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The Language Teacher ISSN 0289-7938


In this issue: • Feature Article Michael Furmanovsky examines Japanese students’ reflections on a short-term language program. . . . . . . . . 3 • Readers’ Forum: TOEIC: Claim and counterclaim — Mark Chapman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 • Interview with Tom Kenny Brad Deacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 • Readers’ Forum: Dalcroze Eurhythmics: An approach to teaching English to Japanese children — Tomoko Tamura. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 • My Share Articles by Paul Tanner, Annie Menard, Andrew Boon, and David Weaver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

December, 2005 • Volume 29, Number 12 The Japan Association for Language Teaching 全国語学教育学会


Kim Bradford-Watts TLT Co-Editor

December TLT Online Access Code Login: winter Password: break Valid for access to all JALT Publications archives until February 28, 2006

Feature Article 3

Japanese students’ reflections on a short-term language program

Readers' Forum

December, 2005


o help ease you into the festive mood, this bumper issue of The Language Teacher features an assortment of offerings for December. Firstly, Michael Furmanovsky reports on a study of Japanese learners in Australian universities to determine their perceptions about classroom culture and in-class activities and their interactions and comparisons with classmates from other countries. Based upon the results, the author offers a number of suggestions for preparing learners for such overseas study programmes. Next, Mark Chapman investigates the claims and counterclaims made about TOEIC. Then, Brad Deacon interviews Tom Kenny, author of Nice Talking with You! and Nice Talking with You, Too! Finally, Tomoko Tamura explains the approach to learning offered by Dalcroze Eurhythmics and presents a number of options for using it in children’s classes. There are also plenty of ideas to play with in My Share, provided this month by Paul Tanner, Annie Menard, Andrew Boon, and David Weaver, as well as book reviews by Howard Higa, Jack Massalski, and Mark Chapman to help with your selection of course and reference texts for the upcoming academic year. The staff of The Language Teacher hopes that you have enjoyed a fruitful year to date and wishes you all the best for the holiday season. Our special thanks go to those who have supported us by submitting articles and in a myriad of other, but no less important, ways. We look forward to bringing you the world’s only refereed monthly language teaching journal in 2006, our 30th anniversary year. So, in January, play “Spot the Difference” with The Language Teacher, as we debut our updated format. Watch for it in your mailbox!


11 TOEIC: Claim and counterclaim


17 Interview with Tom Kenny

Readers' Forum

21 Dalcroze Eurhythmics: An approach to teaching English to Japanese children

My Share

27 Winter Holiday: Find Someone Who… 28 Whole Class Rotating Pair Work 29 Incorporating the Internet into Business English Classes 31 Integrated Four-Skills Lesson With Zero Preparation Time

JALT Focus

33 On JALT2005 in Shizuoka 35 Perspectives: Season's Greetings, JALT Chapter Style!

Departments 37 43 44 47 49 53 55 59

Book Reviews Recently Received SIG News & Contacts Chapter Reports Chapter Events & Contacts Job Information Center Conference Calendar TLT Wired: At a loss for words on the web 55 Staff List 56 Membership Information 57 Submissions 2

Advertiser Index


まず最初は、Michael Furmanovsky氏によるオーストラリアの大学で学ぶ日本人学生に関する 調査研究で、留学前の学生を指導する際の教授法やカリキュラム関連の事項について論じてい ます。 続いて、Mark Chapman氏によるTOIECテストの信頼性と妥当性に関する論考、そしてBrad Deacon氏 によるTom Kenny氏へのインタビュー記事があります。最後は、Tomoko Tamura氏がダルクローズ・リトミック( 音楽を使った教授法)の子供対象クラスでの活用法を提案しています。 さらに、Paul Tanner, Annie Menard, Andrew Boon, David Weaverの諸氏によるマイ・シェア、およびHoward Higa, Jack Massalski, Mark Chapmanの諸氏による書評もあります。 TLTスタッフ一同、皆様が素晴らしい年末を過ごされることをお祈りしております。また、本年、論文投稿者 をはじめとして、多くの方々からご支援を賜りましたことに感謝申し上げます。TLTは来年30周年を迎えるこ ととなりました。引き続き、ご愛顧のほどよろしくお願い申し上げます。

The TLT Staff at JALT2005 in Shizuoka Back, L-R: Paul Lewis, Alan Stoke, David Ockert, Scott Gardner, Greg Roualt, David Stephan, Mary Hughes, Joseph Sheehan, Malcolm Swanson Front, L-R: Lorraine Sorrell, Jacqui Norris-Holt, Kim Bradford-Watts, Theron Muller, Aleda Krause, Derek Di Matteo, Mariko Miyao Photograph by Harry Creagen

Advertiser Index Key: IFC = inside front cover, IBC = inside back cover, OBC = outside back cover

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|  | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Michael Furmanovsky Ryukoku University

本論文は、オーストラリアの大学付属の語学セ ンターに半年から1年間在学する日本人留学生 28人の調査に基づくものである。他国,ことに アジア出身のクラスメートとの相互影響に焦点 を当てた。アンケート回答者には、こうしたクラ スメートとの比較において,自身の言語能力や 学習スキルを評価させた。また、自身の文化や ライフスタイルについて他国の留学生に説明す る能力、時事問題などを話題にする各種交流 の場への参加意欲や能力についても評価させ た。さらに,日本の大学指導者が留学前後の学 生を指導する際の教授法や,カリキュラム関連 の事項についても論じる。 

weblink: | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |  |

Feature Article

Japanese R students’ reflections on a short-term language program

ecent years have seen the publication of several academic articles focusing on the experiences of Japanese students studying abroad. Geis and Fukushima (1997), Drake (1997), and Tanaka and Ellis (2003) have looked at the motivational gains of students enrolled in programs in the U.S. and New Zealand. The work of these mostly linguistics scholars has been supplemented by that of researchers in education and sociology, such as Kudo and Simkin (2003), who used extended interviews to look into the social networks and friendships of Japanese students on short-term group study trips in Australia. Australianbased scholars from applied linguistics and humanities (Yamada, 2003; Nemoto, 2002; Marriot & Tse Hoi Ling, 2001) have used small focus groups of four to six students to uncover the ways in which students studying as undergraduates or postgraduates cope with the rigors of higher-level academic work and study in Australia. Moving beyond the Japanese experience, Bodycott and Crew (2000, 2001) have noted the boost in self-esteem and attitudes towards studying English of students from Hong Kong, largely as a result of their non-academic interactions in Australia, the U.S., and the U.K. These studies have given us an insight into several important aspects of the study-abroad experience. In the case of the first three larger scale studies, however, the student subjects were enrolled in closed classes (i.e., courses created specifically for the Japanese group), and as such, had no classroom time with other international students. By contrast, the small scale but highly intensive study by Kudo and Simkin (2003) gives considerable attention to friendship networks between Japanese and other international, or occasionally, Australian students. Their main concern, however, is not with the classroom or the learning dimension itself. Rather, the study aims to use Japanese international students’ experiences as a vehicle to identify “specified factors influencing the development of intercultural friendship through contextual interpretations” (p. 111). This, they hope, will contribute to the development of a “model of a process of intercultural friendship formation on

Feature Article: Furmanovsky campuses” (p. 98). Using smaller subject groups, Yamada (2003), Nemoto (2002), and Marriott and Tse Hoi Ling (2001) are primarily interested in academic and study skill development, and their subjects are full-time, long-term undergraduates or graduates. Although growing in numbers and importance, these types of students represent a relatively small percentage of Japanese studyabroad students in Australian institutions. Nevertheless, their work provides useful insight into classroom dynamics at the higher levels of academic study and sheds light on the ways in which Japanese students learn to participate in small group discussions, make use of teacher and peer feedback, and develop and edit their written work. Given the academic background and goals of most of these researchers and scholars, it is hardly surprising that they are not primarily concerned with the direct practical implications of their subjects’ overseas experiences. Nor indeed, as sociologists or linguists, are they usually in a position to make changes in curriculum and course design to ensure that these kinds of students are able to make the most of their overseas study experiences on return to their Japanese institution. This responsibility will usually belong to their home faculty language instructors and the university administration. However, while it is not uncommon for Japanese or native English speaker faculty to accompany students on short-term programs and help make changes to these programs based on informal observation, little has been done by researchers to identify what students perceive to be happening inside the classroom of their overseas institution, and to systematically consider what can be done to enhance and build on this experience with targeted and custom designed pre- and postdeparture classes. Designing and piloting the instrument In order to gather the data necessary for this objective, the researcher met informally with a number of students who had participated in short-term, study-abroad programs and, based on their responses, designed a preliminary research instrument for use during an extended stay in Australia. This instrument, a combination of questionnaire and interview, was then piloted with small groups of students who were studying in Australia for 6-12 months. After numerous revisions based on student feedback, it was administered to a group of students studying at a language center attached to a major university |  | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

in Victoria. All participants were aged 19-25 and were either concurrently enrolled in a Japanese university or had recently graduated from one. All had taken English classes with a native speaker in their Japanese institution, but most were not English majors. The aim of the questionnaire, which was conducted in English but with oral translations into Japanese where necessary, was to gather both qualitative and quantitative data on the participants’ actual classroom experience with students from other countries, and to gain insight into what aspects of this experience were the most and least rewarding for them. While students were given the chance to write comments in the other or none of the above section, the choice and range of possible answers given was both detailed and extensive, since these were the answers that had been identified as the most common in focus groups and in numerous informal discussions with students. In contrast with those that might be asked by educational sociologists, all questions were conceptualized and designed so that the results obtained had direct potential implications for future or current teachers of the students in either Japan or an overseas institution. More specifically, questions were designed so that the results might 1) allow teachers of future study-abroad students to refine their classroom orientation and/or preparation for overseas programs; 2) boost students’ confidence in their ability to cope with their likely classroom experience, especially when interacting with other international students and homestay families; 3) enable students to work on those aspects of their language proficiency and intercultural communication skills that would be most useful in an Australian educational or homestay environment; 4) allow teachers and administrators insight into the ways in which existing curriculums might be adapted to give returning students more appropriate courses that build on what they have learned. Questionnaire results and potential implications The questionnaire was divided into two sections: A (Classroom culture and in-class activities) and B (Interactions and comparisons with classmates from other countries). Results as well as comments about the possible implications of this feedback are given below. The original order of questions has been retained.

| |

Feature Article: Furmanovsky Section A: Classroom culture and inclass activities 1. Which of these things were you most concerned about on the first few days of your class in your Australian university? Please circle up to 3. N =28


(a) Whether it is OK to use Japanese in the class with Japanese classmates.



(b) Whether I will be forced to answer a question or read something aloud.



(c) Whether I will be able to understand the accent/ pronunciation of the teacher.



(d) Whether I will be able to understand the accent/ pronunciation of the other students.



(e) Whether I will be able to understand the instructions for the homework assignment.


N =28


(a) How to make friends with students from other countries.



(b) How to reach a balance between making friends with students from other countries and other Japanese students.



(c) How to do group work with students from other countries.









(g) How to keep up with the reading assignments.



(h) How to study for tests.



(d) How to give an oral presentation in front of your class or group. (e) How to write a report. (f) How to express your views in a discussion.


Note: Bold numerals represent the most popular responses. It is not uncommon for students in Japanese universities to hear only one or two English accents during the 1-2 years in which English is typically a compulsory subject. A significant number of students may, in fact, have only North American native speaker teachers during their high school and university years. Administrators and educators involved in scheduling and hiring should, therefore, do whatever they can to maximize the types of accents and styles of English that students are exposed to. Students studying in multiethnic Melbourne, Australia, for example, are quite likely to be taught by a combination of Australian and European instructors, and will often interact with students from Chinese speaking countries whose pronunciation patterns in English may take time to get used to. This approach also seems sensible and prudent given the introduction of non-North American accents in the 2006 TOEIC test.

| |

2. Which of these were you most concerned about during the first month of your class? Please circle up to 3.

As Marriot and Tse Hoi Ling (2001) suggest in their study of Asian students in longer-term programs, and indeed as many other studies have suggested, Japanese students often lack confidence in their ability to make presentations or express opinions in discussions. Few researchers, however, have looked into why this is the case, and most repeat the common mantra of Japan’s supposed rote learning based education system and its failure to help students develop higher-order and critical thinking skills. While this explanation seems reasonable, another possible reason, and one which was suggested by several of the author’s informants and is implicit in the results of Question 3, may be the small number of discussion-based classes of any kind that are available to students in their first two years at university. In the case of the author’s institution, discussion is largely confined to a once-aweek seminar. Whatever the explanation, those involved in Japanese university curriculums need to explore ways to expand and develop courses in which these skills, clearly important when studying abroad, are developed.

| THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |  |

Feature Article: Furmanovsky 3. What aspects of your classes here in Australia do you like the most, in comparison with your language classes taught by a native speaker in Japan? Please circle up to 3. N =28


(a) Smaller class size.



(b) Being able to meet with and talk with students from other countries.



(c) Informal atmosphere of the class.



(d) Longer length of the class.



(e) Chance to do classroom activities that are continued every day.





(f) More opportunity to talk in groups.

4. Which of the following topics relating to Japan have students from other countries asked you questions about? Choose the 3 most common topics. N=28




Samurai and ninja








Martial arts



Mobile phones and high technology



Traditional arts (kimono, tea ceremony, etc.)



Fashion and brand names



Japanese students’ university life





Animation and manga

Traditional Japanese food

(g) More opportunity to talk oneto-one with the teacher.



(h) Using non-textbook materials or authentic materials about Australia.



(i) Doing projects where you have to interview Australians or visit places in the city.



There can be little doubt from this study, as well as from many informal conversations, that Japanese study-abroad students are highly motivated by the opportunity to meet and interact with students from other countries. Indeed, not one student has indicated a preference for closed classes, although these are not uncommon among shorter programs. Another area of dissatisfaction in their home universities is the large size of many of their communication classes, and this would explain the strong preference given to smaller classes in which students can exchange ideas and information with their counterparts from other countries. Students can prepare for such opportunities in their Japanese university classes by becoming familiar with aspects of contemporary life in those countries—mostly Asian—from which their future classmates are likely to come. Other useful activities are role-plays or other simulations in which they take on the background or identity of a potential international student in Australia and exchange information with a Japanese classmate. |  | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Politics or history

For many Japanese students, their classes in Australia will be the first time for them to have spent more than a few minutes talking with students from Asian, Middle Eastern, or European countries. Not surprisingly, the average student feels more confident talking about the immediate world of Japanese popular culture than about traditional arts and cultural expressions. Yet several students expressed some surprise and even frustration at the high degree of interest shown by many of their classmates in manga and animation movies—an interest which many of them did not in fact share. They also were not well prepared for questions about political issues such as terrorism and war, religion, and Japan’s historical role in past conflicts. Again, appropriate action can be taken in pre-departure courses to prepare students with some ways of explaining their views or giving a coherent and understandable reason for their lack of interest or knowledge. At the macro level, the Japanese educational system clearly must look for ways to better engage students with the discipline of history. Too often demotivated by the burden of memorizing discrete and unconnected facts for exams, students would surely benefit from the adoption of some of the new approaches to teaching history through original documents, realia, movies, etc., which are common in the curriculums of schools in the U.S. and Europe. | |

Feature Article: Furmanovsky These innovations have led to a much greater interest in and sophistication about history (and related disciplines) than is usually found among Japanese university students, and this may account for the disparity between Japanese studyabroad students and most European students when it comes to general knowledge and an understanding of world affairs. 5. Which of the following homework assignments do you find easy or difficult? Please rank them from 1-5 (1-easy, 2-quite easy, 3-okay, 4-quite difficult, 5-very difficult). Assignment or Task

Difficulty Level (1-5)

(a) Written report on a political issue or recent event.


(b) Group project on a political issue with group presentation.


(c) Written report on some aspect of Japan.


(d) Oral presentation on some aspect of Japan.


(e) Oral presentation on your hobby or interest.


(f) Written report based on interviews/fieldwork that you do.


(g) Oral presentation based on interviews/fieldwork that you do.


Section B: Interactions and comparisons with classmates from other countries 7. In which of the following areas do you feel that Japanese students in general usually do less well or participate less often than students from other Asian countries. (Please base this on your experience in your present classes.) Choose up to 3. N =28

6. Sometimes students from other countries talk about world issues and their own country’s politics or problems. Which of these is closest to your usual reaction to this? Choose 1. N=28


(a) They seem to know more about world political issues or current events than I do.



(b) There is no big difference between our knowledge, but they seem more interested in political topics than I am.



(c) I have as much knowledge and English vocabulary to talk about these as they do.


| |

Although students ranked themselves relatively highly (vis-à-vis other Asian students) in basic grammar and writing skills, they still rated academic writing as the most challenging and problematic area for them, with political issues and current events seen as the most difficult. In interviews, some students pointed out that classes in their Australian institution were rarely just oral communication, and that writing was among the most challenging of their homework tasks. This is hardly a new discovery but tends to challenge the conventional wisdom among many teachers in Japan, namely that Japanese students’ most serious weakness is in spoken communication. Clearly most Japanese students find writing about non-personal issues, especially those with a political dimension, to be difficult. The results of Question 6, however, do tend to back up the conventional view of young Japanese people as being relatively disengaged from world issues in comparison with their classmates from other countries.



(a) Raising hands to ask or answer a question.



(b) Giving personal opinions when there is a discussion.



(c) Playing a leadership role when working in a group of 3 or 4.



(d) Working well together with a partner.



(e) Handing in homework on time every day or week.



(f) Scoring well in quizzes and tests focusing on grammar or vocabulary.



(g) Writing a research-type report or essay.



| THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |  |

Feature Article: Furmanovsky (h) Giving an oral presentation in front of the group.



(i) Explaining their own (Japanese) culture and lifestyle.



(j) Talking about political or global events, issues, and trends.



9. Many Japanese students say I am not good at English or Japanese are very poor at communicating with non-Japanese. Now that you have been in Australia for a few months and have taken classes with students from other countries, which of these statements is closest to your opinion? Choose 1. N =25


(a) I think English education in Japan is not very good, so most Japanese students are weak or poor at English (compared to students in my class from other countries).



(b) I think most Japanese are weak or poor at communicating (speaking and listening) but not bad at reading, writing, and grammar.



(c) I think Japanese students are about average in most of the basic skills but they are not good at intercultural communication.



(d) I think Japanese students are average or above average in most of the skills needed to communicate well in English.



(k) Other (please write below). 8. Compared to students from other countries in your classes, in which areas do you think Japanese students usually do well or above average? Choose up to 3. N =28


(a) Regular attendance in class.



(b) Organization of notebooks, taking notes, and handing in homework.



(c) Working cooperatively in pairs and groups.



(d) Participating in group or class discussions.





(f) Avoiding use of native language while talking.



(g) Asking questions to other students after a presentation.



(h) Preparation of materials when doing reports and presentations.



(i) Doing MORE than the teacher required.



(e) Scoring well in vocabulary and grammar tests.

Never had an article published before? Lacking confidence, or just unsure of what to do? TLT’s Peer Support Group can help. Learn to write with the help of our experienced collaborative writing team.

|  | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Note: Three students did not respond. Unless they study in the U.K., Japanese studyabroad students in English speaking countries are likely to find themselves in classes in which a majority of their classmates are from Asian countries. In most cases, a majority of students in those Australian language centers with a high level of Japanese enrollment will usually be from Korea, Taiwan, China, and Thailand. (In the case of undergraduate degree or diploma classes, the largest groups are likely to be Chinese, Malaysian, and Indonesian.) Japanese students planning to study abroad can benefit by having some understanding of the type of English educational experience that their future classmates will have had. Several students expressed the view that, despite media reports of the higher English proficiency and motivation of Korean students, they seemed to have much the same sets of strengths and weaknesses as their Japanese counterparts. As such, Japanese students found it easy to work with and understand their Korean classmates. As the data suggest, the decadeslong stereotype that Japanese students believe | |

Feature Article: Furmanovsky about themselves—namely that they are relatively reluctant to ask questions or express opinions in discussions, especially about political or global issues—is still strong. At the same time, however, after a few months of study most become aware of the fact that they too have strengths vis-à-vis other Asian and non-Asian students, especially in the areas of study skills, grammar, and general consistency and diligence. They also perceive themselves as being quite cooperative members of work groups that may be organized by the teacher. Conclusion A carefully targeted and piloted instrument for gauging Japanese study-abroad participants’ views of their experiences in the Australian language course classroom can be a useful tool for educators charged with maximizing their students’ intercultural learning opportunities. The qualitative and quantitative data and feedback gathered from the 28 Japanese study-abroad participants interviewed suggest a reasonable level of confidence in their basic English proficiency, as well as above average study skills, and a positive and cooperative attitude towards communication and friendship-building with students from other countries. They also highlight a range of perceived weaknesses, mostly in the area of participation in discussions, presentation skills and knowledge, ability to explain aspects of Japanese culture in English, and understanding of political and world issues. Finally, they suggest a clear preference for smaller classes, in which relaxed discussion or an exchange of views with other students within groups is possible. A number of implications for administrators and instructors in Japan are suggested by these findings. The most obvious of these is the need to provide classes that allow future study-abroad students more opportunities to develop their presentation skills and participate in small-group discussions. Content-wise, special attention should be given to helping students talk in simple but clear English about their own country and culture (or subcultures). Students need to know more about the cultures, lifestyles, educational backgrounds, and pronunciation patterns of their future classmates, most of whom will be from Asia. In the case of those going to Australia, a one-semester Australian Studies class, in which students are required to make comparisons with their own culture, would be an ideal preparation, especially for the homestay experience. Also important is to give returning students the | |

appropriate acknowledgement of their efforts and to offer customized or advanced classes in which they have a chance to build on what they have learned. Both the homestay experience and the ways in which universities can effectively engage returning students will be examined in a future study. References Bodycott, P., & Crew, V. (2000). Living the language: The value of short-term overseas English language immersion programs. The Language Teacher, 14(9), 27-33. Bodycott, P., & Crew, V. (2001). Language and cultural immersion: Perspectives on short-term study and residence abroad. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education. Drake, D. (1997). Integrating study abroad students into the university community. The Language Teacher, 21(11), 7-13. Geis, K. L., & Fukushima, C. (1997). Overview of a study abroad course. The Language Teacher, 21(11), 15-20. Kudo, K., & Simkin, K. A. (2003). Intercultural friendship formation: The case of Japanese students at an Australian university. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 24(2), 92-115. Marriott, H., & Tse Hoi Ling, H. (2001). Asian students’ writing and their modification of text quality. ASAA e-journal of Asian Linguistics & Language Teaching, 1, 1-13. Retrieved July 10, 2005, from . Nemoto, H. (2002). Japanese exchange students’ management strategies in academic writing. ASAA e-journal of Asian Linguistics & Language Teaching, 2, 1-16. Retrieved July 12, 2005, from . Tanaka, K., & Ellis, R. (2003). Study-abroad, language proficiency, and learner beliefs about language learning. JALT Journal, 25(1), 63-85. Yamada, K. (2003). Japanese students perceptions of difficulties with student activities in an Australian university. ASAA e-journal of Asian Linguistics & Language Teaching, 5, 1-14. Retrieved July 12, 2005, from .

