Indigenous Peoples - IFC

Indigenous Peoples - IFC

Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012 Overview of Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability 1. IFC’s Susta...

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

Overview of Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability 1. IFC’s Sustainability Framework articulates the Corporation’s strategic commitment to sustainable development, and is an integral part of IFC’s approach to risk management. The Sustainability Framework comprises IFC’s Policy and Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability, and IFC’s Access to Information Policy. The Policy on Environmental and Social Sustainability describes IFC’s commitments, roles, and responsibilities related to environmental and social sustainability. IFC’s Access to Information Policy reflects IFC’s commitment to transparency and good governance on its operations, and outlines the Corporation’s institutional disclosure obligations regarding its investment and advisory services. The Performance Standards are directed towards clients, providing guidance on how to identify risks and impacts, and are designed to help avoid, mitigate, and manage risks and impacts as a way of doing business in a sustainable way, including stakeholder engagement and disclosure obligations of the client in relation to project-level activities. In the case of its direct investments (including project and corporate finance provided through financial intermediaries), IFC requires its clients to apply the Performance Standards to manage environmental and social risks and impacts so that development opportunities are enhanced. IFC uses the Sustainability Framework along with other strategies, policies, and initiatives to direct the business activities of the Corporation in order to achieve its overall development objectives. The Performance Standards may also be applied by other financial institutions. 1

2. Together, the eight Performance Standards establish standards that the client is to meet throughout the life of an investment by IFC: Performance Standard 1:

Performance Standard 7:

Assessment and Management of Environmental and Social Risks and Impacts Labor and Working Conditions Resource Efficiency and Pollution Prevention Community Health, Safety, and Security Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources Indigenous Peoples

Performance Standard 8:

Cultural Heritage

Performance Standard 2: Performance Standard 3: Performance Standard 4: Performance Standard 5: Performance Standard 6:

3. Performance Standard 1 establishes the importance of (i) integrated assessment to identify the environmental and social impacts, risks, and opportunities of projects; (ii) effective community engagement through disclosure of project-related information and consultation with local communities on matters that directly affect them; and (iii) the client’s management of environmental and social performance throughout the life of the project. Performance Standards 2 through 8 establish objectives and requirements to avoid, minimize, and where residual impacts remain, to compensate/offset for risks and impacts to workers, Affected Communities, and the environment. While all relevant environmental and social risks and potential impacts should be considered as part of the assessment, Performance Standards 2 through 8 describe potential environmental and social risks and impacts that require particular attention. Where environmental or social risks and impacts

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The term “client” is used throughout the Performance Standards broadly to refer to the party responsible for implementing and operating the project that is being financed, or the recipient of the financing, depending on the project structure and type of financing. The term “project” is defined in Performance Standard 1.

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

are identified, the client is required to manage them through its Environmental and Social Management System (ESMS) consistent with Performance Standard 1. 4. Performance Standard 1 applies to all projects that have environmental and social risks and impacts. Depending on project circumstances, other Performance Standards may apply as well. The Performance Standards should be read together and cross-referenced as needed. The requirements section of each Performance Standard applies to all activities financed under the project, unless otherwise noted in the specific limitations described in each paragraph. Clients are encouraged to apply the ESMS developed under Performance Standard 1 to all their project activities, regardless of financing source. A number of cross-cutting topics such as climate change, gender, human rights, and water, are addressed across multiple Performance Standards. 5. In addition to meeting the requirements under the Performance Standards, clients must comply with applicable national law, including those laws implementing host country obligations under international law. 6. The World Bank Group Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines (EHS Guidelines) are technical reference documents with general and industry-specific examples of good international industry practice. IFC uses the EHS Guidelines as a technical source of information during project appraisal. The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are normally acceptable to IFC, and that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities at reasonable costs by existing technology. For IFC-financed projects, application of the EHS Guidelines to existing facilities may involve the establishment of site-specific targets with an appropriate timetable for achieving them. The environmental assessment process may recommend alternative (higher or lower) levels or measures, which, if acceptable to IFC, become project- or site-specific requirements. The General EHS Guideline contains information on cross-cutting environmental, health, and safety issues potentially applicable to all industry sectors. It should be used together with the relevant industry sector guideline(s). The EHS Guidelines may be occasionally updated. 7. When host country regulations differ from the levels and measures presented in the EHS Guidelines, projects are expected to achieve whichever is more stringent. If less stringent levels or measures are appropriate in view of specific project circumstances, a full and detailed justification for any proposed alternatives is needed as part of the site-specific environmental assessment. This justification should demonstrate that the choice for any alternative performance level is protective of human health and the environment. 8. A set of eight Guidance Notes, corresponding to each Performance Standard, and an additional Interpretation Note on Financial Intermediaries offer guidance on the requirements contained in the Performance Standards, including reference materials, and on good sustainability practices to help clients improve project performance. These Guidance/Interpretation Notes may be occasionally updated.

