ITALY - Sharing History

ITALY - Sharing History

Timeline / Before 1800 to After 1930 / ITALY / POLITICAL CONTEXT Date Country Theme 1815 - 1860 Italy Political Context Italian “Risorgimento” (...

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Timeline / Before 1800 to After 1930 / ITALY / POLITICAL CONTEXT Date

Country

Theme

1815 - 1860

Italy

Political Context

Italian “Risorgimento” (movement for national unification).

1815

Italy

Political Context

The Congress of Vienna decides the restoration of pre-Napoleonic monarchies: Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont, Genoa, Sardinia); Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Southern Italy and Sicily), the Papal States (part of Central Italy), Grand Duchy of Tuscany and other smaller states. Much of northern Italy (Milan, Venice, Trieste etc.) is under the Austrian empire.

1820 - 1831

Italy

Political Context

In 1820–21 and 1830–31, uprisings in different parts of Italy in favour of national unification and constitutional rule. They meet harsh repression.

1831

Italy

Political Context

Giuseppe Mazzini founds the republican movement for national unification, Giovine Italia (Young Italy).

1848 - 1849

Italy

Political Context

Uprisings in different parts of Italy demand constitutional rule and national unification. In Rome and Venice, short-lived republics are proclaimed. King Carlo Alberto (Kingdom of Sardinia) grants a constitution and wages war against the Austrian Empire, but he is defeated.

Date

Country

Theme

1852

Italy

Political Context

Cavour (Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, 1810–61), the architect of the diplomatic strategies that allowed Italian unification, becomes prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia (he will remain prime minister until his death).

1855

Italy

Political Context

The Kingdom of Sardinia participates in the Crimean war as part of the AngloFrench alliance against Russia.

1859 - 1861

Italy

Political Context

The Kingdom of Sardinia, backed by France, wages war against the Austrian Empire and annexes Milan. Pro-unification insurrections in central Italy; Garibaldi leads an expedition of 1,000 volunteers in Southern Italy. Italy is unified under King Victor Emanuel II (formerly King of Sardinia) as a constitutional monarchy.

1860

Italy

Political Context

The right to vote is reserved for a small elite of men who have certain levels of income and education: only 2.2% of the Italians can vote.

1866

Italy

Political Context

Italy participates in the Austro-Prussian War on the side of Prussia and annexes Venice.

1867

Italy

Political Context

Date

Country

Theme

Uprising in Rome demanding unification with Italy. At the same time, Garibaldi leads an expedition of volunteers that enters the Papal States and tries to seize Rome. Roman rebels are defeated and executed. Garibaldi is defeated by Papal troops backed by a French expeditionary corps (France protects the Papal States).

1870 - 1912

Italy

Political Context

In 1870, taking advantage of French defeat at the hands of Prussia, the Italian army captures Rome, which becomes the capital of Italy. The Pope considers Italian rule on Rome to be illegitimate and bans Catholics from participating in Italian political life. In the following decades the ban is progressively lifted to counter socialist growth.

1882

Italy

Political Context

Electoral reform: the right to vote is extended to 7 per cent of the Italian population, by lowering the age limit (from 25 to 21) and the level of income required. 1882 - 1896

Italy

Political Context

Italy’s first African war: in 1882 Italy starts colonial expansion in the Horn of Africa; in 1890, Eritrea becomes an Italian colony. Afterwards, Italy attempts to penetrate into Ethiopia and suffers a crushing defeat at Adwa (the biggest African victory over a colonial army): Italy loses 4,000 Italian and 2,000 colonial soldiers. The Crispi government resigns. 1882

Italy

Political Context

The Triple Alliance formed (Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary). 1892

Italy

Political Context

Italian Socialist Party founded. 1897 - 1898

Italy

Political Context

Widespread demonstrations and riots against high bread price. The government uses the army to repress protests: in Milan 85 demonstrators are killed. 1898

Italy

Political Context

Anarchist Gaetano Bresci kills the King Umberto I, in revenge for the protesters killed in Milan in 1898. Victor Emanuel III becomes King of Italy. 1901 - 1914

Italy

Political Context

Date

Country

Theme

Almost uninterrupted rule by Giovanni Giolitti, who allows more freedom of action to trade unions, introduces some social reforms and makes some openings for Socialists and Catholics. 1911 - 1912

Italy

Political Context

Italo-Turkish war: Italy gains possession of Libya and the Dodecanese Islands.

1912

Italy

Political Context

The right to vote is extended to all men above the age of 30 (or aged 21 if they completed primary school). The Pope allows Catholics to vote. 1915 - 1918

Italy

Political Context

Italy participates in World War I on the side of the UK, France and Russia, despite widespread opposition to entering the war. On the Austrian front, Italy suffers a crushing defeat at Caporetto in 1917, but wins in 1918. In Libya, Arab revolt: Italy keeps control only of coastal towns. Casualties are 650,000 military deaths, 950,000 wounded, 600,000 prisoners of war or missing.

1919

Italy

Political Context

Introduction of universal male suffrage and of an electoral system of proportional representation. The Popular Party (antecedent to the Christian Democrats) is founded. Mussolini creates the first Fascio di combattimento (embryo of the Fascist Party).