Influence of Various Cover Crop Species on Winter and Summer

Influence of Various Cover Crop Species on Winter and Summer

Influence of Various Cover Crop Species on Winter and Summer Annual Weed Emergence Cody D. Cornelius, Alex Long, Mandy Bish, Meghan Biggs, and Kevin ...

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Influence of Various Cover Crop Species on Winter and Summer Annual Weed Emergence

Cody D. Cornelius, Alex Long, Mandy Bish, Meghan Biggs, and Kevin Bradley University Of Missouri

Introduction   •  Cover  crops  have  increased   in  popularity  in  Midwest   crop  production  systems   •  A  variety  of  cover  crop   species  are  now  promoted;   little  is  known  about:     –  their  suitability  for   Midwest  corn/soybean   rotations   –   ability  to  reduce  winter   and  summer  annual  weed   emergence  

Objectives   To  determine  the  effects  of  various   cover  crop  species  on  cumulative   winter  and  summer  annual  weed   emergence  in  soybean.    

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

       Materials  and  Methods   General:  Identical  field  experiment  conducted  at  5   locations  in  2013  and  2014;  individual  plots  3  x  14  m;   treatments  arranged  in  a  RCB  design  with  4  replications     Planting  Dates:  September  11,  2012;  September  11,2013     Seeding  Rates  (kg/Ha):  Wheat  =              135                            Cereal  Rye  =              123                          Italian  ryegrass  =                  28                          Oats  =                  78                          Crimson  Clover  =                  34                          Austrian  Winter  Pea  =            56                                          Hairy  Vetch  =                                        34                                                Tillage  Radish  =                        11                          Cereal  Rye+Hairy  Vetch  =    78+34   ©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

       Materials  and  Methods   •  Herbicide  Applications:    Made  with  a  CO2-­‐powered  backpack   sprayer  delivering    15  GPA  with  XR8002  flat  fan  nozzles  

•  All  cover  crop  species  received  a  burndown  application  of   glyphosate  +  2,4-­‐D  ester  (1.73  +  0.56  kg/ha)  in  the  spring   approximately  7  to  14  days  prior  to  soybean  planting   •  Cover  crop  species  were  compared  to  3  herbicide  programs:   Fall  Herbicide  Only  

Spring  Non-­‐residual  Burndown  

Full  Residual  Program  

0.86  kg  glyphosate  ae/ha  +   0.56  kg  2,4-­‐D/ha  +  0.07  kg   sulfentrazone/ha  +  0.009   kg  chlorimuron/ha  

0.86  kg  glyphosate  ae/ha  +   0.56  kg  2,4-­‐D/ha  

PRE:  1.74  kg  glyphosate   ae/ha  +  0.56  kg  2,4-­‐D/ha  +   0.14  kg  sulfentrazone/ha  +   0.018  kg  cloransulam/ha   POST  (~V3):  0.57  kg   glufosinate  ai/ha  +  1.21  kg   S-­‐metolachlor/ha  +  0.27  kg   fomesafen/ha  

       Materials  and  Methods   Weed  Density  Data:     –  Cumulative  winter  annual  weed   counts  were  made  in  two,  1-­‐m2   quadrats  April  15,  2013;  April  9,  2014   –  Counts  of  all  emerged  weeds  were   made  in  two,  1-­‐m2  quadrats  within   each  plot  every  two  weeks   beginning  April  15th  in  2013  and  April   9th  in  2014  and  continuing  to  R3   –  After  each  count,  glufosinate  was   applied  to  eliminate  all  emerged   species  for  that  2-­‐wk  period   Data  Analysis:  Weed  counts  analyzed   using  PROC  GLIMMIX  procedure  in  SAS.     Means  separated  using  Fisher’s  Protected   LSD  at  the  5%  level  of  significance.  

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  vs.  Herbicide  Treatments   on  Cumulative  Winter  Annual  Weed  Density   (results  summarized  across  5  sites  in  2  years  in  Missouri)  

a  

Non-­‐treated  Control   h  

Fall  Herbicide  Only   Austrian  Pea  

cde  

Hairy  Vetch  

cde   bc  

Crimson  Clover  

b  

Tillage  Radish   Oats  

cd  

Italian  Ryegrass  

def  

Cereal  Rye/H.  Vetch  

g  

Cereal  Rye  

fg  

Wheat  

ef   0  

*Bars  followed  by  the  same   letter  are  not  different,  LSD0.05  

50   100   150   200   250   Cumulative  Winter  Annual  Weed  Emergence  (#/m2)  

300  

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  vs.  Herbicide  Treatments   on  Cumulative  Summer  Annual  Weed  Emergence   (results  summarized  across  5  sites  in  2  years  in  Missouri)  

Non-­‐treated  Control  

ab  

Fall  Herbicide  Only  

ab  

Spring  Non-­‐residual  Burndown   Full  Residual  Program  

bcd   d  

Austrian  Pea  

abc  

Hairy  Vetch  

ab  

Crimson  Clover  

ab  

Tillage  Radish  

a  

Oats  

abc  

Italian  Ryegrass  

bcd  

Cereal  Rye/H.  Vetch   Cereal  Rye   Wheat   *Bars  followed  by  the  same   letter  are  not  different,  LSD0.05  

cd   d   ab   0   50   100   150   200   250   300   350   400   450   Cumulative  Summer  Annual  Weed  Emergence  (#/m2)  

