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American Jewish Archives Devoted to the preservation and study of American Jewish historical records DIRECTOR: JACOB RADER MARCUS, PH.D. Milton and H...

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American Jewish Archives Devoted to the preservation and study of American Jewish historical records DIRECTOR: JACOB RADER MARCUS, PH.D. Milton and Hattie Kutz Distinguished Service Professor of American Jewish History

STANLEY F. CHYET, Professor of American Jewish History








NO. 2

In This Issue The Funeral Tomorrow Morning Autobiography



"When you walk into a room full of people," said Colonel Lichtenberg, "you simply help yourself to all of them."

Dismissal in Albany


Why and how did Isaac Mayer Wise, rabbi in Albany in 1850, become embroiled in a bitter dispute with members of his congregation?

Fighter for Women's Rights


Fracture of a Stereotype: CharIes Brockden Brown's Achsa FieldLOUISHARAP 187 ing C. B. Brown's Arthur Mervyn, published at the beginning of the nineteenth century, was perhaps the first English-language fiction to dispense with a stereotypical view of the Jew.

Brief Notices


Index to Volume XXIV


Illustrations Samuel H. Markowitz, page 139; Joseph Stolz, page 140; Isaac Mayer Wise, page 173; Albany in the mid-1850's, page 174; Ernestine Rose, page 185; Charles Brockden Brown, page 193.

The American Jewish Archives is indexed in Index to Jewish Periodicals

Patrons for 1972










@ 1972 by the American Jewish Archives

The Funeral Tomorrow Morning The following is a letter concerning the death of a Jewish boy (B. A., to use fictitious initials) from an overdose of heroin. We deem it an important contemporary American Jewish document.

October 19, 1970 Dear Rabbi: I hate to be a bearer of bad news but I knew you'd want to know. This morning (Monday) at 5: 30 A.M., B. A. passed away. He died at his home from an overdose of heroin. He just got out of jail this past Friday and I guess he started shooting-up as soon as he hit the street. 1'11 not pass judgment on him. As you know, he and I were the best of friends for years and I am very shaken up over his tragic death. His life was too short--only 22 years, and he didn't get a chance to learn anything about the world. The guy was always begging (in his own way) for love, but for some reason was never able to find any. His parents couldn't give him what he needed, nor could his brother. I'm not sure if I could have or not. I'll never know because I never gave him the chance. I was always so concerned about myself that I completely ignored him when he needed me most. Had I not been so selfish thinking he would hinder my plans, I might have shared some of the breaks I got, such as jobs, school, etc. I'm not blaming myself for his death, but I'm just wondering if things wouldn't have been different if I would have taken the time to understand him. It's too late now, I know, but I wish when we (he and I ) first started smoking grass [marijuana] we would have stayed with grass. Or when he first started using heroin, I wish I would have been strong enough to reject him for it rather than going along with him like I did do. Sure, during my four years of using drugs, I suffered. I suffered a lot! I spent much time in jail, the hospital, etc., I lost a fine wife, a 125

beautiful home, and all respect from my family and friends. These things I can have again if I work hard enough, but now I am suffering more than I ever did--or ever will! I lost the best friend I ever had because of drugs. His friendship, no matter how much trouble we both got into, was truly sincere. Before heroin, we would have done anything for each other. This friendship, no matter how hard I work or how long I look, can never be replaced. I knew him in ways no one else did, just as he knew me. I knew him so well. I could almost predict his every move. Now, Rabbi, B. A.. is gone, and all of a sudden I feel kind of incomplete. I could always go to him when I was lonely and he would always be there. No more though. Now he won't be here physically, that's for sure, but I assure you that he will always be with me in spirit. He's gone and now I have to carry on for the both of us. I have already started doing good. I've been working in the mail office at the university and I've been going to classes two nights a week also. I get two courses paid for by the university as a benefit from working there. Each Monday night from 6 P.M. to 8:45 P.M. I have my "Introduction to Philosophy" course which I enjoy a lot and every Thursday night from 7 :30 P.M. to 10: 15 P.M. I have my "Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime" course. So with working eight hours a day and studying every night I don't have too much time for anything else. This much time consumed surely helps to keep me away from and my mind off of drugs. I've been working very hard trying to make something of myself and now I'm even going to work harder for B. A. as well as myself. I know he wants to see me do good in this world and I won't let him down. We grew up as a team, so even though he's gone I still am carrying the ball for the two of us. When I succeed-we both will succeed! I will succeed too!!! I doubt seriously after the tragic way B. A. died, if I could ever look at a needle again-least of all stick one in my arm. Never again, Rabbi. If I had any doubts before about going back to drugs, I damn sure have none now! It's unfortunate, but maybe this shock is what I needed to face reality. Please pray for him, Rabbi, as I will every day. Whenever you hear his name mentioned or whenever you think of him let those



words and those thoughts be! good. He paid dearly for his mistakes and now that he's gone I feel anytime he is thought of he should be thought of for the good things he's done--not the bad things. That's how he was thought of when he was alive. There was a lot of good in that kid--only you had to know him to see it. He wasn't bad-he just never had the love and understanding necessary to give him any security. The most secure I've ever seen him was in [the hospital]. At least there were some people who really did love him-me, you, T., and a lot of other people who got to know him well. Please let T. know about B. A. He often talked about how much he cared for her. Thanks for letting me cry on your shoulder, Rabbi. I'll keep in touch with you and let you know what's what. The funeral is tomorrow morning so I'll close now and try to get some sleep. Take care. Respectfully yours, [Signature]

LOAN EXHIBITS Sixty-three exhibit items dealing, for the most part, with the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The American Jewish Archives will be pleased to make these exhibit items avaiIable on loan, free of charge, for a two week period, to any institution in the United States or Canada. A selection of twenty to thirty items make an adequate exhibit. The only expense involved is the cost of return postage. Inquiries should be addressed to the Director of the American Jewish Archives, Clifton Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45220.

Autobiography SAMUEL H . MARKOWITZ

Ribnitza, Subrantz, Purriba-and many others! Gone are the personalities associated with them. But their children and children's children recall vividly the nostalgically uttered names as they fell from the lips of their parents or relatives. M'halyavits, Unghvahrthese were larger cities, it would seem, and hence there may be an even larger number of descendants who have not yielded to years, who have not paid the toll which time exacts and remember with fondness and perhaps even fervent affection events orally recorded in the long, long ago. Some, if not most, of these names no longer carry any concrete designation. Either the towns or villages have disappeared or their names have been changed. But the memory remains, for it is the golden thread which unites the generations and keeps alive those whom the Angel of Death has long ago ushered into the great and indescribable beyond. It was in one of these villages on a warm day probably in the year 1882 that the shadows had lengthened, the sun had set, and darkness was about to descend upon the Carpathian hills. The village had no post office; a letter from America was addressed "Letzte Post, Ungvahr." The twenty or thirty Jewish families lived on one side of the "river," as it was called. It deserved that title about four or five weeks out of every year, only when the frost had yielded to the warmer breezes, the snow had begun to melt, and water poured into its bed from all sides. In midsummer it was a little more than a trickle across which anybody could step with ease. Between the Jews living on one side of the "river" and the non-Jews on the other, there was practically no communication. Education, recreation, religion-each group had its own; communal water or sewage systems were simply unheard of. Rabbi Markowitz is the spiritual leader of Temple Beth Shalom, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 128



On this day my father [Adolph Markowitz] came hurrying down the street. There were no sidewalks, and the street was little more than a few ruts between the scattered houses. To the door of the one-room hut came the mother [Rose S. Markowitz] of his three children. Quickly he hurried to the door and said, "Mendel has sent me a shiffskart [ticket for passage]; I am going to America." Intently they looked at each other, knowing only too well what it meant. For how many months would she be alone with the children? How soon would it be possible for her to follow him? For both it meant uprooting, transfer of life to a strange and unknown world. What could he find to do there? Before the sun had risen the following day, he was on his way to America. On foot, by cart and train, he finally reached the port of departure; and after what seemed to him an endess wait, and after innumerable questions, few of which he could answer because he barely understood the language, he finally found himself on board. His pintette [small bundle], as he called it, was under his arm. It contained all he needed for the journey. It was his pillow, and a plank was his mattress. The food served in the steerage of an ocean liner for the twenty-four-day journey across the ocean nearly a century age-it takes no stretch of the imagination to understand of what quality and how far from appetizing it was! At long last he is on Ellis Island, where he must endure another long wait. Finally his brother-in-law finds him and brings him to the city. Through the sophisticated guidance of tandsteut (compatriots), he obtained a job in a pipe factory. His pay for a twelve-hour day was $1, and for a full year he worked there. What brought him to Pottstown, Pennsylvania? How long did he labor to accumulate enough for a shiflskart to be sent abroad? These and many other questions remain unanswered. My birth occurred on the eleventh day of February, 1892; I was the seventh of the thirteen children born to my parents. The three left in Europe died on the way over or shortly thereafter. Of the ten American-born, seven survived into adulthood and marriage. The home into which nine of us arrived had no indoor sewage facilities, and water was carried from the pump fifteen or twenty yards from the house. The large cooking and baking stove in what

was kitchen, dining room, and, for the most part, living room provided all the heat the household enjoyed. Adjacent to the house was the "shop," where the more valuable metals were kept, such as brass, copper, etc. Next to it was the rag and paper domain and beyond was the "stable," where the horse made his home.

My first recollection was Harry (who died at the age of sixteen) crying when our parents were shouting at each other. He never answered the question of his three- or four-year old kid brother, "Why are you crying?" And the next picture in my memory is Pop sitting at the table with his head in his hands. The horse had died, and he didn't have the $10 for the purchase of another so that he might go out peddling every day. But schooling was imperative no matter in what condition the domestic economy might be. A permit had to be obtained for each child's admission to the first grade (there was no such thing as kindergarten) at the office of the superintendent of schools. But who had the time to get dressed and walk the six or eight blocks? Pop was out early in the morning and did not get home much before sunset; and Mom was busy with the household, the younger children, the "garden," and other duties. So she doubled up on the task. Since the children were usually between fifteen and eighteen months apart in age, she obtained the permits by two's. Thus, it happened that my sister Yettie, who reached the age of six in September, and I, whose fourth birthday had occurred the preceding February, were both enrolled in the first grade at the same time. The teacher was obeyed; she was in loco parentis in a very real sense. Her word was law, and no complaints were brought home. On the contrary, any punishment inflicted in school was repeated at home without discussion or consideration. The pupil should not give the teacher any provocation for punishment. Thus, it happened more than once that I was punished not, as the teacher thought, for deliberate disobedience, but for misunderstanding. Very meager was my English vocabulary, since Yiddish was exclusively the language of communication at home. Bei uns ("among us Jews") and



in der heim ("in the old country") were frequently heard from parents and relatives. They were physically here, but spiritually still in the Carpathian Mountains. Yet, their respect and admiration for the public school system in this country were immeasurable. That Jewish children could attend the same school and get the same learning available to non-Jewish children! Such a condition could be attributed only to "golden America." And no matter how many children a man had, he paid tax only if he owned property. Approximately forty Jewish families lived in Pottstown, whose total population in 1900 was something over 11,000. A shul (synagogue) had been established, probably in the late eighties. Who selected the name "Chevra Chesed she1 Emes" is another unanswerable question. The membership was of varied origins-Russian, Polish, Hungarian, and others. The four German-Jewish families were not included. How could they be? They bought their meat at a trefah (non-kosher) butcher shop, and on the High Holy Days they rode to Philadelphia by train. The shochet (ritual slaughterer) was the kol bo (factotum), serving as cantor and Torah reader on Sabbath and Holy Day mornings; as melamed (teacher) who received a fixed sum per child for Hebrew instruction after public school hours; as authority on ritual matters and procedures (though not always obeyed as such) ; and, of primary importance, as the slaughterer of fowl and cattle. His tenure was usually one or two years, and his remuneration was meager. If he had any sort of family, he had to supplement his income by selling jewelry, wine, and once even whiskey to eke out an existence. My father did not regard any of the shochatim as qualified teachers. So he took over the task himself. He insisted that his children would learn "Zvreh [Hebrew] properly," even the girls. The boys naturally were prepared for bar mitzvah, and their sisters were required to know how to daven (pray in traditional fashion). My mother was illiterate. She had never gone to any formal school and could neither read nor write. Yet, she listened eagerly to my father as he read the daily Yiddish periodical, the Tageblatt. She was especially interested in the roman, the serialized novel which naturally combined conflict and love. When she had failed to get the potatoes




ready in time and he had to wait for his supper, he would read sullenly. Despite his occasional severity, my father commanded the respect of his children. He had only one technique for child training; he wore it around his waist. Yet, he generated in his offspring a respect for authority, an obedience to teachers and elders. Perhaps it was the little knowledge which elevated him in our eyes. Whatever the cause, he succeeded in developing in his progeny a loyalty to the household and a devotion to its welfare. Religious observance and daily behavior had not the slightest relationship to each other. "One must" and "one may not" were limited exclusively to ritual and ceremonial. Even in the synagogue, the men would, on rare occasions, engage in a verbal battle over what to recite and when and how. But, in connection with outsiders, there were no restrictions against dishonesty or even theft. One occasion is indelibly implanted in my memory. Three of us were on the wagon with my father when he stopped at a very attractive looking cornfield. He stationed two of us to watch for the possible appearance of anyone from either direction, and the third went over the fence and handed out to him choice, large-sized ears of corn, which he hid under the seat of the wagon. Thirty-five or more years later, when two of us took him to task for teaching his children how to steal and for exposing himself to a heavy fine and possible imprisonment, he had only a rather lame excuse. In the school, a block from home, where I spent the first six years of my learning career, there were probably sixty or seventy pupils. Eight or nine were Jewish, approximately the same number were of Negro parentage, and the rest were "white." Often enough there was peace during the recess period, both morning and afternoon. Occasionally, however, there were fights, sometimes between whites and blacks, at other times between Jews and non-Jews. Naturally, in the latter conflicts we were always defeated. After one of these engagements, I was too battered and beaten up to go back to the classroom. Blood flowed from my nose and tears from my eyes. Then and there did I decide to become a lawyer when I grew up. For some strange reason it seemed to me that only lawyers could become diplomats and deal with ruling powers. My father's opinion



of the legal profession was not too exalted. Perhaps for that very reason did I obey a subconscious impulse in my choice.

As far back as I can remember, my father read to the entire family (none seemed as interested as I ) from the Yiddish paper the account of the Dreyfus case and the Herzl movement. It gave me a thrill to hear that a Jew had been received by royalty, that the idea of a restored Jewish state was being taken seriously by kings and rulers. Perhaps if I became a lawyer, I felt, I might join Herzl and help to restore us to our own country. There we would be in position to tell "the goyim [non-Jews] where to go." I knew nothing about Zionism as a movement; I don't recall ever having heard of it. Nor did I have any idea of the prayers for national redemption which we recited regularly in the Amidah (the "standing" prayer central to the liturgy). The prayers were to be recited, not translated. Indeed, anything in English, inside or outside the prayer book in the synagogue, was a chilul hashem ( a sacrilege). Herzl's ideal, however, fascinated me as a youngster of ten or eleven. My sister and I entered high school and spent the first year in what was known as the commercial course. Then she was sent to the Pottstown Business College. No more education was necessary for a girl, my father felt. I was to continue to prepare for a "regular" college, he said. Thus, I began in my second year at high school to learn Latin and German grammar, and I continued through Caesar's wars and Cicero's orations in Latin and similar classics in German until the end of my high school career. Where should I go to college? That there were many to choose from is obvious now, but not so apparent then. There were no guidance counselors or advisers on the subject; neither was there a plethora of applicants for admission. Swarthmore, Haverford, Lafayette, Muhlenberg, Franklin and Marshall-none was much more than forty miles from home. Indeed, Ursinus was only twelve miles away, and the interurban was most conveniently located, both near home and in Collegeville, where Ursinus was located. But, for some reason, nobody ever thought of it, not even the high school princi-

pal to whom I went for advice. Secretly I insisted on a college with a dormitory, for "Frank Merriwell" was my idol. I had read every one of Gilbert Patten's "Merriwell" novels, some three or four times. "Merriwell" went to Yale, and some of his most thrilling escapades occurred in the dormitory there. For me to aspire so high was, however, plain chutzpah (presumption). Furthermore, it was assumed that a "swanky" college of that sort would be beyond a poor boy's reach, like the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Temple University was still little more than the night school for adults which Russell H. Conwell had started in 1888. Stanton R. Smith was a senior at Bucknell in the spring of 1909. He came to the Pottstown High School (as to others, presumably) to solicit students for his alma mater. He had no difficulty convincing me that, for $300 a year, I could get an education at Bucknell, a college with a dormitory. Thus it happened that, on September 26 or 27, 1909, ten days after the school had opened (how could I possibly leave home before the High Holy Days?), I arrived in the small town of Lewisburg to begin my academic career. I would be one of about eight or nine Jews among the 800 or 900 students at Bucknell. Not only did I arrive after the school had been in operation fully ten days, but maliciously or otherwise the ticket seller in the Philadelphia and Reading station in Pottstown, instead of selling me a ticket directly to Lewisburg, had me travel via Harrisburg and Montandon. Thus, after two train changes, I arrived at 6 P.M., instead of 1:30 P.M. It was purely by chance that I was introduced to Joseph Earle Edwards, the president of the dining club where I had stopped to inquire the way to the College. "There's nobody in the College office now," he said. "We'll take care of you tonight, and tomorrow morning you'll register and be assigned a room." It has been said that it takes two full years to recover from a love affair. More than twice that length of time was needed to overcome the influence of Joseph Earle Edwards. He was a deeply pious personality; his generosity was immeasurable; his kindness and compassion simply irresistible. And when, after ten days, realizing that I was homesick, forlorn, and perhaps ill-adjusted, he asked me to become his roommate, he "had me in the palm of his hand," though he may never have dreamed or hoped for any such result.



He was a striking contrast to anyone I had ever met before. I was seventeen and a half years old, away from home for the first time, a pea-green freshman, and he was a senior aged twenty-three. And he personified in his behavior and in his home (which I visited in Wilmington, Delaware, during the winter vacation for a few days) what I had never before visualized. It was antipodal to anything I had ever known. It is not surprising that he became my mentor, so that every word he uttered sounded to me as though it came directly from Sinai. Every Sunday morning, it was my privilege to sit with him in the adult class taught by Professor Llewellyn Phillips and at the services which followed in the Lewisburg Baptist Church, where his fiancee Margueritte joined us. Even after he had organized a fraternity and we were no longer having our meals together, he remained my guide and counselor. And he took special pains to explain that he had done his very best to include me in the fraternity, but had found it impossible. His explanation was worth far more to me than membership in any fraternity.

Summer vacation at home brought on the inevitable. One cannot live in a Jewish home and on Sunday morning chase off to attend services in the Baptist Church. Such shocking news became even non-Jewish conversation in a town of that size. Jews had lived there since pre-Civil War days. But nothing of that sort had ever occurred before. Equally disturbing, if not more so, was an unusual incident. In my father's household, when there was no school, the boys would go out peddling on their own once they had reached the age of thirteen or fourteen. It was assumed that they had completed their training. When I was in my junior and senior years in high school, we had two or three horses, and naturally I would go out peddling. One does not just sit around and do nothing, even if it becomes necessary to hire a horse for a day. There were several big mansions on the estates at the west end of town. For some reason my father always avoided them, and so did my younger brother. I saw no reason for doing so and, passing by one of them, drove in. The lady of the house directed me to the garage where there were several worn-out




tires.. The chauffeur weighed one and assumed that they all had the same weight; and I paid him for eighty-eight pounds. A few weeks later my father returned from Philadelphia (where he sold most of his merchandise) and reported that the tires weighed 125 pounds. None had been added to the collection, and I had paid for thirtyseven pounds less than I had bought. My desire to return and pay for the unpaid difference was looked upon as meshugas (insanity) of the first order. To return to Bucknell, as the summer was drawing to a close, seemed to my father entirely out of the question, and early in September he sent me to the western part of the state, where he had relatives. Uncle Bennie in Braddock had admired my industry and devotion when we were both in Pottstown, he on a visit and I on spring vacation. But it was a fruitless effort on the part of my family. Margueritte and Joe had been married the preceding September and were living in a small apartment in Wilrnington. Joe spent four days a week at the Crozier Theological Seminary and weekends at home serving the Hope Baptist Church. They made room for me in their home, and in the church I was baptized and licensed to preach. Thither did my parents send relatives to persuade me to come home. They came themselves, hoping that I would respond to their pleas. It was all in vain. That they recited Kaddish (the mourner's prayer) after their return home is easily possible; I never made any inquiries on the subject. They did get from me a promise upon their departure that I would confer with leading rabbis in Philadelphia. A visit to the Orthodox leader, Rabbi Bernard L. Levinthal, produced the simple response that his duty was pasken sha'los (deciding questions of ritual observance), not reconverting meshumodim (apostates). Two sessions with Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, of the Reform Temple Keneseth Israel, produced no better results. He condemned my parents for their rigidity and gave me no other information than the reference to his book, A Rabbi's Impressions of the Oberammergau Pmsion Play (1901 ), obtainable at Wanarnaker's. Much more satisfying was my visit with Dr. Julius H. Greenstone, of Gratz College. He was very kind and considerate; his wife even invited me to stay at their home. But my question remained unanswered: "If the Shulchan Aruch [the sixteenth-century rabbinical code] (of which I



had heard so much but knew nothing) is the law to live by, why is it so blatantly disregarded? And if, in America, it no longer has any authority, why should not some other procedure be developed?' Dr. Greenstone was very sympathetic and cordial, but he gave me no help whatever. The fall of 1911 saw me a regularly registered sophomore at Bucknell. Greek and German were my two majors for the A.B. degree. A scholarship was provided by the Northern Baptist Convention, and a bi-weekly visit to a small country church to conduct services and preach a sermon yielded the necessary income for existence. It was in the summer of 1913, as a temporary member of the staff of the New Covenant Mission to the Jews in Pittsburgh, that some very vague questions and some serious regrets began to disturb me. They were raised unintentionally by another converted Jew, a Britisher named Newman who was a permanent member of the staff of the mission housed between Butler and Frankford Avenue on 43rd Street. He said, "If I become a liberal Christian, I might just as well go back to my mother." Obviously, he was determined to be a fundamentalist, but I could not stomach the literalisms of the head of the mission, Maurice Rubin, whose family had long ago disowned him. Furthermore, at the age of twenty-one, a little maturity had arrived. Was it all a horrible mistake? My roommate was a student for the Baptist ministry named Henry Griggs Weston Smith. Weston was named after the president of the Crozier Theological Seminary. He was a vigorous and eruptive individual, and with him I found something of an outlet. We became the "noisiest pair Bucknell had ever seen." The synoptic Gospels, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, were taught in Greek, and I found the material very interesting. Professor Phillips taught both the so-called Old and the New Testament. He was a liberal and raised some very vital questions in my mind. Joe Edwards remained a "Christian gentleman," but some very serious doubts began to flutter about in my mind. Certainly all Baptists are not angels, and certainly all Jews can't be devils! Perhaps the whole matter of religion was a hoax. Or was it the product of avaricious priests? Was it possible that I had been so thoroughly misled?




With the diploma in my hands I went home, where I was received kindly but cautiously. I decided to wait for a year and perhaps reach a decision. After some effort I became a member of the faculty of the Spring City High School, only seven or eight miles from home, or a twelve- or fifteen-minute ride by train. Eight or nine months of teaching should enable me to plan for the future. My election was made by the school board on the assumption that, while born a Jew, I had become a convert. The pastor of the Lutheran Church in this town of 3,000 or 4,000 souls was of the same species, and hence I was not a novelty. And, in searching for a position, I had learned from several school authorities that, in general, there was ample objection to having a Jew teach their children.

