6, 3 9 clothing 16, 4 0

gangplanks, boarding [corvi) 4 0 - 4 1 Gaul (Gallia) 4, 7, 8, 12, 19, 23, 3 9 Germania 4, 7, 4 4 Germanic peoples 4, 5, 6, 8, 4 5 , 4 7 Goths 5, 6, 8, 33 Greece 6, 2 0 - 2 1 , 2 1 , 37, 4 4 Greeks 13, 16, 2 1 , 36, 3 6 , 4 4 Hadrian, Emperor 10, 4 6 helmsman [gubernator) 10, 2 0 - 2 1 Herculaneum 15, 23, 24 'Herculaneum soldier' 7, 23 Herennius, M . Helius 10, 4 6 Hispania (Spain) 3, 4, 7, 2 1 , 2 1 Honoratus, M . Titus 9, 17 Imperial period 18, 22, 23, 34, 35, 37, 40 legions 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 4 7 Legio I Adiutrix 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 23, 4 4 Legio II Adiutrix ('Pia Fidelis', 'Constans') 5, 6, 7, 10,12-13 Legio X I Claudia 7, 10, 11 legiones adiutrices, marine legions 13, 2 1 , 23, 4 6 Longidienus, P., ship's carpenter 34, 4 0

jerkins 16, 2 1 , 22, 4 4 , 4 6 , 4 7 sandals 7, 15, 17, 18, 4 4 trousers 16, 17, 19, 33, 4 7 tunics 7, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 19, 22, 33, 40, 41, 44, 46, 47 codex ansatus case for writing-tablets 10, 34, 4 6 Comacchio (Valle Ponti) shipwreck, Italy 16, 17, 18, 2 2 , 34, 3 4 , 35, 3 5 , 4 4 , 4 5 C o m m o d u s , Emperor 14, 15 Constantinian period 1 7 , 2 0 , 3 9 , 4 0 Consular period 8, 11, 18, 2 1 , 22, 23, 39, 4 4 Cueva d e l j a r r o R o m a n shipwreck, Spain 2 1 , 2 1 , 4 4 Dacian campaign 5, 15 Dalmatians 1 1 , 13, 34, 4 5 Didymoi 4 4 , 4 6 Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), R o m a n historian 4, 11, 16, 18, 19, 20, 2 1 , 24, 34, 34, 39, 40 Domitian (Domitianus), Emperor 5, 7 Dura Europos 17, 46, 4 7

ramming 3, 35, 39, 41 ramming beak or prow [rostrum) 3, 36, 37. 3 7 . 38, 39, 40, 41 rations 13, 14 Ravenna 5, 7, 40, 4 5 religion 17, 18, 19, 2 1 , 23, 34, 39-40, 39. 4 6 rivers 4, 5, 8, 11, 23, 39 Danube 4, 6, 2 1 , 22, 47 Po 3 9 , 4 0 Rhine 4 , 5 , 8 , 1 3 , 4 4 , 4 6 , 4 7 Rufinus, Statius 16, 17, 18, 34, 46 Sabestianus, Titus Flavius 17, 19, 33, 4 6 Sabinianus, Marcus Iulius/Julius ('fleet soldier') 7, 19, 23 Septimius Severus, Emperor 5, 11, 15, 16, 4 7 Severus, fleet centurion C. Aemilius 16, 17, 20, 46, 4 7 Severus, fleet centurion Marcus Annius 15, 16, 17, 20, 33 Shapur I, King of the Sassanian Persians 5, 36, 40, 4 7 ships 3, 3, 4, 10, 33, 34, 37, 40, 42 biremes [biremi) 2 2 , 36, 37 dhromona 36, 37 liburnae (singular liburna) 4, 9, 2 0 - 2 1 , 35, 37, 3 7 . 40, 4 4 lusonae 3 7 - 3 8 naves exphratae, naves pictae painted scout ships 19, 39 quadriremes [quadriremi) 36, 37, 40 quinqiremes [quinqiremi) 36, 37 triremes [triremi) 4, 5, 9, 14, 15, 19, 36, 3 6 , 37, 3 7 , 40, 4 6 , 47 warships (singular navis longa) 34, 47 ships, construction of 34, 35, 37 keel (singular carina, plural carinae) 34, 37, 39, 4 7 mast-step [modius, mesodme) 35, 37, 39 timber 35, 39, 4 0 ships, propulsion of 35 box housings for oarsmen [catafractae) 36, 40, 4 7 oars 3 5 , 3 7 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 1 , 4 2 sails 35, 36, 40, 47

