Influence of non-genetic factors on performance traits in Murrah

Influence of non-genetic factors on performance traits in Murrah

Indian J. Anim. Res., 49 (3) 2015 : 279-283 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION CENTRE Print ISSN:0367-6722 / Online ISSN:0976-0555 www.arccjournal...

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Indian J. Anim. Res., 49 (3) 2015 : 279-283

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION CENTRE

Print ISSN:0367-6722 / Online ISSN:0976-0555

www.arccjournals.com/www.ijaronline.in

Influence of non-genetic factors on performance traits in Murrah buffaloes V. Jamuna*1, A.K. Chakravarty and C.S. Patil Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, India. Receivd: 03-12-2013 Accepted: 18-06-2014

DOI:10.5958/0976-0555.2015.00089.8

ABSTRACT The study on 522 Murrah buffaloes scattered over 19 years (1993 to 2011) in NDRI Livestock Farm was conducted to reveal the effect of non-genetic factors on performance traits. The fixed linear models were used to estimate the effect of nongenetic factors. The overall least-squares means of Age at First Calving (AFC), Service Period (SP), Days to First Service (DFS), Lactation Length (LL), Test Day 5 Milk Yield (TD 5 MY) and 305 days or less Milk Yield (305 DMY) were obtained as 44.03 ± 0.38 months, 146.28 ± 5.58 days, 89.28 ± 2.23 days, 286.08 ± 2.23 days, 8.13 ± 0.12 kg and 2078.20 ± 31.21 kg, respectively. Season of birth had significant effect (P<0.01) on AFC, autumn was the favourable season of birth for Murrah buffaloes. Season of calving significantly influenced (P<0.01) SP and DFS, where rainy and autumn were observed as favourable for fertility in Murrah buffaloes. Period of calving and parity had significant effect on reproduction traits (P<0.05) and production traits (P<0.01), except lactation length. Age group at first calving significantly influenced SP (P<0.01) and LL (P<0.05). Since, temporary environmental factors play a major role on performance traits, better breeding management should be implemented. Key words: Murrah buffalo, Non- genetic factors, Production traits, Reproduction traits. INTRODUCTION Buffalo is the main plank for the development of dairy industry in India, contributing about 56 per cent to total milk, despite the fact that they constitute only 34.6 per cent of total bovine population. Murrah breed is one of the precious breed of buffaloes in India by virtue of its milking capacity combined with tremendous potential for further genetic improvement. Murrah buffaloes although predominant in Haryana, are the back bone of the rural economy of almost all part of India. The success of Indian dairy industry is much dependent on productivity and efficient reproduction performance of Murrah buffaloes. There are many non-genetic factors, which influence the phenotypic expression of performance traits of buffaloes, including test day milk yield records. Test day milk yield records help in early genetic evaluations, thereby reducing the generation interval and economize the genetic evaluation with better accuracy. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of various non-genetic factors on performance traits and to suggest suitable management practices, selection and breeding strategies for genetic improvement of Murrah buffaloes. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on data pertaining to 522 Murrah buffaloes maintained at NDRI *Corresponding author’s e-mail: jamun[email protected]

Livestock Farm Karnal over a period of 19 years from January 1993 to October 2011. The normal lactation was considered as the period of milk production by a buffalo for at least 100 days, the milk production in lactation was recorded a minimum of 500 kg and the buffalo calved and dried under normal physiological conditions were included in the present study. On standardization and normalization of traits, the number of buffaloes involved in the analysis of reproduction and production traits, is presented in Table 1.The non-genetic factors viz. season and period of birth/calving, age group at first calving and parity were considered in the study. Depending on the meteorological factors, feed and fodder availability, the year was classified into four seasons (winter, summer, rainy and autumn) based on prevalent climatic conditions in the region as recorded in Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal (Singh, TABLE 1: Number of buffaloes involved in the analysis of reproduction and production traits Lactation AFC