Should I return to law and again embrace Herzl's ideal? Or should I go out west and start all over again? The University of Chicago had been mentioned by classmates, some preparing for the ministry and others doing graduate work in other fields. The suggestion that I become a Reform rabbi came from cousin Aaron Weiss, youngest son of my mother's sister. And then I remembered J. Leonard Levy, who had appeared on the program of the Chester County Teachers Institute the preceding November. He was rabbi of Rodef Shalom Congregation in Pittsburgh, which is just about halfway between Philadelphia and Chicago. And so to Pittsburgh I made my way. Rabbi Levy gave me every possible attention. He tried to dissuade me, but when he saw that I was determined-I had visited him three different times and had been at his Sunday dinner table after a morning service-he said,. "Since you are so insistent and are thinking of going to Chicago, let me send you to a rabbi there. Tell him your story and see what he says." Rabbi Joseph Stolz listened to my story, but was far from sympathetic. "You are tainted," was his comment. "No congregation would accept you." "Go into social work, where there is a great need for men like you," said Rabbi Herman Cohen, a Conservative rabbi who is distantly related and was then in Des Moines. G. George Fox had just begun to create the South Shore Congregation,

Joseph Stolz "No congregatio~lwould accept you."



and his answer was: "Suppose you are trying out for a congregation and your story is told, for it cannot be kept a secret. How frustrating it will be for you to learn that another rabbi has been chosen because of your past." Rabbi Gerson B. Levi gave me perhaps the most useful advice of all: "You have a long and difficult road to travel, but whatever happens, be prepared not only for the worst but for the best as well." He it was who urged me to enroll in the Divinity School of the University and acquire some knowledge of the Hebrew language and literature. Rabbi Stolz had advised against anything of the sort. "They teach from the Christian point of view," was his objection. Dr. Ernil G. Hirsch, of Sinai Congregation, fist promised and then forgot that he had assured me he would "make a rabbi" out of me if the Hebrew Union College refused to accept me as a student. Rabbi Samuel Sale, of St. Louis, happened to be in Chicago, and by sheer accident we met at some function of the University, and I told him my story. He was very much interested and arranged an appointment for me with a member of the firm of Hart, SchafIner & Marx, who listened intently to my tale and then said, "It is perfectly understandable. My son goes to Harvard and comes home a blatant socialist. The atmosphere inoculated him, as it did you." With few exceptions, the rabbis opposed my admission, and the laymen encouraged it. Even Samuel S. Cohon, in whose religious school at Temple Mizpah I taught a class (how precious little I knew!) and who prepared his brother Beryl with me for the College --even Dr. Cohon did not enthusiastically endorse my application. It was Harry S. Linfield who not only encouraged but planned and directed my "campaign" for admission. He was on leave of absence from the Hebrew Union College to complete his requirements for the doctorate at the University of Chicago. He advised me to omit some portions of the account (the same advice given me at the Hart, SchaEner & Marx conference), and I was finally admitted as "a special student for one year on probation." It may have been Maurice J. Freiberg (or perhaps his brother J. Walter Freiberg) who reportedly said, "Those who are determined to keep him out of the College are plain meshugah [crazy]; and he is more so for his insistence




on being admitted." My permanent stay was determined late in the fall of 1918. How is it possible to describe those boys who were preparing to become rabbis? Keen, critical, analytical, mentally alert, they presented a striking contrast to the students of the University of Chicago Divinity School. As Dean Shailer Matthews once said, "These Cincinnati boys who come here for a summer are inquisitive and acquisitive. They take all you can give them and want more, and they are ready to challenge anything you say." He doubtless forgot that he was talking to one of them. It was, of course, a delight to be among one's own again. Most of the boys were of Orthodox origin and could speak or at least understand Yiddish. But what might be called piety seemed to be missing. Is it not essential in our occupation? Instead, a spirit of keen competition seemed to pervade the school. It seemed that almost subconsciously the students were pitted against one another in a race for a prize. In the attitude of many, there was something of the mood of mockery. They did not feel deeply the responsibility of Jewish and religious leadership which would be theirs. A subtle and almost unconscious cynicism hovered over the College. In a measure, it may be explained by the prevailing conditions. The United States was at war. The faculty was not in sympathy with the national purposeno matter what they said, the students knew perfectly well what their sentiments, for the most part, were. On the other hand, the Board of Governors put forth every effort to impress upon the students the necessity for loyalty to the Government. There will always be those who utilize Torah as a spade with which to dig. One student rabbi came from a very pious home and in his first year insisted on kosher food. But he came under the influence of some of the older men, one of whom openly said, "Whether I am a Zionist or not depends on the president of the congregation to which I am elected." He became rabbi of one of the large city congregations and enjoyed a place of distinction for more than four decades. Another rabbinical candidate was a brilliant student; he had moral stamina and strong religious convictions. During the war he took seriously the pronouncements concerning the "war for de-



mocracy" and "the war to end all wars." As soon as the armistice was signed in November, 1918, his disillusionment began. He saw what a sham and a mockery it all was. He left the College and sought to apply the teachings of Amos and Hosea through the labor movement, but soon learned that greed and avarice are not the exclusive possessions of the employer and the affluent. Yet, the passion for righteousness which Professor Moses Buttenwieser had engendered in him was permanent. He became a labor attorney and fought for the oppressed in the industrial struggle. He risked his life at the hands of reactionary organizations and died at a comparatively early age. Troy, New York, was the scene of my endeavors during the fall High Holy Days as I began the third of the five years I spent in Cincinnati. It was a very satisfying and encouraging experience to officiate, for the first time, in a well-organized congregation; it was unforgettable. There were some very pious households and a few men of foreign origin who had some knowledge of Jewish literature as well as of the prayer book. But more important than anything else in my ten-day visit to Troy was Malvina. Never before had I met a Jewish girl in whose face refinement and culture were so evident. She had spent several years of study in Europe and was a professional pis: nist. Her parents were simple people of German-Jewish origin and gave their children the very best available. For more than a year Malvina was my dream. But she apparently realized what the life of a rabbi's wife must be and remained a concert pianist. Knoxville, Tennessee, was my bi-weekly pulpit during the junior year. Every other week, I conducted services on Friday and Sunday evenings and preached a sermon. The congregation consisted largely of merchants, wholesale and retail, whose attachment to the Temple, I suspected at the time, was due largely to the influence of their non-Jewish fellow-townsmen. Why did they have a service on Sunday evening? Various reasons were given, but the truth probably was that these partially acculturated Jews wanted the non-Jewish world to believe that they were not as different as (they thought) was generally assumed. This is not to say that the Knoxville Jews were inferior to Jews of other cities. On the contrary, they were su-

perior to Jews whom I met subsequently in other cities. It was my first experience with the "Midwestern" type of Jew, with whom almost a score of the years of my life would be spent. My senior year had arrived, and a review of my record revealed no exemplary progress. Professor Jacob Z. Lauterbach, for example, complained several times of the restlessness of all the students. He wondered on one occasion whether it was "sex trouble." When he was in a particularly ill humor, his comment on a student's interpretation would be, "Stupid, stupid." At other times he could be slightly encouraging, with the words, "Your work is improving; don't let up." On the whole, there was no great display of learning. One of my classmates said, "You don't have a talmudic mind" (whatever that might mean). Professor Buttenwieser was likewise disappointed. I had dared to quote J. M. P. Smith, of the University of Chicago Divinity School: "The prophets were preachers; they indulged in sensationalism. Hosea deliberately selected a woman of ill-repute as wife in order to arouse popular attention." Such sentiments were anathema to the good old teacher whose moral standards could not tolerate such deviations. He had an enthusiasm for the prophets which he communicated to his pupils against their will.

Is it true that we marry anyone who attracts us most at the time when we are most marriageable? What we call love has been rhapsodized over times without number, in song and in story. Ordained in June [1922], I married in November the woman [Jewel R. Klein] who had been Assistant Librarian at the College and with whom I felt confident a marital career could be most successful. Forty-seven years have proved that my judgment was sound, and my Jewel was a "rebbitzin" of the first order. Lafayette, Indiana, was our first home; Temple Israel, my first permanent and full-time post. Less than six months after beginning, however, I realized that the great need in Reform congregations was the development of the educational program. The movement had emphasized conformity and neglected the educational tradition of our people.



At the annual Convention of the Ohio-Michigan-Indiana [Reform religious school] Teachers' Association during the winter vacation season, a very significant fact was indelibly impressed upon my consciousness. If children in our religious schools are to learn how to live as Jews in the non-Jewish world of which they are integrally and inseparably a part, their homes must be Jewishly oriented; their daily lives must be influenced by domestic practices of a Jewish nature. My father's children were conditioned, not by a school of any kind, but by home practices and observances. An incident at the Convention verified that vital conclusion. The visiting teachers and rabbis were, for the most part, entertained at the homes of the members of the local congregation. My hostess came to the temple, where the sessions were held, and drove me to her house. The moment we entered, she insisted that I see her boy's room. Not until we stood at the entrance did she realize what poor taste she was displaying, showing a rabbi her seven-year-old's room replete with Christmas decorations of every description. She immediately began to explain that he was an adopted child and that they lived in an area which was solidly non-Jewish. She did not want her child to feel that he was not getting what the other children got. My question naturally was, "Why can't you make Chanukah as attractive and meaningful?" She pondered my words a moment or two and then asked, "What would you advise? Where can I get the necessary information and materials?" She posed a question which occupied my attention during my entire rabbinic career. There was little or no emphasis on ceremonial in the curriculum of the Hebrew Union College. Two of our teachers entertained us at dinner in their homes during our senior year. It was a bit disturbing to hear no motzi (benediction over bread) or birkat hamazon (postprandial "grace"). There was no urging of home observance from the pulpits of the two large Reform congregations [Wise and Rockdale] in Cincinnati. Thus, I came into my first congregation with a rather barren concept of Reform Judaism. It was still very much a product of nineteenth-century rationalism. Hence I could not answer my father's question: "What is the difference between you and an ethically sensitive goy [non-Jew]? He doesn't daven [pray] daily; neither do you. He eats trefah [non-kosher] food; so do you." Some sort of observance began with our life in the apartment

upon returning from the honeymoon. Every Friday evening my father had made Kiddush (the Sabbath and holiday benediction over wine) entirely in Hebrew. Something else was necessary if Jewel were to be kept interested. So I curtailed the Hebrew to a minimum and added the passage in Proverbs (3 1:10-3 1) on "a woman of worth," rephrasing it to make it more pragmatically meaningful. Then I included a passage on a peaceful home and another on the desirability of a happy child-parent relationship. The participation of the children began as soon as they could talk, and their contribution was incorporated wherever possible. Chanukah observance became almost imperative. The kindergarten teacher in the public school had had many Jewish children in her classroom; nobody had ever told her of the possible objection of Jewish parents to Christmas observance. The five-year-old youngster who called to the rabbi as he was walking across the street, "Come on over and see my Christmas tree" is now a man of fifty. He has been president of his congregation, as well as president of the Northern New Jersey Federation of Reform Congregations. "That was the last Christmas tree I ever had," was his comment in 1954. And my own children were taken to see the neighbors' Christmas display, to admire and enjoy the lovely colors, but they had their -own Chanukah festival observance. The maid in the household learned months before that only Chanukah gifts were accepted by the family, though she, as well as the mailman and the garbage collector, received a Christmas gift. The children's playmates, if nonJewish, learned by hearing what our children said they expected for Chanukah. Passover and Purim were given modern garments, and even a daily service was instituted. In the latest edition of Adjusting the Jewish Child to His World, it is called "Prayer and Play for Every Day in the Modern Jewish Home." An indoor Succah (booth used during the fall Tabernacles Festival) came early, and esrog benshen (benediction over the citron during Tabernacles) at home was introduced in Philadelphia as the final contribution. As implied, my forte was not "education" as it is commonly understood by rabbis. To train parents to create in the modern Jewish home an atmosphere indigenous to the twentieth century, yet saturated with traditional character and concept-that was my goal.



Genuine encouragement in the effort came not from my colleagues, but from sociologists like Ellsworth Faris in Chicago and James Herbert Brossard in Philadelphia. The latter's book, Rit.ual in Family Living,was especially helpful. From Lafayette, we moved after two years to Fort Wayne. And my Jewel insisted that my studies be continued at the University of Chicago. She prepared the weekly bulletin, arranged the religious school program, and created a library for adults as well as children. Even our son helped by appearing on this earth at a convenient time. From April, 1926 (when Chicago was tied up by a snowstorm during Passover), until the end of August, 1929, I spent six quarters intermittently commuting between Fort Wayne and Chicago, four and one-half days at the University and weekends at home, sometimes alternating the quarters and once placing two in a row, from January to June, 1928, until all the requirements for the Ph.D. had been met. Then came almost a whole year of indecision over the dissertation. And then more than a year in preparation, since it concerned itself with the descendants of the founders of the congregation in 1848. One hundred and fifteen of the members were grandchildren (and a few were great-grandchildren) of charter members. As far as I know, no other rabbi had been, or has since been, granted a doctorate in Practical Theology at any university. Herein may lie one of the reasons for the gap between me and my colleagues. We simply did not understand one another. Too CONSCIENTIOUS Of the 300 Jewish families living in Fort Wayne, about fifteen or eighteen were Orthodox who would not affiliate with the Orthodox B'nai Jacob shul (synagogue). "What! Associate with those Polacks?'said one of them. They were all foreign-born (if not Polishborn) and closely or distantly related to one another. Some of the men were equipped with considerable Jewish learning. Though Orthodox, they sent their children to the religious school of the Reform temple, Achduth Vesholom, and conducted their own High Holy Day services in quarters rented for the occasion. One of them, not too successful at any occupation, felt himself honored to teach

the Reform rabbi "some gemara [Talmud]." For several years we spent several hours every week on a tractate of the Talmud. And all of them were pleased with a Yiddish-speaking rabbi in the "Deitsche" ("German" Reform) synagogue, but my efforts to create a religious school for all the Jewish children in the city were simply love's labors lost. Sixteen years as rabbi of Achduth Vesholom! They were fruitful and at times even stormy. A liberal and active clergyman of any denomination in what was then a very conservative area could not possibly travel an easy road. It was said that a governor of Indiana had been elected by, and was avowedly a member of, the Ku Klux Klan. The two decades of my stay there can be classified as almost mutually exclusive. The twenties were in a sense delirious, and the thirties were understandably fearful. Everybody made money in the stock market until the crash in 1929, and everybody suffered from the Depression and the threat of Hitler in the thirties. Reform Jews in particular were confused and psychologically as well as economically affected. Their roots had been in Germany, and their outlook had been universal. Our Jewish dentist showed me his father's prayer book (his father had been a prominent surgeon in the city), where over the "kol yisroePY("every Jew") in the last line of the Kaddish (mourner's doxology) was pasted, in attractive Hebrew letters, "kol adam" ("every human being"). Universalism was the leitmotif. Especially in the twenties did the rabbi hear expressed repeatedly the urge "to show Gentiles that we are not freaks" or "that we don't have horns." At the beginning of the thirties the pressure on the rabbi to make his voice heard among non-Jews was intenssed. In a city where less than one percent of the population is Jewish and where, in the commercial and professional occupations, Jews occupy a position of prominence, there will naturally be obligations which a rabbi cannot avoid. An occasional appearance in a church, for example, participation in what was then called the Community Chest or regular attendance at Rotary, even acting as chairman of one of the many committees-such duties were taken for granted as part of the position of rabbi. But the re-Judaization of the modern Jewish home remained my primary purpose, and the introduction of Hebrew into the religious



school was only one method. The innovation aroused considerable hostility among parents, even from some of the most active and hitherto most cooperative members. "Are you going to reghettoize our children?' or "Do you intend to make rabbis of our youngsters?" they asked indignantly. The storm was met by insisting that the language of Moses and Isaiah is surely as signi6cant as that of Plato and Cicero (Greek and Latin were then still retained in the high school curriculum). The whole matter was forgotten once the son of the most voluble of the objectors read the Hebrew portion of the service on a special occasion. If only the Central Conference of American Rabbis had created a placement bureau in the mid-thirties instead of waiting until the sixties! But my colleagues, unlike the Conservatives, could not come to any decision. It was during the war years that one of our most talented and renowned members said, "I'm perfectly willing to have a bishop, provided I'm the bishop." Yet, to leave Fort Wayne had become an imperative. In the twenties, no matter how many "radical" speakers appeared in my pulpit (not on the Sabbath, but at the weekday forum), no objection was raised. "All rabbis are socialists," became almost a clichC. The reason presumably lay in the universal and humanitarian outlook of religion, especially Judaism. But in the thirties, nobody was at ease. A local branch of the Planned Parenthood Association came into existence. Any liberal, especially if he was a rabbi, would have become involved. The vicepresident of the congregation happened to be an architect, and the bishop of the Fort Wayne diocese was anything but pleased at my active interest in the newly created birth control organization. He could very easily choose another architect to draw up the plans for the diocesan church and school buildings. "Rabbi, you are too conscientious," was an open complaint voiced by several discontented members. It originated in my insistence that a codrmation class session would not be sacrificed on a Saturday morning to any public school project. The climax was ushered in when I refused to officiate at the wedding of the son of one of the old-line families to a non-Jewish girl. She was a Christian Scientist, and the boy's parents were simply unwilling even to ask her to become Jewish. Perhaps most damaging of all was the fact




that a professor of the Hebrew Union College, on a Saturday afternoon in the Congregational Church, officiated at the wedding jointly with the minister. My complaint to the president of the College evoked the response, "I have no control over his outside activities"; and from the president of the Central Conference of American Rabbis came the advice, "Bring charges against him." There was no alternative but to change positions and become the rabbi of the Reform congregation in Elmira, New York.. It was not a happy move for anybody. The children had to go to new schools, find new friends, and make adjustments in addition to those to which youngsters in early and middle adolescence are normally subjected. But we all did the best we could under the circumstances. The seven years in Elmira could hardly have been very creative or satisfying. The United States had inevitably been drawn into the war. Thecall for Jewish chaplains was urgent. One of my classmates enlisted in the Navy, and another became a temporary employee of the Red Cross. Both were still within the age limit, which had been raised twice by the authorities. Where could I go to be of service? It may have been local dissatisfaction which led me to offer myself to the National Jewish Welfare Board, since my age prevented enlistment as a regular chaplain. HITCHERS AND DITCHERS Was my son's induction into the Navy in his junior year at Yale something of a stimulant? Why did he go there in the first place? Two of my younger brothers had gone to Bucknell; one graduated and the other completed his training in medical school. Why did Richard go to Yale? Was it because his father's hope for himself had been frustrated in 1909? Do we subconsciously charge our children with our own unattained ambitions? Dean Shailer Matthews' son graduated from Yale in 1915; so did Rabbi Morris M. Feuerlicht's son a few decades later. Were these facts simply additional support for my subconscious purpose? Three months at the Dale Mabry Air Field in Tallahassee, Florida, did not satisfy my desire to be of service or my restlessness in Elmira while the world was aflame. So, at my request, the Jewish



Welfare Board sent me to California, where I spent the remaining two years of the war. A few months later, Jewel and our daughter Ruth came to Los Angeles to occupy the apartment I had found for them. Ruth went to school and spent several hours a week as a nurse's aide at the Cedars of Lebanon Hospital; Jewel did her bit as Assistant Cataloguer at the Freeman Branch of the Los Angeles Library. My circuit was the Mojave Desert. My services were held regularly at Victorville on Tuesday evenings, at Camp Irwin on Wednesdays, at the Mojave Marine Base on Thursdays, and at Muroc on Fridays. As the situation overseas altered, so did my schedule. I tried to get home for a day or two each week, but did not always succeed. My complete reports sent regularly to New York may still be in the files of the Jewish Welfare Board. The war came to an end, and shortly thereafter we returned to Elmira. Nothing had changed; if anything, matters worsened. A letdown can be a very unwholesome condition, collectively as well as individually. As if that were not enough, the Chemung River, in the spring of 1946, went on a rampage, flooding the business section of the city and doing considerable damage to the temple. It remained in use, but portions of the school and social rooms had to be abandoned. The following July, as usual in normal times, we went to the Pittsfield, Massachusetts, area to attend the concerts at Tanglewood. There we saw Rabbi Daniel L. Davis, who shortly before had become Director of the New York Federation of Reform Synagogues. The following day we visited his summer cottage. His wife, Sonia, was also a Cincinnati product. While he was the rabbi in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for twenty years, their summers had been spent in the Berkshires. Thus did I learn of the Beth David Reform Congregation in Philadelphia. "We have a toehold in the most Conservative area of the most Conservative Jewish city in the United States," said Rabbi Davis. "The Union has invested a fair-sized sum of money there on a second mortgage. I hope it will succeed. Would you be interested?" he asked me. "You have the experience, the physical endurance, and the moral strength a job like that requires." What answer could I give him? The children had been provided for. Richard was in law school under the G. I. Bill, and Ruth had

just begun her career as a medical assistant. But my fifty-fourth birthday had gone by, and of the afternoon of life, a considerable portion had already been spent. A quarter of a century in the rabbinate and always in small cities-such had been my record. "Rabbis in large cities quickly become nothing but hitchers and ditchers," said Rabbi Isaac Landman on Rosh Hashanah after the morning services in 1921, when I had been his assistant for the summer and the High Holy Days. Since I had grown up in a small town, my preference had consistently been against large-city living. But a move from Elmira, while deplored by Jewel, was in my opinion necessary. So even though Philadelphia had been the scene of some of my youthful indiscretions and in spite of the fact that relatives of mine aplenty lived in and near Philadelphia, my answer to Rabbi Davis was in the affirmative. "At least I'll go down and look at it," was my decision. Much more, however, was in my answer to Rabbi Davis. An old dream had been resurrected; the missionary zeal had been revived. As early as 1928, the report that in the large cities the percentage of synagogue membership in the total Jewish population was very small gave me a shock. Furthermore, in too many of them there was only one Reform congregation, and an appalling percentage of our people had no association with anything of a Jewish nature. Why don't we have what is known among Christians as home missions? We could not possibly have the same pattern, but something can and should be done to provide modern Judaism for those multitudes who have discarded the traditional ways of their fathers without seeking or finding anything of a modern nature to replace them. Dr. Stephen S. Wise enthusiastically answered my letter containing this suggestion. He agreed wholeheartedly, and after considerable correspondence we arranged to meet and conclude plans in Detroit in June. It happened that the Central Conference of American Rabbis had scheduled the annual session there, and it was the city most conspicuously in need of at least one more Reform congregation. We met and decided that the Free Synagogue of New York would communicate with the Jewish agencies in Detroit and obtain information on the distribution of the Jewish population and similar data. Rabbi Leo M. Franklin, of Temple Beth El, would be advised



of our intentions, and Rabbi Wise would interest some of his friends (he had them everywhere) in the project. Meanwhile I was to complete my dissertation and receive my doctorate. But that awful day in October, 1929, shattered all our plans. I received the doctorate, but was told by no less a personage than Rabbi Louis L. Mam, of Chicago, that "any rabbi with a halfway decent pulpit should stay in it." The pledges made to Dr. Wise became worthless when the banks closed and unemployment reached unprecedented heights. The Depression put a few rabbis on W. P. A. in order to support their families, and everywhere political, economic, and social results were keenly felt. The grisly joke is still remembered: If a man registers in a hotel in New York and asks for a room above the fifth floor, the question is put to him, "Is it for sleeping or jumping?" After the Depression came the war in which Jews all over the world felt keenly involved. Rabbis naturally regarded themselves as participants in the struggle against the twentieth-century Haman. When it was all over, I experienced a recall of that long-gone dream. The youthful eagerness to try something new and challenging returned. Perhaps, in spite of everything, Philadelphia might offer a chance to revive the plan abandoned in Detroit almost a score of years earlier. The congregation to which Rabbi Davis had directed me was the fourth of the Reform variety in the Philadelphia area. It began during the war as a branch religious school for the two large downtown congregations. Rabbi Samuel Glasner was put in charge. He decided after several months that there was no reason why there should not be a Reform congregation in the area.

Wymefield is within the city limits. In the early years of the century, it was the residential district of some of Philadelphia's affluent non-Jews. Wealthy Jews followed, and by mid-century many of them had moved still further out. In 1944 a three-story dwelling which had been erected twenty years earlier at a cost of $126,000 was sold to the new congregation for $24,000. Wynnefield Avenue seemed to be a dividing line. On one side, reaching to the edge of the city, were

spacious and attractive two- and three-story homes with lawns and gardens. On the other were a few two-family homes, but mostly what are known as row houses. Thither had come the less affluent Jews. According to the official figures of the Federation of Jewish Agencies in 1945, Wynnefield contained no fewer than 50,000 Jews and ten or twelve congregations of varying sizes and species. Most important was the fact that less than 20 percent of these Jews had any connection with any synagogue, certainly no connection of any meaningful durability. Kosher food and Passover needs were easily obtainable. The death of a parent would bring a son to shul every day for eleven months "to say kaddish"; then he would disappear. For the High Holy Days there were always a few mushroom synagogues. Among them must be included one which functioned throughout the year. The rabbi, who had been regularly ordained by the Jewish Theological Seminary, owned and lived in the three-story building. He apparently earned a good living from funerals, weddings, bar mitzvahs, and social functions such as card games which on one occasion necessitated the appearance of the police. "There is no room in Wynnefield for a Reform congregation." That this remark was heard from a pulpit in the area was never verified. But it is a fact that the Jewish War Veterans, in whose quarters Beth David had its inception, were subjected to pressure and that a few of the veterans became members of the new congregation (one even reached the office of president) as a reaction to the arrogant assumption. Indeed, twenty years after Beth David had been firmly established, there were still Jews in the area who, in ridicule or in earnest, would ask, "Do you have a tse'lem [crucifix] in your shul?" The fact that one of the prominent Conservative rabbis in the area, as late as 1957, had never heard of the Union Haggadah and the Passover observance in Reform Jewish homes gives the question more than superficial significance. Shortly after the High Holy Days, my negotiations began with this infant congregation in what could easily have been designated a self-created ghetto. Not until Thanksgiving Day weekend did they terminate with an agreement for the remainder of the year. My family would remain in Elmira for at least that length of time, not only because the matter of housing posed a serious problem, but also be-



cause a companionate relationship was essential if rabbi and congregation were to understand each other. My terminology was so utterly unfamiliar. Time was needed to explain and clarify what my aims and purposes were. These somewhat parochial Jews--even the very few who had had some connection with a Reform congregation -had never heard of phrases like "a restricted membership," "nonfinancial requirements for membership," and several others. Not until the spring of 1948 was permanent tenure agreed upon. In October of that year regular installation services were held, with my classmate, Rabbi Julius Mark, of Temple Emanu-El in New York, as principal speaker. The first four or five years were very difficult and at times most discouraging. Nobody could understand my refusal to: (1 ) function at a wedding or funeral for non-members of the congregation (except, naturally, where rachmonus-compassion-was involved) ; (2) admit children into the religious school unless their parents had joined Beth David; ( 3 ) accept perquisites from members; (4) prepare a boy for bar mitzvah unless he solemnly promised to continue until Confirmation (and beyond, once post-Confirmation opportunities were provided). Most mystifying in their eyes-simply impossible for them to understand-was my contribution to, and cooperation with, the Main Line Temple at its inception. Merion Station, as it may still be called occasionally, is outside the city limits and adjacent to Wynnefield. Some of the members of Beth David at the very beginning, in 1945 and 1946, lived in Merion and walked to services, a ten- or twelve-minute stroll. Wynnewood was a couple of miles further west. There a Conservative congregation had made its appearance in the late forties. In 1951 and 1952, a few of its disgruntled members hinted to the rabbi of Beth David that a move out of Wynnefield and into the Main Line would be beneficial. "Fifty new members at the very start would be inevitable," was their inducement. My answer was, "Why don't you start a congregation of your own in the area? I'll help you all I can." When it became known that the introductory meeting concerning the Main Line Temple had been held in my study, the board of trustees called the rabbi "on the carpet." "Don't you realize," I was asked, "that you are creating your own competition?" To which my




answer was, "In my mishpocheh [family] there are men and women in the shoe business, wholesale and retail, and in conversation on occasions I have naturally heard them discuss the business. A remark which I once caught and which remains with me as a permanent bit of wisdom is: 'In a given town or in an area of a good-sized city, up to a certain limit of course, the more shoestores there are, the more shoes will be sold.' " There were no more comments or complaints on the subject. Several years later another Reform congregation came into existence eight or ten miles southwest of Wynnefield, and an altogether different attitude was assumed by the members of Beth David, perhaps largely because a few of their married children lived there. In any event, the Broomall Congregation was for a time spoken of as "our baby." The three congregations held joint summer services for many years, alternating the locale. But when Main Line Temple reached giant size and erected a new synagogue with air-conditioning throughout, there was agreement immediately that during July and August the services would be held there. But in 1949 and 1950, nobody had ever heard of anything like my methods. Some became indignant; others admired a leader with convictions. Perhaps the most surprising activity of all was the rabbi's regular visits to the homes of his members. Without invitation, he would usually drop in early in the evening of a weekday. Almost comic (if not pathetic) were the first five or ten minutes of the visit of thirty-five or forty-five minutes (rarely longer and sometimes shorter). Some expected a request for money and were frank enough to ask, "How much do I give now, Rabbi?" Others, perhaps feeling a bit guilty, put the question politely, "To what do we owe this honor, Rabbi?" Fully 90 percent, if not more, concluded with the remark, "This is the first time a rabbi has ever been in our house." Calling on the members was a practice from the very beginning of my career as a rabbi. In Philadelphia, it was perhaps the saving grace, an antidote for the irritations which my unheard-of antics and attitudes had caused. "Yours is an intensive; mine is an extensive ministry," said Stephen Wise sagely but somewhat wistfully, as we were returning from Nelson Glueck's installation as Hebrew Union College presi-



dent. Death took Dr. Wise from our midst before I had prepared, to my satisfaction, the complete program of a "large city congregation with small city traits." The ten-point program which finally evolved and which my successor, Henry Cohen, presented with his emendations in 1965 is herewith appended: 1. A congregation is an educational agency whose primary purpose is to guide, counsel, and instruct its members in the task of leading a wholesome Jewish existence in the non-Jewish world of which we are intimately a part. 2. Size is a deterrent to effectual service. Once a congregation becomes too large, the individual is lost sight of, and concern for the maintenance of the institution becomes paramount. 3. The role of the Rabbi is primarily to teach Judaism and to serve the spiritual needs of the members of the congregation. The Rabbi is paid a salary; therefore, members are entitled to any rabbinic service, at home or in the synagogue or elsewhere, without further compensation. 4. Children cannot be expected to take seriously a religion that is ignored by their parents. Therefore, the Jewish education and the participation of the family as a whole are the necessary focus of our synagogue program. 5. Religious services remain the primary educational function of the synagogde. Through these services we come to have a deeper understanding of ourselves, our faith, and our world. Through these services we renew the creative powers within ourselves and strengthen our capacity to live a Jewish life in the modern world. 6. A congregation can provide maximum benefits for its members only if they give of themselves as well as render financial support. 7. We learn by doing. Therefore, devotion to some segment of the congregational program is indispensable to a wholesome and satisfactory relationship between the individual member and the congregation. 8. The goals of our educational program can be summed up as the three R's: reverence for life, respect for our Jewish heritage, and relevance of the ideals and insights of Judaism to the world about us. When these goals are achieved, both parents and children will find pleasure and purpose in their Jewishness. 9. Beth David is a democratic organization, and all members have equal rights. 10. Beth David is a Reform Jewish organization. The principle of change, as inherent in historic Judaism, is the basis for congregational procedures, policies, and programs. To attempt any degree of implementation of this congregational

philosophy called for unlimited patience and persistence; even an occasional verbal battle had to be utilized. But ultimately the results began to appear. It was Jacob R. Rockower, now on the board of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and then president of Beth David, who not only understood but also took over the task of instructing the temple board. And it was Mrs. Nathan Kane who created a membership committee qualified to make Beth David a selective congregation. To both are my sentiments of gratitude herewith conveyed.