Mainz 2 1 , 22, 23, 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 7 Marcus Aurelius, Emperor 9, 13

steering oars 35, 42, 47 slingers [sphendonitai) 24, 39

M a r k Antony (M. Antonius) 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 3 8 , 40, 4 4 Mediterranean Sea 3, 3, 8, 34, 35, 3 6 , 40 Misenum (Miseno), Italy 4, 5, 7, 11, 24, 40, 4 4 , 4 5 Montanus Capitus, optio 17, 2 1 , 24, 4 5

standard-bearer (singular signifier, plural signiferi) 10, 21 standards, naval 34, 35, 36

baldrics 23, 24, 4 5 , 4 6 belts 1 7 , 2 1 , 4 4 , 4 6 boots 18, 4 4 , 4 6 caps and hats 17, 18, 2 1 , 33, 4 1 , 4 6 , 4 7 cloaks 7, 10, 15, 16, 17, 17, 18, 19, 19, 20, 33, 40, 45, 46, 47 colours 18, 19

praefectus (plural praefecti) fleet prefect 9, 11,21 Praeneste 13, 2 1 , 22, 23, 35, 4 4 propugnatores elite fleet soldiers 1 0 , 2 2 Punic Wars 40 41 Puteoli (Pozzuoli), Italy 1 4 , 3 6

Naples 7, 18, 24 nauta (plural nautae; also Greek nautai] lighting sailor 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 1 7 , 18, 19, 20, 2 1 , 2 2 , 23, 24, 3 3 , 4 1 , 4 2 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 4 7 navarchus or navarcha (plural navarchi) fleet commander(s) 6, 8, 9, 14, 2 1 , 4 4 Nemi, Lake 35, 37, 39, 40 Nero, Emperor 4, 9, 12, 15 Notitia Dignitatum manuscript

11, 40, 4 5

oarsmen [remiges, eretai) 8, 10, 11, 2 0 - 2 1 , 35, 37, 41 Octavian (Octavianus, Augustus), Emperor 3, 4, 6, 7, 19, 20, 2 1 , 23, 24, 34, 39, 3 9 , 40, 4 1 , 4 4 officers 9, 1 0 , 18, 2 1 , 22, 23, 24, 4 1 , 46, 4 7 oplitai hoplites, armoured soldiers 8, 20, 24 optio junior officer 10, 17, 20, 24, 4 4 , 4 5 Pannonia 5, 7, 8, 13, 23, 4 7 Paris 1 7 , 2 1 , 2 3 Philippopolis 15, 16, 33 pirates 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 37 Plautus, R o m a n historian 14, 18, 34, 4 4 , 4 6 Pliny the Elder 5, 14, 18, 39 Pliny the Younger 18, 40 Pompeius, praefectus Sextus 18, 19, 39, 40 Portus (Ostia) 9, 14, 24, 37, 4 5

stele, stela (plural stelae) gravestone 9, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 34, 40, 46 Suetonius, Roman historian 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19. 20, 34, 35, 3 9 Syria 8, 12, 13, 16 Tacitus, Roman historian 3, 4, 9, 12-13, 23, 4 5 Terentianus, Claudius 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 4 Thrace (Thracia) 6, 7, 13 Tiberius, Emperor 8, 17, 2 1 , 23 Trajan (Trajanus), Emperor 5, 7, 1 1 , 12, 14 Trajan's Column, Rome 12, 15, 16, 22, 23, 34. 44. 45,46 tribunes 8, 11, 46, 4 7 Iricrarcfius (plural trierarchi) naval rank 9, 14, 15, 23 trumpets 34, 42 trumpeters 10, 24, 34 Tunisia 15, 19, 4 7 turrets [pyrgoi) 39, 40 Vegetius 9, 13, 19, 33, 3 4 , 35, 47 Ihgi/iu.s Romanus codex 18, 19, 33 Vespasian (Vespasianus), Emperor 5, 7, 13, 18, 4 5 veterans (singular veteranus, plural veterani) 13, 14, 15 vexillatio (plural vexillationes) detached command 9, 11, 15, 19 Vicus Habentia (Voghenza), Italy 10, 13, 33 Vindonissa 18, 4 4 , 4 6 vitis centurion's vine-staff

10, 15, 20, 46. 4 7

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Imperial Roman Naval Forces 31 Be-AD 500 The legions that carved out and defended the Roman Empire depended upon the strength of the Roman fleet and the fighting prowess of its seamen and embarked soldiers. This fascinating history, covering the Roman navy from the battle of Actium to the fall of the Western Empire, examines the ships, weapons, clothing, and organization of its

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