Michael Furmanovsky is an associate professor at Ryukoku University’s Faculty of International Culture. He has published in various fields, including CALL, Bilingualism, and Comparative Education, and completed the research for this project while on sabbatical at RMIT in Melbourne, Australia.

| THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |  |

Advert: Cambridge

TOEIC: T Claim and counterclaim

Hokkaido University

T OE ICは、日本において広範囲にわたって 利用されているにもかかわらず、ETSによる TOEICは英語力を測る手段として有効である という主張に対して、日本ではほとんど重要な 研究が行われていない。本論では、ある日本 の大企業においてTOEICがどのように使われ ているかを述べ、そのシステムの効果を評価す ることを試みる。ここでは独自に行った研究を ETSが行ったものと比較する。そして企業にお けるTOEICの利用から生じる問題を、現在のテ ストシステムをどのように改善するべきかの提 案とともに報告する。

hiring, assignment to overseas posts requiring English language proficiency, assignment to or promotion within departments where English is needed or desirable, identification of employees who know English sufficiently well to benefit from corporate training programs abroad, determination of the effectiveness of English-language training programs, and assignment to, placement within, or exit from company-sponsored English language training programs. (Perkins, 1987, p. 82) English educators in Japan have questioned the effectiveness of TOEIC as a predictor of productive language skills (Hirai, 2002). ETS claims that TOEIC can be used to indirectly measure speaking and writing skills. Hence, there is a certain degree of tension between the

weblink: | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 11 |

Readers’ Forum

Mark Chapman

he Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) is a widely used test of English proficiency. The TOEIC was introduced in 1979, and by 1997 the test was being taken by more than 1.5 million candidates worldwide per year. In 1997, 92% of the test takers were in Japan and Korea, with Japan accounting for 63% (The Chauncey Group, 2000). In 2002, over 2.8 million people registered for the TOEIC in more than 60 countries. This is more than double the number of people who took the TOEFL in the same time period (ETS, 2003). The unique feature of the TOEIC is its content; the test focuses on English used in industry and commerce. TOEIC was developed in the US by Educational Testing Service (ETS) to “measure English language skills used in international corporations around the globe” (Wilson, 1989, p. 1). According to Gilfert (1995), TOEIC came into being as a result of a request to ETS from the Japanese Ministry of Trade and Industry. TOEIC is a norm-referenced, multiple-choice test of English that consists of two main sections: Listening Comprehension and Reading. It takes forty-five minutes to complete the listening section, and seventy-five minutes for the reading section. TOEIC scores are of importance to many employees and corporations, as the scores can be used to determine

Readers’ Forum: Chapman Table 1. Composition of Listening Comprehension Section LISTENING COMPREHENSION Part I

One picture, four spoken sentences

20 items

Part II

Spoken utterances, three spoken responses

30 items

Part III

Short conversation, four printed answers

30 items

Part IV

Short talks, four printed questions and answers

20 items


100 items

Table 2. Composition of Reading Comprehension Section READING COMPREHENSION Part V

Incomplete sentences, four choices

40 items

Part VI

Error recognition – underlines, four choices

20 items

Part VII Reading comprehension – passages, four choices

40 items


100 items

claims made about the test by its developers and commonly held beliefs about the test held by those who work with it regularly. The purpose of this paper is to compare claims made about the TOEIC by ETS with independent research. The areas where conflicting results are generated should be potential areas for future research. ETS funded research into the TOEIC The initial validity study shows impressive figures for the reliability of the TOEIC (Woodford, 1982). This report was based on the first administration of the TOEIC in 1979 to a group of 2710 examinees in Japan. The final estimations were: Listening Comprehension 0.916 SEM=25.95 Reading Comprehension 0.930 SEM=23.38 Total Reliability 0.956 SEM=34.93 (Woodford, 1982, p. 8) The SEM figure refers to the standard error of measurement. This means that there is a 68% likelihood that the candidate’s “true” score will | 12 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

be within the SEM value of his or her actual score. Woodford (1982) claims these figures are “well within the generally accepted limits for measurement of individual achievement” (p. 8). The figures are indeed impressively high. The same study reported that the correlation between the listening section and the reading section was 0.769. Woodford states that this figure of 0.769 indicates that “each score provides somewhat different information about the examinee and justifies reporting separate scores” (p. 4). Woodford also reported on later validation exercises carried out after the first administration of TOEIC. These exercises attempted to measure “the degree to which performance on the TOEIC corresponded to performance on more direct measures of four language skills” (p.10). 100 candidates at five differing levels of ability as defined by TOEIC score were selected to take four separate tests of listening, reading, writing, and speaking. For details of the separate tests please refer to Woodford (1982). The correlation figures are given below: TOEIC Listening + Listening Test 0.90 TOEIC Reading + Reading Test 0.79 TOEIC Listening + Speaking Test 0.83 TOEIC Reading + Writing Test 0.83 (Woodford, 1982, p. 10) While all these figures are respectable, the most worrying one would seem to be the results for the Reading section of the TOEIC. The figure of 0.79 seems to be rather low. Remember, Woodford reported that a correlation figure of 0.77 indicated that the listening and reading section were measuring different skills. The correlation figure of 0.79 led Woodford to claim that: The high degree of similarity of performance by the examinees on both the TOEIC Reading section and the Direct Measure of Reading suggest that the TOEIC Reading Test provides a good indication of the examinee’s ability to read English with understanding. (p.10) There is a clear inconsistency here in how Woodford (1982) is interpreting the results of the study. It is difficult to see how the claim that the two tests of reading show a high degree of similarity of performance can be supported. In 1989, ETS produced a report investigating to what extent the conversational ability of individuals could be inferred from their TOEIC score. The introduction to the summary of this | |

Readers’ Forum: Chapman very comprehensive report addresses a concern of this paper: A generic problem with norm-referenced second-language proficiency tests is that examinees’ scores on the tests do not provide a direct indication of their actual levels of functional ability to use a target language as demographically comparable native speakers can be expected to use it. (Wilson, 1989, p. iii) Wilson’s study compared the TOEIC scores of candidates with their Language Proficiency Interview (LPI) scores. The LPI was developed by the U.S. government, and is an extensively used test to measure oral ability. It is scored on a scale of 0 to 5, with 5 being equal to an educated native speaker and 0 indicating no ability. The study was a sizeable one with 285 Japanese candidates, 56 French candidates, 42 from Mexico, and 10 from Saudi Arabia. The main findings of the study are as follows: • TOEIC Listening/LPI correlations were higher than TOEIC Reading/LPI correlations. The former correlated in the mid- 0.70’s and the latter at 0.70. •

TOEIC total/LPI correlations were approximately the same as those for the TOEIC Listening/LPI correlations, but slightly lower in some instances. (Wilson, 1989, p. 51).

These figures are significantly lower than those reported in the earlier 1982 ETS report, which claimed that the TOEIC Listening section correlated with a separate speaking test at 0.83. We must again remember the claim by the previous ETS report (Woodford, 1982) that a correlation of 0.769 indicated the listening and reading sections were providing different information about the examinees. This later report by Wilson (1989) certainly seems to indicate that a separate speaking test and the TOEIC will provide different information about examinees. If a corporation, then, wants to test the ability of its employees to speak English, employing the TOEIC in isolation is unlikely to be the most accurate method available. It is unfortunate that ETS did not also investigate the degree of correlation between TOEIC scores and an independent test of writing. Independent research into the TOEIC The most widely known independent assessment of TOEIC remains that contained in the broad | |

Reviews of English Language Proficiency Tests (Alderson, Krahnke, & Stansfield, 1987). The reviewer quotes the statistics given above from Woodford (1982) regarding reliability coefficients and the correlation with a speaking test. From the evidence, the reviewer concludes that “the TOEIC is a standardized, highly reliable and valid measure of English, specifically designed to assess real-life reading and listening skills of candidates who will use English in a work context” (p. 82). Alderson, Krahnke, and Stansfield (1987) go on to suggest that: Empirical studies indicate that it is also a valid indirect measure of speaking and writing. The items assess major grammatical structures and reading skills and, in addition to being an integrative test, the TOEIC also appears to tap communicative competence in that the items require the examinee to utilize his or her sociolinguistic and strategic competence. (Alderson, et. al, 1987, p. 82) This can only be greeted with some skepticism, as the reviewer used only publications issued by ETS in arriving at this opinion. The reviewer refers to “empirical studies” but is actually quoting Woodford’s (1982) paper. This has not only been shown to have slightly inconsistent findings, but has also been updated by ETS with the more comprehensive 1989 report by Wilson, which shows the TOEIC to be a less reliable predictor of spoken English than Woodford suggested. The TOEIC was also reviewed by Douglas (1992), a respected researcher in the field of language testing, who issued a favorable report on the TOEIC, but again used only ETS data in forming his conclusions. He accepts the ETS data as indicating that the TOEIC is a “reliable and valid test” (p. 3). The main criticism Douglas offers is that the items tested in the TOEIC are not completely representative of the “English language skills required in international commerce and industry” (p. 2). He reports that only around 40% of TOEIC items directly assess realistic, business-related activity. Douglas also states “users should be aware that the TOEIC requires primarily a knowledge of English grammar and vocabulary, with an overlay of commerce-oriented subject matter. Very little else of language knowledge, textual, illocutionary or sociolinguistic knowledge is being tested” (p. 2). A report based on independent data is Childs’s (1995) investigation into how the TOEIC is used in Japanese companies. The main thrust of | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 13 |

Readers’ Forum: Chapman Child’s investigation is whether or not the TOEIC is a suitable test to measure students’ progress in English. He investigated a group of 113 new employees of a Japanese company. The new employees underwent an intensive one-week English course followed by a half-day of English study once a month for the next four months. The new employees were given a TOEIC test before the start of the intensive course, at the end of the intensive course, after the second half-day class, and after the last, half-day English class. There were, hence, a total of four TOEIC tests administered. After analyzing the results of all the administrations of the test, Childs concluded the following: • The TOEIC is reasonably effective at measuring overall group gains in proficiency. •

The TOEIC is not as effective at measuring the progress of individual learners in the short term. Childs makes the strong statement that “the use of TOEIC for gauging individual learning is, in general, inefficient or wrong” (p. 74). The reason for this conclusion was that the standard error of the total scores was in the range of the expected individual gains. The SEMs in Childs’ report are somewhat higher than those given in the TOEIC’s initial validity study (Woodford, 1982). The discrepancy appears as 43 points for the total score SEM on Childs’ investigation, against Woodford’s (1982) figure of 34.93.

It is not possible to explain the reasons for student’s progress using the TOEIC. This is again due to the standard error of the scores. Childs dismisses TOEIC’s ability for use as a diagnostic test.

The TOEIC can be an effective tool for comparing the performance of different language schools or programs. Childs qualifies this conclusion with the comment that care is needed, as TOEIC is not especially effective for measuring individual gains. Presumably, if a company sends a large number of employees to different schools or programs, then the group gains can reasonably and confidently be compared.

Childs’ (1995) closing comments make for very interesting reading: Company education directors and language schools should be warned that short-term TOEIC results cannot be substituted for more specific measures of learning achievement. | 14 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Test users await a series of criterion-referenced tests complementary to the norm-referenced TOEIC. (p. 75). And later: Education directors who incorporate TOEIC into their testing programs should do so thoughtfully. They should understand that the long-term solution to many of their needs will be not TOEIC but a series of tests that are in tune with the specific goals and methods of their English education programs. (p. 75) A recent paper (Hirai, 2002) investigated the correlations between TOEIC scores and separate tests of speaking and writing. Hirai compared TOEIC scores to those of an internal interview test at Hitachi, Ltd. in Japan and scores on the BULATS writing test. This paper provided some support for ETS’s own research into the ability of TOEIC to act as a predictor of speaking ability, with TOEIC scores and interview scores correlating at 0.78. However, this relatively high figure only applies when dealing with a large group of subjects. In this case, the TOEIC can predict speaking ability reasonably accurately; however, the TOEIC is far less accurate when the subjects are narrowed into more specific proficiency levels. TOEIC scores and speaking test scores for intermediate learners (TOEIC 450 – 650) correlated at only 0.49, well below the figures produced in the ETS investigation (Wilson, 1989). This figure is particularly troubling when the average TOEIC score in Japan is taken into consideration. A report published by The Chauncey Group (2000) stated that the mean TOEIC score in Japan is 451, with a standard deviation of 172 points. This indicates that there is only a small section of the TOEIC-taking population in Japan that scores above 620 points. Hirai’s (2002) lower correlation coefficient for subjects with TOEIC 450 – 650, then, is perhaps a more reliable figure for use in Japan. An independent test of writing (BULATS) was found to have a correlation coefficient of 0.66 with total TOEIC scores (Hirai, 2002). This is also well below the figure claimed by ETS. Hirai claims that the lower figure generated in his study may be due to the difference between BULATS and the direct writing test employed by ETS. This may well be true; however, BULATS is a well respected test, developed by Cambridge University and designed specifically to evaluate writing in a business context. The results of Hirai’s study raise troubling questions about the ability of TOEIC to act as an accurate predictor of writing ability. | |

Readers’ Forum: Chapman Conclusion The independent investigations into TOEIC have produced results that conflict with research reports into TOEIC published by ETS. The independent studies reported here challenge the validity of the TOEIC as a measure of spoken and written English. TOEIC’s use as a diagnostic test is questioned. The main theme is that TOEIC appears to be effective at measuring proficiency and progress of large groups of learners, but is much less reliable when used for small groups or individuals. These issues raise questions for companies who use the TOEIC. Japanese corporations may need to reconsider how they utilize TOEIC scores, given the limitations that are highlighted by independent research. Both employees and companies would benefit from further research into the TOEIC. Given that the majority of learners in Japan have TOEIC scores in the 400 – 600 point region, more research needs to be conducted on test takers in this ability range. Companies need to know what information a TOEIC score in this range reliably gives about the candidate’s proficiency. Given the widespread use of TOEIC, and its importance to both Japanese corporations and employees, further research into the TOEIC seems both necessary and overdue. References Alderson, C., Krahnke, K., & Stansfield, C. (1987). Reviews of English Language Proficiency Tests. Washington DC: TESOL Childs, M. (1995). Good and bad uses of TOEIC by Japanese companies. In J. D. Brown and S. O. Yamashita (Eds.) Language Testing in Japan. (pp. 66-75) Tokyo: JALT.

Douglas, D. (1992). Test of English for International Communication. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.). The Eleventh Mental MeasurementsYearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Meaasurements. Educational Testing Services. (2003). The latest news on TOEIC products. Gilfert, S. (1995) A comparison of TOEFL and TOEIC. In J. D. Brown and S. O. Yamashita (Eds.). Language Testing in Japan. (pp. 76-85) Tokyo: JALT. Hirai, M. (2002). Correlations between Active Skill and Passive Skill Test Scores. Shiken: JALT Testing & Evaluation Newsletter, 6 (3), 2-8. Perkins, L. (1987). Test of English for International Communication. In C. Alderson, K. Krahnke, & C. Stansfield Reviews of English Language Proficiency Tests. (81-83). Washington DC: TESOL. The Chauncey Group International Ltd. (2000). TOEIC Report on Test-Takers Worldwide 1997-98. Princeton, NJ: The Chauncey Group International Ltd. Wilson, K. (1989). Relating TOEIC Scores to Oral Proficiency Interview Ratings. TOEIC Research Summaries Number 1. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Woodford, P. (1982). An Introduction to TOEIC: The Initial Validity Study. TOEIC Research Summaries. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Mark Chapman teaches at Hokkaido University and is a PhD candidate with Lancaster University, England. His research interests include TOEIC validation studies and the washback effects of TOEIC.

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Interview B with Tom Kenny

rad Deacon interviews Tom Kenny, co-author of Nice Talking with You! and author of Nice Talking with You, Too!, on his approach and techniques for teaching Japanese university students to become more competent communicators in English. In particular, Tom discusses conversation strategies, timed conversations, and responds to potential criticisms of his approach. Brad Deacon: Tom, I would like to first thank you for agreeing to spend time with the readers of TLT today to share your ideas about teaching conversation skills to students of English.

Tom Kenny: It’s my pleasure. TLT has been a great source of ideas for my teaching and professional learning over the years, and it is nice to be able to hopefully give something back.

Brad Deacon

TK: Well, the conversation strategies in the books are basically the elements of language from learner talk that experience over many years teaching English conversation to university age students have taught me are missing most. For example, many students can already say, “When I was in high school…,” or “If I don’t have any money I won’t go shopping.” In other words, the students can already more or less do those grammatical structures; however I know very few students who can already say, “Ah, well, so you mean…” to show how much they have understood. Now I don’t want there to be any student who leaves my first year oral communication class and is unable to say that to a fellow student. Or at the least to say “What do you mean?” when they don’t understand. My students have taught me to teach them what they need through what is missing in their learner talk. We as teachers need to help students to generate and use these phrases properly to build their communication skills. BD: How did you devise the order to the strategies you teach your students?

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Nagoya City University

BD: You focus a lot on conversation strategies in your books. Why have you chosen this approach rather than a grammar-based or other approach?

Interview: Deacon TK: I found that shadowing in particular was a skill that I wanted my students to develop as early as possible because it takes some students a while to get to the point where they can do it both well and often enough. Furthermore, it is a great natural reaction, and I want my students to develop the ability to react early. Also, I added simple strategies for confirming meaning like “Pardon me” to the former part of the first book. The latter half of the book is more focused on other communication strategies including “What does that mean?”, “I know what you mean”, “Just a moment please.”, “What’s the word?”, and other phrases. In order for students to be able to master the strategies in the latter half of the book, they need to have some level of fluency already under their belts. So, the easier reactions that occur earlier, coupled with the easier topics, help students to gain confidence and the ability to develop their fluency while also recycling and becoming more natural with these strategies. BD: Can you share a little more about this shadowing strategy? TK: The shadowing paradigm is something that I have been toying with for a while. For those who may not be familiar with shadowing, it is a communication strategy where the listener repeats key words from the speaker to show interest and understanding during conversation. It is a natural way to fill speaking time, and more importantly, a way to help students to develop greater rapport with others when communicating. It can also be used to teach students to segue and steal the conversation turn. Two ideas that I have been toying with for some time now, and they appear prominently in Nice Talking with You, Too! are, first of all, the conversation strategy for guessing the next word which I term anticipatory shadowing. The second strategy is learning how to say it in your own words, and I call this restatement shadowing for lack of a better word. These are two shadowing strategies that I introduced during a workshop I conducted at the 2003 JALT conference. I’d like to stress that students need to not just speak but also carefully listen in order to shadow well. Then they can say what they understand in their own words, and ultimately, this results in the speaker feeling more understood and excited to say more. In addition, they need to be alert to predicting what comes next in the…

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BD: conversation? TK: Exactly! Hey, you’ve got it. We might call this participatory interviewing. (Both laughing). BD: So basically you have been looking at these two kinds of shadowing in particular and the ways that they can be used to facilitate smoother communication for our students in English. TK: That’s it in a nutshell. You see, what I have discovered after reviewing videos that I record of students using anticipatory shadowing and restatement shadowing is that many students are quite good especially at using the former, and even the mere attempt of shadowing shows that they are engaged in the conversation. That makes the speaker feel more encouraged to continue speaking in English. Isn’t that what we all want? BD: Yes, definitely. What are the differences then between the strategies in the two books? TK: Well, going back to Nice Talking with You!, the approach is to give students the basic strategies to show interest, react, take turns, and have simple native-like conversations. Thus we introduced strategies to show interest and understanding such as: “Uh huh,” “Oh yeah,” and “I see.” At the same time, anyone can pretend to listen and then at the end just say, “I see,” and as most people realize, that is not always enough feedback for the speaker. Consequently, the kind of simple, canned reactions that I just mentioned are not enough for someone who wants to become a more advanced speaker in English. What I have been aiming for in Nice Talking with You, Too! is a more interactive approach, where both interlocutors are at work negotiating meaning. My goal for the end of the semester is to have my students all be active participants in their conversations and the creation of meaning. In Nice Talking with You, Too!, the goal is to facilitate the use of longer turns and thus develop students’ ability to say their ideas more fully. The longer the turn the more chance the students have to fumble on the meaning of something and use a conversation strategy like, “So I mean…” or “So in other words…,” and what I am hoping for is that students will have less conversation and more explanation. To achieve this purpose, I have chosen topics such as My Favorite Thing or My Personality that I feel can trigger a greater chance of emotional investment on behalf of the students that can potentially push them to struggle to take | |