Only an ingrate would conclude without mentioning another department of the congregation. The following sentences from a letter dated March, 1965, and written by the then president, Dr. Nathan Einhorn, are self-explanatory: Dear Mrs. Markowitz: In recognition of your personal contribution of time, effort, and experience to the creation of the library at Beth David, Mr. and Mrs. Albert Wood have voluntarily expressed . . . a desire to change its name from the "Wood Library" to the "Jewel K. Markowitz Library.". . . You have been the guiding force in building and maintaining what is known throughout the city for its excellence. . .. To these words should be added what is not too readily recognized. First, the Synagogue Library Association of the Philadelphia area came into existence in the early fifties. And with the stimulation and encouragement of the Library Science Department of Drexel Institute, we now have in this country a Church and Synagogue Library Association, whose membership reaches into the thousands. Alexander Dushkin was head of the Bureau of Jewish Education in Chicago in the middle and late twenties. He gave short shrift to my request for the use of a class for experimental purposes in one of the schools under his supervision. "What are you going to teach?" was his persistent question, to which I could not give a specific answer. The printed page was, in his eyes, more essential than the personality for whom it was intended. Subject matter to me was a



means to an end; in his position he may have been unable to avoid placing it closer to the end itself. That I have devoted myself to those of my people who were interested in, and even hungered for, the values which alone justify our continued existence as a distinct and separate element in society is a source of satisfaction now that I have passed the fourscore mark. Perhaps the best illustration to indicate my life's interest is a contrast drawn by Colonel Chester Lichtenberg, for whom I always entertained the highest admiration (even though practically nobody in the Fort Wayne Congregation held him even remotely in similar esteem). Sitting on the porch one Saturday afternoon, he said, "There's a world of difference between you and me, and it appears so strikingly in our reaction to people. When I walk into a room full of people, I get into a corner and study each one. When you walk into a room full of people, you simply help yourself to all of them." My interest in human beings made somewhat repugnant the materialistic measurements which we seem to employ in all areas of exA istence. For they crowd out the imponderable and the invisible durable~.It is a source of pride to be able to say that, in all my negotiations with congregations, salary had minor meaning. We always lived frugally as a family, even while the children were growing up and going to school. To have left a slight imprint, even in my inexperienced and blundering youth, is a precious memory on which to live in the declining years.

Dismissal in Albany NAPHTALI J. RUBINGER

Isaac Mayer Wise, a founder of American Reform Judaism, significantly influenced the religious maturation of the American Jewish community during the nineteenth century. Born in the Bohemian village of Steingrub in 1819, he emigrated to the United States in the summer of 1846, to become not only the leading exponent of Jewish Reform in America, but the builder par excellence of its organizational structure.' He established the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1873 and the Hebrew Union College in 1875, and inspired the formation of the Central Conference of American Rabbis in 1889. A gifted writer, he passionately advocated his religious philosophy in the pages of the Jewish journals of his day, as well as through the many lectures, articles, and books he wrote during his lifetime. Through his friendship with the well-known New York Jewish minister, Max Lilienthal, Wise was elected to fill the rabbinical vacancy in Congregation Beth El in Albany, New York." very important facet in his career related to his difficulties with the OrthoDr. Rubinger is the rabbi of Congregation Habonim of Chicago. This article is based upon material from the author's doctoral dissertation, "Albany Jewry of the Nineteenth Century-Historic Roots and Communal Evolution," submitted to the Bernard Revel Graduate School of Yeshiva University. 'For more complete details of the life and activities of Isaac Mayer Wise, the reader is referred to the following works: Jacob Rader Marcus, The Americanization o f Isaac Mayer Wise (Cincinnati, 1931); Max B. May, Isaac Mayer Wise, The Founder of American Judaism (New York, 1916);Israel Knox, Rabbi in America, The Story o f Isaac Mayer Wise, His Life and Works (Cincinnati, 1965); Bertram W. Korn, Eventful Years and Experiences (Cincinnati, 1954), and American Jewry and the Civil War (Philadelphia, 1957). This was the first congregation to be founded in Albany and was incorporated on March 25, 1838. Incorporation Papers, Archives, Congregation Beth Emeth, Albany [ABE].




dox element of the congregation during his early ministry in Albany. While much has been written about the circumstances resulting in his dismissal from Beth El, the full story of the conflict has as yet not been brought to light or completely understood. We shall endeavor here to detail and interpret the authentic and relevant facts surrounding Wise's struggle for reform in Albany, a struggle which resulted not only in his dismissal but in the organization of a new synagogue in that city.3This study is based upon an extensive examination of the available documents some of which are brought to light here for the first time:

Wise came to Albany in the fall of 1846 after having been elected rabbi of Beth El with the added responsibility of administering the congregation's scho01.~From the very beginning Wise sought to introduce changes in the conduct of the service as well as in the structure of the liturgy. Among the reforms he established was the organization of a mixed choir, the elimination of the piyyutim (liturgical poetry), the introduction of German and English hymns, and the initiation of the confirmation ceremony to replace the traditional bar mitzvah rite." He also abolished the sale of the mitzvot (synagogue honors), and insisted that the congregation remain seated during the reading of the Torah.' From the very outset, the direction that Wise sought to give to the religious life of the congregation brought In this study we have limited ourselves to the more immediate causes for the split in Beth El. A comprehensive analysis of the cultural and socioeconomic factors involved in the secessionist movement in Beth El is extensively dealt with in the author's work on Albany. 'In the standard works on Wise, his biographers, when dealing with the Albany phase of his ministry, have primarily utilized the Reminiscences, The Asmonean, The Occident, and his writings. In this work we have made use of the important documentary material available in ABE. 'Isaac Mayer Wise, Reminiscences, edited and translated by David Phiipson (Cincinnati, 1901). p. 47. Zbid., pp. 52-53,97-98, 112-13.

him into conflict with members of Beth El who resented these changes in their mode of worship and, even more, the zeal with which the rabbi projected them. Thus as Wise proceeded to mold the congregation into that pattern of religious reform which he felt was the authentic expression of Judaism, negative and hostile reactions began to disturb the peace and harmony of Beth El." Requests and petitions were directed to the board of the congregation to undo some of these reforms, but Wise was able to muster sufficient support to sustain him in his p0sition.P By the summer of 1850, however, the relationship between Wise and his congregation entered into its final phase of storm and strife, provoking a split in the congregation and the establishment of Anshe Emeth, the first Reform synagogue in Albany. The circumstances were rather complex and subtle. In his own analysis of his problems in Albany, Wise placed the greatest emphasis upon the determination of the Orthodox party in the United States to punish him for articulating a new Jewish theology which assumed its most radical form in negating the doctrines of a personal Messiah and the resurrection of the dead.'" Wise's bold denials of these articles of traditional Jewish belief were occasioned by his visit to Charleston, S. C., in February, 1850. When writing his Reminiscences, Wise insisted that his trip to Charleston had been inspired by the information given him by Isaac Leeser that Rabbi Morris J. Raphall" would be in Charleston to lbid. 'Ibid. See also pp. 112-18.

'' Ibid., pp. 152-54. " Ibid., p. 131. Morris Jacob Raphall

was born in Stockholm, Sweden, in September, 1798. He studied at a Jewish college in Copenhagen, where he earned the degree of Haber. He pursued his secular studies in Germany and England. After 1825 he lived in England, where he was engaged in Jewish scholarly pursuits. In 1841 he was elected to fill a rabbinical vacancy in Birmingham, England, where he served until 1849, at which time he came to the United States. He served as the minister of Congregation Bnai Jeshurun in New York. He enjoyed great popularity as a lecturer on Hebrew literature, and was the first Jewish minister to offer a prayer in the Congress of the United States. He died on June 23, 1868. See Henry S. Morais, Eminent Israelites o f the Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia, 1880), pp. 287-90; also Bertram W. Korn, "Rabbis, Prayers and Legislatures," Hebrew Union College Annual, XXIII. Part Two, 96-99.



champion the cause of Orthodoxy in a debate with Gustave PoznanAS is well known by now, Wise came to Charleston as a candidate for the rabbinical office at Beth Elohim and not to participate in any debate. On May 6, 1850, B. H. Rodrigues, secretary pro tem. of Congregation Beth Elohim, responded to an inquiry by Louis Spanier, president of Albany's Beth El, and stated that Wise had "made application for the office of Minister of this congregation. . . ."I3 When writing of Wise's radical theology, Leeser noted: ski.12

Dr. Wise, in an unfortunate moment, in the ardour, perhaps, of a new position as a candidate for the ministry of a congregation, some members and the minister of which were supposed unwilling to receive our creed as it stood and yet stands, was hurried away to answer "no" to a question put to the minister referred to by a learned divine who maintained the correct side of the faith.14 Obviously, then, Wise's visit to Charleston was undertaken to present himself as a candidate for the rabbinical vacancy in Beth Elo-

him. It should be noted that Raphall's visit to Charleston was primarily for the purpose of delivering a series of lectures on "The Poetry of the Hebrew Bible."ls The debate was a secondary matter and involved only one encounter between the protagonists. It was then that Raphall, in a moment of agitation, propounded these two questions: "Do you believe in the coming of the Messiah?" and "Do you believe in the resurrection of the dead?" To these Wise volunteered a loud and resounding "No."16

" Gustave Poznanski, a German-born minister in Charleston, S. C., assumed his position with Beth Elohim in 1836 and was known for his radical reforms. See James G. Heller, Isaac Mayer Wise, His Life Work and Thought (New York, 1965), p. 178. " ABE. I'

Occident, VIII, No. 6 (August, 1850), 256.

'%e the following Charleston papers: Courier, February 18, 23, 29, 1850; Mercury, February 2, March 9, 1850; Evening News, February 20, 25, 27, March 1, 4, 5, 8, 19, 1850. See also Asmonean, I, No. 20 (March 8, 1850), 157. "Letter from officials of Shearith Israel, the Orthodox synagogue of Charleston, to Louis Spanier, president of Beth El in Albany (ABE). See also Occident, VIII, No. 6 (August, 1850), 257.

It was this incident in Charleston which, according to Wise, contributed to his troubles in Albany." He also spoke of a "bull of excommunication" which Raphall published in The Asmonean, countless letters reaching the pages of The Occident, and devious pressures brought to bear upon Spanier to have Wise fired from his Albany pulpit. But documentary evidence tells another story.18 It is not to Charleston or even to the pages of The Asmonean and The Occident that we must look for the causes of trouble in Albany's Beth El, but rather to the internal conditions that existed and developed in that momentous summer of 1850. It is true, of course, that Louis Spanier and the Orthodox faction sought to make capital of the incident in Charleston. That is why they published the notarized letter from the officers of Shearith Israel Congregation in which Wise's heresy is detailed.lg We shall see, however, that Wise's theological pronouncements were not crucial to the antagonism that developed. They were merely used as an instrument to strengthen the position of Wise's enemies. "Reminiscences, pp. 152-54.

* Ibid. A search through the pages of The Occident and The Asmonean turned up no excommunication. In Asmonean, I, No. 26 (April 19,1850), 5, two critical letters appear, one by "Israel," the other by Abraham Rice, an Orthodox rabbinic scholar and spiritual leader of Baltimore's Nidhe Yisrael. The first, in response to an anonymous letter sent Wise and submitted to The Asmonean (see I, No. 25 [April 12, 1850],205), is abusive of Wise, ridicules his sincerity, questions the authenticity of the letter submitted by Wise, and also calls into question Wise's use of "Dr." The second letter, by Rice, is an attack on Wise's view not specifically regarding the Messiah or resurrection of the dead, but of his willingness to accept the type of reform practiced at Beth Elohim in Charleston and of his denial of the sanctity of the Talmud: I will herewith show that a man who agrees with the reformers of the Charleston congregation Beth Elohim has no longer a right or a voice to talk about A man who says that all Post-Biblical Scripture [in which the Judaism. Talmud is involved] are [is] exposed to his poor criticism can [not] be called an Israelite or a reformer only.


This can hardly be called a "bull of excommunication!' The letter from the officials of Shearith Israel Congregation was published in The Occident, but this, as we shall explain, was not the primary source of irritation.



Two basic issues embroiled Wise in a bitter and ill-tempered dispute with members of his synagogue. Despite his pronounced reform tendencies, Wise was a strong believer in the sanctity of the Sabbath. He had consistently endeavored to impose observance of the Sabbath on his congregants, and more specifically on those who occupied positions of leadership in the congregation. Wise was not the k s t to endeavor to secure the observance of the Sabbath by the leadership of the congregation. In 1843 seven members had submitted to the congregational board a petition asking: That beginning with the next election, only those members shall qualify to be elected as trustees who keep the Sabbath and who do not desecrate the Sabbath by either buying or selling. Also disqualified for election shall be all such members who at the time of the services are in the city and do not attend the services, or those who customarily do not attend services.20 During his tenure, he claimed, such a resolution had been approved, and on the strength of this, Wise addressed himself to a member of the board of trustees of the congregation, who apparently was in flagrant violation of the Sabbath regulation. Mr. Solomon Levy: [no date] Dear Sir:It is my duty to send you warning either to close your business on Sabbath or to resign your position as representative of an Israelitish congregation, inasmuch as it must be a shame for a Synagogue to have an officer who is openly a Sabbath breaker. In case you do not comply, I will be compelled to speak of it publicly. Respectfully your Rabbi, Dr. WisenWhen word reached Louis Spanier that Wise was determined to denounce Levy publicly for his violation of the Sabbath, he dispatched a message to Wise directing him to refrain from preaching on that 'Fragmentary leaf from the Minutes of Congregation, Beth El (ABE). The following signed the petition: Baruch Grosshut, Edward Bendell, Elias Schieleir, Elias Peterson, Joseph Weinstein, and Joseph Erich. The petition was voted down.

*' ABE.

While the letter is undated, Wise sent it sometime probably during April or May, 1850, since the Sabbath on which he was to denounce Levy was June 1st.

day. Wise, however, ignored the president's order and at the appropriate time rose and approached the lectern to deliver his charge. According to Wise, Spanier then sought to interfere with his preaching, but Wise overcame this by speaking in a loud voice and ignoring Spanier. Thereupon Spanier and some worshippers left the synagogue." It was probably this incident which provoked the enmity between the president and the rabbi. In his Reminiscences, Wise claimed that Spanier took exception to some of the doctrines pronounced by the confirmands during the Shavuot service of 1850." Though Spanier could have been offended by the declamations offered by the young confirmands, it is not likely that mere ideological differences could have incited him against Wise to the passionate degree he exhibited at a later date. It was Wise's refusal to accept presidential guidance and his public display of indifference to Spanier's expression of authority which the parnas could not leave unchallenged. In the wake of this cause cklkbre, eleven members of the congregation addressed the following petition to Spanier: "We the undersigned wish and desire from the President and the trustees to request from Dr. Wise a copy of his sermon, of June 1, 1850."" While this communication is undated, we know from a subsequent document (to be dealt with below) that the request for the sermon was made on June 2-that is, one day after Wise had delivered it. Wise, with characteristic disdain, refused; he was not, he said, in the habit of preparing a written sermon in advance. In his Reminiscences, Wise wrote that Spanier, because of his improper conduct during religious worship, was asked to resign, was brought before the police magistrate on a charge of disturbing divine worship, and was subjected to a mild reprimand by the judge. There is no documentary "Reminiscences, pp. 157-58. In a letter to The Occident, Spanier explained that it was the public denunciation and its potential repercussions that he objected to. See Occident, W I , No. 8 (November, 1850), 428.

Wise admitted that at first he and Spanier had been good friends, but due to continuous baiting by the Orthodox group, Spanier had turned against him. See Reminiscences, pp. 152, 155-56.



evidence to substantiate or negate this aspect of Wise's recollections of his encounter and difficulties with Spanier." In view of Wise's refusal to furnish the text of his sermon, nine members dispatched to Spanier a lengthy letter, in which some of the details of the sermon were recalled and some formal charges against Wise were listed." The letter, addressed to "President Cong. Beth El., Albany," was dated June 14,1850: On June 2, 1850, several members of your congregation sent you a request to ask Dr. Rabbi Wise for a copy of his sermon preached on Saturday, June 1, 1850. This petition was accepted by you and as we may note here said petition was not noted by Dr. Wise. We, the undersigned, therefore forced to show God and the world that we are Yehudim [Jews] and that we strive not to let our holy religion be desecrated by an apostate and that our basic rites should not be shortened or eliminated by this wicked person in order to install a reform temple service, . and that our holy Torah not be read to us in a foreign language. In order that these hellish plans for Judaism [be curtailed] and lest the religion which our great teachers and prophets have established for us be taken away, we bring the following charges against Rabbi Dr. Isaac M. Wise: 1. That Rabbi Wise tries lately . . to dishonor our rite . . . to disobey our religion and to declare our forefathers who have instructed us to be stupid and crazy people. 2. He has in his sermon of June 1, 1850. Using the text of the [Haftarah] of Parshat B7Halothecha-Rani v'simchi bat zion, ki hineni bo v'shochunti b'thochaich. N'eum Adonai. ["'Sing and rejoice, 0 daughter of Zion; for lo I come and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord. And many nations shall join themselves to the Lord that day, and shall be my people, and I will dwell in the midst of thee; and thou shalt know that the Lord hath sent me unto thee" (Zech. 2 :14-1 5) .I . . . and declared the following in explanation: "Many people wme near to God except the Israelites. There is a Asmonean, 11, No. 23 (September 17, 1850), 180; Reminiscences, p. 158.

. .


*It was on the basis of this sermon that the formal charges against Wise weJe promulgated. For some reason this document makes no reference to Wise's p r e nouncements against Levy. Two explanations are possible. I t might be that those who submitted the sermon did not want to offend one of their own group by referring to his laxity with regard to the Sabbath; or Wise's comments about Levy were separate and apart from the sermon and were not included in this epistle, since its primary aim was to show Wise's heresy and unlawful exercise of rabbinic authority.

wall between us and God-a wall which is built by ceremonies. We will ram our heads against this wall but we will never be able to see the other side until we tear down the wall." The undersigned want to know who is this God who is near to so many people but not to Israel? Who is this God that dwells among so many people but not among the Israelites? 3. That he used lies in the above sermon in which he declared prayers like Y'hai sh'mai rabbah [May His great name be blessed] and Amen are nothing and after we have been instructed we still don't understand anything according to his point of view, because we have been taught in a dead language. And furthermore [he holds] that tephilin and tzitzith [phylacteries and the fringes of the prayer shawl] has superfluous ceremonies. 4. We call him a hypocrite in trying to impress upon us that he is a Godfearing man-yet he tries in every way possible and with every device to negate the beautiful prayers which our renowned scholars have composed and to introduce those which are being used in the Offenbach Synagogue and other so called Temples. 5. Isn't it proof enough that his behavior for a year only leads to split the once-peaceful congregation Beth El. . . . And such a man we declare unworthy to occupy the position of Rabbi and preacher and the following reasons are sufficient to suspend him from such service. a. He said in a sermon about 5 or 6 weeks ago that we have a God of reason, but we say that we have Elokai avraham, elokai yitzchok vailokai yaakov [God of Abraham, God of Isaac and God of Jacob]. b. He said in his first sermon after his last election when he was accepted by a Reform Congregation in Charleston that he is in favor of such reforms and ones that even go beyond these. When a Yehudah [a Jew] is for reformation of religion like Congregation Beth Elohim in Charleston, S.C., it is bad enough, but if he is bent on going even beyond that, he cannot be a Yehudah. c. We have heard that he has written on Rosh Hashanah [the New Year] in the Odd Fellows Lodge. d. That he was supposed to have been swinging in a swing on Shabbat [Sabbath] in the Mineral Spring Garden. e. That he was supposed to have read a letter addressed to Mrs. Gabriel Wise which came to him by mistake, to prepare the mikveh [ritual bath] and he read it in a saloon with ridicule. f. He was impertinent and presumptuous how he behaved toward you last Shabbat. You can see from the foregoing accusations that it is the duty of every



Yehudah to bring this matter to light, so that the guilty ones can be puni~hed.~~ This letter was signed by the following: Leopold Koshland, Benedict Groshut, Abraham Kohn, Moses Hamburger, L. Sporborg, Moses Lindenstein, Mordy Lippman, J. L. Freund, and L. Lyons.28

Paralleling this development, or possibly even associated with it, Wise also became involved in a very serious dispute with two butchers in his congregation. The dispute arose when Wise declared the shochet Veist Traub unqualified to perform the ritual of shechita, and forbade the consumption of any meat slaughtered by him.29In the Reminiscences, Wise offered the explanation that Traub frequented saloons and played cards, and that these were the reasons compelling him to issue a ban against Traub's slaughtering. Wise's contention was, of course, without any foundation in rabbinic law. Frequenting saloons is not a violation of Jewish law, and gambling would merely disqualify one from giving testimony, but not from acting in the capacity of a ritual slaughterer. What Wise failed to indicate in his recollections, however, was that he was involved in a legal suit with Traub in which Wise was charged with libel.30 ABE. "Hamburger, an Albany Jewish merchant who also dealt in Iiquor, lived at 73 Hamilton Street (Albany Directory, 1850). Regarding Koshland, Groshut, and Kohn, no data are extant. Sporborg, born in Altenstein, Bavaria, in 1812, married Sophie Elroth and died in Albany, in 1852 (Memorial Stone-Beth Emeth Cemetery, Loudonville, New York). Lindenstein, a butcher, was located at 196 South Pearl Street (Albany Directory, 1850, p. 206). Lippman, another butcher, was located at 8 Center Market (Albany Directory, 1851, p. 207). Freund was a peddler (Book of License for Peddlers, 1850, Manuscript and History Division of the New York State Library, Albany). Lyons, a merchant, had the Variety Store at 47 Washington (Albany Directory, 1848, p. 208). " It is possible that Wise's difficulty with some of the Orthodox element also contributed to his conflict with the butchers. Reminiscences, p. 158. Also see letter to Spanier by Albany butchers (ABE); also Occident, VIII, No. 6 (September, 1850), 306-12. * Zbid.; Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh Deah 11: 6 and Gloss 20 by the Rama and also commentary of the Shakh; Occident, VIII, No. 6 (September, 1850), 306-12.

Traub submitted the following letter and document to The Asmonean on October 1 1,1850: Sir-I have much pleasure in informing you that differences existing in the congregation Beth El at Albany have been satisfactory adjusted. I have been induced in a spirit of peace to accept from the gentlemen defendants in the above suits of libel an explanation and withdrawal of the language applied to me. And in justification of the course pursued by myself I request that you publish the accompanying documents. Supreme Court Veist Traub This action is V.S. settled and the Isaac M. Wise defendant admits that he spoke the words mentioned in the Complaint, the same were spoken in reference to the understanding that the Plaintiff heard a discourse delivered by the defendant in the Bethel Syngogue and that the Plaintiff understood the language of the discourse differently than others and that on the testimony he gave, in relation to the same, he acted in good faith. Veist Traub Issac M. Wise3= The controversy involved in the Traub suit should not be confused with the later internal difficulties and disturbances on the first day of Rosh Hashanah when, as we shall see, Wise was forcibly restrained from officiating as the minister." "e evidence points to a legal controversy antedating the Rosh Hashanah day spectacle. First, from Traub's letter it is obvious that this was an issue arising out of a libelous utterance by Wise in no way connected with the charges of assault and battery that developed out of the Rosh Hashanah d6bficle. Furthermore, in The Occident, under the date of "Elul5610," readers are told regarding Wise that ". . . he is dragged Asmonean, 11, NO. 28 (October 11, 1850), 198. The date of the Supreme Court document is October 1, 1850. Rosh Hashanah was September 7, that year. There are two obviating facts confirming the contention that this document refers to a separate legal quarrel between Traub and Wise rather than an outgrowth of the Rosh Hashanah controversy. First, it is hardly possible that a case would be entered on the Suprme Court docket in the short space of three weeks, and secondly, the controversy resulting from the Rosh Hashanah fracas was tried in the Mayor's Court and not in the Supreme Court.