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

Introduction 1. Performance Standard 7 recognizes that Indigenous Peoples, as social groups with identities that are distinct from mainstream groups in national societies, are often among the most marginalized and vulnerable segments of the population. In many cases, their economic, social, and legal status limits their capacity to defend their rights to, and interests in, lands and natural and cultural resources, and may restrict their ability to participate in and benefit from development. Indigenous Peoples are particularly vulnerable if their lands and resources are transformed, encroached upon, or significantly degraded. Their languages, cultures, religions, spiritual beliefs, and institutions may also come under threat. As a consequence, Indigenous Peoples may be more vulnerable to the adverse impacts associated with project development than non-indigenous communities. This vulnerability may include loss of identity, culture, and natural resource-based livelihoods, as well as exposure to impoverishment and diseases. 2. Private sector projects can create opportunities for Indigenous Peoples to participate in, and benefit from project-related activities that may help them fulfill their aspiration for economic and social development. Furthermore, Indigenous Peoples may play a role in sustainable development by promoting and managing activities and enterprises as partners in development. Government often plays a central role in the management of Indigenous Peoples’ issues, and clients should collaborate 1 with the responsible authorities in managing the risks and impacts of their activities.

Objectives 



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To ensure that the development process fosters full respect for the human rights, dignity, aspirations, culture, and natural resource-based livelihoods of Indigenous Peoples. To anticipate and avoid adverse impacts of projects on communities of Indigenous Peoples, or when avoidance is not possible, to minimize and/or compensate for such impacts. To promote sustainable development benefits and opportunities for Indigenous Peoples in a culturally appropriate manner. To establish and maintain an ongoing relationship based on Informed Consultation and Participation (ICP) with the Indigenous Peoples affected by a project throughout the project’s life-cycle. To ensure the Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC) of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples when the circumstances described in this Performance Standard are present. To respect and preserve the culture, knowledge, and practices of Indigenous Peoples.

Scope of Application 3. The applicability of this Performance Standard is established during the environmental and social risks and impacts identification process. The implementation of the actions necessary to meet the requirements of this Performance Standard is managed through the client’s Environmental and Social Management System, the elements of which are outlined in Performance Standard 1.

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In addition to meeting the requirements under this Performance Standard, clients must comply with applicable national law, including those laws implementing host country obligations under international law.

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

4. There is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples.” Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as “Indigenous ethnic minorities,” “aboriginals,” “hill tribes,” “minority nationalities,” “scheduled tribes,” “first nations,” or “tribal groups.” 5. In this Performance Standard, the term “Indigenous Peoples” is used in a generic sense to refer to a distinct social and cultural group possessing the following characteristics in varying degrees:    

Self-identification as members of a distinct indigenous cultural group and recognition of this identity by others; Collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories; Customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that are separate from those of the mainstream society or culture; or A distinct language or dialect, often different from the official language or languages of the country or region in which they reside.

6. This Performance Standard applies to communities or groups of Indigenous Peoples who maintain a collective attachment, i.e., whose identity as a group or community is linked, to distinct habitats or ancestral territories and the natural resources therein. It may also apply to communities or groups that have lost collective attachment to distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area, occurring within the concerned group members’ lifetime, because of forced severance, conflict, government resettlement programs, dispossession of their lands, natural disasters, or incorporation of such territories into an urban area. 7. The client may be required to seek inputs from competent professionals to ascertain whether a particular group is considered as Indigenous Peoples for the purpose of this Performance Standard.

Requirements General Avoidance of Adverse Impacts 8. The client will identify, through an environmental and social risks and impacts assessment process, all communities of Indigenous Peoples within the project area of influence who may be affected by the project, as well as the nature and degree of the expected direct and indirect 2 economic, social, cultural (including cultural heritage ), and environmental impacts on them. 9. Adverse impacts on Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples should be avoided where possible. Where alternatives have been explored and adverse impacts are unavoidable, the client will minimize, restore, and/or compensate for these impacts in a culturally appropriate manner commensurate with the nature and scale of such impacts and the vulnerability of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples. The client’s proposed actions will be developed with the ICP of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples and contained in a time-bound plan, such as an Indigenous Peoples Plan, or a broader community development plan with separate components for 3 Indigenous Peoples.

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Additional requirements on protection of cultural heritage are set out in Performance Standard 8.