SP

DFS

LL

First Second Third Fourth Total

340 204 126 78 748

372 210 131 78 793

404 230 138 81 853

388

TD 5 MY 305DMY 404 230 138 81 853

404 230 138 81 853

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1983). Gen er a ll y t here woul d be di fferen ce i n performances of buffaloes from period to period due to differential fodder, feed availability, managemental practices and other environmental components. However, that variation might not be significant enough to detect effect of each year separately. Therefore, the total duration of the study was classified into four periods with four year interval based on birth of buffaloes as age at first calving in Murrah buffaloes mostly varies from 3 1/2-4 years. As the reproduction and production performance of Murrah buffaloes in the present study scattered over 16 years beginning from 1996, therefore 16 years were classified into 8 periods based on calving of buffaloes during two years each with the assumption there may be differential effects of feeds, fodder and managemental practices in every two years. The buffaloes those were born in the year 1993, however their reproduction and production performances were started in 1996. So from 1996-2011, i.e 16 years data on reproduction and production performance data were used to find out the effect of period of calving. The age group at first calving were classified based on age at first calving of Murrah buffaloes. The mean and standard deviation of age at first calving were estimated. Using mean and one standard deviation (X±1 SD) three age groups were defined, viz. < X-1 SD = <37 months, X±1 SD = 37-51 months, > X+1 SD = >51 months. Four parities (I to IV) of Murrah buffaloes were considered. The traits under study were Age at First Calving (AFC), Service Period (SP), Days to First Service (DFS), Lactation length (LL), Test Day five (125th day) milk yield (TD 5MY) and 305 Days or less Milk Yield (305 DMY). The effect of non-genetic factors on normalised reproduction and production traits were studied by least-squares analysis for non-orthogonal data, using fixed linear model (Harvey,1990). The following models were used with

assumptions that different components being fitted into the model were independent and additive. The model for Age at First Calving is Yijk = µ + Si+ Pj+ eijk where,Yijk, observation on the kth buffalo born in jth period and ith season;,overall mean; Si, fixed effect of ith season of birth (winter, summer, rainy and autumn) Pj, fixed effect of jth period of birth (1 to 4) and, eij, random error ~ NID (0, ó2e). The model for other traits is Yijklm= µ + Si + Pj + Pak + AGl + eijklm where, Yijklmn, observation of the mth buffalo born in lth age group, calved in kth parity, jth period and ith season; m, overall mean; Si, fixed effect of ith season of calving (winter, summer, rainy and autumn);Pj, fixed effect of jth period of calving (1 to 8); Pak, fixed effect of kth parity(1 to 4), AGl, fixed effect of lth age group(<37, 37-57, > 57 months); and eijklm, random error ~ NID (0, ó2e). The differences of means between subclasses of periods, seasons, parity and age group were tested for significance using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (Kramer,1957). The analysis of variance for season and period of birth, season and period of calving, age group and parity affecting different reproduction and production traits under model were computed, and is presented in Table 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Overall least squares means of AFC, SP and DFS were 44.03 ± 0.38 months, 146.28 ± 5.58 days and 89.28 ± 2.23 days, respectively. The overall least squares means of LL, TD 5 (125th day) MY and 305 DMY were obtained as 286.08 ± 2.23 days, 8.13 ± 0.12 kg and 2078.20 ± 31.21 kg, respectively. The means obtained were in accordance with the values reported by other workers (Patil et al., 2012). Season of birth (P<0.01) had significant effect on age at first calving (Figure 1). Similar findings were reported by other workers (Dutt et al., 2001). In the present study, more age at first calving was found for winter born buffaloes followed by summer, rainy and autumn born buffaloes. Season of calving had significant effect (P<0.01)

TABLE 2: Analysis of variance (M.S. values) of reproduction and production traits in Murrah buffaloes. Sources of variation Season of birth Period of birth -

AFC (months) 214.45** (3) 20.17 (3)

Sources of variation Season of calving Period of calving Parity

SP (days) 53339.29** (3)

DFS LL (days) (days) 22196.26** 230.36 (3) (3) 4882.90* 1650.27 12383.84* (7) (7) (7) 42915.12** 18050.15** 1791.27 (3) (3) (3) Age group 26291.50** 850.39 3043.75* (2) (2) (2) Error 18375.20 Error 1850.20 993.05 6006.91 (682) (381) (626) (779) Figures in parentheses indicate respective degrees of freedom. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01

TD 5 MY (kg) 5.06 (3) 25.45** (7) 92.06** (3) 1.53 (2) 5.20 (779)

305 DMY (kg) 43296.26 (3) 1546912.56** (7) 6679420.5** (3) 261679.56 (2) 326339 (779)

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FIG 3: Least-squares means of SP and DFS FIG 1: Least-squares means of Age at First Calving