* Reminiscences, p. 165.



before a court of law on a suit for damages for doing his duty. . . ." It is clear, therefore, that there was a suit brought against Wise in the late summer of 1850 prior to the Rosh Hashanah incident. It is, therefore, not unreasonable to conjecture that the legal action brought by Traub against Wise was related to Wise's declaration that Traub was unfit to continue as ritual slaughterer for the community. The language describing the differences between Traub and Wise obviously points to the sermon which Wise delivered on June lst, and which Traub "in good faith" transmitted to others. We may safely assume that the result of this transmission is embodied in the letter of June 14, 1850, in which the substance of the sermon was detailed.33Obviously, angered by Traub's action, Wise proceeded to dismiss him from his function as S h o ~ h e t . ~ ~ Another letter addressed to Spanier containing charges against Wise was dispatched to the president on June 23rd. The contents of this letter are limited to complaints against Wise's doctrinal heresy. We the undersigned members of the . . . congregation find it our duty to bring charges against Dr. Rabbi Wise. Since we heard for sure that at a meeting of Yehudim [Jews] in Charleston, S.C., he openly and without reservation declared that he does not believe in be'ath hamoshiach [the coming of the Messiah] and T'chiath Hamethim [the resurrection of the dead] and regarding these two matters our sages say: Hakophr b'viath hamoshiach u-v'tichiath hamethim af a1 pi sheaino kopher b'torath Moshe nikrah min v'apikores v'ain lo chelek I'olam habah. He who denies the coming of the Messiah, and the resurrection of the

dead, even though he does not deny the law of Moses is called a sectarian and an Epicurean, and has no share in the world to come. If this is true and we have no doubt about it, Rabbi Wise is a kopher bailokai yisroel [one who denies the God of Israel] and certainly is not worthy to occupy the position of Rabbi in a congregation. The under signed therefore request you to start proceedings to investigate this matter

" ABE. The assumption that Traub was the one who transmitted the essence of Wise's sermon on that day is based on two considerations: a) Traub was the most literate of Wise's opponents and was the most qualified to handle Hebrew texts and quotations; b) while many of Wise's opponents walked out with Spanier, Traub obviously had to remain since he was the hazan and had to conduct the musaph service.

and that Rabbi Dr. Wise be suspended from his duties until this matter has been resolved. June 23,1850 Leopold Koshland Benedict Groshut Abraham Kohn Luxie Kaufman G. Weiss L. Sporberg Moses Lindenstein Alexander Frank I. L. Freund L. LyonsS5 But more important than the above accusations of theological heresies were charges of abuse of rabbinic authority submitted to Spanier by two butchers in the congregation in a letter dated June 26, 1850. This letter is important because it informs us that Wise not only discharged Traub, but engaged another shochet to replace bim. The text of the letter is as follows: We, the undersigned Jewish butchers of the Congregation Bethel, make the following accusation against Rabbi Wise because of his having acted unfavorably against our trade. He tried to influence members of the congregation not to buy from Traub's Schechita. We therefore put the following accusations before the President and the Trustees: 1 ) Is Rabbi Dr. Wise empowered to split the congregation over the matter of food provisions? 2) Is it in keeping with the character of [the] Rabbi to be a m i g gevul reaihu [one who expropriates the right of others]? 3) Can Rabbi Wise interfere in the rights of the Congregation without the knowledge of the Trustees? 4) Can he employ a Shochet [ritual slaughterer] in a congregation without the approval and consent of the whole congregation? The undersigned request the President and the Trustees to warn the congregation of simiIar action. Moses Lindenstein Mordy LippmanS6 ABE. The phrase "even though he does not deny the Law of Moses" refers probably to the fact that Wise consistently defended the Mosaic authorship of the Torah. SO

Isaac Mayer Wise As a young rabbi

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X . f o j s ! /O ~ aJtlJ!ISUZ

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To add to Spanier's problems, he received a note from one A. Swartz, notifying him ". . . that Traub will give up his position in the Synagogue so he will not have to lead in the Services." The note ended with the suggestion: "Bring this before the C~ngregation."~' On the first of July a Board of Trustees meeting was held in which charges against Rabbi Wise were debated.38 Six accusations were brought against him. These breaches of conduct, emanating from the letter of June 14th, were as follows: 1 ) that he declared Hebrew to be a dead language; 2) that he had done away with revered prayers of the synagogue; 3 ) that his reforms would go even beyond those of the Charleston Beth Elohim Temple; 4) that he was seen writing in the Odd Fellows' Lodge on Rosh Hashanah; 5) that he had been seen swinging on a swing on the Sabbath; 6) that he publicly ridiculed the women's ritual bath.3" The charges were forwarded to Wise by the hazzan, Veist Traub, who was also the secretary of the congregation. Wise was directed to respond in "writing no later than July 14th, 10 o'clock in the morning preci~ely."'~Wise's response was typical, with his usual acid quip and condescending tongue. The document is worthy of note: To the President of the Congregation Beth El at Albany I received the 3rd day of July this year, six pieces written paper with the enclosure. It was decreed by a trustee meeting which was held the first day of July, 1850, that Rabbi Wise shall have a copy of the complaints designated 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 against him and that Rabbi Wise shall send his defense of these complaints in writing to the President of the Congragation Beth El by the 14th day July at 10 o'clock in the morning precisely. Veist Traub Secretare (sic.) of the Congregation

"We know of the date through Wise's response to the charges brought against him at this meeting: . . by a trustee meeting which was held the first day of July 1850. . . ."Wise's letter, July 12,1850 (ABE).


ABE. Letter of Board o f Trustees to Wise, July 3,1850 (ABE).

I am compelled to reply 1) "What is my trespass, what is my sin, that thou has[t] hotly pursued after me?" [Gen. 31:361. 2) "Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us?" [Exodus 2: 141. 3) "Thinkest thou to kill me?" [Exodus 2: 141. 4) Am I or anybody else obliged to answer writings in which I am called an apostate, a liar, a hypocrite and so, etc. etc.? 5) No law exists in this country which obliges anyone to defend himself in writing without confronting his accusers. 6) It is impossible for me to get a reasonable sense out of those writings, because there are plenty grammatical and spelling mistakes in it, here compositions without sense for any sensible man. But for the sake of peace I want to defend myself by word of mouth in the presence of my accuser providing you judge without partiality according to the law; you may therefore fix the day and place and I shall be there; but furthermore I must caution you that I forbid any insult whatsoever. Albany, July 12, 5610 Dr. Wise4I Wise informed us in his Reminiscences that upon receipt of his response a meeting of the board of trustees was held at which time Wise was vindicated by a 3 to 2 vote. Furthermore, he declared that Spanier, having lost face, was requested to resign his office. But because of the ridicule heaped upon him by his enemies Spanier refused to remove himself as the parnas of Beth El.42 Once more we do well to tread with caution. No evidence of any such meeting is extant save Wise's declaration in the Reminiscences. This we do know-Wise penned his response to Spanier on July 12, and we have a record of a board of trustees meeting held on July 24th. The meeting that Wise referred to could not have been the one held July 24th. At that meeting of the board, not only is there no evidence that Spanier was rebuked by his colleagues, but we know that the board by a 3-2 majority voted to withhold Wise's salary until the whole matter was brought before the entire congregation. In order to sustain Wise's assertion that the board had originally exonerated h i of all charges, we must assume that not only was there an " ABE.

" Reminiscences, p. 158.



additional board meeting between the 12th and the 24th of July, but that there was also a complete change of sentiment on the matter. This is possible, but ~nlikely."~

It was probably in this charged atmosphere that Spanier wrote to Charleston inquiring about Wise's pronouncements on the question of the Messiah and the resurrection of the dead. The heresy issue raised by Spanier in his letter to the Charleston congregation should not be considered as the primary cause for the deteriorated relationship between him and Wise. The Charleston incident was by that time well known to everyone, since it had been reported and commented upon in the Jewish journals. Wise was obviously right to question the reaction of some of the Jews in Albany regarding his heretical views since they had all been well aware of his radical and unorthodox leanings."" It was not to ascertain the facts that Spanier wrote, but rather to procure for his own purposes official documentation of Wise's doctrinal blasphemy. Spanier was a man sensitive to public opinion; that is why he troubled himself to air his views in The Asmonean and The Occident. He wanted to make certain that his position could be presented in the most favorable light for himself and for his congregation. The problems involving the shochet, the unauthorized sermon, and even the pending legal entanglements were not sufficient, at least in his eyes, to arouse public sympathy on behalf of his course of action. These were, after all, local matters in which the outside Jewish world might not wish to become involved. But a matter of doctrine, a matter touching upon a cornerstone of faith and tradition, would have the necessary appeal and notoriety to attract and stimulate sympathetic interest. We may therefore assume that it was this consideration which motivated Spanier to have

" Wise Correspondence, July 12, 1850 (ABE); Minutes Board of Trustees, Congregation Beth El, July 24, 1850 (ABE). Reminiscences, p. 153. The exact date of Spanier's letter to Shearith Israel Congregation in Charleston is not known, but, since the response was dated July 8th, and since a letter of inquiry to Spanier regarding Wise's pronouncements in Charleston was dated June 23rd, we may assume that Spanier wrote to Charleston on or about that date.

the letter from Shearith Israel published in The O~cident.'~ Spanier was using a doctrinal fagade to justify his resolution to depose Wise. The meeting of the trustees on July 24th was held. The result of this meeting is reflected in a document dated July 24th: We the undersigned as the trustees of the Congregation Beth El have decided today that the salary which Dr. Wise requested from the Congregation for the past quarter year from April 14th to July 14th should not be paid until it had been decided by the whole congregation at a Congregational meeting whether he should receive the same or not. Louis Spanier, Pres. Cong. Beth El. Mayer Stein-Trustee Solomon Levy-Trustee4B Neither Wise's nor the community's reaction to this arbitrary action by the board is known. We can only assume that the bitterness was compounded on both sides, and that the stresses and strains to which the "once peaceful congregation" was subjected were rapidly approaching the breaking point. The month of August must have passed in a sullen brooding spirit. No official meetings were held, but surely we must assume that private consultations among the partisans were underway-quiet plans and calm deliberations before the fury and the storm. On September 5th, the quarterly meeting of the congregation was held. Wise charged that the meeting was held earlier than was customary. During that week there was a state fair in Albany. The meeting was scheduled to begin at the unusual hour of three o'clock in the afternoon. Wise was sure that the date and time of the meeting had been scheduled so as to discourage a good attendance." It might well have been true that the quarterly meetings of the congregation were often held after the High Holidays, but Spanier acted within the framework of the constitution, which provided that the quarterly meetings be held either "before or after" the holidays. "Occident, VIII, No. 6 (August, 1850), 257. " ABE. Stein was a local merchant; though he signed this document, he generally supported Wise and, in the fall of 1850, left Beth El to join Wise's new congregation, Anshe Emeth. See Document of Withdrawal from Beth El ( A m ) .

" Reminiscences, p. 163.



Under the heading of "Meetings," Article 2 of the Constitution stated: "The quarterly regular meetings shall be held shortly before or after New Year, Candle mass [Chanukah], Pentecost and Passover. . ." Furthermore, according to Article 3, "The President may call extra meetings of the Congregation or of the Trustees, as often as he shall consider it neces~ary."~~ Wise was indeed correct when he asserted that a state fair was being held in the Albany area on the day of the meeting. But as to his contention that the meeting commenced at "three o'clock in the afternoon" and lasted "till eleven o'clock at night," no substantial evidence for this is available and the length of time that the meeting would have taken suggests that Wise might be in error. Wise's further complaint that no notice was given the congregation regarding the special nature of the matter to be brought before the membership is apparently correct. It was on the basis of this neglect that Wise was later exonerated in court.4Q There are two conflicting views as to what happened at the meeting of September 5th: one, the version rendered by Wise in his Reminiscences, and the other, Spanier's in his communication to The O~cident.~" According to the first version, the meeting proceeded in a tumultuous fashion and with passionate debate regarding the charges brought against Wise. At a point when Wise's supporters were convinced that no real purpose could be achieved with its continuance, they offered a motion to have the meeting adjourned, but the president refused persistently to put the motion for adjournment. At eleven o'clock, Joseph Sporberg, the vice-president, again offered a motion to adjourn. "A vote was taken and Sporberg decided that the motion was carried." He declared the meeting adjourned and left with his friends. Following their departure, Spanier and those that remained sustained the charges against Wise and formally dismissed him from his post.


" Constitution, congregation Beth El (ABE) . 'OAccordingto the Albany Argus, August 27, 1850, p. 2, the Fair was open to the public as of September 5th. See Reminiscences, p. 205. See also Occident, IX, No. 3 (June, 1851), 166-67. *Reminiscences, pp. 163-64; Occident, VIII, No. 5 (August, 1850). 257; No. 6 (September, 1850), 30612; No. 8 (November, 1850), 422-24; IX, No. 3 (June, 1851), 16667.

Spanier's recollection as to what transpired at the meeting differs from Wise's account in one important respect. According to Spanier, the motion to adjourn was put before the body "and negatived upon a ballot by a large majority." Spanier did not dwell upon the question regarding those who left the meeting and the matter of how many remained to vote for the dismissal of Wise. The document which was forwarded to Wise informing him of the action of the congregation read: To Dr. Wise in Albany, By the regular quarterly meeting of the Congregation Beth El, held the 5th of September, 1850, it was resolved by the majority of the Congregation Beth El after a long consult [sic] about different accusations and complaints against the Rabbi Dr. Isaac M. Wise (of said complaints Dr. Wise received on the 3rd day of July a copy). 1) That the contract between the Congregation Beth El one part and the Rabbi Dr. Isaac M. Wise another part shall be considered void and 2) Rabbi Isaac M. Wise shall be discharged from the Congregation Beth El from his office as a Rabbi and preacher commencing as of today the 5th day of September, 1850. 3) A copy of the resolutions shall be forwarded to the Rabbi Dr. Isaac M. Wise. Albany, the 6th day of September, 1850. L. Spanier, Veist Traub Pres. Secretary of the Congregation Beth El5I The impression that Wise sought to communicate was that the majority of the members assembled for the meeting were in support of the rabbi and that, had the meeting taken its natural course of action, Wise would have been exonerated and sustained. If this is so, why did Sporberg, one of Wise's staunchest supporters, seek an adjournment of the meeting? Would it not have been to the interest of Wise and his friends to permit the charges against him to be brought to a vote, thereby giving the majority of the assembled the most potent instrument of their support of Wise, namely, a resounding vote in his favor? At best, an adjournment would have retained the status quo with all of its confusion, indecision, bitterness, and tension. Furthermore, having failed in their attempt to have the meeting ad5'Reminiscences, pp. 163-64; Asmonean, 11, No. 23 (September 17, 1850), 180; Resolution Board o f Trustees, Congregation Beth El, September 6, 1850 (ABE).



journed, why did they decide to leave the meeting, thus assuring Spanier and his friends of an absolute majority? Is it not more reasonable to assume that it was Spanier who enjoyed a majority? Therefore, Sporberg and his party sought an adjournment of the meeting to gain time in order to change the tide of ill-will encompassing the rabbi. Having failed in this attempt, they left the meeting, hoping thereby to cast some doubt onto its legality. We come now to the last and most dramatic phase of this intracongregational struggle. Wise, in consultation with his friends and legal counsel, was advised to inform Spanier of his intention of remaining the rabbi of the congregation and of officiating at Rosh Hashanah services the following day. He, therefore, dispatched the following communication to Spanier: In answer to your letter of September 6th last, I have to advise you that in keeping with my rights and in accordance with the desires of the majority of the Trustees of Cong. Beth El, I will remain in my position and will continue in my duties as before. September 6th, 1850. Dr. Wise-Rabbi Congregation Beth Els2

THERE IS THE LAW Apparently the evening services of September 6th passed without any incident. The following morning, however, when Wise arrived at the synagogue, he found that his seat on the pulpit had been taken. He, therefore, seated himself elsewhere. Wise's own words depict the mood of grave excitement that pervaded the congregation: Everything was as quiet as a grave. Finally, the choir sings Sulzer's great En Komokha. At the conclusion of the song, I step before the ark in order to take out the scrolls of the law as usual, and to offer prayer. Spanier steps in my way and, without saying a word, smites me with his fist so that my cap falls from my head. This was the terrible signal for an uproar the like of which I had never experienced. The people acted like furies. It was as though the synagogue had suddenly burst forth into a flaming conflagration. The Poles and the Hungarians, who thought only of me, struck out like wild men. The young people jumped down from the choir gallery

" Wise Correspondence, September 6 , 1850 (ABE).

to protect me, and had to fight their way through the surging crowd. Withii two minutes the whole assembly was a struggling mass. The sheriff and his posse, who were summoned, were belabored and forced out until finally the whole assembly surged out of the house into Herkimer Street. "LOU~S Spanier," said I to him, "there is the law to which I can appeal." He replied, "I have a hundred thousand dollars more than you. I do not fear the law. I will ruin you." I finally reached home bowed with pain and irrepressible grief.53 Wise did not mention the scheme agreed upon by his friends to assure his presence on the pulpit that day. His supporters decided to purchase for him the honor of taking out the Torah scroll from the krk. Spanier, upon hearing of this arrangement, declared all purchases of honors made on the previous day to be null and void, thus denying the opposition the advantage of conferring this honor upon the rabbi. Spanier, in his defense, claimed that rumors of trouble and the atmosphere of ill-willthat prevailed had compelled him to seek the assistance of the sheriff's office even prior to the Rosh Hashanah o~tbreak.~' 5S

Reminiscences, pp. 165-66.

* Asmonean, 11, No. 25 (October 11, 1850), 197. This incident was reported in the Albany Evening Atlas, September 7, 1850, under the heading "Great Excitement in the Jewish Church": During the last two or three days the members of the Hebrew Congregation worshipping in Fulton [sic] Street have been in great excitement. It seems that they are not all united in love for the Rev. Dr. Wise, their spiritual adviser, and one portion have labored with great zeal to remove him from his pastoral station; while the other portion have been equally zealous in maintaining him in his position. On Thursday, it seems, an election was held to test the question, when we understand there were other feelings than those of brotherly love strongly manifested. This morning being the Jewish Sabbath, the congregation assembled early, when a strife arose between the two sections as to whether the Rev. Dr. Wise should or should not officiate. It seems that as soon as the attempt was made by Dr. Wise to conduct the ceremonies, a general melee commenced. Argument, persuasion, and conciliation were dispensed with and angry words, threatening5 and even blows were resorted to, and several severe assaults were committed. The peace of that portion of the city became so alarmingly disturbed, that it became necessary, for the safety of the public, and for the belligerents themselves, to call in the interposition of the police authorities. Sheriff Beardsley repaired promptly to the spot, accompanied by a strong force, and soon cleared the synagogue of both parties, locked the doors, and took the keys in his possession. This had the desired effect, and the riot and disturbance then terminated.



After Wise arrived home, a local constable arrested him and escorted him to the police station, where "the whole rabble was present to feast their eyes on the sight of their rabbi appearing in court on New-Year's Day." The police judge, however, treated Wise with courtesy and permitted him to return to his home. Services for the second day of Rosh Hashanah were held in Wise's home for his supporters, and we may assume that, for the other segment of the congregation, arrangements were made either in private homes or possibly at the Beth El Jacob Synagogue since the police had confiscated the keys of the Beth El building and closed the premises for public The first phase of the era of Isaac Mayer Wise was now history. The ties that had bound the members of the Beth El Congregation since 1838 were torn asunder. However illegal Louis Spanier's actions may have been, the relations between Wise and Beth El were at an end. A multiplicity of causes contributed to Wise's dismissal from the Beth El pulpit. No single issue compelled Spanier to deprive Wise of his ministerial charge in Albany. Spanier had been challenged by the following facts: (1) Wise had delivered an offensive sermon contrary to the president's request; (2) Wise had arbitrarily discharged the ritual slaughterer and may have engaged another in his place without the consent of the congregation; ( 3 ) Wise had been' involved in a law suit and charged with libel; (4) the rabbi was accused of heresy; and (5) in consequence of all this, Traub had threatened to resign his office as hazzan. Spanier was convinced that Wise had, by the willful, overbearing, and intemperate exercise of his ministerial office, threatened the already shaky peace and harmony of the congregation. He had made up his mind, therefore, to sever relations between Beth El and Wise. Several of those who were in the melee soon afterwards applied to the police, for warrants charging each other with assault and battery. They will have a hearing probably on Monday, if they do not, previous to that time, reconcile matters among themselves, which we hope they may do. On Monday, September 9th, the Atlas reported: "We were misinformed as to the location of the Synagogue in which the Hebrew brethren had their disturbance on Saturday. It occurred at the one in Herkimer and not Fulton Street, as we were then informed." =.Reminiscences, p. 166; Occident, VIII, No. 8 (November, 1850), 422-24.

Fighter for Women's Rights Ernestine Louise Siismondi Potowski Rose (1810-1 892)' an outstanding reformer and fighter for women's rights, would certainly have been much at home in this generation of Women's Lib. Although she w m born in Russian Poland and died in England, she lived and worked in the United States from 1836 to 1869. The original of the following letter is in the library of RadcliffeCollege, Cambridge, Mass. Brighton [Sussex], August 30, [18]87.

Rev. Edward F. Strickland Dear Sir: I am very glad that you and your dear wife take an interest in reform movements. For over fifty years I have endeavored to promote the rights of humanity without distinction of sex, sect, party, country, or color. I should like to write you a long letter on the subject for I know it would interest you, but I am so ill that I can hardly sit up. Please excuse the bad writing. Being too ill to have a photograph taken, I had a coppy made of one I had which I send you, and also a lecture on the rights of women which I gave near thirty-six years ago in Boston and which, with many others of mine, is not in the general reports of the woman's movements. I hope you will like it. Please send me word that you received the photograph safely. In a few days I will riturn to London where I now live because I am too ill to return to dear America. Letters and papers are sent to me in care of this address. With kindest regards and best wishes to your dear wife, Yours sincerely with hope of justice and right Ernestine L. Rose

Reproduced from Jewish Notables in America, 1776-1865, by Harry Simonhofl

Ernestine Rose

"I have endeavored to promote the rights of humanity."

Fracture of a Stereotype: Charles Brockden Brown's Achsa Fielding LOUIS H A R A P

The Jewish broker or moneylender was often depicted in the first few centuries of English literature, particularly in the drama, and invariably as a stereotype. The Jewish woman appeared less often as a character in those years. However, features of the female Jewish stereotype were established by Marlowe's Abigail in The J e w of Malta ( 1588) and Shakespeare's Jessica in The Merchant of Venice a few years later. Two centuries would pass before the Jewish woman was introduced into literature in the English language without these conventional features. But the mold was broken in 1800 with the character of Mrs. Achsa Fielding in the second part of Arthur Mervyn, by the Philadelphia novelist Charles Brockden Brown.' Brown had published the first part in 1799. Achsa appears in the second part, published the next year. Achsa was not the first Jewish character to be introduced into American fiction. Jewish men had already figured in two novels, Royal1 Tyler's The Algerine Captive (1797) and James Butler's Fortune's Football (1797-1798), and an Abigail-Jessica stereotype had been written into Mrs. Susanna Rowson's play, Slaves in Algiers (1794). The Jews in these books were all foreign, and adhered to the stereotype. Brown's Achsa, however, was the first Jewish character in American literature to be located in the United States. Brown depicted her as having arrived from England a year and a half before the action of the novel. She is a widow of twentysix, wealthy, and six years older than the titular hero, whom she

Mr. Harap is a member of the Editorial Board of Jewish Currents. 'Charles Brockden Brown, Arthur Mervyn; or, Memoirs o f the Year 1783, with an introduction by Werner Berthoff (New York, 1962), pp. 416-17. 187

marries. She is represented as a fully developed character in her own right and, with one exceptional feature, discussed below, she lacks the salient traits in the literary convention of the female Jew. There is no documentary evidence that Brown had much to do with Jews, although we may assume that he observed them during his residence in Philadelphia and New York. The record shows probable acquaintance with a single Jew, Solomon Simpson, a politically active merchant of New York who was a member of the American Mineralogical Society, of which Brown was also a member during his stay at New York in 1798. We do not know whether the as yet unidentified "I. E. Rosenberg," to whom Brown dedicated his Ormond ( 1798) and who is described there as a recent irnrnigrant from Germany, was Jewish, or a man or woman. Since Ormond was written just before Mervyn, and since we know no reason why Brown should have created Achsa as Jewish, it is possible that his attention was drawn to the Jews by his current friendship with a Jewish "Rosenberg."

In any event, Brown's treatment of Achsa shows no more than a superficial acquaintance with Jewish life. He was probably as free from anti-Jewish prejudice as could be expected of any non-Jew in his time. Arthur Mervyn expresses the author's own equalitarian convictions when he says of Achsa, "I have heard her reason with admirable eloquence, against the vain distinctions of property and nation and rank. . . . Her nation has suffered too much by the inhuman antipathies of religious and political faction."l Although Brown was deeply influenced by the Enlightenment, he does not share the strong anti-Jewish attitudes of leading European spokesmen of the movement like Voltaire. He was closer in this respect to eminent American followers of the Enlightenment, such as Tom Paine, who did not carry over their low opinion of the ancient Hebrews to contemporary Jews. But Brown was not entirely free from preconceptions about Jews. Achsa is probably echoing his own views when she tells Mervyn that she supposes there is "some justice

in the obloquy that follows them [the Jews] so closely." She is at pains to dissociate her father from the traits commonly accepted as Jewish. Her father was, she says, a wealthy Portuguese who had come to London as a boy and had "few of the moral or external qualities of Jews." He was "frugal without meanness, and cautious in his dealings, without extortion."" Underlying these disclaimers must have been Brown's own wish to make Achsa and her family as sympathetic as possible to the reader-and to Arthur Mervyn-despite their Jewishness. The indications point to Brown's acceptance of some traditional beliefs about Jews, but a rejection of overt anti-Semitism. Total freedom from anti-Jewish attitudes was rare in those days, even among militant non-Jewish advocates of Jewish rights. The most glaring example of Brown's acceptance of popular beliefs is his use of the surviving medieval notion of the special quality of "Jewish eyes." It is through this feature that Achsa's Jewish origin is discovered. One day Mervyn notices that Achsa's eyes have "a vague resemblance to something seen elsewhere the same day"-presumably a Jew, He then says to her: "Those eyes of yours have told me a secret. . . and I am not less amazed at the strangeness than at the distinctness of their story. . . . Perhaps I am mistaken. . . . But let me die if I did not think they said you w e r e - a Jew."3 Achsa confirms his guess and is very much upset by the revelation. But it is clear that the "deepest sorrow and confusion" brought on by the disclosure stem from the memories it arouses of an unhappy past rather than her Jewishness. "Connected with that word rJew']," she replies, "are many sources of anguish, which time has not, and never will dry up; and the less I think of past events, the less will my peace be disturbed." She then tells Mervyn the story of her girlhood. She was the "darling" of her parents, and was brought up "in the most liberal manner." She received a secular English education, moved easily in English society, and was indifferent to religion, which her parents did not impose on her. "Except frequenting Ibid., p. 399. Ibid., p. 398.

their church and repeating their creed, and partaking of their food," she adds, "I saw no difference between them and me. Hence I grew more indifferent, perhaps, than was proper to the distinctions of religion."" Achsa's untroubled youth and relaxed parental care, she adds, made her impressionable and excessively trusting of people. At sixteen she fell in love with the son of a well-born English official, who consented to the marriage, as she later realized, because he had a very large family and was not too affluent, and hence not unwilling to marry off his son to a Jew and to acquire for him, as he thought, a rich father-in-law. Achsa easily yielded to the one condition to her marriage set by the father of her betrothed, that she join the English Church, since she had "abjured my religion," and was indifferent to the "disrepute and scorn to which the Jewish nation Her own father removed any objecare everywhere c~ndemned."~ tions he may have felt on religious grounds in deference to her inclinations, and also because he wished her to be married before his as yet secret impending bankruptcy was disclosed. After her marriage and the birth of a child, she was beset by those calamities which cause her distress when Mervyn opens the subject of her past. Her father committed suicide because of bankruptcy, her mother's mind was unhinged by the event, her child died, and her husband ran off with another woman. But Achsa recovered her fortune, and came to America to begin a new life. The book ends with her marriage to Mervyn. It is true that Achsa's assimilationism makes it easy for Mervyn to marry her, but nowhere does her Jewish origin create in Mervyn's mind any doubts about the marriage.