Interview: Deacon longer turns, flex their vocabulary muscles, work out the grammatical structures to continue their turns, and as a result, become more fluent. BD: It sounds like your books follow a structured approach, so is it not possible to jump around from unit to unit during the course of a teaching semester? TK: Well, I suppose one level of criticism that can be made about the book and approach is that teachers might dislike not having enough flexibility to jump from say unit six to unit two, and so on. I believe the structure that is in place in Nice Talking with You! includes a lot of recycling from the earlier to the later units and the opportunity to build confidence through easier to more difficult topic and strategy progression. Therefore, it would be more effective to follow the units from one to ten in order. On the other hand, the conversation strategies in Nice Talking with You, Too! are much more open-ended with phrases such as, “it sounds like…,” and this lends itself to a more hop around approach. Moreover, I would like to add that with the second book you have to have something substantial to say after using each strategy. You can’t just say something like, “It sounds like…good ” or “I mean…you know.” So you see it’s tough to present low level students with the challenge to fill what comes next after these strategies. First, build their confidence, and when they are ready, then help them to build those longer turns. BD: What other criticism have you received from teachers about your books? TK: I first had criticism when Nice Talking with You! came out from some teachers about how completely insubstantial the teaching of canned strategy phrases was and heard a few comments such as “Well that’s not communication”. My response was that communication comes in various forms. With this text, I believe we are helping the students to do the most with the language that they want to accomplish, and that is to use it to get to know other people. Most of our students don’t dream about mastering the language so that they can go and order a cup of coffee at Starbucks in America. Instead, they dream about studying English so that they can get to know other people. Another way to say this is that our students mostly want to become good at English for interactional as opposed to transactional purposes. Of course I don’t | |

believe that every book should be all things to all people, I mean that’s what Interchange is for! But seriously, for students that want to practice situational language there are books to meet that purpose. BD: Another critical piece of the Nice Talking with You! approach is timed conversation. TK: Yes, timed conversation is a kind of stage on which we can ask our students to perform a conversation. More specifically, we give them a structure for how to begin and end a conversation and provide the strategies to sustain the dialogue by various means including reacting, showing interest, and understanding one’s partner. From the moment the teacher says, “Ok, go!” until the end when the students say, “Nice talking with you!” the students’ goal is to remain in English, and where appropriate make use of the various strategies that are the focus for that lesson. They should be recycling the strategies they have acquired from previous lessons as well. Another goal is to be able to sustain the conversation for longer periods of time incrementally. In the beginning, the students may talk for two minutes in each conversation and then a few weeks later up to four minutes. When I ask students if they imagined earlier on that they could now be speaking in only English for say, four or five minutes, most gawk. So it is one step in the progress and confidence department that our students can get under their belts rather quickly. That’s powerful! I mean these students belong to club activities and what not, and they know that a goal is something that is motivating and valuable. BD: Nice idea. Are there any other benefits to using timed conversations in the classroom? TK: Well, another aspect of the activity is that it is a great classroom management tool. Timed conversation as a tool contrasts heavily with the old familiar information gap activity such as “student A and student B are looking at a map of China. Your goal is to fill in the missing parts of the great wall.” I mean the two hypothetical students at the front of the class finish before the pair in the back of the room. Then they don’t know what to do, they revert to Japanese, or they get bored and interrupt others, chaos ensues, momentum is lost, and opportunity for meaningful language work in the target language is flying south with the birds. The amount of | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 19 |

Interview: Deacon time it took to explain, set-up, and then start the activity actually exceeded the amount of time that students were engaged in the activity. I mean it’s a long run for a short slide, and sure there is some language practice occurring, but in terms of classroom management, it can be problematic. With a timed conversation on the other hand, everyone starts and stops at the exact same time, and all attention is focused during that period. The timed conversation approach allows for more streamlined classroom management and focus on language practice. These points are amplified since the activity is done consistently over time. From the point of view of the student, it is a powerful tool to help them to focus. This prevents them from reading things in their books, or checking their cell phones, or whatever. Engagement is the key, and timed conversation helps students to initiate and sustain their engagement and stay on task. Timed conversation says you don’t have time for that other stuff. Naturally, the teacher can feel a sense of success since students are active in English rather than wondering what to do or tooling around in some other way. BD: How do you provide variety within an activity like timed conversation to maintain the interest and engagement for students? TK: I am glad that you asked that question because it is how we make things different that makes all the difference. We could stretch the foolish consistency idea to its extreme and say, “Well meeting for 90 minutes each week in a class is a foolish consistency,” but let’s be serious.

Some teachers may think that timed conversation in particular can be a tool for babysitting, if you will, where students have lots of repeated timed conversations while the teacher takes a break. Nothing should be farther from the truth. Although I think that the main focus of a timed conversation should always be on the strategies, there is tremendous variety within the activity. In terms of language work, teachers can direct student attention to the various strategies, recycle them, and provide practice for vocabulary and other language in order to improve subsequent conversations. Furthermore, we can vary partners, conversation length, and other components within the overall activity. While circulating and noticing the conversations students are having, for instance, a teacher might note that students could be using more negative question (“don’t like”) patterns, and this may prompt the use of the strategy “me neither” in the next conversation. Teachers can catch common mistakes, write them on the board, and provide feedback between timed conversations. Timed conversations also allow teachers the opportunity to move around the class, tune into different student conversations, and get some exercise. Call it the new diet technique. Teachers need to notice what their students are doing. BD: Tom, it has been an informative afternoon, and I would like to say thanks again for your thoughts and ideas today. TK: Not at all. It was nice talking with you!

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Tomoko Tamura Kansai Gaidai College

最近の文部科学省による教育改革により、公 立小学校で英語を教えることができるように なり、現場の教師は、新しい英語教授法を求 めている。本論では、身体表現を通した音楽 教授法、ダルクローズ・リトミック(Dalcroze Eurhythmics)を取り入れた子ども対象の英語 教授法を提案する。ダルクローズ・リトミックの 基本理念を紹介し、どのように英語教授に応用 されるのかを論じる。最後には、授業で実践で きる活動の例を掲載している。

The Principle of Dalcroze Eurhythmics Dalcroze Eurhythmics is a unique teaching and learning approach proposed and developed by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, the late nineteenth to early twentieth century Swiss composer and professor of music. The main focus of Dalcroze Eurhythmics is learning music by experiencing musical subjects and issues through movement. Children’s Dalcroze Eurhythmics classes are taught using Dalcroze’s theory and principles. The Dalcroze curriculum consists of three branches: Eurhythmics, solfege, and improvisation. The guiding principle of Jaques-Dalcroze (1921), that rhythm is the foundation of music, is reflected in eurhythmics, through which students develop their aural and kinesthetic perception of rhythm. Solfege develops the sensitivity of a student’s ear to pitches, tones, scales, and harmonies. Improvisation gives students a chance to reinforce their understanding of materials they have learned in eurhythmics and solfege activities. Different musical issues, called Dalcroze subjects, such as duration of notes, tempo, dynamics, rhythm patterns, meter, and phrase are taught through activities that involve bodily movements, allowing children to understand that musical issues derive from physical sensations. Activities in Dalcroze Eurhythmics classes fall into four categories: 1. Follow: Follow the flow of music with body movement (e.g., children walk at the right tempo to the teacher’s walking music accompaniment).

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Readers’ Forum

Dalcroze T Eurhythmics: An approach to teaching English to Japanese children

his paper suggests creative ways of teaching English to young Japanese learners through Dalcroze Eurhythmics. While the Japanese government is trying to reform the teaching of English in Japan, including introducing English into public elementary schools, Japanese English teachers are searching for new ways of promoting their students’ communication skills. This paper aims to explain how Dalcroze Eurhythmics can be used to create enjoyable, interactive, and motivating English classes. Some suggested activities can be found at the end of this paper.

Readers’ Forum: Tamura 2. Quick Reaction: Respond quickly to the teacher’s musical or verbal cues with body movement (e.g., children run to the teacher’s running music). When the music stops, children stop running. When the teacher switches the music to skipping music, children immediately respond and start skipping. 3. Canon: Recreate music or motion after a certain time (e.g., echoing the teacher). The teacher taps a part of her body, and when the teacher finishes tapping, the children immediately start copying the exact motion performed by the teacher. 4. Plastique Anime: Expressing a piece of music with body movements based on the musical understanding of the piece. Dalcroze Eurhythmics—Interaction, Motivation, and Meaningful Learning through Discovery Participation is the most important factor in creating an interactive class. In Dalcroze classes, asking students for their ideas and incorporating these ideas into activities and lesson plans are the typical ways of inviting children to participate in class. Brown (1994) emphasizes that in order to encourage interaction in language classes, “the teacher must create a climate in which spontaneity can thrive, in which unrehearsed language can be performed, and in which the freedom of expression given over to students makes it impossible to predict everything that they will say and do” (p.160). Students learn less when they only engage in what they are asked to do. However, their learning increases in an environment in which they cannot predict what they are going to do next because their minds are actively engaged. In Dalcroze classes, new material should be introduced by building onto what students already know so that they will be able to discover the answer by themselves. This discovery will promote meaningful learning (See Ausubel’s (1968) Meaningful Learning Theory). Children’s Dalcroze classes are conducted through various game-like activities that are enjoyable to children and promote intrinsic motivation. Brown (1994) explains that language classes are successful if “they are self-rewarding in the perception of the learner” (p.20). Dalcroze Eurhythmics incorporates significant educational principles—interaction, motivation, and meaningful learning—which create an ideal learning situation for children. Thus, when | 22 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Dalcroze principles are applied in a language class, a language learning environment is created that is interactive, motivational, and meaningful. Total Physical Response Total Physical Response (TPR) is a languageteaching approach suggested by Asher (1977). Asher’s notion of TPR stems from research into and observations of first language learning. Asher, observed that when acquiring their first language, children listen to utterances from adults and respond with physical responses. In his approach, “understanding should be developed through movement of the student’s body. The instructor can utter commands to manipulate student behavior” (p. 4). Sanchez (1991) suggests that by responding to music with movement, children develop the skills of listening, concentration, reacting to suggestions, making independent decisions, and that these skills help improve their vocabulary and increase communication. From the points of view represented by Sanchez and Asher, it is clear that children’s movement and language development play crucial roles in children’s growth. The main principle of learning music by moving the body suggested by Dalcroze is thus compatible with Asher’s theory of learning language by responding with body movement (Nakazawa, 1986). It would therefore be effective for children to learn English action words such as walk, run, skip, swing, and sway while moving to walking, running, skipping, swinging, and swaying music using Dalcroze activities involving locomotor movements. Words for speed, such as slow and fast can be introduced later as the children move to music of different tempos. Teaching English through Dalcroze Eurhythmics For the purpose of this paper, a class that applies the principle of Dalcroze Eurhythmics to the teaching of English will consist primarily of Eurhythmics activities. Although there are many ways of applying Dalcroze Eurhythmics to the teaching of English, the activities suggested in this paper adhere to the form used in regular Dalcroze Eurhythmics classes. Therefore, children in such a class will have the opportunity to develop musical skills as well as English skills. The activities have been simplified for teachers who do not have much musical background. Depending upon her abilities, the teacher can decide to incorporate them into a larger lesson plan. Those teachers not confident of their musical skills could seek help from music teachers who could assist by | |

Readers’ Forum: Tamura playing songs on the piano. The type and goals of each activity are listed both in terms of teaching English and teaching music. The sequence of steps to be followed is also given. Use of English is highly recommended while the teacher is conducting these activities; however, the teacher may use Japanese if the students have trouble understanding the instructions or explanations. Activity 1: The Application of TPR to Dalcroze Eurhythmics English Focus: The phrases stand up and sit down and the numbers 1-5 Dalcroze Subject: Up and down motion of the scale and melodic direction Type of Activity: Follow In the Dalcroze Eurhythmics class, the phrases stand up and sit down are associated with ascending and descending melodic direction. Step 1: The teacher invites the students to stand up by using gesture and the words stand up. The teacher repeats this several times until all the students respond to the commands without the help of gestures. Step 2: The teacher sings the phrase Will you please stand up? to an ascending melody (do re me fa so) to get the students to stand up. Then the teacher sings Will you please sit down? to a descending melody (so fa me re do) to get the students to sit down. Step 3: After the students are comfortable responding to the commands, the teacher introduces the image of an elevator going up and down. The teacher can then ask students to show the elevator’s motion with their hands or legs. It would be fun to put vocal sounds, such as ascending or descending vocalizations such as woo, with the motions. Step 4: The teacher substitutes the words up, up, up, up, up and down, down, down, down, down respectively for the previous ascending and descending melodies, moving her hands in the associated direction, clearly showing each new level. Step 5: The teacher introduces the song, “The Elevator Song” (see Appendix). The teacher sings, “Elevator, why don’t you take me?” and invites the students to sing and do the motions for “up, up, up, up, up,” and “down, down, down, down, down.” If the students are ready, each one could individually take a turn singing doing the actions for up and down. Step 6: The teacher asks the students how many floors this elevator stops at and helps them count the floors while doing the actions. The teacher may use Japanese for this. | |

Step 7: When the students have noticed that there are five floors, the teacher substitutes the names of numbers in English for up and down in the ascending and descending scales. After the teacher has sung each number, she has the students repeat each number in English while doing the up and down actions. The whole sequence is repeated several times. Step 8: After the students have become comfortable with counting floors in English, the teacher sings the song again. The teacher sings Elevator, why don’t you take me? and the students respond by singing and doing the associated actions one, two, three, four, five and five, four, three, two, one. Activity 2 English Focus: The verbs walk, run, skip, gallop, walk slowly, walk fast, and stop Dalcroze Subject: Duration with locomotor movements Type of Activity: Follow and quick reaction locomotor movements, such as walking, running, skipping, and galloping are used to teach duration of notes. Children can ascertain the length of notes easily by actually moving through space using the locomotor movements. • Walking—a quarter note • Running—eighth note • Skipping and galloping—a combination of a dotted eighth and a sixteenth note or a combination of a quarter and an eighth note • Slow walk—a half note In the Teaching English through Dalcroze Eurhythmics class, these locomotor movements are used to teach the verbs walk, run, skip, gallop, walk slowly, and walk fast. Step 1: The teacher walks and plays quarter notes on the drum in order to get the students to walk. The teacher encourages them to walk with the drum by saying walk, walk, walk, walk. As the students are walking they can join in with the teacher and say walk, walk, walk, walk. The teacher occasionally stops playing and says stop and stops walking. The students follow the teacher. This type of activity is known as a follow. After the students get used to this, the teacher gives a command to the students to walk. The students start walking by themselves and say walk, and the teacher plays the drum, watching the students’ tempo. The students stop walking when the teacher stops playing the drum, saying stop. The teacher introduces other locomotor movements by doing the same thing. Only two or three locomotor movements should be introduced in a class. | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 23 |

Readers’ Forum: Tamura Step 2: If the teacher has introduced walk and run, the teacher brings back walk by playing quarter notes on the drum. The teacher has the students identify what is being played and afterwards has the students walk and say walk. Then the teacher brings back run by playing eighth notes and asks the students to identify and move according to the durations. The teacher alternates playing walking and running notes and has the students move and say the appropriate words. This process is known as quick reaction. Development of Activity 2 Development of this activity may occur following the pre-teaching of vocabulary of objects (see Activity 3). Step 1: The teacher and the students sit in a circle. The teacher identifies one of the students and has her stand up by singing, “Will you please stand up?” Step 2: The teacher gives a command to the student such as walk to the door. Then the teacher has the student point to the door to check if she understands where she is walking. Step 3: The teacher says walk and the student starts walking toward the door. The teacher accompanies the walk by singing a song to which the student can walk, such as “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star” or plays walking notes on the drum, adjusting to the student’s tempo. The teacher may put in occasional stops and use a cadence to have the student stop. If the teacher hums the tune of a song, the teacher may have the student arrive at the door at the end of the song. The teacher could use “Yankee Doodle” for run and “Pop Goes the Weasel” for skip. Step 4: If the teacher has intermediate or advanced improvisational skills, she could improvise music for each locomotor movement on the piano with clear phrasing and use of cadence. Step 5: The teacher gives a different command to each student by combining a verb and object, such as skip to the window or run to the piano. Vocabulary can be increased by using a wide variety of objects for this activity, choosing from fruit, animals, flowers, or trees. Pictures of the actual items themselves can be used as the destination points. Activity 3: Teaching Intonation and Vocabulary through Rhythm Patterns In the Teaching English through Dalcroze Eurhythmics class, rhythm patterns are used to teach the intonation and rhythm of English words. | 24 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Because the rhythm of speech is very natural to children, it is easy for them to associate the rhythm of speech with the rhythm patterns. For example, in order to teach the rhythm pattern of two eighth notes and a quarter note, the teacher might use the rhythm of the phrase, yellow rose (two eighth notes and one quarter note). Also, through these activities, the students will begin to sense how many syllables are contained in a word. The rhythm pattern of each word is determined according to the number of syllables and the placement of the accent. For example: • triplets: words which consist of three syllables, and in which the first syllable is accented • two quarter notes: two-syllable words • one half note: one-syllable words • a combination of two eighth notes and a quarter note: a combination of a twosyllable adjective and one syllable noun (e.g., yellow rose) English Focus: Names of fruit, vegetables, animals, and objects in the room Dalcroze Subject: Speech and rhythm patterns (triplets, two quarter notes, a half note) Type of Activity: Canon, Echo Preparation: The teacher needs to make cards that feature the picture of an item such as fruit, in the upper half of the card and the spelling and rhythm pattern written on the bottom half of the card (see Appendix). Step 1: The teacher presents the names of fruit one at a time by showing the pictures. The teacher shows the students the upper half of the card, and if, for example, the picture is that of an apple, says “apple” a couple of times and then claps her hands twice while saying, “apple” (two quarter notes). The teacher asks the students to say “apple” and clap when they speak. Then the teacher asks the students how many times they clapped, and after they have figured out the answer, the teacher shows the bottom half of the card on which two quarter notes and the word “apple” are written. The students again clap and say the word “apple” while the teacher is pointing to the rhythm shown on the card. The names of other fruit, such as strawberry (triplets) and grapes (a half note), are introduced in the same way (one item per rhythm per lesson). Step 2: In the second lesson, the teacher can use the same procedure to teach the names of other fruit, such as melon (two quarter notes), pineapple (triplets), and peach (a half note). However, until the students get used to learning English, it is best to teach only words which | |

Readers’ Forum: Tamura have one of these three rhythms. After teaching each word, the teacher asks the students if they remember another word that has the same number of sounds. Step 3: In the third lesson the teacher starts to teach the names of animals, vegetables, flowers, or objects in the room using the same procedure. Here are examples of words and rhythms for each category: • vegetables: lettuce, eggplant (two quarter notes), cucumber (triplets), beans (a half note) • animals: tiger (two quarter notes), elephant (triplets), moose (a half note) • flowers: tulip (two quarter notes), violet (triplets), rose (a half note) • objects in the room: table (two quarter notes), canister (triplets), door (a half note) Step 4: After teaching new words, it is very important for the teacher to review words that the students have already learned and to ask which words have the same rhythm. The teacher then categorizes the word by rhythm and kind. The activities suggested in this paper represent only some of the possibilities for teaching English through Dalcroze Eurhythmics. These activities can be expanded as the teacher proceeds with her lessons and gets feedback from the students. The author is trying to create a firm base for this approach by conducting research from various perspectives, so this project is ongoing and other ideas will be available in the future. Further Reading

References Asher, J. (1977). Learning another language through actions: The complete teacher’s guidebook. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions. Brown, D. H. (1994). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Jaques-Dalcroze, E. (1921). Rhythm, music, and education. New York: The Knickerbocker Press. Nakazawa, N. (1986) A study of Eurhythmics and its peripheral issues (Ritomikku to sono shuhen ni okeru ichikousatsu). Ongaku to Ugoki, 45, 10-12. Sanchez, M. (1991). Dalcroze, Montessori and preschool music teaching. American Music Teacher, 40, 25-56.

Tomoko Tamura is a part-time instructor at Kansai Gaidai College, Kobe College, and Kyoto Gakuen University. She holds an Ed. M. in TESOL from Boston University and a Dalcroze Certificate from the Longy School of Music.

You’ve done the research, read the literature, and thought a lot... What next? Write it up and submit it to The Language Teacher of course!

Ausubel, D. A. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

"Wow, that was such a great lesson, I really want others to try it!"

「すばらしい授業!、これを他の人にも試してもらいたい!」 Every teacher has run a lesson which just "worked." So, why not share it around? The My Share Column is seeking material from creative, enthusiastic teachers for possible publication. 全ての教師は授業の実践者です。この貴重な経験をみんなで分かち 合おうではありませんか。My Share Columnは創造的で、熱心な教 師からの実践方法、マテリアルの投稿をお待ちしています。 For more information, please contact the editor. 詳しくは、ご連絡ください。

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Readers’ Forum: Tamura Appendix Sample Card for Activity 3

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My Share

...with Lorraine Sorrell In this issue of My Share we have an ice-breaker for post-holiday classes, from Paul Tanner, and Annie Menard explains how to use her easy, enjoyable method of using pair work in large or small speaking activities. Andy Boon leads us through a genuine and useful Internet activity, and David Weaver discusses his multi-skilled dictation (with a difference) class lesson. We welcome submissions for this column. Submissions should be up to 1000 words describing a successful technique or lesson plan you have used which can be replicated by readers, and should conform to My Share format (see any edition of The Language Teacher). Please send submissions to .

Winter Holiday: Find Someone Who… Paul Tanner, Nagoya City University

Quick Guide Key Words: Search, discuss, follow-up, Find someone who… Learner English Level: Intermediate and above, can be modified for lower levels Learner Maturity Level: High school to adult Preparation Time: Minimal Activity Time: 30-90 minutes Materials: One page worksheet, pencil

Procedure Step 1: As a warm-up exercise, ask individual students some of the Find someone who… questions (see Appendix for a sample list). If a student answers no, ask them a different question. When they answer yes, ask some follow-up questions to encourage them to explain their answer thoroughly. Step 2: Explain that the purpose of this exercise is to learn more about their classmates and develop conversation skills, NOT to finish the exercise as quickly as possible. Step 3: Give each student a copy of the Find someone who… handout. Note that questions are usually asked using Did you… plus the present tense form of the verb. On the handout, all of the verbs are written in past tense.

Note: The instructor needs to monitor class progress closely. The length of time appropriate for each class will vary depending on students’ level of English and eagerness to do the task. Follow-Up Activity Ask students to choose their most interesting answers and explain them to the class or in small groups. The class could also discuss changes in Japanese culture and customs, or contrast the holidays with another country. Another activity would be for students to explain in their own words Japanese cultural expressions (such as hatsumode). An appropriate writing assignment would be for students to explain the special characteristics and traditions of the Japanese New Year. Appendix Winter Holiday: Find Someone Who… 1. Worked a part-time job on Christmas Day

My Share

The winter holiday is an interesting break in that all students observe some traditions or customs associated with the New Year, and often with Christmas as well. Non-routine experiences provide excellent conversation topics. This activity utilizes student experiences over the winter holiday and provides opportunity for open-ended discussion of their experiences. Using the Find someone who… format, students must talk with many other students, forcing them to venture out beyond their usual partner or group. Another interesting option is that the instructor can take part.