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  vs.  Herbicide  Treatments   on  Early-­‐season  Summer  Annual  Weed  Emergence   (results  summarized  across  5  sites  in  2  years  in  Missouri)    

Non-­‐treated  Control  

ab  

Fall  Herbicide  Only  

ab  

Spring  Non-­‐residual  Burndown  

bcd  

Full  Residual  Program  

cd  

Austrian  Pea  

abc  

Hairy  Vetch  

ab  

Crimson  Clover  

ab  

Tillage  Radish  

a  

Oats  

abc  

Italian  Ryegrass  

bcd  

Cereal  Rye/H.  Vetch   Cereal  Rye   Wheat   *Bars  followed  by  the  same   letter  are  not  different,  LSD0.05  

cd   d   abc   0   50   100   150   200   250   300   350   400   Early  Season  Summer  Annual  Weed  Emergence  (#/m2)  

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  vs.  Herbicide  Treatments   on  Late-­‐season  Summer  Annual  Weed  Emergence   (results  summarized  across  5  sites  in  2  years  in  Missouri)    

Non-­‐treated  Control  

a  

Fall  Herbicide  Only  

cd  

Spring  Non-­‐residual  Burndown   Full  Residual  Program   Austrian  Pea   Hairy  Vetch  

d   e   cd   bcd  

Crimson  Clover  

a  

Tillage  Radish  

ab  

Oats   Italian  Ryegrass  

abc   bcd  

Cereal  Rye/H.  Vetch   Cereal  Rye   Wheat   *Bars  followed  by  the  same   letter  are  not  different,  LSD0.05  

a-­‐d   bcd   a   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   Late-­‐season  Summer  Annual  Weed  Emergence  (#/m2)  

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

Non-­‐Treated  

Cereal  rye    

Tillage  Radish  12/3/2013   Columbia,  Missouri      

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  vs.  Herbicide  Treatments   on  Cumulative  Waterhemp  Emergence   (results  summarized  across  5  sites  in  2  years  in  Missouri)  

Non-­‐treated  Control  

a-­‐d  

Fall  Herbicide  Only  

bcd  

Spring  Non-­‐residual  Burndown  

a-­‐d  

Full  Residual  Program  

d  

Austrian  Pea  

a-­‐d  

Hairy  Vetch  

abc  

Crimson  Clover  

ab  

Tillage  Radish  

a  

Oats  

a-­‐d  

Italian  Ryegrass  

a-­‐d  

Cereal  Rye/H.  Vetch  

bcd  

Cereal  Rye  

cd  

Wheat   *Bars  followed  by  the  same   letter  are  not  different,  LSD0.05  

ab   0  

50   100   150   200   250   Cumulative  Waterhemp  Emergence  (#/m2)  

300  

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  vs.  Herbicide  Treatments   on  Early  Season  Waterhemp  Emergence   (results  summarized  across  5  sites  in  2  years  in  Missouri)  

Non-­‐treated  Control  

bcd  

Fall  Herbicide  Only  

bcd  

Spring  Non-­‐residual  Burndown  

a-­‐d  

Full  Residual  Program  

cd  

Austrian  Pea  

a-­‐d  

Hairy  Vetch  

ab  

Crimson  Clover  

ab  

Tillage  Radish  

a  

Oats  

a-­‐d  

Italian  Ryegrass  

a-­‐d  

Cereal  Rye/H.  Vetch  

bcd  

Cereal  Rye  

d  

Wheat   *Bars  followed  by  the  same   letter  are  not  different,  LSD0.05  

abc   0  

50   100   150   200   250   Cumulative  Waterhemp  Emergence  (#/m2)  

300  

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  vs.  Herbicide  Treatments   on  Late  Season  Waterhemp  Emergence   (results  summarized  across  5  sites  in  2  years  in  Missouri)  

Non-­‐treated  Control  

a  

Fall  Herbicide  Only  

de  

Spring  Non-­‐residual  Burndown  

b-­‐e  

Full  Residual  Program  

e  

Austrian  Pea  

cde  

Hairy  Vetch  

cde  

Crimson  Clover  

abc  

Tillage  Radish  

b-­‐e  

Oats  

b-­‐e  

Italian  Ryegrass  

bcd  

Cereal  Rye/H.  Vetch  

abc  

Cereal  Rye  

cde  

Wheat   *Bars  followed  by  the  same   letter  are  not  different,  LSD0.05  

ab   0  

10   20   30   40   50   Cumulative  Waterhemp  Emergence  (#/m2)  

60  

©  Kevin  Bradley,  University  of  Missouri  

     Conclusions:    

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  on   Winter  Annual  Weed  Density  

All  cover  crop  species   reduced  winter  annual   weed  densities  by  20  to   74%  compared  to  the  non-­‐ treated  control:     – Cereal  rye:  70%   – Cereal  rye/vetch:  74%   – Wheat:  47%   – Fall  herbicide:  99%    

     Conclusions:    

Influence  of  Cover  Crops  on   Summer  Annual  Weed  Density   •  Cereal  rye,  the  mix  of  cereal   rye  +  hairy  vetch,  and  Italian   ryegrass  provided  density   reductions  similar  to  the   residual  herbicide  program     •  Few  cover  crops  provided   any  substantial  reduction  in   late-­‐season  weed   emergence  compared  to  the   full  residual  program  (90%)    

Questions?