A number of departures from the stereotpye of the Jewish woman emerge in the novel. Contrary to the convention, Achsa is not an appendage to an avaricious and money-obsessed father, nor does she 'Ibid., pp. 398-99.

lack a living mother. On the contrary, both are loving parents and no less tender after Achsa's marriage to a Christian. Nor is there any hint that her origin is a barrier to that marriage. The text does not support Leslie Fiedler's statement in The Jew in the American Novel (New York, 1959) that, at the moment of Achsa's revealed Jewish origin, "the promised Happy Ending trembles in the balance" (pp. 6-7). When doubts about the marriage are discussed by Mervyn with his friend, Dr. Stevens, her Jewishness is not even mentioned. They rather raise the questions of Achsa's age and Mervyn's poverty. Fiedler further mentions the displeasure of the poet Shelley, a great admirer of Brown, at the novelist's having married Mervyn to Achsa, instead of the fifteen-year-old farm girl Eliza Hadwin, whom he loves, but rejects as not conforming to his ideal. "Shelley," writes Fiedler, "could never forgive him for allowing the hero to desert an Anglo-Saxon 'peasant' girl for a rich Jewish widow." Thomas Love Peacock, who reported Shelley's disappointment, had written, "The transfer of the hero's affections from a simple peasant girl to a rich Jewess displeased Shelley extremely." Shelley's objection was based on class considerations, rather than on "racial" grounds, as implied by Fiedler. Fiedler corrected the matter in his Love and Death in the American Novel (New York, 1960), where he dropped the phrase "Anglo-Saxon" and wrote more accurately that "Shelley could never forgive him for marrying off his hero to a sedate and wealthy Jewess instead of a poor 'peasant girl' " (p. 138). (Incidentally, Fiedler is also in error when he designates Achsa as the "first Jewish character in American Fiction" [The Jew in the American Novel, p. 61. As we saw earlier, Jewish characters already had appeared in the novels of Tyler and Butler.) Perhaps the most striking departure from the stereotype is the fact that Achsa is not exotically beautiful, as would have been dictated by the established convention. On the contrary, she is quite plain physically. Dr. Stevens, who is modelled after Dr. Elihu Hubbard Smith, Brown's friend in real life, describes her as lacking in physical beauty, though she does radiate spiritual beauty, grace, intelligence, and cultivation. "A brilliant skin is not hers," says Dr. Stevens, "nor elegant proportions; nor majestic stature; yet no creature had ever more power to bewitch. Her manners have grace and




dignity that flow from exquisite feeling, delicate taste, and the quickest and keenest penetration. She has the wisdom of men and books. Her sympathies are enforced by reason, and her character regulated by knowledge."" short, Achsa is the perfect mate for an Enlightened man of the eighteenth century, but she is no stereotyped Jewish woman. Additional support for the view that Achsa is a departure from the stereotype is provided by indications that Achsa was created in some respects in the image of the woman Brown wanted to marry"the type after which my enamored fancy has modelled my wife," as Mervyn says of Achsa.' In 1797, Brown had fallen in love with Susan A. Potts, of Philadelphia. In the fall of 1798, however, Brown's mother had forbidden the marriage, probably because Susan was not a Quaker and marriage outside the sect was prohibited. In November, 1800, after the second part of Mervyn had been published, Brown met Elizabeth Linn, a non-Quaker, married her in 1804, and was duly read out of the Quaker meeting. It is altogether probable that Susan Potts was very much on Brown's mind while he was writing the second part of Mervyn, which was completed in April, 1800.8 A resemblance of Achsa to Susan is suggested by the description of Susan in a letter of Brown's most intimate friend, Elihu Smith. "Without being beautiful," wrote Dr. Smith, "she was very intere~ting."~ In the novel Mervyn characterizes Achsa thus: "Never saw I one to whom the word lovely more truly belonged: and yet, in stature she is too low; in complection dark and almost sallow."10 Like Susan, Achsa was not imposing to look at, but had spiritual beauty. If it is true that Brown celebrated Susan in Achsa, the fictional woman is far from the stereotype. 'Ibid., p. 417.

'Ibid., p. 416. BDavid Lee Clark, Charles Brockden Brown, Pioneer Voice of America (Durham, N.C., 1952),pp. 181, 195.

'Harry R. Werfel, Charles Brockden ville, Ha., 1949), p. 96. lo

Mervyn, p. 397.

Brown, American Gothic Novelist (Gaines-

Charles Brockden Brown



Taken as a whole, therefore, the character of Achsa Fielding broke ground in the treatment of the Jew in English and American literature as a non-stereotyped character, perhaps the first in these Literatures. The fact that Achsa is thought to have "Jewish eyes," that she is indifferent to Jewishness, and even shares some conventional beliefs about Jews, does not cancel out the total picture of a person of Jewish origin who is represented as a rounded human being. To be sure, Achsa is not a "Jewish Jew. But neither is she a stereotpye.

A NEW POSTER SERIES In anticipation of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution, the American Jewish Archives has issued six new multi-colored posters depicting important scenes and events involving Jews during the Revolutionary War. These posters, and the earlier series: Jewish participation in the Civil War Immigrants from Eastern Europe Episodes in eighteenth-century American Jewish life Abba Hillel Silver at the United Nations are available without charge for display by all schools, libraries, congregations, and organizations or agencies interested in American Jewish history. When properly matted and mounted on heavy cardboard, these posters make a very attractive exhibit. Inquiries should be addressed to the Director of the American Jewish Archives, Clifton Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45220

Brief Notices JICK,LEONA., Edited by. The Teaching of Judaica in American Universities. New York: Association for Jewish Studies and Ktav Publishing House, 1970. 152 pp. $6.95

Dr. Jick has collected in this volume the papers delivered by Lou H. Silberman, Jacob Neusner, Nahum Sarna, William Hallo, Baruch A. Levine, Marshall Sklare, Arnold J. Band, Jick himself, Joseph L. Blau, Harvey Branscomb, Samuel Sandmel, Irving Greenberg, and Gerson D. Cohen at the September, 1969, Colloquium on the Teaching of Judaica in American Universities. JOSPE,ALFRED,Edited by. Tradition and Contemporary Experience. New York: Schocken Books for B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundations, 1970. ix, 372 pp. $2.95 [Paperback] The "Essays on Jewish Thought and Life" collected in this volume concern themselves with "on being a Jew today," "aspects of the Jewish heritage," "the experience of tradition," "of American Jews and world Jewry," and "the Jewish intellectual and the Jewish community." The contributors are Benjamin Kahn, Milton Konvitz, Alfred Jospe, Henry Fischel, Mordecai M. Kaplan, Will Herberg, Lou H. Silberman, Manfred Vogel, Maurice L. Zigmond, Norman Frimer, Arthur J. Lelyveld, Richard Israel, Robert Gordis, Ernst Simon, Jakob J. Petuchowski, Ira Eienstein, Maurice Pekarsky, Avraham Hannan, and Milton Himrnelfarb.

KALVEN, HARRY,JR.', Introduced by. Contempt: Transcript of the Contempt Citations, Sentences, and Responses of the Chicago Conspiracy 10. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1970. xxiv, 254 pp. $1.95 [Paperback] "In the contempt proceedings," the publishers declare, "Judge Julius Hoffman presents his case: the specifications made, the sentences given, and the trial transcript portions chosen to document the contempt charges are all his own. In a genuine sense, then, this book is edited by Judge Hoffman; it is his version of the five-month trial in terms of the 'deliberate and wilful attack upon the administration of justice.' " Facing the judge were Bobby Seale, David Dellinger, Rennie Davis, Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Lee Weiner, John Froines, William Kunstler, and Leonard Weinglass in what Rarnsey Clark's preface terms "a concentrated dose of the raw stuff of our times." KARNER,FRANCES P. The Sephardics o f Curacao: A Study of Socio-Cultural Patterns in Flux. Assen, Holland: Van Gorcum & Company, 1969. x, 84 pp. Hfl. 9.90 (approximately $5.00) The author, herself of Curapaon Sephardic lineage, traces the social and cultural history of her community. In a foreword, Professor H. Hoetink, of the University of Puerto Rico, speaks of her essay as "a highly intelligent and careful analysis of one of the most interesting population groups in the Caribbean region." The book includes a bibliography. 196



KARP,ABRAHAM J., Edited by. The Jewish Experience in America. Waltham, Mass.: American Jewish Historical Society; and New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1969. Five Volumes. xxvi, 455 jj.; xix, 399 pp.; xx, 417 pp.; xxi, 422 pp.; xxxvi, 440 pp. The American Jewish Historical Society was founded in 1892, and the first volume of its Publicationd appeared a year later. In 1961, the name of the periodical was changed to the American Jewish Historical Quarterly. The studies which appeared in the earlier volumes were, as Rabbi Karp says in his preface, "largely the work of amateurs, or of trained historians to whom American Jewish history was, at best, a peripheral interest," though "the work was done with a high sense of dedication and seriousness. . ." The later volumes of the Publications and the volumes of the Quarterly "are almost all the products of trained historians" and are "important contributions to Jewish and American historiography!' Rabbi Karp has made a judicious selection of material from the entire run of the Publications and the Quarterly and has organized his selections chronologically. Volume I of this five-volume anthology deals with the Colonial Period; Volume 11, with the early Republic; Volume III, with "the emerging community," American Jewry before the mass immigration from Eastern Europe; Volume IV, with the era of East European immigration; and Volume V, with twentieth-century American Jewry. Each volume contains a helpful introductory essay by Rabbi Karp and an index.


KAVPMAN, SHIRLEY.The Floor Keeps Turning. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1970.98 pp. $2.50 Cpaperback] Winner of the 1969 United States Award of the International Poetry Forum, this attractive volume includes a number of poems with explicitly Jewish themes, particularly on Israel and the Bible. KELLER, WERNER.Diaspora: The Post-Biblical History of the Jews. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969. xxi, 522 pp. $10.00 Werner Keller's "attempt to trace the major outlines of [the] astonishing phenomenon" of Jewish existence includes a chapter on "U.S.A.: The Great Diaspora" plus Ronald Sanders' lengthy essay entitled "A History of the Jews in America." The volume contains a bibliography and an index. KRONENBERGER, LOUIS.NO Whippings, No Gold Watches: The Saga of a Writer and His Jobs. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1970. ix, 309 pp. $6.95 Mr. Kronenberger has not attempted an autobiography, but rather "a series of very subjective memoirs of the places [he] worked in, the people be] worked for, and under, and with, and of the general atmosphere of a particular publishhe ing house or magazine or newspaper o r university." Among the recalls are Donald Friede, Horace Liveright, Dorothy Parker, and Abram L. Sachar; the periodicals include, inter alia, Fortune, Time, and PM; Brandeis and Harvard are among the universities discussed at some length. There are not a few Jewish resonances in the book, and there is also an index. LAWRENCE, GUNTHEB.Three Million More? Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1970.214 pp. $5.95 "In presenting the case for Soviet Jewry," writes Mr. Lawrence, "one en-

counters historical, political, religious and cultural factors that make comprehension difficult for the layman," so that, "despite an effective grass-roots program of education, the ad hoc Jewish effort, under the banner of the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry, still leaves unanswered questions." The author aims at "a lay approach to, and a consolidation of, an exceedingly difficult subject." His book contains documentation and a bibliography. LEE, SAMUEL J. Moses o f the New World: The Work of Baron De Hirsch. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1970.313 pp. $8.50 Maurice de Hirsch auf Gereuth (1831-1896) "alone set the stage for the emigration from the Czar's ghettos that caused Oscar Straus, the U.S. Minister to Turkey in the 1880s,to label [him] 'the Napoleon of the Great Exodus.' A large segment of American Jewry owes its very presence in America, directly or indirectly, to the activities of this one man whose genius for organizing led him to undertake the staggering task of transplanting millions of prsecuted Russian Jews to new lands. . . ." The book includes an index. LEVI,EDWARD H. Point of View: Talks on Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. 186 pp. $4.50 Edward Hisch Levi, inaugurated in 1968 as president of the University of Chicago, has collected in this volume fourteen of his "talks on education" delivered between 1963 and 1969. LEVINE,DAVID.Pens and Needles. Boston: Gambit, Inc., 1969. ix, 150 pp. $6.95 "On the gray expanse of the New York Review pages," writes John Updike in a foreword, Levine's "etched homunculi seemed astoundingly there; one wanted to pick them up and put them on the shelf. Now, in the form of this book, one can." Among the subjects of the "literary caricatures" in the present book are Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, Robert Frost, Edmund Wilson, Lionel Trilling, Norman Mailer, Arthur Miller, Isaac B. Singer, Bernard Malamud, Saul Bellow, Susan Sontag, Philip Roth, the Marquis de Sade, Sigmund Freud, Franz Kafka, Benjamin Disraeli-and Levine Iui-mgme. LIEBMAN, SEYMOUR B. The Jews in New Spain: Faith, Flame, and the Inquisition. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami Press, 1970. 381 pp. $12.50 The author tells us that it has not been his purpose to write "the definitive history of the Jews in New Spain"-colonial Mexico-but rather "to give a panoramic view and to reflect not only the trials, tribulations, and vicissitudes but also the joys and . . . the daily lives of the people who created this history." Mr. Liebman supplements his text with illustrations, appendices relating to Inquisitional procedures and proceedings, a glossary and a bibliography of archival and published materials. Notes and an index are also included. LINDBERGH, CHARLES A. The Wartime Journals. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1WO.xx, 1,038pp. $12.95 The "Wartime" of the title is 1939-1945, the years of World War 11, America's entry into which he blames on "three major groups agitating for war-the British, the Jewish, and the Roosevelt Administration." The Jews are seen as "among the major influences pushing this country toward war." That is not all



Colonel Limdbergh has to say about the Jews and the war, but nothing he says elsewhere corrects or contradicts this view. Photographs and an index supplement the text. MAILER,NORMAN.Cannibals and Christians. New York: Delta Books, 1966. xvi, 399 pp. $2.45 [Paperback] As Mailer alerts us in his introduction, this collection of writings between 1960 and 1966 has "a touch of the grandiose, even the megalomaniacal: the reason may be that the writings are p r t s of a continuing and more or less comprehensive vision of existence into which everything must fit." These writings include reflections on Lyndon B. Johnson, Robert F. Kennedy, John V. Lindsay, et al., and on literature, television, sex, etc. Of special interest are the interviews with Mailer which first appeared in Playboy and in Paris Review. MARCUS,JACOBRADER.The Colonial American Jew, 1492-1776. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1970. Three Volumes. xxxiv, xi, ix, 1,650 pp. $45.00 What Dr. Marcus has "been at pains to do," he writes in his preface to these three volumes, "is to give the facts and document them so that they can be rechecked-as they should be." He has "leaned over in the direction of detail" because of his belief that "in every discipline, every area, every subject, there has to be at least one work which supplies the Stoff, the raw material, if only for others to summarize, to reevaluate, and even to reject. In order to achieve a better understanding of colonial Jewry9'-including the Caribbean and Latin American as well as North American communities-he has "attempted an intimate study of men in relation to events, to their businesses, to their synagogues, to their Gentile friends and associates." The work contains a detailed index. MICHELMORE, PETER.The Swift Years: The Robert Oppenheimer Story. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1969. viii, 273 pp. $6.95 Mr. Michelmore's book is not an "authorized" biography of the famous nuclear physicist, "nor is it a definitive one." The author took it as his "task . . . to narrate the story of [Julius] Robert Oppenheimer's life and to attempt to show how he was fashioned by his times, and his times were fashioned by him." Photographs, a bibliography, and an index are included. MOSES, ROBERT.Public Works: A Dangerous Trade. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970. xxxvi, 952 pp. $14.50 Robert Moses, says Raymond Moley in a foreword, "was never concerned with political o r social ideology. He defies classitication under the common brackets of liberal, conservative and moderate." That is evident in Moses' account of his career between 1919 and 1969. Contemporaries like Herbert H. Lehman, Jacob K. Javits, Samuel I. Rosenrnan, Alfred E. Smith, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Fiorello H. LaGuardia are discussed. The volume includes numerous photographs, a biographical sketch and chronology of Moses, and an index.


Abyss (Kussey), 107 Accommodation, 46, 76, 103 Achduth Vesholom Congregation, Fort Wayne, Ind., 147-48 Acrobats, 50 ADAMS, CHARLES,34 Adas Yeshuron Synagogue, Augusta, Ga., 121 Addresses, 8-9, 37, 104, 108, 110, 113, 115-16, 120-22, 160, 162-63, 184, 198; see also Sermons ADELSHEIMER, JACQUES,112 Adjusting the Jewish Child to His World (Markowitz), 146 Adjustment, 10, 62, 150 ADLER, CYRUS, 6, 12, 14, 18, 22, 24-26; MRS. DELLA,119; FRANK J., 114, 120-21; ROBERT S., 112-13, 121 Adolescence, 73, 150 Adoption, 78, 80 Adults, 129, 134-35, 147 Agencies, agents, 10, 68, 111; Jewish, 152; see also Social Agriculture, 39, 67, 76, 80 Agudath Achim Synagogue, Braddock, Pa., 110 Aizpute, Latvia, 53 Alabama; see Montgomery Alaska, 119; see also Fairbanks Albany, N. Y., 21, 110, 123, 160-62, 164, 169-70, 174, 177-79, 183; Evening Atlas, 182-83 Alexandria, Va., 102 Algerine Captive (Tyler), 187 Aliens, 8-11, 13-14, 21-23, 25, 61, 100-101, 143, 147, 187 Aliens (Dinnerstein and Jaher), 101 Alliance Israblite Universelle, 12 Ambition, 75, 78, 81, 101, 150 Amendments, 9,22 America, 1, 6-10, 21, 23-24, 26, 28, 41, 52-55, 60, 63-66, 71, 73-77, 83, 86-91, 93, 99-102, 104-8, 11314, 120-21, 128-29, 131, 137, 160, 184, 187-88, 197-98; see also Latin America, Life, New World, 2

North America, United States American Academy and National Institute of Arts and Letters, 113 American Antiquarian Society, 121 American Experience (Jaffe and Tytell), 104-5 American Friends of Religious Freedom in Israel, 114 American Hebrew, 116 American Jewish Archives, 4-6, 40, 99 American Jewish Committee, 6-8, 11-14, 16, 18, 21, 25, 112

American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry, 198 American Jewish Historical Quarterly, 197

American Jewish Historical Society, 105, 197

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 120-2 1 American Jewry, 5-6, 76, 94, 102, 105-8, 120, 144, 196-98

American American American American

Medical Association, 36 Mineralogical Society, 188 Nazi Party, 112 Students in Israel (Herman),


Americanization, 10, 62, 69-70,



Amsterdam, Holland, 98 Anarchists, 13 Anesthesiology, 34, 81 ANGEL,MRS. PHnrp, 117 ANWFF, CHARLES,5, 105 Anshe Emeth Congregation, Albany, N.Y., 162, 178 Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai B'rith, 107 Anti-restrictionism, 11, 13, 15 Anti-Semitism, 6-7, 9, 11, 17,23, 52,76, 101, 107-8, 112, 114, 118, 188-89;

Black, 104 Apartments, 67-68, 74 Apostates, 136, 167, 176 APPEL,ERNST, 117 Arabs, 107, 115; see also Six-Day War Aramaic, 121 Architecture, 80, 96, 149 Archives, 99, 198


Argentina, 110; see also Buenos Aires Arizona, 82, 122; see also Tucson ARKM,ALAN, 105; DAVID,105 ARKUSH,REUBEN,10 Armenians, 22 Armistice (1918), 143 Arrests, 115, 183 Art, 78, 84, 103; ceremonial, 103, 105 Arthur Mervyn (Brown), 123, 187-92, 195 Artisans, 39, 45 Aruba, 98 Ashkenazim, 118 Asmonean, 161, 164, 170, 177 Assimilation, 10, 12, 24, 41, 44, 52, 60, 76,89-9 1,93 Atlanta, Ga., 110; Journal, 112 AUER (family), 118 Augusta, Ga., 102, 121; College, 102 Austrian Jews, 84 Authority, 52-53, 69, 93, 132, 137, 166-67. 172 ~utobiogra~hies,115, 117, 128-38, 141-59 "Autobiography" (Markowitz), 12838, 141-59 Automobiles, 75, 82 Aviation, 115 Awards, 103, 116; Academy, 79, 85 AXELRAD, BETH, 116

B BAKER, E. M., 12 Baking, 130 BALDWIN,JAMES,104 Baltic area, 39, 45, 59, 72, 90, 92; Jews of, 1, 39-46, 49-56, 59-93 Baltimore, 25, 54, 73-74, 79, 88-89, 92, 164 BAMBERGER, BERNARD J., 117 BAND,ARNOLDJ., 196 Banking, 32-33, 80, 83, 93, 114, 153; see also Finance Banquets, 12,27, 36 Baptism, 136 Baptists, 135-37 Bar Ilan University, 114 Bar mitzvah, 71, 119-20, 122, 131, 154-55,161 BARACK, STEPHANF., 111 BARD,TERRYR., 119

Barnard College, 80 BARNES,WILLIAM,JR., 21 BARONDESS, JOSEPH,116 BARUCH,BERNARD M., 112, 117 Bavarian Jews, 106 BEARDSLEE, ELIZABETH,83 BEARDSLEY (Albany, N. Y., sheriff), 182 Beauty in Holiness (Gutmann), 103 BECKMANN, LUCY,70 BEHAR,NISSIM, 12 Behavior, 41-42, 132, 135, 166, 175 Belief, 17, 71-72, 162; see also Creed, Doctrines Bell Telephone Laboratories, 85 BELLER,A., & COMPANY,67 Bellevue ~ e d i c a l 'College, New York City, 66 BELLOW,SAUL,106, 109, 198 Beloit Poetry Journal, 104 BENDELL,EDWARD, 165 BENNET,WILLIAMS., 14, 18, 22 BERG,GERTRUDE,101 Bergen County, N. J., 77 BERGER, SIDNEYL., 105 Berkeley, Cal., 113; College, 80 Berlin, Germany, 44 BERMAN (family), 40; ROCHELE,67; SARA,74 BERNARD, BURTONC., 120 BERNSTEIN,HERMAN,18, 116 BERTHOFF,WERNER,187 Beth David Reform Congregation, Philadelphia, 151, 154-58 Beth El Congregation, Albany, N. Y., 160-64, 167-68, 170, 172, 175-76, 178, 180-81, 183 Beth El Jacob Synagogue, Albany, N.Y., 183 ~efh- loh him Congregation, Charleston, S. C., 163-64168, 175 Beth Jacob Congregation, Albany, N.Y., Ii n

~icgreferences,43, 137, 146, 167, 176, 197; see also Hebrew Bible, Torah Bibliographies, 5, 102-9, 196-99 BIENENFELD, BERNARD, 18 Big Brothers Association, 119 BIJUR, NATHAN,6 Bikur Cholirn Congregation, Fairbanks, Alk., 110 Billings, Mont., 110



Biography, 42, 98, 100, 102, 106, 112, 116-17, 199 Birkat Hamazon (grace after meals), 145 Birmingham, England, 162 Birth, 75, 77-80, 83-84, 90, 99, 103, 106, 118, 129, 147, 160, 162, 169, 184, 199; control, 149 Birthdays, 51, 65, 114-15 Bi-weekly pulpits, 143 Black Anti-Semitism and Jewish Racism (Hentoff), 104 Blacks, 104, 118, 121, 132; see also Ne-


Brides, 43, 73, 84 BRILL,ESTHER,116 Bring Forth the Mighty Men (Singer), 107

Brokers, 187 Bronx Community College, New York, 101

Brooklyn, N. Y., 74, 78, 89, 103-4, 108, 110, 199; Flatbush, 199; Flatbush Court, 110; Jewish Hospital, 81 Broomall (Pa.) Congregation, 156 BROSSARD, JAMESHERBERT,147 BROWN,CHARLESBROCKDEN, 123, 18793, 195; ELON,21; IRENE QUENZLER, 40; &CHARD D., 39-46, 49-56, 59-

groJewish relations Blashfield Address, 113 Blasphemy, 177 BLAU,JOSEPHL., 196 BLOOM,JESSIES., 110 BLOOMFIELD,BARUCH,119; MOSES,119 BLUMENFELD, BERNHARDT, 111 B'nai B'rith, Independent Order of, 38, 120; Lodge No. 516, Braddock, Pa., 111; Anti-Defamation League, 107 B'nai Israel Congregation, Evansville, Ind., 110 B'nai Jacob Synagogue, Fort Wayne, Ind., 147 B'nai . Jeshurun Congregation, New York City, 162 Boardinghouses, 63 Bohemia, 160 Bombings, 110, 112 BONAPARTE, NAPOLEON,3 1 Bookbinders, 53, 78 BOOKER,MRS., Denver, 3 1 Bookkeepers, 68,80, 89 Books, 16-17, 43, 80, 98-109, 114,

merce, Economic Life, Merchants, Retail, Storekeepers, Wholesalers Butchers, 13 1, 169, 172 BUTLER,JAMES,187, 191 BUT~ENWIESER, MOSES, 143-44

119, 136, 14647, 160-62, 166, 169, 176, 187, 196 Boom, WILLIAMH., 104 BORGER,ELSIE, 118 BOROFSKY, SAMUELH., 18 BOROWTZ,EUGENEB., 120 Boston, 103, 119, 184 Bourgeoisie, 86-88, 105 Braddock, Pa., 110-11, 136 BRANDEIS, Louis D., 119 Brandeis University, 197 BRANSCOMB, HARVEY,196 Breathe Upon These (Lewisohn), 114 Bribery, 17 BRICKNER,BALFOUR,121; BARNETTR., 112; MRS. B A R N ER., ~ 112, 121

Cabinetmakers, 53 CAESAR, JULIUS,133 CAHAN, ABRAHAM, 12,106-7 Calendar, 56 California, 36, 91, 118, 122, 151; see also Berkeley, Camp Irwin, Hollywood, Los Angeles, Muroc, Pasadena, San Francisco, Victorville Canada, 108, 116; Jews of, 108; see also Toronto Cannibals and Christians (Mailer), 199 CANNON,JOSEPH G., 14-15 Cantors, 98-99, 131, 171, 175


BRUCE,LENNY,105 BRYLAWSKI, FULTON, 18, 21-22 Bucknell College, Lewisburg, Pa., 134, 136-37, 150

Buenos Aires, Argentina, 110 Building trades, 45 Buildings, 33, 36, 38, 67, 98, 149, 154; see also Apartments, Skyscrapers Bureau of Jewish Education, Chicago, 158

BURNETT,JOHNL., 9,22 Bums Brothers Coal Company, New York City, 68 Business, 7. 31, 33, 60, 62-64, 69,

- .