Step 4: Instruct students to ask a classmate a question. If the student answers no, they should ask another question. Once a student gives a yes answer, make sure that the questioner asks follow-up questions to clarify and explain their experience. The roles can then be reversed, with the questionee asking questions. Step 5: Once they receive a yes answer and discuss it, the questioner should write down some key points and then move on to another person. Students will circulate by walking around the classroom, speaking with many different partners. Step 6: Students should be aware that it is possible there will be no yes answers. To find this out, they will have had to ask questions of everyone in the class. (Alternatively, the teacher could instruct students to move to another question after 10 no responses.)

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My Share: Tanner / Menard 2. Received more than ¥50,000 in gift money (otoshidama) 3. Drank champagne on New Year’s Eve 4. Wore a kimono 5. Did not eat zoni or osechi ryori (traditional New Year’s foods) 6. Went skiing or snowboarding 7. Traveled outside of Japan 8. Sent more than 25 New Year’s cards 9. Received an expensive Christmas present

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Went to a Christmas party Ate Christmas cake Had a Christmas tree in their home Bought more than one Christmas present Watched a film at the theater Watched a video Watched the NHK “Red and White Song Contest” (Kohaku uta gassen) 17. Went to a temple (otera) or shrine (jinja) at midnight of the New Year

Whole Class Rotating Pair Work

Annie Menard, Tokai University Shonan Campus Quick Guide Key Words: Pair work, external motivation, speaking class Learner Maturity Level: All Preparation Time: None Activity Time: As long or as short as you want Materials: None unless you want the students to write down their partners’ answers, in which case they will need either their textbook or some paper, and a pencil I devised this system based on some of my colleagues’ ideas. It is very effective in minimizing idle time and Japanese chatter during pair work and is wonderful for general classroom chemistry. It offers a non-threatening environment, the possibility of peer support, and a chance to talk to everybody, which greatly enhances classroom atmosphere. It also allows the students to move around. It can be used with any kind of communicative activity that requires students to work in pairs. It can be used with short conversation practice, Find someone who… activities, simple question and answer activities, greetings, or anything that requires two students to speak to each other. I personally use it for every speaking activity in the textbook. How it Works In most classrooms, the students’ desks are arranged in rows with an aisle between the rows. The students will sit or stand on either side of the aisles, facing each other, with space to move between them (in the aisle). Each will be paired to the student directly opposite him or her, and will change partners on cue.

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Preparation Step 1: Determine which aisles you will use, keeping in mind that the students must be able to move around. You can use the aisles that go from the front of the class to the back or the ones that go from side to side, whichever offers the longest aisle. I prefer long rows (aisles) to short ones just because they are easier to monitor, but this will be decided by the shape of your individual classroom. Step 2: Explain to the students that they are about to do pair work in a very different manner, that they will all be lined up in one long row with an aisle between them, and that they will change partners. Do the explaining using a drawing on the blackboard as coaches do. This will make everything much clearer for them. Step 3: Direct the students to sit or stand on either side of the aisle. You may use one aisle or more if you only have short ones. Make sure the students are facing each other so that both sides have an equal number of students (you may have one extra student on one side if you have an odd number of students). Step 4: Tell the students which side will be the A side and which side will be the B side. Step 5: Tell the students which side (A or B) will stay put and which side will move. Only one side should move until they are used to the activity. Step 6: Explain how the moving will be done. Let’s say side A moves and side B stays put. I usually have the students chat with the student directly in front of them. As the chat finishes, the A side moves one person to their right. This means they get a new partner. The student on the extreme right now faces nothing so he or she should go all the way back to the end of the line where a vacant spot has been created. The next move will be done in the same fashion. | |

My Share: Menard / Boon Step 7: Start the speaking exercise and be prepared to remind the students to move the first time you use this method. By the third time, the students will move on their own, and it will be a smooth operation. I usually break the speaking exercises into smaller steps. For example, if they have a list of questions to ask their partner, I will only allow them to ask one question per partner so they speak to more people and get more varied answers. Why Use This Method? This method is a great external motivator in many indirect ways. The students might not individually want to do the pair work, but they are in a situation that does not allow them not to participate because they constantly change partners, so they must remain on task. If they decide to slip into Japanese, they can only do so for a very short time because they will soon get a new partner. The change of partners provides the students with the opportunity to meet and chat with all their classmates, something the students always comment on positively. The shuffle keeps the students awake and breaks the monotony. It also helps the slower, more insecure students gain confidence as they hear their peers’ answers as they go along. In a way, it unites the classroom as a whole instead of creating the usual cliques.

It also creates a more relaxed, less threatening atmosphere in the classroom. Students often comment on how good the atmosphere is and how nice and interesting it was to be able to talk with students from other prefectures and other majors. One other great reason for using this pattern is the ease with which we can monitor all the students at once. Variations There are several variations to the moves. A moves and B stays put. B moves and A stays put. They can move either to the left or to the right. They can move like kaiten zushi which means both sides move in a circular fashion (instead of going back to the end of the row, the student on the extreme left or right simply crosses over to the other side). If you have more than one long aisle, for example, two aisles, label them A-B aisle 1 and A-B aisle 2 in this order. Have A move to the right and B stay put in aisle 1, and have A move to the left and B stay put in aisle 2. Then, the A student on the extreme right of aisle 1 will move to the spot vacated in aisle 2 which should be opposite him/her (since A in aisle 2 moves to the left). The same goes for the A student on the extreme left of aisle 2 who will move to the space vacated in aisle 1. There are many variations to the moves. Be creative and have fun!

Incorporating the Internet into Business English Classes

Andrew Boon, Tokyo Woman’s Christian University, Takushoku University, and Toyo Gakuen University, Tokyo and Chiba. Quick Guide Key Words: Authentic tasks, business English, hotel reservations, the Internet Learner English Level: Intermediate to advanced Learner Maturity Level: University students or business people Preparation Time: 10 minutes Activity Time: About 60 minutes Materials: Computers, Internet access, email Introduction Walking early one day into the meeting room where I usually teach my business English class, I found some of my students already seated and busily doing last minute work on their laptops: | |

surfing the Internet for information and replying to emails before the start of the lesson. With each student on the course possessing their own company laptop and remote Internet access cards, I began to think of ways I could make use of this technological resource in lessons. A first-session needs analysis had revealed that students wanted to include the topics of hotels and making reservations as a component of the course. As the prevalent method of selecting and reserving a hotel has now shifted to the use of the Internet (Witt, 2004), I decided to create a lesson which would involve students using the Web to retrieve, process, scan, evaluate, select, and discard information (Singhal, 1997) about available hotels in the London area from the | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 29 |

My Share: Boon hotel accommodation links page of a conference center website . The following lesson plan describes the various steps of a classroom activity which provides students with the opportunity to try to deal with authentic language on the Internet in order to gather information on suitable hotels for company employees to stay at whilst at a fictional business conference. It involves students deciding on which hotel is best according to a created list of criteria and providing supporting reasons for this choice to other group members. Preparation To set the scene of the lesson and contribute to a sense of authenticity (albeit within a created, imaginary business situation), write an email inviting students to an international conference at the Olympia Conference Centre, London, England. The email should be modified to reflect as closely as possible the business activities of the students in the class. The Appendix provides an example email based around an annual computer conference. The first hyperlink to the conference website is fictitious, but the second one, if clicked, will take students to a site where they can check for different accommodation in the general vicinity of the conference center. If the teacher knows the email addresses for group members, the invitation can be sent a few days prior to the lesson along with a request for confirmation that the students will in fact be able to use their laptops and wireless Internet connections during the session. Alternatively, the email can be provided as a handout at the beginning of the actual class. Procedure Step 1: Discuss students’ experiences of conference-going. (Do you go to conferences? What kind of conferences? How often? What are they like? Where do you usually stay?) Step 2: Give each student a copy of the Appendix (if not already sent via email) and check student comprehension. Step 3: Elicit that students will need to find and reserve a hotel if they are to attend the conference. Step 4: Decide on a budget for hotel accommodation and convert yen to British pounds (¥200 roughly equals £1). Record the agreed budget on the board. Step 5: Divide students into pairs and ask them to draw up a list of 10 criteria for the hotel. For example, the hotel must be within walking distance of the conference center, have Internet | 30 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

access, Japanese-speaking staff, and a bar. Step 6: Ask students to share their lists and agree on which criterion is the most important for them. Record a number of criteria on the board. Step 7: Have students go to the website by using the address in the email (see Appendix). Step 8: Once the webpage appears, ask students to enter the check-in date and the number of nights required and then click Search for hotels. Students will be directed to a list of hotels near to the conference center. Clicking on individual hotel names brings up another webpage which includes information on the specific hotel, its services and amenities, and individual room rates. Step 9: Divide students into pairs. Ask them to search through the information and to choose a hotel which they believe best fulfills the criteria they have decided on in steps 5 and 6. Step 10: Ask each pair to take turns in describing their chosen hotel and to give reasons for their choices to the other group members. Step 11: Ask the group to make a final decision on which hotel to reserve for the conference. Follow-Up Activity By clicking on Select a room for the chosen hotel, it is possible for students to continue with the activity, select a suitable hotel room for each conference attendee, and reach the final Make a reservation page where students can practice filling out the requested information in order to secure a reservation. It may be better, however, for the teacher to print copies of the reservation form prior to the class, hand them to students, and ask them to write in the required information using a pen. This would give students the opportunity to try to process the language on the form but avoid the possibility of actually reserving a room by mistake! Conclusion There are obvious constraints to using the Internet in the language classroom. Firstly, students require computers and access to the Internet. Also, technological problems can occur during lessons. However, when it is an available resource, the Internet can add an exciting and motivating dimension to language learning, provide students with exposure to the language used in the world outside of the classroom, and engage them in more real-life situations and language tasks. References Singhal, M. (1997). The Internet and foreign language education: Benefits and challenges. The Internet | |

My Share: Boon / Weaver TESOL Journal, 3(6). Retrieved April 27, 2005, from: . Witt, M. (2004). Return of European visitors boosts UK online hotel sales. Retrieved April 27, 2005, from:

Appendix Example email: Sent: Wednesday, 23 March 7:30 a.m. Subject: An invitation to the 3rd International Wireless Networking Conference—September 23–25 Dear Suzuki-san, I would like to inform you that the dates and venue have been set for this year’s International Wireless Networking Conference. This conference aims to bring together the top network professionals, experts, and vendors to discuss

current developments in the market. The 2005 conference will be held at the Olympia Conference Centre, London, and will run from Friday September 23rd to Sunday September 25th. Spaces are limited to 400. If you plan to attend, please register at the conference website by April 15th: . Alternatively, you can reply to this email including the names of attendees and dates of attendance. Information regarding accommodation near the conference center can be found at the following website: . If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me. I look forward to seeing you in September. Best regards, Andy Boon Conference Organizer ABC Solutions Inc.

Integrated Four-Skills Lesson With Zero Preparation Time David E Weaver, Akita International University Quick Guide Key Words: Listening, speaking, reading, writing, groups, leadership, competition, notetaking, information gap, revision Learner English Level: Low intermediate through advanced Learner Maturity Level: High school through college Preparation Time: Zero if the class has a textbook with a short paragraph of target language found upon opening it. Otherwise, preparation time is the time needed to obtain such a paragraph. Activity Time: Adjustable, one class period Language Focus: Listening, speaking, reading, and writing Materials: Teacher—one short paragraph of suitable reading level and subject content Students—paper, pencils, erasers, whiteboard or chalkboard space, chalk or markers, and board erasers

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Introduction Have you ever had to teach a class with little or no preparation time? Here’s an easy lesson plan designed to engage every student with the target language at his or her own level of readiness. It promotes both passive and active use of language, fosters leadership, and integrates all four basic language skills into one lesson. Procedure Step 1: Students clear their desks of everything except writing materials. Step 2: Instruct students to write exactly what they hear read aloud. Step 3: Read the target paragraph fast enough to keep it challenging while walking around the room to monitor writing progress. Read the paragraph repeatedly until the class has written about half of it. Never show the target paragraph to the students before the lesson ends. Step 4: Students compare their work in pairs, fill in gaps, and make revisions.

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My Share: Weaver Step 5: The teacher circulates, checks progress, encourages, and provides clues. Step 6: Read the target paragraph some more until the class completes roughly 75 percent. Step 7: Put the students into small groups of three to five, depending on class size. Step 8: Students read their paragraphs to one another for further checking and revision. Step 9: Read the target paragraph again, a little more quickly, to promote listening and writing proficiency. Do NOT take them beyond 90 percent perfection of their paragraphs at this point. Step 10: Divide the class into two groups. Step 11: Each group chooses a group leader or the teacher appoints one. Step 12: Each group chooses one or more members to read their paragraphs for comparison and revision. Step 13: Instruct groups to choose their best paragraph. Step 14: Read the target paragraph again swiftly. Their paragraphs should now be about 95 percent correct. Step 15: Each group chooses what they judge to be their best version of the paragraph. Step 16: Each group chooses one member to act as secretary and write on the board. Step 17: Each secretary goes to a different writing space with only an eraser and chalk or a marker to work with. Step 18: Each group dictates its chosen paragraph to its secretary. Step 19: Tell the class that the first team to have the paragraph completed on the board with no mistakes wins the game. Step 20: After the groups have finished writing on the board, the teacher underlines any places in both paragraphs that need revision. Step 21: Each group advises its secretary in the revision process. Step 22: The teacher erases the underlines as corrections are successfully made. Step 23: If time runs short and mistakes still remain, the teacher should read the target paragraph, or relevant parts of it, repeatedly until one team wins. | 32 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Follow-Up Activity If time still remains or if you would like to continue the activity in the next class meeting, the following activity is a useful review. Step 1: Students put away all books and papers. Step 2: The teacher passes the board eraser through each of the paragraphs two or more times in diagonal directions so that a significant amount of text, but not too much, is erased from each paragraph as identically as possible (see Appendix). Step 3: Then the same teams compete from memory to reconstruct their partially erased paragraphs. It is okay if they monitor one another’s progress. Step 4: More advanced clues related to meaning and subject matter may be used to aid the paragraph restoration and build language skills. Note: After writing this article, it was brought to my attention that my lesson plan contained features similar to Dictogloss, a method of language teaching first discussed by Ruth Wajnryb (1990). Similarities include the use of a short text that is dictated to students taking notes which they compare with others in groups in an effort to reconstruct the text. Differences include the group work follow-up activities and the fact that my method requires perfect reproduction of the original text while hers does not. Reference Wajnryb, R. (1990). Grammar dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Appendix Example of Follow-Up Activity

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Welcome to the December Focus column. Starting off the column this month, Mary Christianson reports on JALT2005. Her report includes Best of JALT 2004; a list of outstanding presentations nominated by chapters from all over Japan. Please also check out the Perspectives section this month for a glimpse of how JALT chapters around Japan get together to celebrate this special time of year. JALT Focus contributors are requested by the column editor to submit articles of up to 750 words written in paragraph format and not in abbreviated or outline form. Announcements for JALT Notices should not exceed 150 words. All submissions should be made by the 15th of the month, one and a half months prior to publication.

Joseph Sheehan

From JALT National: On JALT2005 in Shizuoka


t seems to be the general view that this year’s conference - earlier than usual this year to coincide with a long weekend - was a big success. One of the key features this time was the way that the theme (Sharing Our Stories) was more evident in the content and style of the conference. Thanks to the organizers have been mentioned elsewhere, but the kudos for this development goes to Conference Chairs Marc Helgesen and Rob Waring. From a national point of view, there were several things of note at the conference which we’re happy to report:

New JALT Logo Our new logo - well, not so much new as refreshed and updated - was unveiled at the opening ceremony. Thanks are due to the ubiquitous Malcolm Swanson for the design.


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Partnership with PALT Edizon A. Fermin of the Philippine Association for Language Teaching (PALT) and JALT President Steve Brown took the stage before David Nunan’s plenary to sign a mutual partnership agreement. PALT is the longest running ELT organization in the Philippines (45 years) and has the largest membership of any Philippine ELT group (540 active members). This partnership agreement paves the way for PALT to become the seventh member of the Pan-Asian Consortium (PAC). Apart from JALT, PAC’s member organizations at present include ThaiTESOL, ETAROC (Taiwan), KoreaTESOL, FEELTA (Russian Far East), and ELLTAS (Singapore).

Research Grants JALT’s Research Grant programme was revived after an absence of several years. Three grants of ¥100,000 each were awarded to Andy Boon, Naoki Fujimoto, and Mami Ishikawa. We wish them luck with their research and look forward to seeing the fruits of it next year. | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 33 |

From JALT National JALT Mic

Best of JALT 2004

This was a new session at the conference, immediately after the Ordinary Meeting, providing an outlet for members’ voices: an opportunity to ask questions, pass comment, make suggestions or complaints . . . generally to say whatever they like about JALT to the Directors. There was only a small group of 7 or 8 this time, but those who were there enjoyed a fruitful discussion about several areas of the organization. We hope to be joined by more next year. In the meantime, JALT President Steve Brown will be holding a series of mini Open Mics when he visits several chapters around the country. Keep an eye out for news of this in your area and try to get along to make your views known!

Every year at the national conference, JALT awards certificates to the outstanding presentations nominated by chapters for the previous calendar year. The winners for presentations made in 2004 were: • Iwate: Takao Ogawa, “The ‘Let Me Try’ Kids”

Ordinary General Meeting (OGM) Without the usual national officer elections to create a buzz at the OGM, the meeting was less about business and more about acknowledging the efforts and achievements of JALT members and volunteers. Steve Brown announced the slate of appointed officers approved at the Executive Board Meeting – a group of volunteers who go the extra mile running JALT’s publications, external relations with international and domestic ELT groups, and various committees. Also, the Teaching Older Learners (TOL) SIG was recognized for having achieved Full SIG status with more than 50 members, three newsletters annually, and four officers. Finally, certificates were presented to the winners of the Best of JALT awards for 2004. | 34 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Kagoshima: Kyoko Sonomoto, “Teaching Phonics in a Large Class”

Kitakyushu: Kay Hammond, “Delivery Skills for Public Speaking”

Nagoya: Kensaku Yoshida, “New Directions in Teaching English in Japan’s EFL Context”

Okayama: Kumiko Miyamoto, “A Database of Classroom English in Communicative Language Teaching”

Osaka: Deryn P. Verity, “Language Awareness for Language Teaching: How Etymology Can Help”

Sendai: Chris Cuadra and John Wiltshier, “TPR? It Isn’t That Simple. English Only? Is It That Simple?”

Toyohashi: Mary Hughes, “English Games and Short Activities”

West Tokyo: Andy Boon, “Cooperative Development for Language Teachers”

Yokohama: Christopher Jon Poel and Robert M. Homan, “Effective Groupwork Guidelines”

Any chapter looking for good presenters might do well to contact the nominating chapter about how to get in touch with these winners. Now is the time for chapters to nominate their Best of JALT winners for the 2006 awards ceremony, while the 2005 presentations are still fresh in their minds. Contact Best of JALT Organizer Margaret Orleans . Plans are already underway for next year’s conference in Kitakyushu - we’ll see you there! Mary Christianson JALT Director of Records [Photos in this report courtesy of Harry Creagen, Robert Sanderson, and Mary Christianson]

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JALT Notices / Perspectives

JALT Notices

Staff Recruitment

ESP Special Issue Call for Contributors The Language Teacher is seeking papers (1,500-2,000 words) related to ESP teaching and learning in Japanese post-secondary and professional contexts. They may include English for business, hospitality, medical, technical, or tourism purposes among others. Topics should be research or classroom based and may focus on the challenges teachers, materials designers, curriculum innovators, program administrators, and students face in such contexts. Articles about new or innovative ways to teach ESP content, design ESP-related materials, or manage ESP programs are welcome. Additionally, please consider submitting shorter articles to the My Share column about practical ways to deal with ESP content in the classroom. If you are interested in writing a paper for this special edition of TLT or have suggestions which might fit with the above themes, please contact Heidi Evans or Todd Squires at . The deadline for manuscript submissions is March 31, 2006. Articles should be completed and ready for editing by May 1, 2006.

Proofreaders The Language Teacher needs English language proofreaders immediately. Qualified applicants will be JALT members with language teaching experience, a fax, email, and a computer that can process MS Word files. The position will require several hours of concentrated work every month, mailing list subscription, and occasional online and face-to-face meetings. If more qualified candidates apply than we can accept, we will consider them in order as further vacancies appear. The supervised apprentice program of The Language Teacher trains proofreaders in TLT style, format, and operations. Apprentices begin by shadowing experienced proofreaders and then rotate from section to section of the magazine until they become familiar with TLT’s operations as a whole. They then assume proofreading tasks themselves. Consequently, when annual or occasional staff vacancies arise, the best qualified candidates tend to come from current staff, and the result is often a succession of vacancies filled and created in turn. As a rule, TLT recruits publicly for proofreaders and translators, giving senior proofreaders and translators first priority as other staff positions become vacant. Please submit your curriculum vitae and cover letter to the Publications Board Chair at .

How do JALT chapters celebrate this special time of year? In this issue, members share the Christmas and New Year’s customs that create special memories and help everyone bond more closely. The coeditors invite 750-word contributions of chapter interest in English, Japanese, or both.