FIG 4: Least-squares means of TD 5 MY and 305 DMY FIG 2: Least-squares means of SP and DFS on service period and days to first service (Figure 2). Longer service period was observed in buffaloes calved in winter season, followed by buffalo calved in summer and autumn season. Similar results were reported by other workers (Chakraborty et al., 2010). During autumn and rainy season, climate was conducive and there was abundant availability of good quality fodders. Season of calving had non-significant effect on production traits in the present study. Period of birth had non-significant effect on age at first calving of Murrah buffaloes in the present study, however, period of calving had significant effect (P<0.05) on service period and days to first service (Figure 3). The result was in conformity with the findings of many workers (Suresh et al., 2004, Nawale, 2010 and Chakraborty et al., 2010). The period of calving (P<0.01) had significant effect on test day 5 milk yield and 305 days or less milk yield, while non significant effect on lactation length. The highest production was obtained during the period 2008-2009 (Figure 4). Khosla et al. (1984) reported that period of calving had significant effect on test

day 5 milk yield in Murrah buffaloes. Significant effect of period of calving on 305 days or less milk yield was reported by many workers (Latwal, 2000, Wakchaure, 2007 and Gupta, 2009). The difference in performance of the buffaloes among different periods might be attributed to differences in management practices, sires used for breeding, environmental conditions and variations in feed and fodder availability.

FIG 5: Least-squares means of SP and DFS

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FIG 6: Least-squares means of TD 5 MY and 305 DMY Parity had significant effect (P<0.01) on all performance traits of Murrah buffaloes except lactation length. The service period and days to first service were found lower in second and third parity in Murrah buffaloes (Figure 5). Prakash et al. (1988) reported significant effect of parity on service period. The literature revealing the influence of parity on days to first service in Murrah buffaloes was not available. Test day 5 milk yield and 305 days or less milk yield was found maximum in fourth parity and minimum in first parity (Figure 6). The literature about effect of parity on test day 5 milk yield was not available. The significant effect of parity on 305 days or less milk Yield of Murrah buffaloes was reported by Lathwal (2000). The variation of age group at first calving significantly influenced service period and lactation length only (Figure 7). The buffaloes with age at first calving 37 to

FIG 7: Least-squares means of LL and SP 51 months were found to have lowest service period. The variation of lactation length in different age groups was less (282.02 days to 288.44 days). CONCLUSION The fertility traits of Murrah buffaloes were significantly influenced by period and season of calving, parity and age group at first calving while production traits were mainly influenced by period of calving and parity. The difference in performance traits over different period and season may be attributed to differences in feeding, management practices and differential culling level. Therefore, environmental variation should be taken into consideration when developing and comparing models to be used in adjusting data to provide best estimates of genetic parameters in the evaluation of Murrah buffaloes.

REFERENCES Chakraborty D., Dhaka S., Pander B.L and Yadav A.S.(2010). Genetic studies on production efficiency attributes in Murrah buffaloes. Indian J.Anim.Sci., 80: 245-246. Dutt T., Bhushan B. and Kumar S. (2001). First lactation and lifetime performance traits in Murrah buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci,. 71: 483-484. Gupta J.P. (2009). Evolving selection criteria using growth and production traits in Murrah buffaloes. M.V.Sc. Thesis, NDRI (Deemed University), Karnal, Haryana, India. Harvey W.R. (1990) Guide for LSMLMW, PC-1 Version, mixed model least squares and maximum likelihood computer programme. Mimeograph Ohio State Univ., USA. Khosla S.K., Gill S.S and Malhotra P.K (1984). Effect of some non-genetic factor on age at first calving and service period in herd book registered Murrah buffaloes under village conditions. Indian J.Anim.Sci., 54: 1-5. Kramer C.Y. (1957).Extension of multiple range tests to group correlated adjusted means. Biometrics, 13: 13-18. Lathwal S.S (2000). Optimum levels of economic traits for maximizing the profit function in Murrah buffaloes. Ph.D. Thesis, NDRI (Deemed University), Karnal, Haryana, India. Nawale V.S. 2010. Development of optimum model for prediction and assessment of breeding efficiency in Murrah buffaloes. MVSc Thesis, NDRI (Deemed University), Karnal, Haryana, India

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Patil C.S., Chakravarty A.K., Kumar V., Dongre V.B and Kumar P (2012).Non-genetic factors affecting first lactation reproductive traits in Murrah buffaloe. Indian J. Anim.Res.,46:205-207 Prakash A., Tripathi V.N., and Tomar S.S. (1988). Genetic analysis of reproductive traits in Murrah buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 61: 411-415. Singh O.P. (1983) Climate of Karnal. Bulletin No.8. Published by Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (ICAR), Karnal, India. Suresh R., Bidarkar D.K., Gupta B. R., Sudharkarrao, B and Sudhakar K. (2004). Production and reproduction performance of Murrah buffaloes. Indian J. Anim.. Sci., 748: 854-857 Wakchaure R.S. 2007. Estimation of correction factors using time series analysis in Murrah buffaloes. MVSc Thesis, NDRI (Deemed University),Karnal, Haryana, India.