79-80, 82, 84; 93,. 95-96, 112, 115, 141, 151, 165, 199; see also Com-



Capital, 60, 63-64, 82-83, 86; see also Money Card playing, 31-32, 154, 169 CARDOZA, F. L., 112 Caribbean area, 99-100, 196, 199 Caricatures, 106, 198 Carlstadt, N. J., 77 Carpathians, 128, 131 Carpetbaggers (Robbins), 105 Cartoons, 112 CASE,FRANCIS, 32 Case work, 111 CASTRO, ABRAHAMMENDESDE, 100 Cattle, 39, 131 Cedars of Lebanon Hospital, Los Angeles, 151 Cemeteries, 98, 100, 111 Census, Federal (1890), 25-26, 61; (1910), 24

Central City, Colo., 27 Central Conference of American Rabbis, 149-50, 152, 160 Ceremonies, 103, 105, 132, 145, 161, 168, 182

Certificates, 17-18 Changes, 74, 94-96, 157, 161-62 Chanukah, 14546, 179 Chaplains, 119, 150 Chapters on the Jews of Virginia (Ginsberg), 102 Character, 17, 42, 107 CHARLES, J. Q., Denver, 32 Charleston, S. C., 99, 111-12, 118, 162-64, 168, 171, 175, 177

Charlottesville, Va., 102 CHARYN, JEROME, 105 Chauvinism, 23, 25, 76 Chemistry, 73, 77-78, 80 Chemung River, N. Y., 151 Chester County Teachers Institute, Pa., 138

Chesterfield, Conn., 67 Chevra Chesed she1 Emes, Pottstown, Pa., 131 Chicago, 12, 21, 73, 79, 111, 113, 119, 138, 141, 147,153, 158, 160, 196

Child Study Association, 89 Children, 7, 13, 27, 31, 40, 43, 49-54, 59-61, 63-66, 68-75, 77-81, 84-86, 88-93,96,101,103,128-32,135,138, 143, 145-51, 155-57, 159

Chinese-Kosher Cookbook (Grossman), 103

Choir, 161, 181 Christianity, 33, 39-40, 70, 72, 76, 90-91, 95, 101, 113, 136-37, 141, 14849, 152, 199; see also Baptists,

Congregational Church, Episcopal Church, German Methodists, Irish Catholics, Lutherans, Mormons, NonJews, Protestants, Quakers, Roman Catholicism, Scotch Presbyterians, Unitarians Christmas, 70, 112, 1 4 5 4 6 Church and Synagogue Library Association, 158 CHURCH, FRANK, 36-37 CHYET,MICHAEL L., 119; STANLEY F., 114, 119

CICERO,MARCUS TULLIUS, 133,149 Cimmeron Mines, Colo., 34 Cincinnati, 14, 60, 111-12, 118, 14243, 145,151

Cities; see Urban areas Citizens, citizenship, 9, 17, 25, 95 Citrus fruit, 54; see also Ethrog City College of New York, 82 Civil rights; see Rights Civil War (United States), 27-28, 61 Civilization, 8, 108 CLARK, RAMSEY,196 Classes, 191; see also Labor, Middle class, Unskilled workers, Upper classes, Upper middle class, Workers Clergy, 40, 137-38, 148, 150, 156, 184 Clerks, 33,42, 68, 95 CLEVELAND, GROVER, 75 Clubs, 15, 73, 112; see also Country, Dining, Organizations, Social life Codes, 56 CODY,JOHN,113 COHEN (family), 118; A. H., 114; BRUCE, 119; CORDELIA MOISE, 112; GABRIEL, 112; GERSOND., 196; HENRY,157; HERMAN,138; ISIDOR, 117; JACOB X., 113; MRS. JACOBX., 113; MARIA,119 COHON,BERYL, 141; SAMUELS., 141 Colleges, 67, 79-80, 85-87, 91, 113, 118, 133-34, 162; Barnard, 80; Berkeley, 80; Bronx Community, 101; Bucknell, 134, 136-37, 150; City, New York, 82; Franklin and Marshall, 133; Gratz, Philadelphia, 136; Haverford, 1'33; Lafayette, 133; Muhlenberg, 133; Oberli, 85; Rad-



cliffe, 80, 184; Swarthmore, 133; Union, 92; Ursinus, 133; Wellesley, 83

Collegeville, Pa., 133 Colonial American Jew (Marcus), 199 Colonies, American, 197, 199; Jews of, 199

Colorado, 28, 33, 36-37; see also Central City, Denver, Golden, Maxwell's Grant, Palmer Lake Columbia University, 78, 85, 103 Columbus, Ga., 114 Commentaries, biblical, 56; talmudic, 43

Commentary, 109 Commerce 39,42, 45-46, 62, 79, 87, 99, 133, 148; see also Business, Economic life Commissions, 16, 25 Communication, 128, 130 Community, 128; see also Jewish, Hascamoth Community centers; see Jewish Community Chest, 148 Compatriots, 129 Competition, 62-63, 69, 75, 85, 89, 142, 155

Confirmation, 149, 155, 161, 166 Conflicts, 99, 113, 123, 161-62, 165, 169-70, 182

Congregation Habonim, Chicago, 160 Congregational Church, Fort Wayne, Ind., 150 167-69, 171-72,175-78,183; see also Records, Synagogues, Temples Congress (United States), 8, 10-17, 21-26, 116, 162; see also House, Senate Connecticut, 67; see also Chesterfield, New Milford Conquests, 39, 108 Conscription, 52, 76 Conservatism, 40, 46, 90, 148, 199 Conservative Judaism, 138, 149, 151, 154-55

Conspiracies, 196 Constables, 183 "Contemporary Problems, (Wise), 94-97 Contempt (Kalven), 196 Contracts, 33


Conventions, 145 Conversion, 72, 76, 112, 137-38 CONWELL,RUSSELLH., 134 COOK& SEARS,Denver, 32 Cooking, 72, 129 COOLIDGE, CALVIN,23, 26 Copenhagen, Denmark, 162 COPLAND, AARON,113 Copper, 130 C o ~ c o s ,JOSEPHM o s s , 98 Corporations, 75 Cosmopolitanism, 62 Counselors, 133, 135 Countdown in the Holy Land (Velie), 108

Counties, 33-34, 36, 111 Country clubs, 87, 121 Country houses, 60, 67, 87 Courland, 39 Courts, 110, 120, 171, 179, 196; see also Flatbush; King's County; Mayor's Court, Albany; Mayor's Court, New York; Supreme Court; Surrogate's Court Crafts, 78 CRAM,FRANK, 33 Creativity, 113 Credit, 16, 83 Creed, 38, 163; see also Belief, Doctrines Crime, 9, 126; see also Murder Criticism, 164 CRONBACH, ABRAHAM, 119 CRONKHITE, ALEXANDER, 101 Crozier Theological Seminary, 136-37 CRUSE,HAROLD, 104 Culture, 8, 43, 76, 80, 101, 104, 106-7; Jewish, 39, 46, 56, 62, 161, 196, 198

Curacao, 98-100, 110, 196 Cumcula, 145, 149 Customs, 17, 39, 62, 64, 95-96,



CUTLER,HARRY, 18 Czech Jews, 84

D 1855"

D. P. (Displaced Person), 108 DA COSTA,JACOB M., 37 Dale Mabry Air Field, Tallahassee, 150 Dallas, 115 DALSHEIMER, HUGO,113


INDEX TO VOLUME XXIV DALSIMER, LEON.SR., 113 Dancing, 70, 73; see also Folk Danes, 39 Danville, Va., 102 D a m , JAY,101 DAVIDSON, Goldingen, Latvia, 43 D a m s , ROSEMARY REEVES,101 DAVIS, DANIEL L., 151-53; SONIA, 151; IDA (Mrs. Harry W.), 119; RENNIE,196 Dayton, Ohio, 60 DE HIRSCH; see Hirsch DP,ARMOND, D. A., 14-15 Death, 31-34, 37, 42, 44-45, 49, 65, 77, 80-82, 84, 87-89, 103, 12526, 129-30, 154, 157, 162, 169, 184 Death of the Novel (Sukenick), 108 Debates, 75, 102, 163 Deborah (Cincinnati), 97 Decline of the New (Howe), 104 DECTER,Mosm, 101 Delaware; see Wilmington DELLINGER, DAVID, 196 Democracy, 75, 77, 14243, 157 Dentists, 148 Denver, 1, 27-29, 31-38; Rio Grande Railroad, 37 Depressions, 66, 68, 87-88, 148, 153 Des Moines, Iowa, 138 Descriptive Geography . of Palestine (Schwarz), 106-7 DESOLA(family), 118 Detroit, 118, 152-53 Dialogue, 103, 107 Diaries, 117 Diaspora, 5, 41 Diaspora (Keller), 197 Dietary laws; see Kashruth, Trefah DILLINGHAM,WILLIAM P., 17-18; Commission, 16 Dining clubs, 134 DINNERSTEIN, LEONARD, 101, 121 Diphtheria, 65 Directories, 119 Discrimination, 21, 115 Diseases, 34, 36, 45, 65 Dishonesty, 132 "Dismissal in Albany" (Rubinger) , 16072,175-83 Disobedience, 130, 167 DISRAELI, BENJAMIN,198 Dissertations, 147, 153, 160


Distribution of population, 12 Divorce, 81. 84 Doctrines, 162, 166, 171, 177-78; see also Belief, Creed Documents, 17, 99-101, 104, 108-10, 112, 115, 118, 161, 164, 166, 170, 175, 177-78, 180, 198 DOROSHKIN, MILTON,101-2 Dorpat, Estonia, 44, 55, 59-62, 64-65,76,92 Downtown Jews (Sanders), 106 Dowry, 43 Draft, 112 Drama, 102, 119; see also Music, The-

atre Dream Merchants (Robbins), 105 DREISER,THEODORE, 198 Drexel Institute sf Technology, Philadelphia, 158; Library Science, 158 Dreyfus Case, 133 Drugs, 125-26 Dry goods, 42,63-64 DUBERMAN, MARTIN,105 Duels, 87 Duke University, 115 DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER, 158

E East (United States), 31, 36-37, 75 East River, New York City, 65, 74 Eastern Europe, 6, 13, 16, 22, 25, 62, 197; Jews of, 6-7, 10, 45, 197; see also Europe DAN, ABBA,120 Economic life, 7-8, 13-14, 16, 22, 41, 4546, 61, 63-65, 75, 87, 92, 98, 100, 119-20, 148, 153; see also

Business, Commerce Editors, 104, 116, 200 Education, 7, 13, 32, 4 3 4 4 , 52, 60, 67, 78, 85-87, 89, 102, 107, 111, 121, 128, 133-34, 144, 146, 157, 198; see also Academies, Colleges, High

schools, Public schools, Sabbath, Schools, Universities Education of Abraham Cahan, 106 Educational Alliance, New York City, 10.73

EINSTEIN,ALBERT,117 EISENSTEIN, IRA, 196; JUDAH DAVID, 106-7 Elders, 132 Elections, 182 Electricity, 75 ELIZA,SISTER,Denver, 33 ELKIN,STANLEY, 105 Ellis Island, New York City, 129 ELMAN,RICHARD,105 Elmira, N. Y., 150-52, 154 ELROTHI, SOPHIE,169 ELSNER,JOHN, 1, 27-28, 31-38 Emancipation, 46 Emanu-El Congregaci6n, Buenos Aires, 110 Emanu-El Congregation, Cura~ao,99 EMMANUEL,ISAAC S., 98-100, 110; SUZANNE, 98-100 Employees, 62,72, 115, 150 Employers, 42, 143 England, 91, 108, 162, 184, 187, 198; Jews of, 72, 137; literature, 187, 195 English language, 10, 69, 77, 89, 103, 106, 123, 130, 133, 161, 187; see also Slang Engravings, 106 Enlightenment, 188; see also Haskalah Environment, 42, 52, 60, 62, 68, 118 Epitaphs, 98 Equality, 7, 77, 157, 188 ERICH, JOSEPH,165 Erie, Pa., 21 Essays, 5, 102-5, 196-97 Essex County, N. J., 111 ESSLIN,MARTIN,102 Estate (Singer), 107 Estates, 39, 45-46, 135 Estonia, 59-60, 92 Ethical Culture Society, 89 Ethics, 8, 145 Ethnicity, 8-9, 11, 61, 81, 91-92, 101, 103, 106 Ethrog, 146 ET~ELSON, HARRYW., 120 Eulogies, 113 Europe, 8-9, 22, 41, 62, 67, 71-72, 79, 86-87, 89, 94-96, 104, 129, 143, 188; Jews of, 12, 120; see also Eastern Europe, Southern Europe Evansville, Ind., 110 Exclusionism, 11, 13-14, 121 Excommunication, 164

Exemption, 17,22, 52 Experience, 62, 102, 104-5, 107, 109, 196-97 Expulsions, 52, 54,60

F FABER,SALOMON, 105 Fairbanks, Alk., 110, 119 Fairs, 178-79 Faith, 163, 177, 198 Family, 1, 31, 40-46, 49, 51-56, 59-60, 63-64, 66-69, 71-84, 86-93, 100, 113, 118, 126, 128, 131, 133, 136-37, 146-47, 149, 153-54, 15657, 159 Far West (United States), 27-28 FARIS,ELLSWORTH,147 Fksts, 71 Federal Division of Information, 9 Federation of American Zionists, 111; see also Zionism Federation of Jewish Agencies, 154 FEIBELMAN, JULIANB., 113 -IN, ISAAC M., 115-16 FEINBERG, ROSA,117 FERBER,EDNA, 101 FEUERLICHT,MORRISM., 150 Fiction, 105-9, 120, 123, 131, 134, 187, 190-91; see also Novelists Fiddlers, 50 FIEDLER, LESLIEA., 106, 191 FIELD,EDWARD, 105 FIERMAN, MORTONC., 116 "Fighter for Women's Rights," 184 Finance, 99, 115; see also Banking Fines, 132 FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS, 105 F i n s , 22 Fire insurance, 120 First National Bank, Denver, 32 First World War, 21-22, 26, 77, 79, 81, 87, 92, 101 FISCHEL,I~ENRY, 196 Fishermen, 60 Flatbush, Brooklyn, N. Y., 199; Court, 110 Floods, 151 Floor Keeps Turning (Kaufman), 197 Florida: see Miami, Tallahassee Folk dances, 70 Folksongs, 50 Food, 45, 96, 129, 172; see also Kashruth, Trefah


Football, 79

FORD, HENRY,112 Foreign policy, 107 Fort Kearney, Neb., 28 Fort Wayne, Ind., 147, 149, 159 Fortune Magazine, 101, 197 Fortune's Football (Butler), 187 Fox, G. GEORGE,138, 141; JOHN,15 "Fracture of a Stereotype" (Harap), 187-92, 195

FRAM, LEON,117 France, 31, 108; see also Paris, Troyes FRANK, ALEXANDER, 172 FRANKENSTEIN, ALFRED,113 Franklin and Marshall College, 133 Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N.Y., 116 FRANKLIN, LEOM., 152 FRANKS(families), 108, 113 Fraternities, 135 Free Synagogue, New York City, 152 Freedmen, 112 Freedom, 72, 77, 92, 95, 101; of religion, 114 Freedom Seder (Waskow), 109 FREEHOF,SOLOMON B., 103 Freethinkers, 72 FREIBERO, J. WALTER,141; MAURICEJ.,

Fur business, 79, 82-84, 88 Future, 171

Gambling, 3 1-32 GAN,ROBERTT., 118 Garbage collectors, 146 GARDNER, AUGUSTUS,14-15 Garment industry, 63, 67, 74, 96 GARRISON,LLOYDK., 108 GARTNER, LLOYDP., 102 GEISINGER, DAVID,113 GELLER,STUART,114 Genealogy, 56, 99-100, 118 Geography, 90-91, 106-7 Georgia; see Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus German Jewry, 6-7, 26, 74, 92, 102, 106, 131, 143, 163

German language, 39, 42-44, 46, 54, 68, 82, 89, 133, 137, 161,

German Methodists, New York City, 70

Germany, Germans, 31, 43, 46, 59-61,

73, 77, 94, 96, 113-14, 118, 148, 162, 188; see also Berlin, Nazism GERSTLEY (family), 118 Ghetto, 39, 43, 46, 49, 61-62, 89, 105, 141 111, 154, 198 Freight, 3 1 Ghetto and Beyond (Rose), 105-6 French language, 44 G. I. Bill, 151 FREUD, SIGMUND,198 S., 28 FREUND,ISERL., 106; J. [I.] L., Al- GILBERT,WILLIAM GILPIN,WILLIAM,34 bany, N.Y., 169, 172 GINSBERG, ALLEN,105; LOUIS,102 Friday, 71, 143, 146 GLANZ,RUDOLF,102 FRIEDE,DONALD,197 GLASNER, SAMUEL,153 FRIEDENWALD, HARRY,22 Glossaries, 105-6, 198 FRIEDENWALD, HERBERT,10, 12-16 GLUECK,NELSON,113, 116, 156 FRIEDUNDER,MARCUS,115 FRIEDMAN,ARTHUR,2, 124; BRUCE GLYNN,JAMES,113 JAY, 106-7; LEO, 2, 124; WILLIAM God, 40,71, 167-68, 171 GOETHE,JOHANNWOLFGANG, 43 S., 38 NORMAN M., 102 Friends, friendship, 64, 70, 72-74, 83, GOLDBURG, 85, 93, 125-26, 150, 153, 160, 166, Golden, Colo., 34 GOLDEN,HARRY,101 179, 181-82, 199 GOLDFOGLE, HENRYM., 16-18 FRIMER, NORMAN, 196 Goldingen, Latvia, 42-43, 45-46, Fringes, 168 49-55, 62, 69, 72-74, 76, 92 FROINES, JOHN,196 GOLDMAN, ROBERT P., 119 FROST,ROBERT,198 Goldsboro, N. C., 106 Fund raising, 116 Fundamentalists, 137 GOLDSTEIN, ISRAEL,116 , 116 "Funeral Tomorrow Morning," 125-27 G o m s n c ~ MAURICE, GOLDWATER, BARRYM., 113 Funerals, 113, 125, 127, 154-55



Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, HALL,HELEND'AUBERT,83 HALLO,WILLIAM,196 114 Hamburg, Germany, 53, 55 GOODKIND, MARTHA, 74 GOODMAN, PAUL,105 HAMBURG, MRS. L ~ W L L ,117 HAMBURGER, MOSES,169 G~RDIS, ROBERT,196 OSCAR,16, 4 0 4 1 GORDON(family), 40; LENAMANDEL- HANDLIN, STAMM, 55 Hanseatic League, 43 GOREN,ARTHURA., 40, 102-3 Happiness, 64, 69, 77, 121 GORODETZER, PHILIP,118 Har Zion Temple, Philadelphia, 111 GOITSCHALK,ALFRED,112 HARAP,LOUIS,187-92,195 Government, 10, 34, 61-62, 75, HARDING, WARRENG., 24 95-96, 131, 150; see also Officials HARMAN,AVRAHAM, 196 Governors, 32,34,148 Harrisburg, Pa., 134 HARRISON,BENJAMIN,75; LEON, 113 GRADIS(family), 108 Harrisonburg, Va., 102 Grain, 39 GRANT,MADISON, 23 Harry S. Truman Library, IndepenGratz College, Philadelphia, 136 dence, Mo., 116 HART, SCHAPFNER& MARX, Chicago, GRAYZEL, SOLOMON, 105 141 Greek, Greeks, 70, 82, 137, 149 Hamard University, 85, 141 GREELEY,HORACE,31, 116 Hasenpot; see Aizpute GREEN,m o r n P., 108 h v m ~ 196 , Haskalah, 56 GREENBERG, GREENSTONE, JULIUSH., 1 3 6 3 7 Hatred, 23, 25 Haverford College, 133 Greenville, Miss., 116 HAYDEN, TOM, 196 Groceries, 27 Health, 8, 75, 89; see also Public Grodno, Lithuania, 56 H h u , GISELA,103 GROLLMAN, EARLA., 103 GROSSHUT, BARUCH(Benedict Gros- Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, Atlanta, 110, 112 hut), 165, 169, 172 GROSSMAN, MOLLY,84; RUTHAND BOB, Hebrew Benevolent Society, Helena, Mont., 111 103 Hebrew Bible, 40, 44, 100, 163; see also GROSWNOR, CHARLES H., 14 Bible Groups, 9, 11-12, 26, 87, 92, 112, Hebrew Free Loan Society, New York 119, 198 Growing U p Jewish (David), 101 City, 10 GUGGENHEIMER, UNTERMYER AND Hebrew language and literature, 43-44, 46, 56, 62, 68, 100, 106, 131, 141, MARSHALL (law firm), 7 146, 148-49, 162, 171,175 Guns, 37 Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid GIJTMANN,JOSEPH,103 Society, 10, 13 G m m , ALEXANDER, 103-4 Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute Gymnasium, 50,52-53 of Religion, Cincinnati, 99, 104, Gypsies, 51 113-15, 120, 14145, 150, 156, 160, 200; Board of Governors, 142; Library, 114, 116; Jerusalem, 114; New York City, 120 Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 103-4, "Haber" (degree or title), 162 120 Hadassah, 103, 116 Heidelberg, Germany, 44 Haganah, 108 HEIMBERGER, DR., Denver, 34 HAGEDORN (family), 113, 118 HEIMOVICS, MRS.JOHNG., 116 Haggadah of Passover, 109 Herm, HEINRICH,43 Halachah, see Law Helena, Mont., 111, 114 HALEW,JACOB L., 111


INDEX TO V O L U M E I W V HELLER,BERNARD, 114 HEMINGWAY, ERNEST,198 HENTOFF,NAT, 104 HERBERG, WILL, 114, 196 Heresy, 164, 167, 171-72, 177, 183 HERMAN, SIMONN., 104 Hennon Press, 106 HERSHFIELD, L. H., & BROTHER,114 HERTZENBERQ (family), 4243, 49, 52 HERZL, THEOWR, 132, 138 High Holy ~ a ~ 7s1 ,; 131, 134, 143, 147. 152. 154. 178 High . schbols, . 66-67, 77-79, 82, 133-35, 138, 149 HILBORN, WALTERS., 114 Hillel Foundation, Berkeley, Cal., 113 HIMMELFARB, MILTON,106, 196 HIRSCH,EMIL G., 141; MAURICEDE, 198 HIRSCHMANN, ESTHER.73 History, 5, 10, 23, 42, 80, 90-91, 93, 98-102, 106-7, 110, 114, 116, 120, 197-98; American Jewish, 197; Negro, 121 Historv o f the Jews in the Netherlands ~ n t i l l e s(Emmanuel), 98-100 HITLER,ADOLF,148; see also Nazism H o ~ n m H., , Puerto Rico, 196 HOFFMAN,ABBIE, 105, 196; DAVID, 120; JULIUS,196 Holidays, 65; see also Jewish Holland, 100, 113; see also Amsterdam Hollywood, Cal., 79 Home, homes, 59, 61, 65, 68-71, 73, 75, 77, 79-80, 86, 88, 99, 118, 126, 129, 135, 14546, 148, 154, 157, 183; see also Country houses. Households, Houses Homesteading, 117 Home of Peace Cemetery Association, Helena, Mont., 111 Honors, synagogal; see Mitzvot Hope Baptist Church, WiImington, Del., 136 HOROWITZ,AKIBA;see Hubert, Conrad; DANIEL,40; HELW L., 40, 92; SAMUEL, 110; VLADIMIR,120 Horsecars, 69,74 Horses, 27, 34, 36, 75, 130, 135; racing, 79

(family), 114; C. N., 114 Hospitals, 27, 33-34, 38, 65, 81, 114, 125, 127, 151 HORWITZ

Hotels, 34-35, 86, 153 HOURWICH,ISAACA., 16-17 House of Representatives, 14, 18, 21, 23, 115, 120; see also Congress, Senate Households, 67, 69, 77, 86-87, 130, 132, 135, 143; see also Home Houses, 43, 50, 53, 78, 80, 88, 96, 130; see also Country houses, Home HOWARD, COLONEL, 31 H m , IRVING,104 HOWELL,BENJAMINF., 14; WILLIAM SEYMORE, 28 HUBERT,CONRAD(Akiba Horowitz), 112 HUGHES,CHARLESE., 23; JACK,3233 Humanism, 106 Humanitarianism, 13, 149 Humanity, 6, 109, 159, 184, 195; see also Man Humor, 77.79 Hungarian Jews, 84, 131, 181 HUSSEY,WARREN, & CO., Denver, 32 Hygiene, 37, 45