Season's Greetings, JALT Chapter Style! Hokkaido Up here in Hokkaido, where the winters are long and cold, we at Hokkaido JALT like to stock up on the calories (just like the famous Hokkaido bears) at our year-end party. We have been holding a potluck holiday dinner for many years. Hokkaido JALT buys the turkeys, which are then roasted by several of our members (including myself—it’s my most important officer’s duty), and | |

everyone else brings their family’s favorite holiday side dish. Last year, in addition to just eating, we held an auction for charity. We brought things from our homes and businesses that we no longer needed and people wrote their bid on a slip of paper and put it in that item’s envelope. The person who bid the most got the item. The proceeds went to a local foreign businessman’s charity drive, Project Santa. Every year, the money raised for Project Santa is used to buy Christmas presents for children at several Hokkaido orphan| THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 35 |



...with Joyce Cunningham & Mariko Miyao

Perspectives ages. So while Hokkaido’s year-end party is a time to socialize, we are also thinking of others. Mary Virgil-Uchida, President, Hokkaido chapter

Ibaraki In the Ibaraki chapter, way back when, Andy Barfield started a lovely custom in our chapter at the Christmas party. We all bring a small present (maximum ¥500). When the time is right, we all stand up in a circle together and sing, hopefully in tune, “We wish you a merry Christmas. We wish you a merry Christmas.” We pass the presents around the circle at the same time. Of course, we need a few practices; we laugh and fumble the passes and get mixed up a lot, but it’s fun. When the song is finished for the very last time (or the restaurant owner is casting dirty looks in our direction), that is the present we get. It’s a great, merry way to finish up our party. Joyce Cunningham, Recording Secretary, Ibaraki chapter

Kitakyushu For the last few years, Kitakyushu JALT has had its first meeting of the year at a local hot spring where we have a wonderful dinner and then enjoy a soak. It is always a family event that is enjoyed by all. We find this a wonderful and relaxed way to start off a year of more than 15 academic type meetings. Dennis Woolbright, President, Kitakyushu chapter

Sendai Sendai JALT’s December meeting usually consists of reports by members who attended the national conference. Then we have a bonenkai that includes a drawing for prizes—one of which is a free JALT membership donated by our sister organization TALE. This year one of the other prizes is a T-shirt that says TEACH WELL in those sparkly letters that are popular lately. Members are encouraged to bring their spouses or partners, which means they have someone to talk to about something other than English Teaching. I don’t understand it, but some of our partners don’t think ELT is the most fascinating topic in the world—go figure! Marc Helgesen, Programme Chair, Sendai chapter

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Sendai chapter’s Christmas celebrations usually take place in a restaurant following the last meeting of the year. The secret is usually to get sloshed, have a good old laugh and a bit of banter, perhaps a raffle and gift giving, oh, and try not to annoy too many of the other customers. But last year, in the Christmas spirit of sharing, the members’ spouses were invited. These, in the majority, are the poor and long suffering Japanese wives of native English teachers—or better known as the “I can’t bear to hear another word about teaching” posse. Needless to say, they’ll usually do anything to avoid slightly dull crowds of gaijin. However, after a few suspected phone calls to each other of, “If you go, I’ll go,” we were delighted to welcome a healthy contingent of about 10 spouses (is the plural spice?). Clearly, new friendships were made, and the laughter and volume tripled—even though they hogged their own table. Best of all, some of us JALT members had shoulders to lean on to get home. I suspect this year’s party will be held by the spouses, and JALT members might just happen to be invited, too. If not, best start making the “If you crash it, I’ll crash it” phone calls! Thomas Warren-Price, President, Sendai chapter

Shinshu For the past several years, the Shinshu chapter in Nagano Prefecture has been holding its year-end party at the Meiji era home of past president Tami Kaneko. We’ve enjoyed playing holiday games together, hearing talks about various countries, and sharing holiday goodies—many of which were prepared by Tami, who was more often than not slaving away in the kitchen! Winners of the games have received prizes, but Tami makes sure everyone ends up going home with a good dose of holiday cheer and often a present. Mary Aruga, Programme Chair, Shinshu chapter

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Book Reviews

...with Robert Taferner This month’s column features English in Action, a multi-skills textbook series reviewed by Howard Hig;, the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, reviewed by Jack Massalski; and Engineer’s Power English for Technical Meetings, evaluated by Mark Chapman. To access previous book reviews please go to . Don’t forget your TLT password. If you are interested in writing a book review, please see the list of materials available for review in the Recently Received column, or consider suggesting an alternative book that would be helpful to our membership.

English in Action, Books 1–4 [Barbara H. Foley, & Elizabeth R. Neblett. Boston: Heinle, 2003. pp. iii + 246-262. ¥1,980. Book 1 pp. 246. ISBN: 083842811-8; Book 2 pp. 246. ISBN: 083842828-2; Book 3 pp. 262. ISBN: 083842829-0; and Book 4 pp. 262. ISBN: 083842830-4.]

Reviewed by Howard Higa, Chubu Gakuin University


outlining the layout for the units includes the following areas: goals, dictionary, active grammar, listening/pronunciation, reading, writing our stories, and learning tips/forms/numbers (with a slight variation for books 3 and 4). All skill areas are catered to with communicative activities and tasks that promote student interaction. Forms and documents, which are utilized for exercises throughout the textbooks, are near authentic and relevant—simulating realia. Even the photographs depict the author’s own students in actual college settings and experiences. My students in Japan were fully immersed in a make-believe experience of living and studying in a foreign country throughout the course. Interestingly, English in Action is a crossover textbook from general education in the US to the international EFL market. As such, certain aspects of the series reflect language arts, cooperative learning, and whole language in approach. The differences are subtle but refreshing. It is my view that Japanese students can appreciate a higher level of attention to detail (i.e., the nuts and bolts of language learning). It is a good connection from their previous language learning experience to a new range of learning experiences. My students were fully engaged in the things they needed to do in the textbook— form filling, dictation with partners, information gap exercises, listening tasks, sentence writing,

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Book Reviews

or schools and programs that are looking for a fresh multi-skill textbook series that gets back to basics in order to achieve solid progress, the new English in Action series deserves serious consideration. Interestingly, the series follows a more traditional approach to ESL/EFL in my view. My claim that it is fresh for Japan reflects my contention that we have been mired in a wave of same-formula communicative textbooks for some time, so a series like English in Action seems a refreshing throwback at first glance. Traditional, however, does not equate with boring. The series is, in fact, chock-full of exercises and activities that are creative and original, not to mention engaging and communicative. English in Action provides a better balance of preparation and follow-up to the communicative aspect than other popular multi-skill textbooks in my opinion. Also, the balance of language skills— mainly listening, speaking, reading, writing, and grammar— is optimal. The thoroughness and attention to detail (for example, full pit stops for grammar and pronunciation) are aspects that reflect the back-tobasics approach. The textbook units are centered around practical and relevant themes of the adult education experience in the US—basically living and studying in a college setting amongst international students. The Content page

Book Reviews vocabulary exercises, essay writing, etc. Over time the more serious students could sense improvement and that became self-motivating. The less serious students still needed to keep busy doing things to complete the necessary exercises and activities. Students seemed content to work toward completing the exercises and activities, and I was satisfied with the level of student engagement. I was also satisfied with students’ progress—a considerable accomplishment for my large class of non-English majors. The four-book series could serve well to establish the foundation of an entire English curriculum at a high school, college, or university in Japan—depending on the level of the students—with other textbooks filling in around this base. For example, I have noticed that more and more colleges and universities in Japan lack a clear direction or any semblance of an organized curriculum for their English programs. Many of these programs resign themselves to allowing individual teachers to choose any textbook, resulting in a disjointed patchwork of English samplings. A series like English in Action could set the course. The series lays the foundation for thorough multi-skill progression from beginner level (literally starting with a review of numbers and the alphabet) to high intermediate level (e.g., full-length reading articles followed by open-ended discussion questions). The entire four-level series covers about 1,000 pages of material, with each textbook averaging 250 pages. (According to the publisher, splitlevel editions are forthcoming). In addition, supplemental and support materials include a cutting-edge CD-ROM testing component called Exam View, teacher’s manuals, and workbooks. The listening component for each level of the series encompasses three CDs: two CDs for the main textbook and one CD for the accompanying workbook. All together it is a very comprehensive program. Although I have had considerable success with English in Action, I admit I recognized that it matched my teaching style upon first inspection of the materials. It reminded me of textbooks I had encountered in ESL programs in the US. As a cross-over textbook, there may be a few considerations for adjustment to this Japanese EFL setting: • Each textbook comprises too much material to be covered in the typical 12–15 koma schedule | 38 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

of a Japanese college or university semester. From my experience, 5–6 units of English in Action can be covered in a semester, without using the workbook. Each textbook contains 15 units, making the split-level editions the ideal choice for most settings. The full potential of English in Action will be tapped through the progression of the four levels of the series. However, most programs may not be able to make such a commitment. • For teachers and programs that are settled into the typical range of listening/speaking textbooks in Japan, the communicative aspect of English in Action may not be immediately apparent when balanced within the multi-skillsapproach. In fact, the listening component is extensive and the speaking tasks and activities are abundant, though slightly academic rather than game-like in style. Personally, I have found that supplementing with game-like activities has provided a smooth transition since the main textbook carries the base curriculum well. In conclusion, the inside cover states that English in Action is written by two colleagues with over 40 years of combined teaching experience in the same English program. Indeed, the series seems a culmination of focused experience by two teachers who display a firm grasp on how to take their students from beginner to advanced through solid step-by-step progress.

Correction In the last issue of The Language Teacher, two writers of one book were incorrectly listed. The reference should have read:

Top-Up Listening 1 [Chris Cleary, Bill Holden, and Terry Cooney. Tokyo and San Francisco: Abax Ltd., 2003. pp. 104. ¥2,200. (Includes CD). ISBN: 1-896942-13-X.] We apologise for the error. — The Editors

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Book Reviews

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. pp. xii + 1550. ¥3,500. ISBN: 0-52153106-3.]

Reviewed by Jack Massalski, Sophia University


he new Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, henceforth CALD, is an essential resource for anyone pursuing the study of the English language as well as a very useful reference tool for English language educators. I have used CALD extensively in my intermediate and advanced college courses where it proved to be an indispensable resource. The updated dictionary corpus as well as the included CDROM make it an extremely valuable English language learning tool and provide excellent value for the price. At first glance CALD will surprise the reader with color and a clean layout. The publisher decided to highlight all keywords in blue for easy look-up. The colored tabs on the book’s margins are also designed to make finding keywords as effortless as possible. Keywords are supplied with both the British and American pronunciations in IPA, whenever they vary. The word definitions are generally written in simple, yet rather precise language, which makes them easily accessible for the learner while at the same time preserving the clarity of meaning. For example the meaning of the verb to abdicate is explained in the following manner: “If a king or queen abdicates, they make a formal statement that they no longer want to be king or queen.” Example sentences that are provided with most keywords are equally useful. Here we read: “King Edward VIII abdicated (the British throne) in 1936 so that he could marry Mrs. Simpson, a divorced woman.” Whenever a keyword has multiple meanings, the definitions are listed in paragraphs, each beginning with a guideword, a clearly visible header printed in capital letters pointing the reader to the correct definition. And thus for example, various definitions for the keyword matter appear headed by the following guidewords: situation, be important, problem, substance, type, and finally small amount. The reader will notice here that it | |

is not the seemingly most natural definition of the word matter, namely substance, that is listed first, but that the ordering of definitions is based on frequency of use. As far as the corpus is concerned, the dictionary boasts of containing 170,000 words, phrases, and definitions with over 1,000 new words such as 9/11, double-click, abbreviations used online such as HHOK (ha ha only kidding), new technologies such as WAP (Wireless Application Protocol), etc. In order to help learners use them correctly, included are over 90,000 example sentences and 25,000 collocations. As a descriptive linguist, whenever examining a new dictionary, I often turn to taboo language to check whether it is represented faithfully. CALD does not disappoint in this area; it not only assists the learner by indicating offensive language as such, but also provides a variety of natural examples to illustrate its usage. Other welcome dictionary features include numerous examples of common learner errors, self-study sheets, and an idiom finder section. These selfstudy sheets found both in the book and as printable PDF files on the CD-ROM provide the learner with useful information on grammar topics such as modals, phrasal verbs, and determiners, as well as letter writing, punctuation, and British and American varieties of English. The idiom finder section allows the reader to easily look up an idiomatic phrase by searching for any known component. The included CD-ROM really deserves a separate review. Those like me who spend most of their study or preparation time in front of a computer will most likely find themselves using the CD-ROM much more frequently than the book. Unlike some other dictionaries on CDROM which require the disc to be inserted in the drive when in use, once installed, CALD resides completely on the user’s hard disk for quick and | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 39 |

Book Reviews easy access. The electronic version of CALD, in fact, contains much more information than its paper counterpart. The learner will especially appreciate the sound recordings for both British and American pronunciations of most keywords. A novel feature that is very much welcomed by the students allows the user to record their own voice and then play it back alongside the original recording for comparison and pronunciation practice purposes. In addition to printable selfstudy sheets, hundreds of interactive exercises that could be conducted in a computer lab, as well as various picture dictionary pages covering topics from car exterior to hairstyles, are included. CALD’s search engine is designed to search for keywords while they are still being typed into the search window. This particular feature gives the user instant look-up capability even when using a slower computer. Moreover, the user is able to look up any given keyword in a thesaurus with a single click. While the built-in thesaurus is somewhat abridged, I found it to be more than sufficient for most classroom use. When listing various features of CALD on CD-ROM, I should not forget to mention two applications that my students found especially useful. One of them, called QUICKfind, allows the user to instantly see the definitions and hear the pronunciation of any words pointed to with a mouse from other applications such as Microsoft Word or Microsoft Explorer. Many of my students commented on how this feature had helped them in their understanding of English material found on the Internet. Another application called SUPERwrite serves as a writing tool. It appears as a pop-up window and provides the user

with word definition, list of collocations and thesaurus access for any word pointed to with a mouse. Unfortunately the tracing of the mouse pointer movement which results in automatic word look-up in these two applications works only in conjunction with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Explorer. One feature which would in my opinion make this CD-ROM even more appealing, especially to users of other software packages than those of Microsoft, is the capability of invoking word look-up with preset keyboard shortcuts accessible from any application. Overall, I have been more than impressed with this dictionary. My students, too, have responded to it very positively, especially praising the usefulness of having the dictionary permanently installed on the computer. I strongly recommend the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary to intermediate to advanced college students as well as educators. Students will benefit from easily accessible information while the included reference pages will provide the teachers with plenty of useful resources for dealing with specific study focus areas such as phrasal verbs, relative clauses, or punctuation. Moreover, if like me you tend to include definitions of some of the more difficult words in your handouts, you will find the copy and paste feature very useful. CALD is a great resource that is reader/user friendly, up to date, highly informative, and esthetically attractive. If you are currently looking for a good learner’s dictionary to direct your students to, or think you would benefit from the above mentioned CD-ROM features when preparing your teaching materials, I urge you to examine a copy of Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary for yourself. You will be pleasantly surprised.

エンジニアのための英会話超克服テキストー実践!テクニカ ル。ミーテイング Enjinia no tame no eikaiwa chou kokufuku tekisuto: Jissen! Tekunikaru miitingu [Engineer’s Power English for Technical Meetings—The Way It Really Happens]

[Michihiro Hirai, & Francis J. Kurdyla, Tokyo: Ohmsha, 2004. pp. 205. ¥2,400. ISBN: 4-27419735-2.]

Reviewed by Mark Chapman, Hokkaido University


his bilingual text エンジニアのための英 会話超克服テキストー実践!テクニカ ル。ミーテイング provides a specialized look | 40 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

at the teaching of business English, specifically the English required to participate in technical meetings in the field of engineering. It is | |

Book Reviews suitable for any level of proficiency beyond false beginner, but would best be utilized at around the TOEIC 600 range. The text can act as both a course book and self-study material for students. Part 1 introduces and bilingually explains language essential for understanding part 2, which consists of 17 dialogues making up a case study of a software development project. Most of the 17 chapters in the second half of the text will each comfortably fill a 60-minute lesson and can be integrated into a task-based learning methodology. The first half of the text is most likely to be used as reference material by the teacher, unless he or she is a proficient reader of Japanese. This section is a valuable resource for students however, as it clearly explains key language for setting up, running, and participating in a technical business meeting in English. The language presented throughout the book is realistic and natural and is probably beyond the level attained by a monolingual text. Idiomatic and formal business expressions are clearly presented and then explained so the classroom teacher can focus on exploiting the language rather than wading through lengthy grammatical and lexical explanations. Part 2, which is likely to be focused on in class, is separated into individual chapters working chronologically through a software development project. The major themes developed are arranging a meeting, handling a first encounter, confirming an agenda and objectives, discussing technical specifications and project schedules, confirming minutes, and concluding meetings. Each chapter presents a lengthy (1–2 B5 pages) dialogue between multiple participants in English along with a Japanese translation. This is followed by bilingual explanations of the key vocabulary in the conversations. The English presented through the dialogues will be challenging for all but the most advanced learners, but because it is presented bilingually, it is manageable in the classroom. The teacher is free to work on pronunciation, discussion, and application of the language. | |

Given that the material presented in the dialogues of this text is close to authentic English and hence challenging for learners (unless they are advanced) I have not put an emphasis on accurate production of the target language in class activities. Instead, I devote the first half of a class to introducing the dialogue, then work on pronunciation of the text, followed by consciousness raising questions on salient features of the text. If the text is used in a course that meets regularly, it provides an excellent framework for running simulated meetings. After every 4 or 5 lessons the students will have covered enough material for them to review the contents through an extended practice meeting. Unless the students are genuine beginners, they should be able to run a meeting for the whole class, especially if a few minutes at the end are devoted to reviewing how effectively the meeting was handled. Of course this will require a class with enough students to run a meeting: six students are optimal in my experience, but larger groups can be divided up to run two or even more meetings. With larger groups it has been rewarding to have the two groups pair up after completing the simulation to compare the running and results of their respective meetings. This has always produced rich and authentic English from my students. In summary, Engineer’s Power English for Technical Meetings—The Way It Really Happens is an interesting alternative to traditional business English course books. The bilingual presentation is valued by students and allows the teacher to focus on a higher level of language than is possible with a monolingual text. Despite the bilingual presentation, the book is accessible to teachers who do not read Japanese as the dialogues in part 2 very much stand alone. The book allows students to get a close look at real English as it is used in business. The authentic situations are perhaps the most valuable and motivating aspects for both learners and instructors alike.

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Advert: Seido

Recently Received ...compiled by Scott Gardner * = first notice; ! = final notice. Final notice items will be removed December 31. For queries please write to the email address above. You can also find this list on the TLT website.

Books for Students (reviewed in TLT) Contact: Scott Gardner *Beginners Preparing for the TOEIC Test. Graziani, F., & Nakamichi, Y. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 2005. [Incl. CDs, tapescripts, Japanese answer key]. !Enjoy Writing for Everyday Use. Shaffer, D. E., & Choe, P. Y. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 2005. [Incl. CD, transcript, answer key]. !Fact Finders Questions and Answers: Countries (series). Bauer, B., et al. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2005. [Incl. 28 hardcover juvenile readers, each on a different country]. An Introduction to Media English. Kizuka, H. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 2004. [Incl. CD, teacher’s manual (mostly in Japanese)].


*Japanese in MangaLand 2: Basic to Intermediate Level. Bernabe, M. Tokyo: Japan Publications, 2005. *Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. !Pebble Plus Animal Offspring (series). Hall, M., et al. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2004. [Incl. 10 hardcover elementary readers, each on a different animal]. *Totally True: Building Vocabulary Through Reading (Books 1-3). Huizenga, J., & Huizenga, L. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Traveling the World in English. Nordvall, K. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 2005. [Incl. CDs, transcript/ answer key].

Books for Teachers (reviewed in JALT Journal) Contact: Yuriko Kite *Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Myers-Scotton, C. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006. *Practical English Usage (3rd ed.). Swan, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Need to publish? Need support? • The Language Teacher’s Peer Support Group (PSG) can help you make your writing clear, concise, and captivating. • We provide a friendly, cooperative environment for sharing ideas and feedback that will help you write a better paper. • So, pull out that rough draft you’ve been sitting on and contact us today at ! • The PSG is also looking for good, motivated writers who want to help others improve their writing. Come work with a great team that’s doing a great service! Contact the PSG at or, for more information, visit

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Special Interest Group News

...with Mary Hughes

SIG News & Contacts

JALT currently has 17 Special Interest Groups (SIGs) available for members to join. This column publishes announcements of SIG events, mini-conferences, publications, or calls for papers and presenters. SIGs wishing to print news or announcements should contact the editor by the 15th of the month, 6 weeks prior to publication.

JALT Pan-SIG Conference—This month, we’d like to announce the second call for papers for the Fifth Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference (2006), entitled Authentic Communication: Process and Purpose. It is sponsored by the JALT Bilingualism, Pragmatics, Testing and Evaluation, and Teacher Education SIGs as well as the JALT Shizuoka chapter. It will be held at Tokai University, Shimizu Campus in Miho-Shimizu, Shizuoka, on May 13–14, 2006. The past 10 years have been full of discussion about active communication. This conference wishes to build on ideas regarding what makes real communication effective and how we can teach this to our students. It aims to address issues of teacher education, testing, second language acquisition, and practical issues as well as pragmatics. There are still a few openings for presentation proposals in the form of the following: • Papers—Formal lecture, 45 minutes including time for questions. •

Poster Session—Informal discussion about exhibit, 30–60 minutes.

Publishers' Sessions—Publishers demonstrate how a textbook or other teaching material can be applied.