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The determination of the appropriate plan may require the input of competent professionals. A community development plan may be appropriate in circumstances where Indigenous Peoples are a part of larger Affected Communities.

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

Participation and Consent 10. The client will undertake an engagement process with the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples as required in Performance Standard 1. This engagement process includes stakeholder analysis and engagement planning, disclosure of information, consultation, and participation, in a culturally appropriate manner. In addition, this process will: 



Involve Indigenous Peoples’ representative bodies and organizations (e.g., councils of elders or village councils), as well as members of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples; and 4 Provide sufficient time for Indigenous Peoples’ decision-making processes.

11. Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples may be particularly vulnerable to the loss of, 5 alienation from or exploitation of their land and access to natural and cultural resources. In recognition of this vulnerability, in addition to the General Requirements of this Performance Standard, the client will obtain the FPIC of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples in the circumstances described in paragraphs 13–17 of this Performance Standard. FPIC applies to project design, implementation, and expected outcomes related to impacts affecting the communities of Indigenous Peoples. When any of these circumstances apply, the client will engage external experts to assist in the identification of the project risks and impacts. 12. There is no universally accepted definition of FPIC. For the purposes of Performance Standards 1, 7 and 8, “FPIC” has the meaning described in this paragraph. FPIC builds on and expands the process of ICP described in Performance Standard 1 and will be established through good faith negotiation between the client and the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples. The client will document: (i) the mutually accepted process between the client and Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples, and (ii) evidence of agreement between the parties as the outcome of the negotiations. FPIC does not necessarily require unanimity and may be achieved even when individuals or groups within the community explicitly disagree.

Circumstances Requiring Free, Prior, and Informed Consent Impacts on Lands and Natural Resources Subject to Traditional Ownership or Under Customary Use 6

13. Indigenous Peoples are often closely tied to their lands and related natural resources. 7 Frequently, these lands are traditionally owned or under customary use. While Indigenous Peoples may not possess legal title to these lands as defined by national law, their use of these lands, including seasonal or cyclical use, for their livelihoods, or cultural, ceremonial, and spiritual purposes that define their identity and community, can often be substantiated and documented.

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Internal decision making processes are generally but not always collective in nature. There may be internal dissent, and decisions may be challenged by some in the community. The consultation process should be sensitive to such dynamics and allow sufficient time for internal decision making processes to reach conclusions that are considered legitimate by the majority of the concerned participants.

5 Natural resources and natural areas with cultural value referred to in this Performance Standard are equivalent to ecosystem provisioning and cultural services as described in Performance Standard 6. 6 Examples include marine and aquatic resources timber, and non-timber forest products, medicinal plants, hunting and gathering grounds, and grazing and cropping areas. Natural resource assets, as referred to in this Performance Standard, are equivalent to provisioning ecosystem services as described in Performance Standard 6. 7

The acquisition and/or leasing of lands with legal title is addressed in Performance Standard 5: Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement.

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

14. If the client proposes to locate a project on, or commercially develop natural resources on lands 8 traditionally owned by, or under the customary use of, Indigenous Peoples, and adverse impacts can be expected, the client will take the following steps:    





Document efforts to avoid and otherwise minimize the area of land proposed for the project; Document efforts to avoid and otherwise minimize impacts on natural resources 9 and natural areas of importance to Indigenous People; Identify and review all property interests and traditional resource uses prior to purchasing or leasing land; Assess and document the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples’ resource 10 use without prejudicing any Indigenous Peoples’ land claim. The assessment of land and natural resource use should be gender inclusive and specifically consider women’s role in the management and use of these resources; Ensure that Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples are informed of their land rights under national law, including any national law recognizing customary use rights; and Offer Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples compensation and due process in the case of commercial development of their land and natural resources, together with culturally appropriate sustainable development opportunities, including: Providing land-based compensation or compensation-in-kind in lieu of cash 11 compensation where feasible. Ensuring continued access to natural resources, identifying the equivalent replacement resources, or, as a last option, providing compensation and identifying alternative livelihoods if project development results in the loss of access to and the loss of natural resources independent of project land acquisition. Ensuring fair and equitable sharing of benefits associated with project usage of the resources where the client intends to utilize natural resources that are central to the identity and livelihood of Affected Communities of Indigenous People and their usage thereof exacerbates livelihood risk. Providing Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples with access, usage, and transit on land it is developing subject to overriding health, safety, and security considerations.

Relocation of Indigenous Peoples from Lands and Natural Resources Subject to Traditional Ownership or Under Customary Use 15. The client will consider feasible alternative project designs to avoid the relocation of Indigenous 12 Peoples from communally held lands and natural resources subject to traditional ownership or 8

Such adverse impacts may include impacts from loss of access to assets or resources or restrictions on land use resulting from project activities.