1 Iconoclasm, 104 Idealism, 6, 8,26, 157 Identity, 76, 90, 92-93; Identity, Jewish; see Jewishness; Identity, national; see Nationalism; Identity, religious, 71

ld&logy, 166, 199 IGNATOW, DAW, 104 Illinois, 120; see also Chicago Illinois Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 120 Illiteracy, 9, 13, 86, 131 Illustrations, 102-3, 105, 198; Albany in the mid-1850's, 174; American Jewish Archives, 4; Brown, Charles Brockden, 193; Denver in the 1870's, 29; Jacobson, Isaac, 47; Jacobson, Pauline Mandelstamrn, 48; Kruskal, Moses David, 57; Kruskal, Rosa Jaffe, 58; Markowitz, Samuel H., 139; Marshall, Louis, 19; Rose, Ernestine L., 185; Stolz, Joseph, 139; Wise, Isaac Mayer, 173 Immigrants, 1, 6-18, 21-26, 41, 44-46, 52-55, 60-63, 65-66, 69, 71,



73, 75, 79, 86, 88, 101-3, 106-7, 114, 116-17, 119-20, 160, 188, 197-98 Immigration and Labor (Hourwich), 16 Importing, 77,84 Indiana, 145, 148; see also Evansville,

Fort Wayne, Lafayette Indians (American), 27, 35-36 Individuals, individualism, 40-42, 87, 90-93,99-100,


Industrial Removal Office, 9 Industrialism, 8-10, 13, 41, 45-46, 63,


54; FLORENCE, 78; G ~ L 42;, IDA, 49; ISAAC, 42-47, 49-55, 62-63, 65, 68-73, 80, 87, 89, 91-93; JEAN, 80; JOHN (Jeannot; John Nicholas), 42-43, 49-50, 52-55, 65, 68-69, 71-74, 78-79, 84, 89; JOHNN., & SON,78; LEO, 78; LOEB, 42, 45-46, 54, 72, 87; MARGARET (Peggy), 80; MARTHA,80; MAX, 49, 52-53, 69-70, 74, 77, 80; META, 74, 77, 80; M w ("Mitzchen"), 49-5 1, 54-55, 67-70, 73-74, 81; MOWE, 54; PAULINE MANDELSTAMM, 43, 48-49, 51-55, 69-72, 74, 87, 89; SHIRLEY, 78; YISROEL,54 JAFFE (family), 40, 45, 54, 56, 63, 65-66, 92; name, 54; ABRAHAM DAVID, 55-56, 60, 63-64; DORA, 56; Dov BER, 55-56; HAROLD, 104-5; ISAAC, 60, 65, 93; JOSHUA HOESHEL, 55-56; MORDECAI,56; ROSA,55; YEWAKRUSKAL,63, 65 JAFFY(family), 54; (name), 54; DEBORAH JACOBSON, 54 JAHER,F~EDERIC COPLE,101 Japanese, 15 JARASHOW, SANFORDH., 121 JAVITS,JACOB K., 199 JEFFERSON, THOMAS,114 Jerusalem, 39, 104 JESUSOF NAZARETH, 121 Jew in the American Novel (Fiedler), 191 Jew of Malta (Marlowe), 187

75-76,143 Inheritors (Robbins), 105 Innkeeping, 45 Inquisition, 198 Insanity, 9 Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 119 Institutions, 8, 88-89, 93, 96, 101, 111, 157; see also Organizations Insurance, 93; see also Fire insurance Integration, 106 Intellectual life, 8, 80, 94, 104, 196 Interest, 16, 32 Intermarriage, 40, 76, 90-91 Interviews, 104, 199 Invention of the Jew (Sherman), 107 Investments, 79 Iowa; see Des Moines, Waterloo Irish, 61; Catholics, 81 ISAACS, LEWISM., JR., 118 Islands, 99-100 Israel (people), 121, 168 Israel (state), 101, 104, 107, 113-14, 197; see also Palestine ISRAEL, EDWARD L., 116-17; ISRAEL,114; Jewel K. Markowitz Library, WynneJOSEPH,118; RICHARD,196 field, Pa., 158 ISSERMAN,FERDINAND M., 114; MRS. Jewelry, 131 Jewish Book Annual, 105 FERDINAND M., 114 Italian-Kosher Cookbook (Grossman), Jewish Center of King's Highway, Brooklyn, 103 103 Jewish Ceremonial Art (Kanof), 105 Jewish-Christian relations, 72, 107, 118 Jewish community, 5-7, 38, 43-46, 62, J 92, 96, 98-100, 102-3, 110, 112, JACHE(family), 40 118, 121, 160, 178, 196, 199; centers, JACOB, WALTER,110 73 JACOBSON(family), 39-46, 49-56, Jewish Currents, 187 59-93; ARTHUR,78; CLARA,49, 51, Jewish Defense League, 114 55, 68-70, 73; DAVID, 49-50, Jewish Education in the United States 52-54, 68-70, 72-74, 76, 80, 89; (Gartner) , 102 DAVID,JR., 80; EDWARD,78; ESTHER, Jewish Educational Association, 122 78; FANNY,49, 51, 69, 71, 73; FEIYA, Jewish Encyclopedia, 107

21 1


Jewish Experience in America (Karp ) , 197 -- .

Jewish Frontier, 109 Jewish Historical General Archives, Jerusalem, 118 Jewish holidays, 71, 146; see also Chanukah, High Holy Days, New Year, Passover, Purim, Shavuot, Tabernacles, Yom Kippur Jewish Home Finding Society, Chicago,

Judaica, 102, 105, 196 Judaism, 39-40, 44,

71-72, 76, 91-92, 112, 120, 149, 152, 157, 162, 164, 167; see also Conservative, Or-

thodox, Reconstructionism, Reform Judges, 13, 32, 34, 121, 166, 183, 196 Juifs et la Nouvelle-France (Vaugeois), 108

Justice, 77, 101, 184


Jewish Immigrants Information Bureau,


Jewish life, 5, 98, 105-6, 157, 188, 196; see also Culture, Education Jewish Morning Journal, 116 Jewish National Fund, Cincinnati, 111; Council, 111 Jewish Public Library, Montreal, Canada, 116 Jewish quarter!^, 109 Jewish settlements, 116 Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 10, 121, 154 Jewish War Veterans, 154 Jewish Welfare Board; see National Jewish Wife (Schwartz and Wyden), 106

Jewishness, 51, 59, 62-63, 70-72, 76, 91, 104, 157 7, 9, 11-13, 17-18, 21, 23-26, 3941, 4346, 52, 59-62, 72, 75-76, 84, 91-92, 94-96, 99, 101-2, 104-11, 113, 115-21, 123, 128, 131-34, 137-38, 143-55, 160, 167-69, 171-72, 177, 187-91, 195199; see also American Jewry,


Baltic, Eastern Europe, German Jewry, Hungarian Jews, New York City, Poland, Privileged Jews, Russia, Sephardim Jews for Urban Justice, Washington, D. C., 109 Jews in New Spah (Liebman), 198 JICK.LEONA., 196 Johns Hopkins University, 78 JOHNSON, LYNDONB., 199 JOSPE,ALFRED,113,196 Journalism, 117, 160, 177, 197-199; see also Newspapers, Periodicals, Press JUDAHI., 103 Judah .I Magnes Foundation, 115

Kaddish, 136, 148, 154 U P = , FRANz, 198 KAGANOFF, NATHANM., 105 KAHN, BENJAMIN, 196; LAZAR, 112; LUCIAN, 112 KALLEN,HORACE M., 114 Kalushiner Society, Charleston, S. C., 111


KAUFMAN, JAY, 104; LUXIE, 172; SHIRLEY, 197 IOLZIN, ALFRED, 101 Kehillah, New York City, 103 KELLER,WERNER,197 KEUOR, FRANCES, 10 BMP, RUDY,113, 118 Keneseth Israel Congregation, Philadelphia, 136 KENNEDY.ROBERTF.. 199 Key to thk Chaldee Language (Seixas), 121

Kharkov, Russia, 44 Kiddush, 71, 146 Kiev, Russia, 52, 60 K m c m , GAIN=, 114 Kindergartens, 130, 146 King's County Court. Brooklyn, 110

KINGSLEY, JUDGE,Denver, 3 6 3 5 Kingston, Jamaica, 118 KLEIN, BENJAMINF., 118; JEWEL R., 144

KLENICKI,LEON,110 KLUEBER-KRUSKAL, ISAAC;see Kruskal Knoxville, Tern., 143 KOHLER,KAUFMANN, 115; MAX J., 24 KOHN,ABRAHAM, 169, 172 Kohn & Mandelbaum vs. Illinois Mutual Fire Insurance Company (lawsuit), 120 KOHUT,REBEKAH, 101 KONVITZ,MILTON,196 KORN,BERTRAM W., 111, 11615, 11819

KOSHLAND, LEOPOW,169, 172 KOTLOWITZ, ROBERT,101 KOUNTZEBROTHERS,Denver, 32 KRAUS,ADOLF, 12, 113 KRAUSKOPF, JOSEPH,120, 136 KREINER,ISRAEL, 117 Krettingen (Kretinga), Courland, 40, 59 KR~NENBERGER, LOUIS, 197

KRUSKAL(family), 3946, 49-56, 5993; (name), 59; AARON HERMAN, 59, 65-67, 74, 79, 81-83, 89; KRUSKAL AND JAFFE, 87; & KRUSKAL, 82-83, 85, 87; DEBORAH, 60, 65; DOROTHY, 79-80; ELIZABETH EUGENIA(Betty), 83; EUGENE,59, 65, 67, 76, 81-83, 88; Fund, 87-88; HINDE, 59-60, (father of Moses 64-67, 74; ISAAC David Kruskal), 59; ISAAC (son of Moses David Kruskal), 59, 65-67, 59, 76, 81, 88; JOSEPH BERNARD, 65-67, 76-77, 81-85, 88-90; JOSEPH BERNARD,JR., 8685; LAURA,86; LILLIAN VORHAUS,77, 8685; MARm DAVID,82, 84-85, 90; MIRIAM JACOBSON,40, 77, 79, 89; MOLLY LOUISE, 8685; MORDECAIMOSHE, 60; MOSES DAVID, 55-57, 59-60,

Kuldiga; see Goldingen K~STLER WILLIAM, , 196 Kurlander Verein, 73 KUSSEY,NATHAN,107 Kut, Max, vs. Alben Super Market, Cincinnati, 112

L La Fonda Hotel, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 35 Labor, 8, 46, 64, 75, 83, 143; see also Working class Lafayette College, 133 Lafayette, Ind., 144, 147 LAGUARDIA, FIORELLO H., 25,61, 199 Laissez-faire, 62 Lancaster, Pa., 151 Land, 33-35, 37, 4546; grants, 34; Land Company, 33 LANDMAN, ISAAC, 152 LANDSBERQER, FRITZ,103 Landsmanshaften, 102 Language, 11, 46, 52, 66, 77, 83, 96, 130, 149, 167

Latin America, 199 Latin language, 87, 133, 149 Latvia, 39, 59, 92 LAUTERBACH. EDWARD.12: JACOBZ..

rabbidic, 95, 103, 169; schools, 151; see also Mosaic Law, Quota laws L A ~ N C EGUNTHER, , 197-98 Lawyers, 7, 27, 32, 79-80, 83-84, 108, 132-33, 143, 181

Laymen, 98-99, 103, 141, 198 LAZARON, MORRISS., 25, 114, 117-18 Leaders, 7, 11, 13; Jewish, 7-8, 98-99, 103, 116, 136, 142, 156, 165

Learning, 43, 46, 68, 87, 131-32, 144, 147; see also Scholars, Secularism, Studies 62-65, 68, 80-81, 83-84, 89, 91-93; Leather, 39, 45 NICHOLAS,60, 63-66, 87-88; ROSA Lebushim (Jaffe), 56 JAFFE,56, 58, 60, 63-67, 72, 83-84, Lectures; see Addresses, Sermons 89; ROSALY,8685; RUTH SELDE, Ledgers, 112 79; WILLIAM,59, 65-67, 81-82; WIL- LEE,SAMUELJ., 198 LIAM H. (HENRY),56, 63, 65, 82, LEESER,ISAAC,106-7, 162-63 8685, 88; WOLFE, 60; YETTA, 55 Left Wing, 79-80 Kruskalne, Latvia, 59 Legends, 102 Ku Klux Klan, 148 Legislation, 7, 9, 11, 1615, 17,



22-25,75,115-16 LlNDmsmm, MOSES, 169, 172 LINDSAY, JOHNV., 199 LEHMAN,HERBERTH., 199 LINDSEY,MR,. Bijou creek, Colo., 35 LEIDESWRP(family), 118 LINFIELD,HARRY S., 141 Leisure, 87 LELYVELD, ARTHURJ., 196 LINN,ELIZABETH, 192 Leningrad; see St. Petersburg LIPPMAN,MORDY,169, 172 LIPPMANN,WALTER,109, 115 LEONARD,HENRYB., 6-18, 21-26 LESSING,G o m o m EPHRAIM,43 LIPSET,SEYMOURMARTIN,105-6 LESTER,JULIUS,104 Liquor trade, 79, 131, 169 Letters, 10, 12-18, 21-26, 28, 40, 53, LIST (family), 118; ALBERTA., 118 56, 59-60, 62-65, 72, 74, 77, Literacy tests, 10-13, 15-18, 21-22, 26 82-85, 88-90, 101, 110-17, 128, 152, 158, 163-72, 175-78, 180, Literature, 10, 43, 80, 104, 106, 108, 120, 143, 198-99; American litera184; Ethical, 113 ture, 108, 120, 187, 195; AmeriLEVENSON, SAM, 101 LEVERTOV, DENISE,105 can Jewish, 108; Negro, 121; see also LEVI, EDWARDHIRSCH, 198; GERSON Fiction, Hebrew, Poetry, Rabbinical literature, Theatre, Yiddish B., 141 Lithuania, 39, 60 LEVIN,MRS. MEYER;see Torres LEVME, BARUCHA., 196; DAVID,198; Liturgy, 115, 133, 145, 161, 171;seealso MRS. HELEN,11 1 Prayer, Worship LEVMTHAL, BERNARD L., 136 LITWAK,LEO, 105 LEVY, EUGENEH., 119; J. LEONARD, LIVERIGHT, HORACE,197 138: LIPMAN.113: SOLOMON.165. Loans, 10, 16, 83 167; 178 Lobbying, 11, 14-15, 17-18, 22-23 LEVYSSOHN.MR.. Dutch Su~erinten- LODGE,HENRYCABOT,8, 17-18 dent of Trade, I 13 LOEB,MORRIS,16 LEWTN,BOLESLAO, 120 London, England, 28, 184 LEWIS,SINCLAIR,198 LONGWORTH, NICHOLAS, 23 Lewisburg, Pa., 134; Baptist Church, Los Angeles, 120, 151; Library, 151 135 LOSK,CHARLES,117; HARRYS., 117 LEWSOHN, ADOLPH, 18; LUDWIG, 5, "Louis Marshall and Immigration Re114; MRS. LUDWIG,114 striction, 1906-1924" (Leonard), Libau, Latvia, 45, 53-55 6-18, 21-26 Libel, 169-70, 183 Love, 125,127,131,144 Liberals. 9. 44, 137. 148-49, 199; reli- Love and Death in the American Novel gious,. 46 (Fiedler), 191 Libraries. 44. 76. 105. 114. 116. 121. LOWENTHAL, MARVIN,105 144,147,131, i58, 1'84 ' Lower East Side, New York City, LICHTENBERG, CHESTER, 123, 159 61-62, 106; see also New York City LICHTER,JACOB,114-15; MRS. JACOB, Loyalty, 106, 142 115 LUBARSKY, GEORGEH., 24 LIEBER,JOEL,105 Lublm, Poland, 56 LIEBMAN,SEYMOUR B., 198 Luke (New Testament), 137 Liepaja; see Libau Lutherans, 39, 59; Spring City, Pa., Life, 9, 39, 46, 50, 54, 59-60, 69, 138 74-75, 78, 86-87, 89, 94-95, Lynchburg, Va., 102 101-2, 107; American, 7-8, 75, 92, LYONS,L., Albany, N.Y., 169, 172 94, 105, 157; see also Intellectual, Jewish life, Public, Spiritual LILIENTHAL,MAX,160 MACK,JULIANW., 6,21 Lima, Ohio, 110; Peru, 118 LINDBERGH,CHARLESA., 198-99 MADISON,CHARLES A., 105



MADURO, JOSSYM. L., 100 Magistrates, 166 MAGNES(family), 115; JUDAH L., 6, 115; BEATRICEL. (Mrs. Judah L.), 117; Foundation, 115 MAIBAUM, M A ~ E W113 , Mail, 34, 126, 128, 146 MAILER, NORMAN,105-6, 109, 19899

Main Line Temple, Philadelphia, 155-


Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, 113

MASLIN,SIMEONJ., 99 Masonry, 28 Massachusetts, 14; see also Boston, Pittsfield, Springfield, Tanglewood, Worcester Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 80

Materialism, 77, 92, 159 Mathematics, 56, 85-86 56 Matthew (New Testament), 137 MALAMUD, BERNARD,105-6, 198 Man, 106, 109; see also Humanity, MATTHEWS,SHAILER, 142, 150 Men, Women MAXWELL, MR., Maxwell's Grant, Management, 4 5 4 6 Colo., 34 MANDELSTAMM (family), 40, 44-45, Maxwell's Grant, Colo., 34 120 55, 92; BENJAMIN,44; DAVID, 44, MAY,ELAINETYLER, 87; LEON,44; LEOPOLD, 44, 87; MAX, Mayor's Court, Albany, N. Y., 170; New York City, 111 44; MENDEL,44; MORITZ, 44, 87; OSIP, 44; PAULINE,4346, 67; SARA Mayors, 35-36,61,110 BERMAN, 44, 55,67 Meat, 131, 169 Medals, 66-67 Manhattan, New York City, 61, 74 Medical colleges, 36, 66, 150 MANN,LOUISL., 153 Medicine, 36-38, 42, 66-67, 78-79, Manners, 66, 69-70,76 81, 105; see also Physicians, SurManor (Singer), 107 geons Manufacturing, 8, 37, 39, 4546, 67, Medieval period, 39, 189 74, 77-78, 82-83, 87, 129 Mediterranean Sea, 83 Maps, 106 Meetings, 11-12, 36 MARCUS,JACOB RADER, 102, 112-16, Melting pot, 9 1 199 Membership, congregational, 155-58, MARGOLINSKY, JULIUS, 118, 121 162-63, 165-67, 172 Mark (New Testament), 137 Memoirs, 1, 40, 60, 72, 74, 101, 117, MARK,JULIUS,155 197 MAXKHAM & MILLER,32 MARKOWITZ,ADOLPH, 129; HARRY, ~ e m b r i a l s ,113, 120-21 130; JEWELR., 146-47, 151-52, 158; Memphis, Tenn., 114 RICHARD, 150-51; ROSE S., 129; Men, 9, 13, 27, 34, 42, 44, 54, 94-95, RUTH, 151-52; SAMUELH., 128-39, 199 MENDELSSOHN, FELIX, 50 141-59; YETTIE, 130 MARKS(family), 115; HENRYS., 117; MENDES,H. PEREIRA,21 Merchandise, 39, 136 MARSHA, 117; MICHAEL,115 MERCHANT, BILLY,3 1 MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER, 187 Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare), MARMORSTEIN, ARTHUR,200 187 Marranos, 120 Merchants, 27, 44, 55, 67, 73, 80, 83, Marriage, 31, 40, 4346, 50, 54-56, 85, 100, 143, 169, 178, 188; see also 59, 67-68, 71-74, 76-81, 83-85, Business, Retail, Storekeepers, 91, 93, 99, 106, 118, 129, 136, 144, Wholesalers 149, 154-56, 169, 192; canopy, 73; Merion Station, Pa., 155 see also Intermarriage MARSHALL,GEORGE,6; JAMES,6, 115, Messianism, 104, 120, 162-64, 171, 177 117; LOUIS, 1, 6-19, 21-26, 115 Metals, 45, 130 Maryland; see Baltimore


Mexico, 198 MEYER,ADOLF,117; LEWIS, 101 Miami, Fla., 117 MICHAELSON (name), 59 MICHELMORE, PETER, 199 Michigan, 145; see also Detroit Middle age, 89 Middle class, 76, 79, 86-88 Middle East, 108, 114 Middle West (United States), 91; Jews of, 144 Midstream, 109 Mikve Israel Congregation, Cura~ao,

215 Mortgages, 151 Mosaic Law, 171-72 Moscow, Russia, 52, 54, 60 MOSES, HERBERTA., 111; MILTON, 115; RAPHAEL JACOB,101, 114; ROB-

ERT, 199 Moses of the New World (Lee), 198 Mother's Kisses (Friedman), 107 Motion pictures, 79, 105, 120 Mourning, 148; see also Kaddish Muckrakers, 102 Muhlenberg College, 133 MULTER,ABRAHAM J., 114-15 98-99 MURAT, "COUNT," 31; MURAT, MRS., Mikveh, 168, 175 Palmer Lake, Colo., 3 1 Militarism, 101; see also Soldiers, War Murder, 101 MILLER,ALANW., 104; ARTHUR, 198; Muroc, Cal., 151 IRWIN J., 112 Museums, 76 MILWITZKY (family), 40; GEORGE Music, 28, 50, 70, 73-74, 79, 84, 120, MANDELSTAMM, 70; HINDA MAN143, 151; see also Folksongs, Hymns, DELSTAMM, 55; WILLY, 50 Opera, Rock-lyrics, Songs, Theatre MINCOW,ALBERT,120 My Name Aloud: Jewish Stories, 105 Mineral Spring Garden, Albany, N. Y., My Rabbi Doesn't Make House Calls 168 (Vorspan), 108-9 Mining, 8,27, 34 MYERS,SAMUEL.115 Minorities, 61, 101; see also Rights Missions, Christian, 70, 137, 152 N Mississippi; see Greenville Missouri, 14; see also St. Louis Names, 76, 90, 96, 102 Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, NARDI,SHULAMIT,120 114 Narration (Stein), 108 NASSER,GAMALABDAL,115 Missouri river, 28 Nation, 104 Mitzvot (synagogal honors), 161, 182 Mobility, 45, 90 National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D. C., 112, 122 Modernity, 45-46, 63, 75, 90, 104, National Association for the Advance109, 148, 152, 157 ment of Colored People, 114 MOFFAT,DAVE,33 MOISE,MARION,111 National Democratic Club, 15 National Jewish Hospital for ConsumpMojave Marine Base, California, 151 MOLEY,RAYMOND, 199 tives, Denver, 27 Money, 28, 31-32, 67-69, 74-75, 80, National Jewish Organizing Project, 109 85-87, 148, 151; see also Capital National Jewish Welfare Board, Moneylenders, 187 Montana; see Billings, Helena 150-5 1 Montandon, Pa., 134 National Liberal Immigration League, MONTEFIORE, MOSES,72, 115 12 MONTESSORI, MARIA,83 Nationalism, 8, 23, 25, 41, 76; see also Montgomery, Ala., 110 Zionism Nationality, 23-25, 77 Morality, 9, 22, 94, 104, 144 MORGENSTERN, JULIAN, 121 Native-born, 8, 61, 73-76, 84, 99 Mormons, 3 1 Nativism, 6-7, 10, 17, 21-22, 26 MORRIS,MRS. AARON,117 NATKIN,FRED, 120



Navy (United States), 150 Nazism, 101, 108; see also Hitler Nebraska; see Fort Kearney, Omaha Nederlandsche Portugeesche Israelitische Hoofd Synagoge, Cura~ao,110 Needles, 42 Negresco Hotel, Nice, France, 86 Negro-Jewish relations, 104, 114; see also Blacks Neighbors, 8, 51, 61, 69, 96, 146 Netherlands Antilles, 98-100 Neumann Memorial Publication Fund, 2, 124

NEUSNER, JACOB,196 New Covenant Mission to the Jews, Pittsburgh, 137 New England, 73, 83, 91 New Jersey, 14, 88; see also Bergen County, Carlstadt, Essex County, Newark, Wood-Ridge New Mexico, 121; see also Santa Fe New Milford, Conn., 72, 111 New Novel in America (Weinberg), 109

New Rochelle, N. Y., 84, 89 New Testament, 137 New World, 99; see also America, Latin America, North America, United States New Year (Rosh Hashanah), 120, 152, 168, 170-71, 175, 179, 181-83

New York City, 7, 10, 14, 27-28, 32, 60-63, 65-66, 69, 37, 53-55, 73-75, 77, 79-80, 83, 88, 91-92, 98, 1024, 118, 120, 151, 153, 155, 160, 188; Bellevue Medical College, 66; East River, 65, 74; Educational Alliance, 10, 73; Ellis Island, 129;

Federation of Reform Synagogues, 151; Free Synagogue, 152; German Methodist Church, 70; Jews of, 63, 102-3; Lower East Side, 61-62, 106; Manhattan, 61, 74; North Brother Island, 65; Public Library, 44, 121; Review, 198; Times, 61; United Hebrew Charities, 63; University Settlement, 73 New York Jews and the Quest for Community (Goren), 102-3 New York State, 7, 10, 21, 61, 75, 82, 115; Bureau of Industries and Immigration, 9-10; Commission of Im-

migration, 10; see also Albany, Brooklyn, Elmira, New Rochelle, New York City, Ogdensburg, Saratoga Springs, Syracuse, Troy, White Plains New York University, 8-9, 85 Newark, N. J., 55, 111 NEWMAN (British converted Jew), 137; ISIDOR,14 Newport, R. I., 98 Newspapers, 8, 11, 116, 133, 182, 197; see also Journalism, Periodicals, Press Nice, France, 86 Nidhe Yisrael Congregation, Baltimore, 164

NISSENSON,HUGH,105 No Whippings (Kronenberger), 197 NOAH,MORDECAI MANUEL,120 Non-Jews, 22, 40, 59, 76, 106, 128, 131-33, 135, 143, 145-46, 148-49, 153, 157, 188-89, 199; see also

Christianity Non-kosher food; see Trefah Nonsectarianism, 12, 83 North America, 41,99, 199 North Brother Island, New York City, 65

North Carolina, 106; see also Goldsboro North Dakota, 117 Northeast (United States), 75-76 Northern Baptist convention, 137 Northern New Jersev Federation of Reform congregati;ns, 146 NOVAK,BILL, 120 Novelists, 5, 106, 187, 199; see also Fiction Nuclear physicists, 199 Nurses, 78, 86; aids, 151 NUSSBAUM, MAX,119

0 Oberammergau Passion Play, 136 Oberlin College Conservatory, 85 Occident, 161, 164, 170, 177-79 Occupations, 45, 56, 76, 84, 87, 148 Odd Fellows' Lodge, Albany, N. Y., 168, 175