Criteria for Selection—Each proposal will be refereed by a team of experts from the specific category it falls into. The abstract should be double spaced and fit on one sheet of A-4 paper (about 250 words maximum). The title should be limited to 50 characters. At the bottom of the abstract the contact person’s name and email address should be written on one line and the type of presentation on the next line. Submission—Submit two copies of your abstract as an attachment (one with name and affiliation and one without) to the following email address by February 10, 2006: . Confirmations will be sent out by March 1, 2006. All presenters must pre-register by March 15 or their

proposal will not be included. All confirmed presenters will be requested to provide a 50 word autobiography after confirmation for inclusion in the program (i.e., name, occupation, place of work, teaching experience, and educational background). Only electronic submissions will be accepted for review. Bilingualism—As you probably know by now, the theme for next year’s JALT national conference is Community-Identity-Motivation. Well, always one step ahead of the pack, the Bilingualism SIG has just released a special issue of its journal entitled Identity in Bilingual Japanese Contexts. What does it mean to be Japanese when one of your parents isn’t? What kinds of cultural capital do so-called half-Japanese girls construct? How does a non-Japanese boy raised in Japan develop the various facets of his identity? In what way does the acquisition of English help Japanese women in international marriages broaden their sense of self? What value do immigrant children in Japan place on their minority language proficiency? These are only some of the questions that the authors tackle in this year’s issue of the Japan Journal of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism. Kai or Leo? Arisa or Kay? Our SIG has also recently published the 12th volume in its monograph series. This time we explore the issue of how crosscultural couples in Japan choose names for their children. More than just a list of baby names, this monograph brings together personal stories from over 60 international families with around 100 children, each considering the issues that they worked through

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SIG News together as the first step in raising a child inand-between two cultures. The monograph will be valuable both as the first-ever published collection of bilingual naming practices in Japan and as a practical guide for young families facing the task of choosing a name for their babies. Both publications are available for purchase online at . CALL—The CALL SIG would like to thank all JALT members who attended our Annual General Meeting in Shizuoka. We look forward to another year with you and our newly elected officers for 2006. The JALT conference is an important opportunity to meet fellow CALL SIG members, but you can still stay in touch with us online throughout the year, or see us again at our annual conference next year in Hokkaido. For more information on the SIG’s publications, activities, or how to get involved in the CALL SIG and why it will benefit you, please visit our website at . You can CALL anytime! College and University Educators— Learner Development Context, Curricula, Content: Proceedings of the Kobe Conference 2003 was recently published by CUE in cooperation with the LD SIG. All CUE members and all participants of this retreat are entitled to a free copy; others pay ¥1,500. Please contact Philip McCasland with your order. Gender Awareness in Language Education—Gender Issues Today, an intermediate level English (EFL) textbook for young adult learners, appeared in September 2005. Put together by several GALE members led by Jane Nakagawa, along with other writers interested in gender issues, it comprises an introductory content course in gender issues for young adult learners. It is being published through a print-on-demand publisher, Tokyo Shuppan Service Center, for ¥1,200 (overseas orders are also welcome, though there may be a small surcharge for orders outside of Japan). It can be ordered directly though Munetoshi Kawamura: Tokyo Shuppan Service Center, 401 Saint Office Akihabara, 1-33-6 Taito, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-0016; , t: 03-5688-5801, f: 03-5688-5803. For readers new to TLT, GALE is the Gender Awareness in Language Education | |

SIG. Its purpose is to research gender and its implications for language learning, teaching, and training. To join GALE please use the form in the back of TLT or contact the membership chair, Diane Nagatomo, . Global Issues in Language Education— Are you interested in promoting global awareness and international understanding through your teaching? Then join the Global Issues in Language Education SIG. We produce an exciting quarterly newsletter packed with news, articles, and book reviews; organize presentations for local, national, and international conferences; and network with groups such as UNESCO, Amnesty International, and Educators for Social Responsibility. Join us in teaching for a better world! The GILE website is located at . For further information, please contact Kip Cates . Junior and Senior High School—The JSH SIG is operating at a time of considerable change in secondary EFL education. We are currently concerned with language learning theory, teaching materials, and methods. In addition, we are also intensely interested in curriculum innovation. The employment of native speaker instructors on a large scale is a recent innovation and one which has yet to be thoroughly studied or evaluated. JALT members who are involved with junior or senior high school EFL are cordially invited to join us for dialogue and professional development opportunities. Learner Development—We are currently working together to produce a second anthology of papers related to learner development and teacher/learner autonomy. Twice yearly, we publish a newsletter, Learning Learning, which welcomes submissions from members or non-members. Events planned for 2006 include a one-day conference in Osaka in the summer, and the Learner Development Forum at the national conference in November. Meanwhile, we wish you happy holidays and a great new year! You can find our latest enewsletter on line at . For further information, please check out | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 45 |

SIG News & Contacts the website at , or contact the co-coordinators, Marlen Harrison or Stacey Vye . Professionalism, Administration, and Leadership in Education—The PALE SIG welcomes new members, officers, volunteers, and submissions of articles for our journal or newsletter. To read current and past issues of our journal, visit . Also, anyone may join our listserv at . For information on events, visit . Pronunciation—The Pronunciation SIG is seeking new members. This SIG is regrouping, with the intent to discuss, share, and promote ideas, processes, and up-to-date research regarding pronunciation teaching and learning. If you are interested in joining or would like further information, please contact Susan Gould or . Teaching Children—We celebrated our 10th birthday at JALT2005 with another fantastic JALT Junior. So many people who volunteered to help and so many creative workshops about teaching children made JALT Junior a real success. Did you miss it? Don’t worry, JALT Junior 5 will happen in Kitakyushu next year. You are cordially invited to join us. If you have ideas you would like to share, please submit a presentation proposal before April 28, 2006, through the JALT website. We look forward to seeing you there! In the meantime, please join our mailing list at . We also publish a bilingual newsletter four times a year, full of more ideas. For information, please visit . JALT 2005では引き続きJALTジュニア を開催し、この児童教育部会も10周年記念を迎えま した。多くの方の協力と児童英語に関わる数々のワ ークショップのおかげでJALTジュニアは成功裡に終 わりました。今回見逃した方もご心配なく。来年は 北九州で実施されます!皆様の参加を歓迎いたしま す。他の人に伝えたいアイデアをお持ちでしたら、 4月28日までに是非発表の企画書をJALTのホームペ ージから提出してください。そして、北九州でまた お会いしましょう!それ以前でもに連絡いただければ私たちの活動に参加できま す。また素敵なアイデア満載の会報も年4回発行して | 46 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

います。興味のある方はを参照し てください。

Teaching Older Learners—We are now an official SIG! We are so pleased to inform you that we became an official SIG with unanimous approval at the EBM at JALT2005 in Shizuoka. If you are thinking about something new you can do in 2006, then join TOL. What a great way to meet lots of glamorous people who have a passion for teaching older people. Everyone will get a year older next year, but don’t worry! We’ll always be with you. You’ll stay young if you join TOL! .

SIG Contacts Bilingualism—Tim Greer; t: 078-803-7683; ; College and University Educators—Philip McCasland (Coordinator); t: 0463-58-1211 ext. 4587(w); 0463-69-5523(h); ; Computer-Assisted Language Learning— Timothy Gutierrez (Coordinator); ; Newsletter Editorial Team ; Peter Ruthven-Stuart (Program Chair); t: 0138-34-6448; ; Gender Awareness in Language Education—Steve Cornwell; ; Global Issues in Language Education— Kip A. Cates; t/f: 0857-31-5650(w); ; Japanese as a Second Language—Peter Sakura; ; Hiroko Sato; t: 0475-23-8501; Junior and Senior High School—William Matheny; t: 052-624-3493; Learner Development—Stacey Vye; ; Marlen Harrison; ;

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SIG Contacts / Chapter Reports Materials Writers—John Daly; t/f: 0283-22-1346; ; Other Language Educators—Rudolf Reinelt; t/f: 089-927-6293(h); t/f: 089-927-9359(w); PALE—Robert Aspinall; ; Pragmatics—Megumi Kawate-Mierzejewska; ; Seiji Fukazawa; ; Kenneth Fordyce; ;

Teacher Education—Anthony Robins; Teaching Children—Alison Miyake; t/f: 0834-27-0078; ; Teaching Older Learners—Emi Itoi; Testing and Evaluation—Jeff Hubbell; <[email protected]>;

Forming SIGs Pronunciation—Susan Gould;

The Chapter Reports column is a forum for sharing synopses of presentations held at JALT chapters around Japan with the TLT readership. For guidelines on contributions, see the Submissions page at the back of each issue.

Gunma: September—Person to Person by Karl O’Callaghan. O’Callaghan from Oxford University Press, which has stepped up its response to the increasing demand for textbooks that help teach skills other than grammatical proficiency, presented the newly revised Person to Person. In this new text there are even more resources for teaching sociolinguistic skills, listening, pronunciation, and vocabulary. Students who use this text will gain a background in a variety of topics such as greetings, shopping, culture, and entertainment. They will learn to respond to and initiate questions, as well as recognize utterances and add to them. The textbook offers new model conversations that open and close in more natural and comfortable ways. Learners need to be able to deal with unpredictable forms. The textbook recognizes that language learners can predict the sequence of functions, but not actual words, and it answers to the need to choose appropriate language based on relative status and social distance. The new Person to Person includes a CD that students can use to prepare and review on their own as well as a class CD containing full audio, detailed lesson plans, and suggestions. Reported by David Gann

Hamamatsu: September—What Makes a Language Learner Successful? by James Matchett. Matchett explained factors that assist in differentiating successful learners from unsuccessful ones. Initially looking at the fixed factors restricting (or assisting) language learning, he explained the roles of aptitude, intelligence, age, and gender in learning a second language. Matchett emphasized that fixed factors alone were not responsible for language learning success and presented information on how variable factors such as motivation, attitude, and the language environment were also important considerations. What instructors can do to help students be successful was also considered. Reported by David Elmes Kobe: September—Two separate presentations looked at the SELHi (Super English Language High School) program from two perspectives. 1) Learning from SELHi by Jun Sekiguchi. Sekiguchi, of Osaka Jogakuin Senior High School, related his school’s experience in its 3rd year of

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Chapter Reports

Chapter Reports

...with Heather Sparrow

Chapter Reports being a designated SELHi. The talk centred on the students in the English department—the 1st year is an introductory course; in the 2nd year the focus is on presentation skills; and in the 3rd year students develop their debating skills. A key part of the program is Sogo Eigo (Composite English classes). Sekiguchi explained some typical lessons with video recordings. Helped by a penalty and prize system, the classes became Englishonly environments, where teachers and students, even amongst themselves, used only English. 2) Strategies for Progress and Managing Change in SELHi Research Project by Hirokazu Nakai. As principal of Senri High School, Nakai designed and managed the research program emphasizing the importance of a clear, shared vision among the teachers, rather than just one or two working hard, and explained how he set up groups in a communication network to conduct and monitor the research. After running through some of the results of the project, which were mainly positive, Nakai discussed teacher reactions. Although they were happy with the new methods and attitudes the program brought, they were dissatisfied because of the heavy demands of the research; they wanted to stop being a SELHi, but continue the methods. Reported by David Heywood Miyazaki: October—Learning to Read the Easy Way by David Lisgo. Lisgo claims 100% success with any student who has seriously undertaken his Learning to Read program. He outlined his philosophy while demonstrating many points with hands-on exercises. Lisgo rejects the Whole Word Method (highly popular in Japanese schools) as being unwieldy and leading learners to pause at every unknown word, as well as the Onset/Rime Method based on the fact that it causes young learners to stop taking in whole words. Instead, Lisgo advocates a synthetic phonics approach wherein, he argues, 120 patterns cover 99% of the sounds in English, and which, if taught systematically, leads to an outstanding success rate. This system includes starting with short vowel and common consonant forms, and gradually moving from the known to the unknown, develops into blends, reading silent letters, segmenting, rimes (and onset), and syllable reading. Lisgo spoke on the importance of decodability, the necessary emphasizing of high-frequency | 48 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

words, and the importance of regular and consistent homework, including the expansion from reading into writing. Lisgo also freely and generously gave out homemade materials to attendees. Reported by Mike Guest Sendai: August—Aspects of Communicative English Teaching: 1) Examining Teachers’ Roles in the Eikaiwa Classroom by Simon Cooke. Cooke discussed English conversation school teachers’ attitudes. He looked at two groups, experienced and inexperienced teachers, and found that the experienced group saw themselves in roles of aiding students’ expression and helping with meaning negotiation rather than those of leader or class director, which informed inexperienced teachers’ perceptions of their roles. Cooke discussed how these differing attitudes affected both groups’ approaches to lesson planning, class management, and materials production. 2) Speaking of Testing: The Testing of Speaking by Ian Gledall. Gledall reviewed a number of recent trends in oral communication testing and highlighted the key issues, problems, and proposed solutions. Participants considered what elements they might choose and prioritise if they were to create a rating sheet to be used in testing. Finally, Gledall illustrated an example of his own rating templates for participant analysis and feedback. 3) What Does CLT Mean for You? by Jim Smiley. Smiley asked the audience to consider what they understood by the term Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), reviewed the literature on CLT, and concluded that CLT is a term so malleable that various aspects of it have been appropriated and utilised so differently that the term CLT is in effect meaningless. He urged writers to be precise about what they mean by CLT and argued that readers need to exercise caution when dealing with empty expressions involving the phrase. Reported by Jim Smiley Shinshu: August—Innovative Teaching Methodologies for Colleges and Universities: 1) Using Politics in the Classroom by Takako Seito. Seito shared a class plan intended to increase student interest in politics by demonstrating how the Japanese constitution can be adapted into a song. This activity was based on a musical adaptation of the amendments to the | |

Chapter Reports / Chapter Events US Constitution, as depicted in the film Born Yesterday. 2) Coping with Large Classrooms by Theron Muller. Muller addressed how to cope with large class sizes by organizing students into groups, gave an example of one group’s performance on a task, and discussed some implications. 3) Teaching Presentation Skills by Mark Brierley. Brierley demonstrated how he teaches

presentation skills to his university students. He mentioned the importance of context and interpersonal dynamics. Participants were able to prepare and present mock performances and to practice using the peer evaluation forms Brierley uses in his own classes. Reported by Theron Muller

Chapter Events

...with Aleda Krause Parties abound at JALT chapters this month. There must be one you can join nearby. Or you might plan to take part in an event to hone your Internet skills, give a mini-presentation at a My Share, find out more about learning styles, classroom management, self-directed learning, or intercultural communication, or share your concerns with the JALT president, Steve Brown. Whatever you decide to do, JALT members may attend meetings at any chapter at JALT member rates—usually free. Chapters, don’t forget to add your event to the JALT calendar at or send the details to the editor by email or t/f: 048-787-3342.

Chiba—Japanese as a Second Language Special Interest Group Meeting by Roberta Welch, Hiroko Sato, Hiroko Fujiire, and Marcus Rude. A joint meeting with the JSL SIG. Welch will present Individualized LongTerm L2 Reading, a poster outlining factors that keep a learner of JSL motivated to continue reading. In How to Use Newspapers for UpperBeginning and Lower-Intermediate Levels of Japanese Learners by Fujiire and Sato will

introduce manga and short newspaper articles with less difficult words and kanji. In How to Create a Vocabulary Learning File by Excel, Rude will show how to study vocabulary systematically, using Excel’s underlying Leitner cardfile system and corresponding learning cycles. Sunday December 4, 14:00-16:00; Josai International University in Togane-shi, Chiba-ken; one-day members ¥1000. Gifu—Christmas and Year-End Party. Featuring roasted turkey dinner with all the fixings, mashed potatoes, gravy, stuffing, cranberry sauce, and pumpkin pie. Soft drinks provided. Please bring your own beer or wine. RSVP by November 23 to Steve Quasha, . The place can only sit 60, so please book early. Sunday December 11, 19:00-22:00; Aoi’s Kissa in Kasamatsu (approximately 15 min. from Gifu station—we will try to provide rides from the station for those without wheels); ¥2000. Hamamatsu—Orientation for College Studies Outside the Classroom by Steve Brown. Brown will describe an orientation program for incoming students in the English Department of a women’s junior college, aimed at fostering

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Chapter Events

Akita—Listening for Low Level Learners. and The Strategies of Speaking by Alastair Graham-Marr, Top-Up Listening and Communication Spotlight. The first presentation will focus on the importance of scripts and suprasegmental phonology. Teaching listening involves both phonology and knowledge of discourse. An awareness of the phonology of speech helps develop bottom-up decoding skills; knowledge of discourse helps top-down predictive skills. The second presentation will stress helping students with fluency, involvement, and clarification strategies. We all use strategies when we speak. Learners use strategies to compensate for their lack of language. Saturday December 10, 14:00-16:00; Akita International University, D-201; one-day members ¥1000, students ¥500.

Chapter Events students’ awareness of their own learning styles and alerting them to alternative approaches to learning English. Steve will demonstrate approaches used in the program—active participation is encouraged! He will also share ideas for ways this program might work in other contexts. Afterwards, all members are invited to attend lunch with Steve. Sunday December 18, 10:00-12:00; Hamamatsu, ZAZA City Bldg. Palette 5F, Meeting Room A; one-day members ¥1000. Ibaraki—Putting Reading and Listening Online by Gordon Luster, Language Education and Research Network, Inc. (L.E.A.R.N.). These days, many people do a lot of reading and listening on their computers or cell phones. In this presentation, a former Ibaraki member will talk about why he decided to use these new media to make reading and listening practice more convenient for language learners. A Bonenkai and Christmas party will follow at a nearby restaurant. Don’t forget to bring an inexpensive gift to exchange. Sunday December 11, 13:00-17:00; Kennan Shogai Gakushu Center, Sho-Kozashitsu No. 1 (5F of Ulara Bldg, across from Tsuchiura Station); free for all. Kitakyushu—Managing Students’ Online Learning with MOODLE by Nigel Stott and Malcolm Swanson. Do you want to set up an e-learning course? Consider using the course management system MOODLE. This open source package allows you to create online courses that include self-checking quizzes, assignments, discussion forums, and more. The teacher has control over the content and presentation, and the interface is easy to use. Nigel and Malcolm will demonstrate MOODLE using their own online courses, discuss their experiences, and explore possibilities. Saturday December 10, 18:30-20:30; Kitakyushu International Conference Center, Room 31 (5minute walk from Kokura train station); oneday members ¥1000. Kobe—Engaging Learners in Their Own Learning with a Drama Approach by Steve Brown and Bonenkai. Drama in the language classroom is often thought of as a series of techniques, fun activities, or simply putting on a play. But it can be much more—learning | 50 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

that seeks to actively engage learners and encourages them to work as a group, sharing responsibility for their learning. Brown will link his presentation to recent developments and practices in the area of learner autonomy. The presentation will be followed by an open mic session. Saturday December 10, 16:00-18:00; Kobe YMCA, 2-7-15 Kano-cho, Chuo-ku (t: 078241-7204); one-day members ¥1000. Kyoto—Learning About the TOEFL-iBT by Megumi Kawate-Mierzejewska, Temple University Japan. This seminar introduces the TOEFL-iBT: the new test format; sample questions; understanding score scales; rubrics for writing and speaking; CBT and PBT score comparisons; TOEFL iBT registration, fees, and policies; and resources and skill-building tips. The Next Generation TOEFL (TOEFL-iBT) will be launched in 2006 in Japan. This new test will assess learners’ English in conjunction with all four skills. Test tasks are based on an academic environment using authentic language. The test will be delivered via the Internet. Saturday December 10, 18:00-20:00; Kyoto Kyoiku Bunka Center. Matsuyama—Short and Simple: Discussion, Presentation, and Debate Activities for LowLevel Learners by Charles LeBeau. LeBeau, best selling author of Speaking of Speech and Discover Debate, will show how the complex communicative activities of discussion, presentation, and debate can be broken down into simple, manageable skills that can be taught in fun activities. In this workshop, participants will sample a variety of short speaking and listening activities for pairs, small groups, and classes. Sunday December 11, 14:15-16:20; Shinonome High School Kinenkan 4F; one-day members ¥1000. Nagasaki—Teaching Language and Intercultural Communication Skills by Greg Goodmacher, Oita Prefectural College of Art and Culture, and Asako Kajiura, Asia Pacific University, Beppu. The presenters will share how they teach both language and culture in a content-based class teaching self-awareness, knowledge of culture-general elements, and various intercultural communication skills. Students must learn to view situations from | |

Chapter Events different perspectives. Attendees will engage in many enjoyable activities that teach both language and cultural content and will leave with many ideas for their own conversation, reading, listening, and writing classes. More at our homepage at . Saturday December 17, 14:0016:00; Dejima Koryu Kaikan 4F; one-day members ¥1000. Nagoya—My Share and Bonenkai. Come to an open mic end-of-the-year meeting where anyone in the audience can share their favorite lesson ideas or TESL research topic, or give a report on their favorite presentation from JALT2005 in Shizuoka. Afterwards we will gather at a local restaurant for a bonenkai. Sunday December 11, 13:30-16:00; Nagoya International Center 3F; free for all. Nara—My Share and Christmas Party. Join a My Share session at Tezukayama University followed by our annual Christmas party at English Masters (both in Gakuenmae). Share your exciting teaching ideas and take some home. A potluck will follow so either bring a dish that serves three to four people or pay a nominal fee for food. Drinks will be provided for a small set fee. Members, friends, and family all welcome. Contact Steven Nishida at for directions to English Masters if you plan to attend the party only (starts at 5:00 p.m.). Saturday December 10, starting at 14:00; Tezukayama University and English Masters. Omiya—My Share and Bonenkai. Give your fellow teachers a year-end gift of a My Share Swap. Please bring 25 photocopies of an interesting lesson, technique, organizer, game, or other resource to exchange. Don’t worry about planning a formal presentation, but get ready to talk about teaching ideas with your peers. Target age or level is not important: kids through adults, beginners to advanced. Afterwards, join the annual end-of-year party. Sunday December 11, 14:00-17:00; Sakuragi Kominkan (near Omiya Station, west exit. See map at ); one-day members ¥1000. Sendai—A Lesson in Chinese and JALT Reports by Jacky Young and Tom Warren-Price, | |

Ikue Gakuen High School. Learn interactive beginning Chinese the teacher-led way. There will also be some cultural considerations and a recipe for Jacky’s delicious homemade Chinese dumplings, followed by a discussion of the benefits and costs of the teacher-led Chinese language lesson and how it affects the way we feel as the learners. Then, people who attended JALT2005 will give reports. The meeting will be followed by our bonenkai. Sunday December 18, 14:00-17:00; venue TBA; one-day members ¥1000; students free the first time, ¥500 thereafter. Shinshu—End-of-Year Party. You’re invited to the Shinshu JALT bonenkai. Please bring an active holiday game along to share with other members. Let’s ring out the year with fun and delicious Chinese food! Sunday December 18, 13:30-15:00; Chinese restaurant “Nikkarou,” in front of Matsumoto Station, on the way to Parco; one-day members ¥1000 yen (for the lunch). Shizuoka—Annual Christmas Party. Please check the JALT Event Calendar for details. Sunday December 18; venue TBA; everyone is asked to pay for what you eat and drink. Toyohashi—Orientation for College Studies Outside the Classroom by Steve Brown. Brown will describe and evaluate an orientation program for incoming students in the English Department of a women’s junior college. The program is aimed at fostering students’ awareness of their own learning styles and alerting them to alternative approaches to learning English. Steve will demonstrate some of the approaches used in the program—active participation is encouraged! He will also share ideas for ways in which this kind of program might work in other contexts. Sunday December 18, 14:30-17:00; Aichi University Bldg. 5, Room 53A; one-day members ¥1000. Yamagata—The State of Arizona in Terms of Its History, Culture, Education, and Language by Thomas McGregor. The speaker is an ALT in Yamagata Prefecture. He is to talk about Arizona, focusing on English as a means of global communication in the 21st century. Saturday December 3, 13:30-15:30; Yamagata | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 | 51 |

Chapter Events & Contacts Kajo-Kominkan Sogogakushu Center, 2-2-15 Shironishi-machi, Yamagata-shi (t: 023-6456163); one-day members ¥800. Yokohama—Introducing Self-Directed Learning to College Students by Marc Sheffner. Sheffner will describe a threetiered approach to introducing autonomous language learning to university English majors. What were the reasons for trying this? How is it implemented? What are some of the difficulties? The presentation will also include the potential of the Internet for web publishing and for communicating with students outside class. Sunday December 11, 14:00-16:30; Ginou Bunka Kaikan (Skills and Culture Center) near JR Kannai and Isezakichojamachi subway stations (see for details and a map); one-day members ¥1000.