9 “Natural resources and natural areas of importance” as referred to in this Performance Standard are equivalent to priority ecosystem services as defined in Performance Standard 6. They refer to those services over which the client has direct management control or significant influence, and those services most likely to be sources of risk in terms of impacts on Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples. 10 While this Performance Standard requires substantiation and documentation of the use of such land, clients should also be aware that the land may already be under alternative use, as designated by the host government. 11

If circumstances prevent the client from offering suitable replacement land, the client must provide verification that such is the case. Under such circumstances, the client will provide non land-based income-earning opportunities over and above cash compensation to the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples.

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

under customary use. If such relocation is unavoidable the client will not proceed with the project unless FPIC has been obtained as described above. Any relocation of Indigenous Peoples will be consistent with the requirements of Performance Standard 5. Where feasible, the relocated Indigenous Peoples should be able to return to their traditional or customary lands, should the cause of their relocation cease to exist.

Critical Cultural Heritage 13

16. Where a project may significantly impact on critical cultural heritage that is essential to the identity and/or cultural, ceremonial, or spiritual aspects of Indigenous Peoples lives, priority will be given to the avoidance of such impacts. Where significant project impacts on critical cultural heritage are unavoidable, the client will obtain the FPIC of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples. 17. Where a project proposes to use the cultural heritage including knowledge, innovations, or practices of Indigenous Peoples for commercial purposes, the client will inform the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples of (i) their rights under national law; (ii) the scope and nature of the proposed commercial development; (iii) the potential consequences of such development; and (iv) obtain their FPIC. The client will also ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits from commercialization of such knowledge, innovation, or practice, consistent with the customs and traditions of the Indigenous Peoples.

Mitigation and Development Benefits 18. The client and the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples will identify mitigation measures in alignment with the mitigation hierarchy described in Performance Standard 1 as well as opportunities for culturally appropriate and sustainable development benefits. The client will ensure the timely and equitable delivery of agreed measures to the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples. 19. The determination, delivery, and distribution of compensation and other benefit sharing measures to the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples will take account of the laws, institutions, and customs of these communities as well as their level of interaction with mainstream society. Eligibility for compensation can either be individually or collectively-based, or be a 14 combination of both. Where compensation occurs on a collective basis, mechanisms that promote the effective delivery and distribution of compensation to all eligible members of the group will be defined and implemented. 20. Various factors including, but not limited to, the nature of the project, the project context and the vulnerability of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples will determine how these communities should benefit from the project. Identified opportunities should aim to address the goals 12

Typically, Indigenous Peoples claim rights and access to, and use of land and resources through traditional or customary systems, many of which entail communal property rights. These traditional claims to land and resources may not be recognized under national laws. Where members of the Affected Communities of Indigenous Peoples individually hold legal title, or where the relevant national law recognizes customary rights for individuals, the requirements of Performance Standard 5 will apply, rather than the requirements under paragraph 17 of this Performance Standard. 13 Includes natural areas with cultural and/or spiritual value such as sacred groves, sacred bodies of water and waterways, sacred trees, and sacred rocks. Natural areas with cultural value are equivalent to priority ecosystem cultural services as defined in Performance Standard 6. 14

Where control of resources, assets and decision making are predominantly collective in nature, efforts will be made to ensure that, where possible, benefits and compensation are collective, and take account of intergenerational differences and needs.

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Performance Standard 7 Indigenous Peoples January 1, 2012

and preferences of the Indigenous Peoples including improving their standard of living and livelihoods in a culturally appropriate manner, and to foster the long-term sustainability of the natural resources on which they depend.

Private Sector Responsibilities Where Government is Responsible for Managing Indigenous Peoples Issues 21. Where the government has a defined role in the management of Indigenous Peoples issues in relation to the project, the client will collaborate with the responsible government agency, to the extent feasible and permitted by the agency, to achieve outcomes that are consistent with the objectives of this Performance Standard. In addition, where government capacity is limited, the client will play an active role during planning, implementation, and monitoring of activities to the extent permitted by the agency. 22. The client will prepare a plan that, together with the documents prepared by the responsible government agency, will address the relevant requirements of this Performance Standard. The client may need to include (i) the plan, implementation, and documentation of the process of ICP and engagement and FPIC where relevant; (ii) a description of the government-provided entitlements of affected Indigenous Peoples; (iii) the measures proposed to bridge any gaps between such entitlements, and the requirements of this Performance Standard; and (iv) the financial and implementation responsibilities of the government agency and/or the client.

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