Chapter Contacts

If you want to get in touch with a chapter for information or assistance, please use the following contacts. Chapters who want to change their contact should send details to the editor: Aleda Krause; t/f: 048-787-3342; .

Akita—Takeshi Suzuki; t: 018-422-1562; ; Chiba—Fiona MacGregor; t: 047-555-8827; ; East Shikoku—Lawrie Hunter; ; Fukui—Takako Watanabe; t/f: 0776-34-8334; ; Fukuoka—Jack Brajcich; ; J. Lake; ; Gifu—Steve Quasha; t: 052-781-4734; ; Gunma—Renee Sawazaki; ; Hamamatsu—Greg O’Dowd; ; Dan Frost; ; Himeji—William Balsamo; t: 0792-54-5711; ; | 52 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

Hiroshima—Caroline Lloyd; ; Hokkaido—Ken Hartmann; t/f: 011-584-7588; ; Ibaraki—Martin Pauly; t: 0298-58-9523; f: 0298-58-9529; ; Wade Carlton; ; Iwate—Mary Burkitt; t/f: 019-663-3132; ; Kagoshima—Cynthia Keith; t: 099-216-8800; f: 099-216-8801; ; Kitakyushu—Malcolm Swanson; t: 093-962-8430(h), 0948-22-5726(w); ; Kobe—Yukio Hirayanagi; t/f: 078-794-0401; ; Kyoto—Neil Heffernan; ; Matsuyama—Richard Blight; t/f: 089-927-8341; ; Miyazaki—Hugh Nicoll; t: 0985-20-4788; ; Steve Davies; 0985-85-5931; ; Nagasaki—Michele Ruhl; ; Tim Allan; or ; Nagoya—Katsumi Ito; t: 070-5642-3339; f: 0569-34-2489; ; Nara—Ann Mayeda; ; t/f: 0745-46-2503; Okayama—Gavin Thomas; ; t: 086-277-2995; Okinawa—Marcos Benevides; t: 090-5923-8047; Omiya—Ted O’Neill; ; Osaka—Robert Sanderson; ;

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Chapter Contacts / Job Info Sendai—Thomas Warren-Price; ; Shinshu—Fred Carruth; t: 0263-36-3356; ; John Adamson; t: 0266 288070; ; Shizuoka—Masahiko Goshi; ; Tokyo—Stan Pederson; ;

Toyohashi—Laura Kusaka; t: 0532-47-4111; ; West Tokyo—Chris Sullivan; ; Yamagata—Fumio Sugawara; t/f: 0238-85-2468 ; Yokohama—Scott Bronner; t/f: 045-982-0959; 03-3238-3768 (w); ;

Job Information Center

...with Ted O'Neill

Aichi-ken—Nagoya Institute of Technology is accepting applications for part-time teachers for a spring intensive course to be held March 6–10, 2006. Qualifications: MA in TESL or related field and experience in university or intensive teaching preferred, but candidates with a BA and experience teaching at university or in an intensive program will also be considered. Candidates in the Aichi area will be given preference. Duties: Teachers will be expected to teach three 90-minute classes a day for 5 days, 15 koma in one week. Materials for reading, writing, and conversation classes will be provided, and teachers can expect to teach in all skill areas. Salary & Benefits: Remuneration will be according to university scale. Application Materials: Please send a resume and cover letter describing your teaching experience to Onuki Tohru, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 4668555. On the envelope please write clearly in red ink Intensive Course Application. Deadline: Ongoing. Contact: Inquiries regarding the intensive course can be sent to Kelly Quinn. ; .

Chiba-ken—Nihon University is seeking 10 parttime instructors to teach oral English classes at their College of Industrial Technology on two campuses in the Tsudanuma area beginning April 1, 2006. Days of instruction will be scheduled depending on instructor availability and university need. Qualifications: Applicants must be native level English speakers, resident in Japan, with an MA in TEFL/TESOL, Applied Linguistics, Communications, English Literature, or a related field, with a minimum of 1 year of experience teaching English at the university level in Japan. Salary & Benefits: Payment is highly competitive with other Tokyo area universities. Application Materials: CV with attached photo; contact telephone and email address; academic history from the undergraduate level; employment history; academic association membership; list of academic degrees held and awards received; a complete list of academic publications, divided into books and articles (for joint publications, list all joint authors); copy or original of one principal publication. Deadline: January 31, 2006. Contact: Please send application materials to: Michael Genung, College

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Job Info Center

To list a position in The Language Teacher, please email or fax (03-3446-7195) Ted O’Neill, Job Information Center. Email is preferred. Please type your ad in the body of the email. The notice should be received before the 15th of the month, 2 months before publication, and contain the following information: city and prefecture, name of institution, title of position, whether full- or part-time, qualifications, duties, salary and benefits, application materials, deadline, and contact information. Be sure to refer to TLT’s policy on discrimination. Any job advertisement that discriminates on the basis of sex, race, age, or nationality either must be modified or will not be included in the JIC column.

Job Info of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, 211-1 Shinei, Narashino-shi, Chiba-ken, 275-8576. Selected candidates will be invited to an interview. Email submissions are welcome. . Tokyo-to—Kanto International High School is hiring full-time English teachers beginning April 2006. Qualifications: Native level fluency in English required. High school experience, MA in TESOL (or in progress), and intermediate Japanese ability preferred. Applicants must currently reside in Japan. Duties: Solo teaching, course planning, student assessment, faculty meetings, and administrative duties at a Super English Language High School in Nishi-Shinjuku, Tokyo. This is a full-time position, Monday through Friday, 5 days per week. Salary & Benefits: ¥300,000350,000 monthly starting salary plus one month bonus. Application Materials: Apply by email with a CV and cover letter. Deadline: Ongoing. Contact: ; .

Tokyo-to—Kanto International High School is hiring full-time English language content course teachers beginning April 2006. Qualifications: Candidates with experience teaching content courses (social studies, global issues, and science) preferred. High school experience, MA in TESOL (or in progress), and intermediate Japanese ability preferred. Native level fluency in English required. Applicants must currently reside in Japan. Duties: Solo teaching, course planning, student assessment, faculty meetings, and administrative duties at Super English Language High School. Position located in NishiShinjuku, Tokyo. This is a full-time position, Monday through Friday, 5 days per week. Salary & Benefits: ¥300,000-350,000 monthly starting salary plus one month bonus. Application Materials: Apply by email with a CV and cover letter. Deadline: Ongoing. Contact: ; .

Job Info Web Corner

. w w w / / : p t ht

You can view the job listings on JALT’s homepage (address below). Here are a variety of sites with information relevant to teaching in Japan: 1. EFL, ESL, and Other Teaching Jobs in Japan at 2. Information for those seeking university positions (not a job list) at 3. ELT News at 4. JALT Jobs and Career Enhancement links at 5. Teaching English in Japan: A Guide to Getting a Job at 6. ESL Cafe’s Job Center at 7. Ohayo Sensei at 8. NACSIS (National Center for Science Information Systems’ Japanese site) career information at 9. The Digital Education Information Network Job Centre at 10. EFL in Asia at 11. Jobs in Japan at 12. Job information at 13. World English Jobs 14. Hokkaido Insider: A subscription service for news and jobs

| 54 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

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Conference Calendar ...with Hayo Reinders

New listings are welcome. Please submit information to Hayo Reinders by the 15th of the month at , at least three months ahead (four months for overseas conferences). Thus December 15 is the deadline for a March conference in Japan or an April conference overseas, especially for a conference early in the month.

Upcoming Conferences

December 12–14, 2005—The 10th English in South-East Asia Conference: A Decade of Growth (10 ESEA), University of Brunei Darussalam. This is the latest in a series of annual conferences held among the countries of the region. Previous ESEA conferences have been held in Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Australia, the Philippines, Hong Kong, and Indonesia. Contact: ; January 16–February 26, 2006—The Electronic Village Online (part of the TESOL Convention), The CALL Interest Section of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL) offers language teachers worldwide the opportunity to participate in the Electronic Village Online (EVO), a professional development project and virtual extension of the TESOL 2006 Convention in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. The intended audience for this project includes both TESOL 2006 convention-goers and those who can participate only virtually. Interest sections, caucuses, and other member groups of TESOL in particular are invited to sponsor sessions related to the convention. Contact: ;

February 16-18, 2006—The Southern Conference on Language Teaching & the Florida Foreign Language Association: Languages for Today’s World, at the Double Tree Hotel, Orlando, Florida, USA. Contact: ; February 25–26, 2006—Second CamTESOL Conference on English Language Teaching, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. This is a conference for professionals in the field of English Language Teaching and related issues. The conference is being organised and will be conducted on a voluntary basis. It is intended to become a self-sustaining conference series based on the professional interests of participants. This conference series will be conducted in English. The 2005 conference was a great success with over 700 participants. Contact: ; March 15–18, 2006—The 40th Annual TESOL Convention and Exhibit (TESOL 2006), Tampa, Florida, USA. More than 7,600 ESL/ EFL professionals from 96 countries attended TESOL’s 39th Annual Convention in San Antonio, Texas in March 2005. Attendees had the opportunity to participate and learn by choosing from more than 900 sessions offered with over 1,674 presenters representing some of the best in the profession. The 2006 Convention is expected to be at least equally large. There will also be a doctoral forum. Contact: ; April 8–12, 2006—40th IATEFL Annual Conference and Exhibition, at the Harrogate International Centre, Harrogate, North Yorkshire,

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Conference Calendar

December 10, 2005—Researching, Learning, and Teaching Second Language Vocabulary, Chuo University Korakuen, Tokyo. The JACET English Vocabulary SIG will be holding a one-day conference on researching, learning, and teaching vocabulary in a second language. The conference includes two 45minute plenaries by Paul Meara, of Swansea University, UK, as well as a full programme of 30-minute sessions by Japan-based teachers and researchers. Contact:

February 11–12, 2006— The Japan Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education (JASCE), Nerima Elementary School No. 3, Tokyo, Japan. Contact: ;

Conference Calendar UK. IATEFL holds its International Annual Conference & Exhibition every spring, which is attended by around 1,500 ELT professionals from 70+ countries. It involves a 4-day programme of over 300 talks and workshops and, in addition to giving delegates a chance to meet leading theorists and writers and exchange ideas with fellow professionals from all sectors of ELT, it enables them to see the latest ELT publications and services in a large resources exhibition involving around 60 ELT-related exhibitors. The plenary speakers will be Michael Swan, Jennifer Coates, Ryuko Kubota, and Bena Gul Peker. Contact: May 16–20, 2006—The Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium 2006 Conference, at the University of Hawai’i, USA. CALICO 2006 will again feature uses of cutting edge technologies in foreign language teaching and learning with a focus on collaboration. Workshops, presentations, and courseware showcase demonstrations will present information of vital importance to anyone interested in the field of computer-assisted language learning. Contact: ; June 17–20, 2006—Joint AAAL and ACLA/ CAAL Conference, Hotel Hyatt Montréal, Canada. Nationally and internationally, the annual AAAL conference has a reputation as one of the most comprehensive and exciting language conferences. At each conference new ideas are generated, disciplinary boundaries are crossed, and research is shared about the role of language in all aspects of cognition and social action, including language learning and teaching. The AAAL conference is known for its in-depth symposia and focused workshops on key issues in applied linguistics; sessions on a wide range of research studies, in progress or completed; its stimulating and often provocative plenaries; and access to the latest publications via the book exhibit. Last but not least, the AAAL conference is the place for networking, for established and new professionals, and for graduate students. Contact: ; June 28–July 1, 2006—Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE | 56 | THE LANGUAGE TEACHER: 29.12 | December 2005 |

2006), Maastricht University, the Netherlands. The conference, organized by ExHEM and Maastricht University Language Centre, will focus on higher education that is delivered in a second/foreign language in a country where the language is not widely used in the local environment. While this often concerns higher education in English in a non-English speaking country, it is not always the case; other languages are also used. The conference aims to address issues that affect institutions in many countries worldwide. Keynote speakers include David Crystal (University of Wales at Bangor), Jeroen van Merriënboer (Educational Technology Expertise Centre, Open Universiteit), and Scott C. Ratzan (Johnson & Johnson Inc., Brussels). Contact: August 5–6, 2006—International Conference on Japanese Language Education (ICJLE). Japanese Education: Entering a New Age, Columbia University, New York City, USA. Keynote speakers include Merrill Swain (University of Toronto), specialist in Second Language Acquisition, and Susan Napier (University of Texas at Austin), specialist in Japanese literature, culture, and anime studies/theory. The invited plenary speaker is Yasuhiko Tohsaku (UC-San Diego), on Japanese language proficiency and assessment. Panel topics and organizers include: articulation (Carl Falsgraf, Hiroko Kataoka), Japanese (Haruo Shirane), classroom instruction ideas (Patricia Thornton, Ryuko Kubota), Japanese as a heritage language (Masako Douglas, Kazuo Tsuda), K12 curriculum development (Sylvia Acierto, Shingo Satsutani, Kimberly Jones, Ann Sherif), and second language acquisition (Keiko Koda, Dan Dewey, Osamu Kamada). Contact:

Calls for Papers/Posters Deadline: January 15, 2006 (for June 2–4, 2006)—The 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning, National Research Centre for Foreign Language Education, Beijing Foreign Studies University, China. The theme of the conference is digital and networked foreign language learning and teaching. Contact: | |

Conference Calendar Deadline: January 15, 2006 (for July 4– 6, 2006)—The 5th Pacific Second Language Research Forum (PacSLRF), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. The PacSLRF is a venue for data-based and theoretical papers on areas of basic research in Second Language Acquisition (SLA). Topics include, but are not limited to SLA in instructed and naturalistic settings, the effects of second language (L2) instruction on the rate and route of L2 development, the role of learner differences (e.g., aptitude, age, personality, motivation) in SLA, competing models of SLA processes, SLA theory construction, the acquisition of L2 pragmatics, bilingualism, the influence of cognitive variables (e.g., memory and attention) on L2 learning and use, the assessment of L2 use and development, and methodological issues in L2 acquisition research. Contact: ; Deadline: January 15, 2006 (for May 13–14, 2006)—The Fifth Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference (2006): Authentic Communication: Process and Purpose, Tokai University, Shimizu Campus, Miho-Shimizu, Shizuoka, Japan. The past 10 years are full of discussion about active communication. This conference wishes to build on ideas regarding what makes real communication effective and how we can teach this to our students. It aims to address issues of teacher education, testing, second language acquisition, practical issues, and pragmatics. There are still a few openings for presentation proposals. This conference is sponsored by the JALT Bilingualism, Pragmatics, Testing and Evaluation, and Teacher Education SIGs as well as the JALT Shizuoka Chapter. Contact: ; Deadline: January 31, 2006 (for March 19, 2006)—The 2nd Annual Mini Colloquium: Researching ELT in the Japanese Context, Seisen Women’s College, Nagano. The Shinshu ELT Research Group, in affiliation with the Shinshu JALT Chapter, would like to solicit proposals for our second annual miniconference. Our objective is to provide a friendly atmosphere in which beginning presenters can share research or conduct a forum, and receive | |

feedback that might not be available at the national level. Experienced presenters are also welcome. For more information and updates, please see or contact <[email protected]> Deadline: February 24, 2006 (for September 29–October 2, 2006)— CLESOL 2006, Origins and Connections, Pettigrew-Green Arena and the Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier, New Zealand. The Conference Committee invites submissions of abstracts for presentations at CLESOL 2006. The theme of the conference is Origins and Connections: Linking Theory, Research, and Practice. This theme should guide the preparation of submissions. There is a wide variety of work currently being undertaken in language teaching and learning and this range will be reflected during the conference. Particularly of interest is research that is being, or could be, applied in practice. Contact: ;

JALT Journal is a refereed research journal of the Japan Association for Language Teaching (全国語学教育学会). It invites practical and theoretical articles and research reports on second/foreign language teaching and learning in Japanese and Asian contexts. For more information and submission guidelines see

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Advert: Thomson


...with Malcolm Swanson & Paul Daniels

In this column, we explore the issue of teachers and technology—not just as it relates to CALL solutions, but also to Internet, software, and hardware concerns that all teachers face. As well as our feature columns, we would also like to answer reader queries. If you have a question, problem, or idea you’d like discussed in this column, please write to us at or visit our website at .

Online Academic Literary Resources for ESL/EFL Researchers and Educators: An Annotated Bibliography Nathanael Rudolph


his bibliography provides EFL teachers in Japan with accessible information about online resources in the field, specifically related to the latest research, classroom pedagogy, and theory. One of the most difficult challenges for EFL teachers abroad is finding current research material. Using online material is one solution, though knowing where to locate such resources and critiquing their validity can be a headache—something which this bibliography attempts to help with. Each annotation has a brief explanation of the content found on the site and the potential cost for the user. Categories given are guidelines only, and often the material on the site is much broader in scope. [Editors' note: Any online resource listed in this bibliography is included at the discretion of the writer. Inclusion does not imply any endorsement by JALT or TLT.]

Asian EFL Journal GENERAL: A general academic online EFL journal with articles specifically related to EFL in Asia, academic institutions, and pedagogy. The site also includes information on upcoming conferences. Call EJ TECHNOLOGY: A biannual online academic journal exploring the use of technology to enhance the language classroom. Computers and Composition Elsevier Publishing, Inc. Subscription: $95. PEDAGOGY, TECHNOLOGY: An academic journal examining technology in the language

learning classroom, as well as the latest in pedagogical trends and issues. Some volumes can be accessed online for review; back issues and other articles can be ordered from the printer. EL Gazette Subscription: £44. GENERAL: An English language journal whose webpage also lists upcoming ESL/EFL events around the world. A bimonthly e-newsletter is available free of charge. ELT Journal Oxford University Press. Subscription: $73. GENERAL: Covers a wide variety of topics, from classroom ideas and pedagogy to research within the field of EFL/ESL. English Teaching Forum Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, US Department of State. GENERAL: An academic U.S. State Department online journal for ESL/EFL, covering a wide

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TLT Wired

Applied Linguistics Oxford University Press. Subscription: $54. LINGUISTICS: A journal devoted to its namesake. The website offers a browse feature to search for articles.

TLT Wired range of topics, including theory, pedagogy, and practice. ESL Magazine Modern English Publishing, Ltd. GENERAL: An online magazine for those interested or working in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language. The magazine also lists upcoming conferences and events worldwide. Essential Teacher Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL). GENERAL: A magazine for language teachers and administrators in varied ESL and EFL workplaces, including pre-K–12, institutions of higher learning, and adult education. Foreign Language Annals American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). Subscription: $95. GENERAL: Explores general language teaching pedagogy and research in the field. Humanising Language Teaching HLT Magazine and Pilgrims Limited. MOTIVATION: A free online journal that provides numerous articles related to student and teacher motivation, as well as ESL classroom theory and practice. IALL Journal of Language Learning Technologies Center for Distance Education, University of Texas at Arlington. Subscriptions: $25 (student), $50 (educator). TECHNOLOGY: Partially accessible online, the journal touches upon the use of technology in the language classroom. Internet TESL Journal The Internet TESL Journal. GENERAL: A free monthly online publication exploring approaches to ESL methodology and practice.

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JALT Journal Japan Association for Language Teaching. GENERAL: Published both in print (biannually: spring and fall) and online by JALT to present research specifically related to EFL within Japan. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication Indiana University School of Library Information and School of Informatics. TECHNOLOGY: An academic e-journal examining the use of interactive Internet communication for a wide variety of purposes, including education. Journal of Intercultural Communication Journal of Intercultural Communication. LINGUISTICS: Examines research, teaching, and training in the field. The journal contains many articles related both directly and indirectly to language learning and pedagogical approaches. Journal of Language and Learning / Journal of Language and Linguistics Centre Limited Press. LINGUISTICS: This website includes three free quarterly online academic journals, two of which are relevant to EFL/ESL. Both explore theory and practice in language learning and teaching. Journal of Second Language Writing Elsevier. Subscription ¥8,700. WRITING: Explores second language and foreign language writing from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. Kairos TECHNOLOGY AND WRITING: A free online academic journal exploring the links between technology, writing, and pedagogy. Articles primarily pertain to the university level. Language Learning and Technology TECHNOLOGY: A free academic online journal that examines the effect of technology upon language learning and pedagogy.

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TLT Wired Language Ohio State University. Subscription: $75. LINGUISTICS: A journal published by the Linguistic Society of America which aims to present new theories and practices in the field, as well as to answer any questions pertaining to language. Language Testing Hodder Arnold. Subscription: £89. TESTING: A journal devoted to measuring ability and viability in the field of language learning. Linguistic Inquiry MIT Press. Subscription: $65. LINGUISTICS: A quarterly journal publishing the latest in international linguistic developments. Modern Language Journal Blackwell Publishers. GENERAL: An academic journal that allows searches for specific topics, titles, or authors. Selections can be ordered through interlibrary loan, although the journal itself is not online. Prospect: An Australian Journal of TESOL Macquarie University. Subscription: AU$40. LINGUISTICS: A journal dedicated to the exploration of TESOL and applied linguistics. Reading in a Foreign Language University of Hawai’i. READING: A biannual academic online journal providing insights into the pedagogy and practice of both teaching reading and learning to read in a foreign language. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal READING: An online journal dealing with second language reading and larger issues pertaining to literacy, as well as the teaching and learning of a second language.

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Second Language Research Hodder Arnold. Subscription: £57. LINGUISTICS, PEDAGOGY: A journal pertaining to second language acquisition and performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition Cambridge University Press. Subscription: £46 LINGUISTICS: Contents relate to EFL/ESL acquisition in any and every language. The Language Teacher JALT. GENERAL: A monthly publication aimed at exploring EFL within a Japanese context. The Teacher Trainer Pilgrims Ltd. Subscription: £25. GENERAL: An online journal for ESL/EFL teacher trainers. Teaching English with Technology, A Journal for Teachers of English IATEFL Poland. GENERAL: An online journal containing both general and academic articles, as well as research papers related to ESL classroom planning and activities that incorporate technology. TESL-EJ GENERAL: An academic online journal with articles and reviews related to pedagogy, technology, and linguistics. TESOL Quarterly TESOL. Subscription: $45. GENERAL: Fosters inquiry into English language teaching and learning by providing a forum for TESOL professionals to share their research findings and explore ideas and relationships in the field. Nathanael Rudolph lives and teaches English at the university level in the Kansai area. He is currently a graduate student in TESOL at Temple University, Osaka.

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Advert: MacMillan

Staff List The Language Teacher JALT Publications Board Chair Amanda O'Brien [email protected] t: 0774-65-8601

Editors Kim Bradford-Watts

Publishers’ Review Copies Liaison Scott Gardner [email protected] Okayama University, Faculty of Education, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 t: 086-251-7686 (w)

[email protected] t: 075-752-4596

Letters See Editor

Jacqui Norris-Holt

SIG News Mary Hughes

[email protected] t: 052-702-5536 (h) 052-872-5815 (w)

Japanese-Language Editor 高垣俊之 (Toshiyuki Takagaki ) [email protected]

Japanese-Language Assoc. Editor 稲森美穂子 (Mihoko Inamori) [email protected] t/f: 042-774-7414

Assistant Editor Paul Lewis

[email protected]

Chapter Events Aleda Krause [email protected]

Conference Calendar Hayo Reinders [email protected]

Job Information Center/Positions Ted O'Neill

[email protected] t/f: 052-709-1307 (h)

[email protected]

TLT Online Editor Malcolm Swanson [email protected]

Contributing Editors Robert Long Amanda O’Brien Scott Gardner

TLT Wired Malcolm Swanson & Paul Daniels [email protected]

Old Grammarians Scott Gardner [email protected]


JALT Focus Column

Proofreading Team Leader Paul Lewis (see Assistant Editor)

JALT Focus Editor Joseph Sheehan JALT News Liaison Mary Christianson [email protected]

Perspectives Joyce Cunningham Mariko Miyao [email protected] Joyce Cunningham: Faculty of Humanities, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 t: 029-228-8455 f: 029-228-8199

和文要旨作成協力者 (Japanese abstracts) 阿部恵美佳 (Emika Abe) 伊藤勝己 (Katsumi Ito)

Michael Carroll (Momoyama Gakuin University) Torkil Christensen (Hokusei University Junior College) Steve Cornwell (Osaka Jogakuin College) Paul Dessoir (Temple University) Michael Furmanovsky (Ryukoku University) Scott Gardner (Okayama University) Chiaki Iwai (Hiroshima City University) Masataka Kizuka (Hokkaido University of Education) Masaki Kobayashi (Rikkyo University) Robert Long (Kyushu Institute of Technology) Laura MacGregor (Gakushuin University) Daniel J. McIntyre (Creative Communications) Chieko Miyanaga (Osaka Prefecture University) Bern Mulvey (Fukui National University) Tim Murphey (Dokkyo University) Yoko Nakano (University of Kochi) Jonathan D. Picken (Tsuda College) Stephen M. Ryan (Eichi (Sapientia) University) Lorraine Sorrell (Macquarie University) Sachiko Takahashi (Okayama Notre Dame Seishin Women’s University) Christopher Weaver (Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology)

Peer Support Group Coordinator Torkil Christensen [email protected]


Paul Beaufait, Torkil Christensen, Mark Hamilton, Katsumi Ito, Wilma Luth, Steve McGuire, Theron Muller, Malcolm Swanson

Design & Layout Pukeko Graphics

Off the Presses Kevin Ryan [email protected]

[email protected];

Printing Koshinsha Co., Ltd., Osaka

My Share Lorraine Sorrell [email protected]

Book Reviews Robert Taferner [email protected]

Staff List

Proofreaders James Hobbs, David Ockert, Sean McAuley, Shari Young, Ben Shearon, David Stephan, Theron Muller, Sandi Duverneuil, Junko Izawa, Jerry Talandis, Greg Rouault, Derek Di Matteo, Joseph Sheehan, Hiroko Lewis, Alan Stoke

[email protected]

Regular Columns

[email protected]

Chapter Reports Heather Sparrow

Editorial Advisory Board

The Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) JALT Central Office Urban Edge Bldg. 5F, 1-37-9 Taito, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-0016 Tel: 03-3837-1630 – Fax: 03-3837-1631 [email protected]


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Membership Information JALT is a professional organization dedicated to the improvement of language learning and teaching in Japan, a vehicle for the exchange of new ideas and techniques, and a means of keeping abreast of new developments in a rapidly changing field. JALT, formed in 1976, has an international membership of some 3,000. There are currently 34 JALT chapters throughout Japan (listed below). It is the Japan affiliate of International TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) and a branch of IATEFL (International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language). Publications — JALT publishes The Language Teacher, a monthly publication of articles and announcements on professional concerns; the semi-annual JALT Journal; JALT Conference Proceedings (annual); and JALT Applied Materials (a monograph series). Meetings and Conferences — The JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning attracts some 2,000 participants annually. The program consists of over 400 papers, workshops, colloquia, and poster sessions, a publishers’ exhibition of some 1,000m2, an employment center, and social events. Local chapter meetings are held on a monthly or bi-monthly basis in each JALT chapter, and Special Interest Groups, SIGs, disseminate information on areas of special interest. JALT also sponsors special events, such as conferences on testing and other themes. Chapters — Akita, Chiba, East Shikoku, Fukui, Fukuoka, Gifu, Gunma, Hamamatsu, Himeji, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ibaraki, Iwate, Kagoshima, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Kyoto, Matsuyama, Miyazaki, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Nara, Okayama, Okinawa, Omiya, Osaka, Sendai, Shinshu, Shizuoka, Tokyo, Toyohashi, West Tokyo, Yamagata, Yokohama. SIGs — Bilingualism; College and University Educators; Computer-Assisted Language Learning; Gender Awareness in Language Education; Global Issues in Language Education; Japanese as a Second Language; Jr./Sr. High School; Learner Development; Materials Writers; Pragmatics; Professionalism, Administration, and Leadership in Education; Teacher Education; Teaching Children; Teaching Older Learners; Testing and Evaluation; Other Language Educators (affiliate); Pronunciation (forming). JALT members can join as many SIGs as they wish for a fee of ¥1,500 per SIG. Awards for Research Grants and Development — Awarded annually. Applications must be made to the JALT Research Grants Committee Chair. Awards are announced at the annual conference. Membership — All membership includes subscriptions to The Language Teacher and JALT Journal and membership in a local chapter. Regular membership (¥10,000). Student membership (¥6,000) - available to students of undergraduate/graduate universities and colleges in Japan. Joint membership (¥17,000) - available to two individuals who can register with the same mailing address; only one copy of each JALT publication for two members. Group membership (¥6,500/person) — available to five or more people who can register with the same mailing address; one copy of each publication for every five members or fraction thereof. Applications may be made at any JALT meeting or by using the postal money transfer form (yubin furikae) found in every issue of The Language Teacher. Joint and Group members must apply, renew, and pay membership fees together with the other members of their group. From overseas, application may be made by sending an International Postal Order to the JALT Central Office or by transferring the fee through Citibank. For details please contact the Central Office. Central Office: Urban Edge Building, 5th Floor, 1-37-9 Taito, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-0016 Tel: 03-3837-1630; fax: 03-3837-1631; [email protected]

Join or renew JALT(全国語学教育学会)について JALTは最新の言語理論に基づくよりよい教授法を提供し、日本における語学学習の向上と発展を図ることを目的とする学術団 体です。1976年に設立されたJALTは、海外も含めて3,000名以上の会員を擁しています。現在日本全国に34の支部(下記参照) を持ち、TESOL(英語教師協会)の加盟団体、およびIATEFL(国際英語教育学会)の日本支部でもあります。 出版物:JALTは、語学教育の専門分野に関する記事、お知らせを掲載した月刊誌 The Language Teacher、年2回発行のJALT Journal、JALT Applied Materials(モノグラフシリーズ)、およびJALT年次大会会報を発行しています。 例会と大会:JALTの語学教育・語学学習に関する国際年次大会には、毎年2,000人が集まります。年次大会のプログラムは 300の論文、ワークショップ、コロキアム、ポスターセッション、出版社による展示、就職情報センター、そして懇親会で構成さ れています。支部例会は、各JALTの支部で毎月もしくは隔月に1回行われています。分野別研究部会、SIGは、分野別の情報の 普及活動を行っています。JALTはまた、テスティングや他のテーマについての研究会などの特別な行事を支援しています。 支部:現在、全国に34の支部と1つの準支部があります。(秋田、千葉、四国東、福井、福岡、岐阜、群馬、浜松、姫路、広 島、北海道、茨城、岩手、鹿児島、北九州、神戸、京都、松山、宮崎、長崎、名古屋、奈良、岡山、沖縄、大宮、大阪、仙台、 信州、静岡、東京、豊橋、西東京、山形、横浜) 分野別研究部会:バイリンガリズム、大学外国語教育、コンピュータ利用語学学習、ジェンダーと語学教育、グローバル問題、 日本語教育、中学・高校外国語教育、学習者ディベロプメント、教材開発、語用論、外国語教育政策とプロフェッショナリズム、 教師教育、児童教育、試験と評価、中高年学教育、他言語教育(準分野別研究部会)、発音(forming)。JALTの会員は一つにつき 1,500円の会費で、複数の分野別研究会に参加することができます。 研究助成金:研究助成金についての応募は、8月16日までに、JALT語学教育学習研究助成金委員長まで申し出てください。研 究助成金については、年次大会で発表をします。 会員及び会費:会員及び年会費: 年会費にはJALT出版物の購読料及び支部の会費も含まれていま す。個人会員(10,000円)。 学生会員(6,000円)- 日本にある大学・大学院・専 門学校の学生を対象。 ジョイント会員(17,000円)-同じ住所で登録する個 人2名を 対象とし、JALT出版物は2名に1部。 団体会員(6,500円/人)- 同じ住所で登録す る5名以上を対象とし、JALT出版 物は5名毎に1部。 入会・更新申込みは、例会で行 うか、The Language Teacherに綴じこまれている郵便振替用紙を利用してく ださい。  ジョイント及びグループ会員は、全員まとめて入会又は更新の申込みをして下さ い。 海外からは国際郵便為替を JALT事務局に送るか、又はCitibankより送金してく ださい。 詳しくはJALT事務局に問合わせてください。 JALT事務局:〒110-0016東京都台東区台東1-37-9アーバンエッジビル5F Tel. 03-3837-1630; fax. 03-3837-1631; [email protected]

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Submissions The editors welcome submissions of materials concerned with all aspects of language education, particularly with relevance to Japan. If accepted, the editors reserve the right to edit all copy for length, style, and clarity, without prior notification to authors. Materials in English should be sent in Rich Text Format by either email (preferred) or post. Postal submissions must include a clearly labeled floppy disk or CD-ROM and one printed copy. Manuscripts should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) style as it appears in The Language Teacher. Please submit materials to the contact editor indicated for each column. Deadlines are indicated below.

書評:本や教材の書評です。書評編集者に問い合わせ、最近出版されたリストからお選びい ただくか、もしwebサイトなどのリストにない場合には書評編集者と 連絡をとってください。複数の関連するタイトルを扱うものを特に歓 迎します。書評は、本の内容紹介、教室活動や教材としての使用法に 触れ、書評編集者まで電子メールの添付ファイルでお送り下さい。

日本国内での語学教育に関わる投稿をお待ちしています。できるだけ電子メールにリッチ・テキスト・フォーマットの添付ファイルでお送 り下さい。郵送の場合には、フロッピーディスクかCD-ROMにラベルを張り、プリントアウトしたものと一緒にお送り下さい。書式はアメリカ 心理学協会(APA)スタイルに基づき、スタッフリストページにある各コラムの編集者まで締め切りに留意して、提出してください。提出され たものにつきましては編集者に一任していただくことになります。

SIG News. JALT’s Special Interest Groups may use this column to report on news or events happening within their group. This might include mini-conferences, presentations, publications, calls for papers or presenters, or general SIG information. Deadline: 15th of month, 2 months prior to publication. Send as an email attachment to the SIG News editor.

Feature Articles


English Features. Submissions should be well-written, well-documented, and researched articles. Analysis and data can be quantitative or qualitative (or both). Manuscripts are typically screened and evaluated anonymously by members of The Language Teacher Editorial Advisory Board. They are evaluated for degree of scholarly research, relevance, originality of conclusions, etc. Submissions should: • be up to 3,000 words (not including appendices) • have pages numbered, paragraphs separated by double carriage returns (not tabbed), and subheadings (boldfaced or italic) used throughout for the convenience of readers • have the article’s title, the author’s name, affiliation, contact details, and word count at the top of the first page • be accompanied by an English abstract of up to 150 words (translated into Japanese, if possible, and submitted as a separate file) • be accompanied by a 100-word biographical background • include a list of up to 8 keywords for indexing • have tables, figures, appendices, etc. attached as separate files. Send as an email attachment to the co-editors.

My Share. Submissions should be original teaching techniques or a lesson plan you have used. Readers should be able to replicate your technique or lesson plan. Submissions should: • be up to 1,000 words • have the article title, the author name, affiliation, email address, and word count at the top of the first page • include a Quick Guide to the lesson plan or teaching technique • follow My Share formatting • have tables, figures, appendices, etc. attached as separate files • include copyright warnings, if appropriate. Send as an email attachment to the My Share editor.

SIGニュース:SIGはニュースやイベントの報告にこのカラムを使用 できます。会議、プレゼンテーション、出版物、論文募集、連絡代 表者などの情報を記入下さい。締め切りは出版の2か月前の15日ま でに、SIG委員長に電子メールの添付ファイルで送ってください。

Chapter Reports. The column is a forum for sharing presentation synopses held at JALT Chapters around Japan. Submissions must therefore reflect the nature of the column and be written clearly and concisely. Submissions should: • be interesting and not contain extraneous information • be in well-written, concise, informative prose • be made by email only. Faxed and/or postal submissions are not acceptable • be approximately 300 words in order to explore the content in sufficient detail • be structured as follows: Chapter name; Event date; Event title; Name of presenter(s); Synopsis; Reporter’s name. Send as an email attachment to the Chapter Reports editor.

マイシェア:学習活動に関する実践的なアイデアについて、テク ニックや教案を読者が再利用できるように紹介するものです。 1,600字以内で最初のページにタイトル、著者名、所属、電子メール アドレスと文字数をお書き下さい。表、図、付録なども含めること ができますが、著作権にはお気をつけ下さい。My Share 担当編集 支部会報告:JALT地域支部会の研究会報告です。有益な情報をご 者に電子メールの添付ファイルでお送り下さい。 提供下さい。600文字程度で簡潔にお書き下さい。支部名、日時、イ JALT Focus. Submissions should be directly related to re- ベント名、発表者名、要旨、報告者名を、この順序でお書き下さい。 cent or upcoming developments within JALT, preferably 支部会報告編集者まで電子メールの添付ファイルでお送り下さい。 on an organization-wide scale. Submissions should: ファックスや郵便は受理いたしませんので、ご注意下さい。

• be no more than 750 words

日本語論文:実証性のある研究論文を求めます。質的か、計量的か Chapter Events. Chapters are invited to submit up• be relevant to the JALT membership as whole (あるいは両方)で追究された分析やデータを求めます。原稿は、匿 coming events. Submissions should follow the precise • encourage readers to participate more actively 名のTLTの査読委員により、研究水準、関連性、結論などの独創性 format used in every issue of TLT (topic, speaker, date, in JALT on both a micro and macro level で評価されます。8,000語(資料は除く)以内で、ページ番号を入れ、 time, place, fee, and other information in order, fol• Deadline: 15th of the month, 11/2 months prior to lowed by a 60-word description of the event). 段落ごとに2行あけ、副見出し(太文字かイタリック体)を付けて下さ publication. い。最初のページの一番上に題名、著者名、所属、連絡先および語 Meetings scheduled for early in the month should be 彙数をお書き下さい。英文、和文で400語の要旨、300語の著者略歴 Send as an email attachment to the JALT Focus editor. published in the previous month’s issue. Maps of new もご提出下さい。表、図、付録も可能です。共同編集者まで電子メー JALTフォーカス:JALT内の進展を会員の皆様にお伝えするもの locations can be printed upon consultation with the th ルの添付ファイルでお送り下さい。 です。どのJALT会員にもふさわしい内容で、JALTに、より活動的 column editor. Deadline: 15 of the month, 2 months Readers’ Forum articles are thoughtful essays on top- に参加するように働きかけるものです。1,600字程度で、毎月15日 prior to publication. Send as an email attachment to ics related to language teaching and learning in Japan. までにお送り下さい。掲載は1月半後になります。JALTフォーカス the Chapter Events editor. 編集者まで電子メールの添付ファイルでお送り下さい。 Submissions should: 支部イベント:近づいている支部のイベントの案内情報です。トピ • be of relevance to language teachers in Japan JALT Notices. Submissions should be of general rele- ック、発表者、日時、時間、場所、料金をこの順序で掲載いたしま vance to language learners and teachers in Japan. JALT す。締め切りは、毎月15日で、2ヵ月前までに、支部イベント編集者 • contain up to 2,500 words Notices can be accessed at
• include English and Japanese abstracts, as per Features above • include a list of up to 8 keywords for indexing • include a short bio and a Japanese title. Send as an email attachment to the co-editors.

読者フォーラム:日本での言語教育、及び言語学習に関する思慮 的なエッセイを募集しています。日本での語学教師に関連してい て、6,000字以内で、英文・和文の要旨、短い略歴および日本語のタ イトルを添えて下さい。共同編集者まで電子メールの添付ファイル でお送り下さい。

org/tlt/focus/>. Calls for papers or research projects Job Information Center. TLT encourages all prospecwill be accepted; however, announcements of confer- tive employers to use this free service to locate the most ences, colloquia, or seminars should be submitted to qualified language teachers in Japan. The notice should: the Conference Calendar. Submissions: • contain the following information: • should be no more than 150 words City and prefecture, Name of institution, Title of position, Whether full- or part-time, Qualifica• should be submitted in as far in advance as is tions, Duties, Salary & benefits, Application possible materials, Deadline, Contact information • will be removed from the website when the an• not be positions wanted. (It is JALT policy that nouncement becomes outdated. they will not be printed) Submissions can be sent through the JALT Notices on• Deadline: 15th of month, 2 months prior to line submissions form. publication. 掲示板:日本での論文募集や研究計画は、オンラインで見ることができます。できるだけ前もっ Send as an email attachment to the JIC editor.

Interviews. If you are interested in interviewing a wellknown professional in the field of language teaching in and around Japan, please consult the editors first. Lengths range from 1,500-2,500 words. Send as an て掲載いたしますが、終了次第、消去いたします。掲示板オンライン 求人欄:語学教育の求人募集を無料でサービス提供します。県と email attachment to the co-editor. ・サブミッション形式に従い、400字以内で投稿して下さい。なお、 インタビュー:日本国内外で言語教育の分野での「有名な」専門家 会議、セミナーは Conference Calendar で扱います。 にインタビューしたい場合は、編集者に最初に意見をお尋ね下さ い。3,600語から6,000語の長さです。共同編集者まで電子メールの Book Reviews. We invite reviews of books and other educational materials. Contact the Publishers’ Review 添付ファイルでお送り下さい。

Copies Liaison for material listed in the Recently Received column, and the Book Reviews editor if you wish to review unlisted material, including websites or other online resources. Review articles treating several related titles are particu学会報告:語学教師に関心のあるトピックの大会に出席された場 larly welcome. Submissions should: 合は、4000語程度に要約して、報告書を書いてください。共同編集 • show a thorough understanding of the material 者まで電子メールの添付ファイルでお送り下さい。 reviewed • reflect actual classroom usage in the case of classroom materials • be thoroughly checked and proofread before submission. Send as an email attachment to the Book Reviews editor. Conference Reports. If you have attended a conference on a topic of interest to language teachers in Asia, write a 1,500-word report summarizing the main events. Send as an email attachment to the co-editor.

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都市名、機関名、職名、専任か非常勤かの区別、資格、仕事内容、 給料、締め切りや連絡先を発行2ヶ月前の15日までにお知らせ下 さい。特別の書式はありません。JIC担当編集者に電子メールの添 付ファイルでお送り下さい。

Conference Calendar. Announcements of conferences and their calls for papers as well as for colloquia, symposiums, and seminars may be posted in this column. The announcement should: • be up to 150 words. • Deadline: 15th of month, at least 3 months prior to the conference date for conferences in Japan and 4 months prior for overseas conferences. Send as an email attachment to the Conference Calendar editor. 催し:コロキウム、シンポジウム、セミナー、会議のお知らせと、論 文募集の案内です。Conference Calendar編集者に400語程度で電 子メールの添付ファイルでお送り下さい。締め切りは毎月15日で、 日本、および海外の会議で3ヶ月前までの情報を掲載します。