Offenbach Synagogue, 168 Officers, congregational, 99,




see also Parnassim Officers, military, 32 Officials, government, 17, 52, 95 Ogdensburg, N. Y., 37 Ohio, 14, 116, 145; see also Cincinnati, Dayton, Lima, Youngstown Oil industry, 98, 115 OLAN,LEVIA., 115 OLCH,REVASUSSMAN, 60, 88 Old age, 89, 95 Oliver Wendell Holmes Library, Andover, Mass., 121 Omaha, Neb., 21 Onondaga mine, Central City, Colo., 27 Open Doors (Torres), 108 Operations, 34-36 Ophthalmology, 44, 81 Oppenheimer Case (Stern and Green), 108


Oppression, 8, 143; see also Persecutions Ordination, 144, 154 Oregon; see Portland Organ-grinders, 69-70 Organizations, 12, 66, 114, 116, 118, 143, 157, 160; see also Institutions, Societies Orientals, 75 Ormond (Brown), 188 Orthodox Judaism, 10, 61, 71, 99, 136, 142, 147, 160-64, 166, 169; see also Tradition OSBORN, STEPHEN, 102 OZICK, CYNTHU, 105

P PAGE,CARROLL S., 8, 13-14 PAtNE, TOM, 188 Pale of Settlement, 43, 45, 59, 89 Palestine, 54, 99, 106-8, 114, 116; see also Israel (state), Jerusalem Palestine and Israel (Sharabi), 107 Palmer Lake, Colo., 3 1 Parents, 28, 44, 46, 50-51, 53-54, 59, 70, 72-74, 77-79, 81, 88, 93, 96, 103, 125, 128, 130-31, 136, 143, 146, 149, 154-55, 157 Paris, France, 87; Review, 199 PARKER,DOROTHY, 197

Parks, 43, 50 Parnassim, 99, 166-67, 171-72, 175-76; see also Officers Partnerships, 7, 82 Pasadena, Cal., 111 Passengers, 34-35; see also Shiffskart Passover, 51, 65, 109, 121, 146-47, 154, 179

Passports, 89 Patients, 33, 79 Patriarchalism, 69 Patrick I . McGillicudy and the Rabbi (Goldburg), 102 PATTEN,GILBERT,134 PAXTON & SEASONGOOD, Cincinnati, 112 PEACOCK, THOMAS LOVE,191 PEARLSON, JORDAN, 121 Peddling, 43, 68, 130, 135, 169 PEIXOTTO,SOLOMON COHEN,99 PEKARSKY, MAURICE, 196 Pennsylvania; see Braddock, Chester County, Collegeville, Erie, Harrisburg, Lancaster, Lewisburg, Merion Station, Montandon, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Pottstown, Spring City. Wynnefield, Wynnewood Pens and Needles (Levine), 198 Pensions, 112 Pentecost; see Shavuot Peopled Wound (Esslin) , 102 Periodicals, 101, 109, 112, 116, 131, 161, 164, 170, 177-79, 187, 197-98; see also Journalism, Newspapers, Press PERKINS, JUDGE,Denver, 32, 34 Persecutions, 7, 9, 13-14, 17, 21-22, 55, 198; see also Oppression, Pogroms Peru; see Lima PETERSON, ELIAS,165 Petitions, 165-67 PETUCHOWSKI, JAKOB J., 196 PFEFFER,LEO, 101 Pharisees, 103 Pharmacies, 60, 64, 66, 81, 87-88 Phi Beta Kappa, 87 Philadelphia, 27, 36-37, 106, 111, 113, 131, 134, 136, 146-47, 151-53, 156, 187-88, 192; & Reading Railroad, 134 Philanthropy, 7, 16, 38, 80, 88, 99-100 Philately, 120



PHILIPSON,DAVID,161 Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., 121 PHILLIPS, LLEWEUYN,135, 137 Philosophy, 50, 56, 89, 102, 109, 126; religious, 160 Photography, 64, 100-101, 106, 184, 199; see also Illustrations, Pictures Phylacteries, 168 Physicians, 27, 32-34, 37, 43-44, 73, 79, 81, 87; see also Medicine, Surgeons Physicists; see Nuclear Physiology, 37 Pictures, 72; see also Illustrations, Photography Piety, 100, 1 4 2 4 3 PINTER,HAROLD, 102 Pioneers, 117 PIROSH(family), 40, 78, 92; BERT, 79; CLARAJACOBSON,79, 89; ROBERT, 79; RUTH,79; SIGMAR, 73, 79, 89 Pittsburgh, 137-38 Pittsfield, Mass., 151 Placement bureau, 149 Plains, 28, 31, 39 Planned Parenthood Association, 149 Plantations, 99 Planters House, Denver, 34 PLATZEK, M. WARLEY,14-15 Play, 50-51, 67,69 Playboy, 199 Pleasure, 50, 79 Plungian, Lithuania, 60 PM, 197 Poems (Ignatow) , 104 Poetry, 44, 104, 109,112, 120,161,163, 197 -- .

Pogroms, 52; see also Persecutions Point of View (Levi), 198 Poland, 39, 107; Jews of, 131, 147, 181; Rebellion (1863) 107; see also Lublin, Russian Poland Police, 18, 70, 95, 115, 154, 166, 182-83

Politics, politicians, 11-12, 17, 21, 33, 60, 64, 75, 77, 80, 88-89, 92, 95-96, 98, 101, 107, 109, 153, 188, 198-99, Population, 9, 13, 45, 59, 61, 75, 92, 131, 138, 147, 152, 154; distribution, 12 Portland, Or., 80


Ports, 43, 45, 129 Posen, Poland, 56 POSTAL,BERNARD, 119 Post-biblical period, 197; literature, 164 Post-World War I period, 11 Post-World War I1 period, 91, 106 POTTS, SUSANA., 192 Pottstown, Pa., 129, 131, 134, 136; Business College, 133; High School, 134

Poverty, 9, 44, 86, 88 Power, 86-87,93 POZNANSKI, GUSTAVE,163 Prague, 56 Prayer, 71, 120, 131, 133, 145, 162, 168, 175; books, 133, 143, 148; shawls, 168; see also Liturgy, Worship Preaching, 136-37, 143, 165-66, 168, 180 Precious Stones o f the Jews of Curacao (Emmanuel), 98 Preface to Politics (Lippman) , 109 Prejudice, 96, 107; see also Anti-Semitism Presidents of congregations; see Parnassim Presidents, United States, 18, 21-24, 26,75, 114-16, 119 Press, 105; Yiddish, 10, 102; see also Journalism, Newspapers Priests, 81, 95-96, 137 Princeton University, 85 Printing, 68, 78 Prisons, 125, 132 Private schools, 79 Privileged Jews, 52, 60 Professions, 66, 79, 81, 87, 91, 133, 148 Professors, 6, 37, 39, 56, 63, 80, 83, 85, 92, 103, 106-7, 109, 120, 135, 137, 144, 150, 196 Progress, 44-45, 56, 75 Property, 79, 95, 99, 131, 188 Prophets, 144, 167 Prosperity, 54, 64, 79-80 Prostitution, 9, 70 Protest, 11-12 Protestants, 22, 40, 75, 83 Provincialism, 72, 102 Pseudonyms, 80 Pseudo-science, 23 Psychology, 92


Public health, 75;see also Health Public life, 61, 75-76, 88-89, 96, 109 Public opinion, 177 Public schools, 66, 69, 131, 146, 149; see also Education, High schools, Schools Public, the, 76 Public Works (Moses), 199 Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 197 Publishing, 16, 44, 56, 98-100,

106-8, 118, 164, 178, 187, 196-98 PULITZER, PHILIPP,118 Punishment, 51,71, 130,169 Pupils, 130, 132 Purim, 146

Q Quakers, 192 Quotas, immigration, 11, 22-26


Rationalism, 145 Reactionaries, 143 Reading, 78, 131; of the Torah, 131,

161 Rebellions, 107 Reconstructionism, 99 Reconstructionist, 109 Records, congregational, 98-99 Recreation, 128 Red Cross, 150 Redemption, 133 Redemption! (Decter), 101 REED,JAMESA., 22 Reform, governmental, 75, 89, 184; religious, 44, 161-63, 168, 175 Reform Judaism, 61, 89, 99, 136, 138,

144-48,150-53. 155-57,160-62.164, 167-68 Reformers, 61, 105, 164-65, 184 Refugees, 17 REICHERT, VICTORE., 115 REILLY,BESSIE,81 Relatives, 128, 131, 136, 152 Religion, 9-10, 14, 17, 21-23, 39, 54, 71-72, 83, 91,94, 97, 108, 114, 128, 137, 142, 149, 157, 161, 198;see also

RAAB,EARL,104 Rabbinic Judaism in the Making (Guttmann), 103 Persecutions. Christianity,- Judaism. Rabbinical codes, 136; see also Law, Worship rabbinic Religious observance, 105, 132, 136, 145-46. 154: see also Ceremonies, Rabbinical literature, 56, 104 Rabbinical seminaries, 10, 142 Customs Rabbis, 25, 38, 40, 42-43, 55-56, Reminiscences (Wise), 161-62, 166, <

98-99, 102-3, 106, 110-16, 120-21, 169, 176,179 123, 128, 136, 138-43, 145-57, "Reminiscences of Early Denver" (Els160-62, 164, 166-68, 171-73, 180ner), 27-28, 31-38 81, 183 Renaissance, 56 Rabbi's Impressions of the Oberammer- Rentals, 32,60,147 gau Passion Play (Krauskopf), 136 Republican Association, Charleston, RABINOWITZ (family name), 80; SOLOS. C., 112 MON ("Sholem Aleichem"), 80 Republican Party, 15,21 Race, 9,23, 191 Research, 122 Racism, 6,23: Jewish, 104 Resorts, 81-82 ~adcliffe.coilege, dambridge, Mass., Restrictionists, 11, 14, 17,22,25-26 80. 184 Resurrection, 162-64, 171, 177 ~ a d i c a Sophistication l (Schulz), 106 Retail, 143,156;see also Business, MerRadicalism, religious, 162-63, 177; chants, Storekeepers ~olitical. 104-5.. 109.. 149 Retirement, 85-86 ~ i d i o 12i , Revolutions; see Industrial, Soviet Railroads, 27, 37, 46, 129, 131, Rhode Island; see Newport 133-34,138 RIBALOW, HAROLDU., 105 RAPHAEL,MARCL., 120 RICE, ABRAHAM, 164 RAPHALL,MORRISJACOB,120, 162-64 Richmond, Va., 114



Riga, Latvia, 43-44, 52-53, 55, 73; Polytechnic Institute, 73 Rights, civil and political, 7, 114-16; human, 184; Jewish, 7, 189; minority, 115; of women, 184; religious, 7; see also Equality RING, EDWARDA., 115; HERMANB., 115

RINGLER.STANLEY A., 119 Riots, 182 Rise of David Levinsky (Cahan), 107 Ritual, 71-72, 109, 120, 131-32, 136, 161, 167 Ritual in Family Living (Brossard), 147 Rivers, 28, 65, 74, 128, 151 ROBBINS,HAROLD, 105 ROBERTS,NATHAN J., 80 ROCKAWAY, ROBERTA., 118 Rockdale Temple, Cincinnati, 145 Rock-lyrics, 104-5 ROCKOWER, JACOBR., 158 Rocky Mountain Medical Society, 36 Rodef Shalom Congregation, Pittsburgh, 138 RODNEY,GEORGEB., 99-100 RODRIGUES, B. H., 163 Roman Catholicism, 75, 81 Rome, Italy, 83 ROOSEVELT,~ N I U I N D., 115-16, 198-99; THEODORE, 75, 88 ROSE, ERNESTINE LOUISE SIISMONDI POTOWSKI,184-85; PETERI., 105-6 ROSENBERG,ELSA, 101; ETHEL, 119; HAROLD, 105; I. E., 188; JULIUS,119 Rosenbluth Case (Davies) , 101 ROSENBLUTH, ROBERT,101 ROSENMAN, SAMUELI., 199 ROSENTHAL, MRS. ALEX, 115 ROSENWALD, JULIUS, 16, 120-21 ROSEWATER, VICTOR,18,21 Rosh Hashanah; see New Year Rotary Clubs, 148 ROTH, HENRY, 105; MAX, 114; PHILIP, 105-6, 198 ROTHENBERG, JEROME,105 ROTHSCHILD (family), 102 ROUNTRBE, MOSES,106 ROWSON,MRS. SUSANNA, 187 Royalty, 31, 95, 133 RUBIN,JERRY,196; MAURICE,137 RUBINGER, NAPHTALI J., 110, 121, 160-72, 175-83


RUCHAMES, LOUIS, 106 RUDERMAN, ABRAHAM, 116 RUMMEL,JOSEPHF., 113 RUPPERT,JACOB,13-14 Rural regions, 9, 39, 43, 46, 137 RUSSELL,RICHARDB., 110 Russia, 13, 17, 22, 39, 41, 44-46, 52-53, 55, 59-60, 87, 92, 101, 107, 117, 198; Army, 52; Jews of, 16, 92, 131, 198; see also Kharkov, Kiev,

Moscow, St. Petersburg, Jewry, Soviet Union Russian language, 44 Russian Massacre Fund, 16 Russian Poland, 184 RUSTIN,BAYARD, 101


S SABATH, ADOLPHJ., 12, 18, 22, 26 Sabbath, 43, 50, 53, 64, 71-72, 112, 115, 120, 131, 146, 149-50, 165, 167-68, 175, 182-83 SACHAR, ABRAML., 197


SACHS, BLANCHE HELLMAN (Mrs. Henry), 117 SACKS,B., Tempe, Ariz., 113 SAGENDORF, ANDREW,32 Sages, 39,42 Sailors, 79 St. Croix, 100 St. Eustatius, 98-100 St. Louis, 34, 83, 113, 141 St. Maarten, 98, 100 St. Petersburg, Russia, 43-44, 52, 60, 87

St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, 99-100 Salaries, 67, 129, 131, 157, 159, 176, 178

SALE,SAMUEL,141 Salesmen, 67, 82 SALINGER, JEROMEDAVID,106, 109 SALKOVER, MRS. MEYERB., 117 SALOMON, HAYM,121 Salonika, Greece, 98 Salvation Army, 70 San Francisco, 15, 36, 113, 116 SANDERS, LEON, 13; RONALD, 106, 197

SANDMEL, SAMUEL,196 SANG,PHILIPD., 112, 120 Santa Fe, N. Mex., 34-35, 128

22 1


Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 82 SARNA,NAHUM,196 Satire, 102 Schaden, Estonia, 55 SCHECHTER, SOLOMON, 116 SCHEIBER, ALEXANDER, 118 SCHIELEIR,ELIAS, 165 SCHIFF, JACOBH., 6, 10, 16-17, 22, 116


Seminaries; see Rabbinical Senate (United States), 18, 21, 112; see also Congress, House SENIOR,MAX, 14, 116 Sephardics of Curacao (Karner), 196 Sephardi, 99, 196 Sermons, 113-16, 120-21, 137, 143, 166-68, 170-71, 177, 183; see also Addresses Servants, 87, 95 Sewage, 128-29 Sex, 144, 199 SHAFFENBERG, MARK,32 SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM,187 SHANKMAN, ARNOLD,110, 112; JACOB K., 121

SHAPIRO, H. R., 104; M. A., 117 Scholarships, 78, 137 SHARABI,HISHAM,107 SCHOMBURG. ARTHURA., 121; Collec- SHARFMAN, I. HAROLD, 114 tion of Negro ~iteratureand History, Shawot, 166,179 Shearith Israel Congregation, Charles121 Schools, 13, 15, 36-37, 60, 68, 70, 82, ton, S.C., 163-64, 177-78 EDNA,101 125, 130-35, 138, 141, 145, SHEKLOW, PERCYBYSSHE,191 147-51, 153, 155, 158-59, 161; see SHELLEY, also Education, High schools, Law, Sheltering Oaks Convalescent Home, Cincinnati, 115 Private, Public schools, Teachers SHERMAN, ALLAN,101; BERNARD,107 SCHRAYER, MAX R., 112 SCHULTZ,BENJAMIN,116 Shiffskart (ticket for passage), 129 S c m z , MAX F., 106 SHINEDLING,ABRAHAMI., 97; 117; SCHWARTZ,DANNELL., 111; GWEN HELENL., 117 Shipping, 23, 53, 83, 99, 129 GIBSON,106; MAX, 117 SCHWARZ,JOSEPH, 106-7; SAUL, 111 Shochtim, 131, 169, 171-72, 177, 183 Science, 43-44 Shoe business, 156 Scotch Presbyterians, 81 Sholem Aleichem; see Rabinowitz Scrolls of the Law, 181-82 Shulchan Aruch, 136 SEALE,BOBBY,196 SHULMAN, MILTONL., 110 SEASONGOOD, MURRAY,121 Sick, the, 9. 38, 87-88 Seattle, Wash., 111, 119; Hebrew Acad- SIEGEL,ISAAC,22-23; NORMAN,103 emy, 111 SILBERMAN, LOU H., 196 Silk business, 42, 80 Secession from the synagogue, 161-62, 17R SILVER,ABBAHILLEL,114; SAMUELM., second World War, 85-86, 92, 114, 112 SIMON,CAROLINE K., 121; ERNST,196 150-51, 153, 198-99 Secretaries, 78-79 SIMPSON,SOLOMON,188 Secularism, 43-44, 46, 83, 120, 162 Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 141 Security, 54, 86, 92, 108, 127 SINGER,HOWARD, 107: ISAAC BASHEMS, Seek Haven (Zeldis), 109 104, 106-7, 198 Sir Montefiore Association, Cincinnati, Segregation, 116 SEIDENFELD, MRS. GLENN, 117 111 SEINSHEIMER(family), 118; WALTER Sisterhoods, 110 G., 118 Six-Day War (1967), 107 SEIXAS,JOSHUA,121 SKLARE,MARSHALL, 106, 196 SELZNICK,GERTRUDE J., 107 Skullcaps, 55, 72 164, 168

Slang, 69 Slaughteren; see Shochtim Slaves in Algiers (Rowson), 187 SLAWSON, JOHN,117 SLIPAKOFF,GRANDMA, 103 SMITH, ALFREDE., 199; ELIW HUBBARD, 191-92; HENRYGRIGGS WESTON,137 Soap, 37 SOBEL,ISADOR, 21 Social agencies, 66, 93 Social life, 7-8, 3942, 4546, 51,

Spiritual life, 8, 95, 97, 109, 157 SPORBERG, JOSEPH,179-81 SPORBORG(SPORBERG),L., Albany, N. Y., 169, 172 Spring City, Pa., 138; High School, 138 Springfield, Mass., 73 STAAB,ABRAHAM, 34-35 STAINMAN, THEODORE H., 119 Standard Club, Chicago, 112 STARKOFF, BERNARD, 2, 124 State [Medical] Society of California,

56, 62, 64, 71, 73, 75, 77, 87, 91-94, 101-3, 106, 108-9, 153-54, 159,196; see also Clubs Social Security, 6 1 Social service, 93, 111, 138; see also

Stationery, 33, 68, 78 Statistics, 31, 42, 46, 61, 67, 75,

Case work Social workers, 78, 116 Socialism, 13, 115, 141, 149 Societies, 12, 36, 96, 111 Sociologists, 100-101, 147, 199 SOKOBIN, ALANMAYER,121 Soldiers, 31-34, 80, 87, 99, 101, 112, 119; see also Russia, United States, War SOLOMON(family), 118; HANNAHG., 117; ISRAEL,118; WALTERH., 111 Some Salmagundi Occurrences (Seasongood), 121 Songs, 50, 73, 181; see also Folksongs, Music Sons of Zion, New York City, 116 SONSINO,RIFAT, 110 SONTAG, SUSAN,105, 198 SOUSA,JOHNPHILIP, 73 South Africa, 41, 60, 104 South Carolina, 112; see also Charleston, Sumter South Shore Congregation, Chicago, 138

southern Europe, 6, 9, 13, 16, 22, 25; see also Europe Southern Israelite (Atlanta), 112 Soviet Jewry, 101, 121, 197-98 Soviet Revolution (1917), 87, 92 Soviet Union, 44, 108, 121; Embassy, Washington, D. C., 121; see also Russia SPANIER, LOUIS, 163-67,171-72,175-83 Spanish language, 100 SPECTORSKY, ISAAC,116 SPEVACK, PAULATRUBEK,77 SPIEGELBERG, SOLOMON.121


85-86, 91, 102, 153-54 Status, 87, 91-92 Staunton, Va., 102 Steerage, 129




STEIN, GERTRUDE,108, 198; MAYER, 178

STEINBACH, A. ALAN,105 STEINBERG, STEPHEN,107 Steingrub, Bohemia, 160 Stenographers, 74, 79 Stereotypes, 76, 123, 187-92, 195 STERN, MALCOLMH.. 110, 112; NORTON B., 122; PHILIP M., 108 STILLE,ALFRED,36 Stock market, 38, 148 Stockholm, Sweden, 162 STODDARD, LOTHROP,23 STOLZ,JOSEPH,12, 138, 1 4 0 4 1 Storekeepers, 33, 68, 89, 131; see also Business, Merchants, Retail, Wholesalers STOWE,HARRIET BEECHER,116 Strangers in the Land (Rountree), 106 STRAUS,OSCAXS., 6,101,198 Streets, 68-70, 74, 96, 129 STRICKLAND,EDWARD F., 184 STRONG, WINSTON,80 Students, 104-5, 113, 118, 134, 137, 14142, 144

Studies, 5,40,4344,46,53, 80,83, 126, 143, 147, 162; secular, 162 Studies in Iudaica Americana (Glanz), 102

Suburbs, 72, 80, 84 Succnh (Tabernacles booth), 146 Success, 59, 67, 74, 76, 86 SUKENICK, RONALD,108 SULLIVAN,ARTHUR,28




Technology, 90 Teenagers; see Adolescence SULZER, WILLIAM, 17-18 Tel Aviv, Israel, 88 Sumter, S. C., 111; Society of Israelites, Television, 199 111 TEMKIN,SEFTOND., 105 Sunday, 64, 120, 135, 138, 143 Temple Beth El, Detroit, 152; Beth Emet, Albany, N. Y., 110; Beth ShaSupreme Court, New York State, 111, 170; Ohio, 112 lom, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 128; B'nai Israel, Pasadena, Cal., 111; EmanuSurgeons, 33, 148; see also Medicine, El, New York, 155; Etz Ahayem, Physicians Surrogate's Court, New York County, Montgomery, Ala., 110; Israel, Lafay112 ette, Ind., 144; Israel, St. Louis, 113; Surveying, 32, 37 Mizpah, Chicago, 141 Temple University, Philadelphia, 134 Survival, 13, 39, 66, 68, 107 SUSSMAN, GAIL GERTRUDE (GELLA Temples, 102, 110-11, 128, 141, 147, 151-52, 155-56, 158, 168 GITA) KRUSKAL,60, 88 Tenaciv o f Prejudice ( S e h i c k and Swarthmore College, 133 Steinberg), 107 SWARTZ,A., Albany, N. Y., 175 Sweatshops, 66 Tenements, 75 Tennessee; see Knoxville, Memphis Swedes, 39, 59 Swift Years (Michelmore), 199 Testimony, 169-70 SWIG, BENJAMINH., 116 Tevuot Ha-Aretz (Schwarz), 106 Synagogue Library Association, Phila- Texas; see Dallas delphia, 158 Textiles, 63, 78 Synagogues, 61, 71, 89, 98-100, Thanksgiving Day, 154 THATCHER, JOHNB., 110 110-12,121,131-33, 147-48,151-52, 154, 156-57, 161-63, 165-66, 168, Theatre, 76, 79, 84, 105, 187; see also Drama 175, 181-83, 199; see also CongregaTheological seminaries, 136-37 tions, Temples Synopsis of the History o f the Jews o f Theology, 71, 78, 107, 147, 16264, 172 Curacao (Corcos), 98 THOMPSON. CARL D.. 115: DOROTHY. Syracuse, N. Y., 7 SZOLD,HENRIETTA,116 115 Three Million More? (Lawrence), 1416, 116

Tabernacles, Festival of, 146 TAFT, WILLIAMHOWARD,18, 119 Tageblatt, 131 Talking About Death (Grollman), 103 Tallahassee, Fla., 150 TALMADGE, HERMANE., 121 TALMAGE,DEW^, 37 Talmud, 40, 43, 103, 148, 164; commentaries, 43 TAM,DONALD,113 Tammany, 61 Tanglewood, Mass., 15 1 Tariff, 75 Tartu; see Dorpat Taxes, 13, 15,52,95, 13 1 Teachers, 60, 74, 80, 82, 130-32, 138, 141, 145-46, 157, 167 Teaching of Judaica (lick), 196

197-98 Time, 197 Tinsmiths, 51 Tires, 136 Tobacco, 32-34, 79 Tolerance, 72, 99 Tombstones, 98, 100 Torah, 131, 142, 161, 167, 172; see also Scrolls Toronto, Canada, 116 TORRES, TERESKA (Mrs. Meyer Levin), 108 TOURO,JUDAH,121 Touro Synagogue, Newport, R. I., 98 Towns, 10, 39-40, 46, 128, 138, 152; see also Urban areas Tradition, 1, 26, 41, 46, 56, 62, 69, 71, 90, 92-93, 99, 103, 144, 146, 152, 157, 161-62, 177, 196; see also Orthodox




- .

Tradition and Contemporan-Experience (Jospe), 196 Translation. 44. 97. 106-7. 161 ~rans~ortation; 45; see alio Railroads, Shipping Rum, VEIST, 169-72, 175, 180, 183 Travel, 44, 53, 62, 67, 76, 79, 83, 87, 89,96, 100,106, 143 Travels o f Marco Polo, 82 Trefah (non-kosher food), 131, 145 TREIGER, BARUCH I., 116 Trials, 112, 120, 169-71, 183, 196 TRIEST,MONTAGUE, 21 TRILLING, LIONEL,198 Tri-State [Religious School Teachers] Convention, 145 TROUSDALE, GORDON,114 Troy, N. Y., 143 Troyes, France, 56 TRUBEK(family), 40, 77-78; FANNY JACOBSON, 77-78, 80, 84, 90; HERBERT, 77-78; Laboratories, Carlstadt, N. J., 77; LEO, 73, 77-78; MAX, 77-78; MEYER, 73; MOSES (MORRIS), 73, 77-78; PAULA, 77-78; ROBERT, 77-78; WALTER, 77-78, 80 TRUMAN,HARRYS., 116 Tuberculosis, 27, 38, 81-82, 87 Tucson, Ariz., 121 TUNNEY,JOHNV., 112 Turkey, 22, 198 TURNER, JUSTIN G., 113, 115, 120 TWEED,WILLIAMM. (BOSSTweed), 61 Twentieth Century Pilgrimage (Wellborn), 109 "Two Baltic Families Who Came to America" (Brown), 3946, 49-56, 59-73 TYLER, ROYALL,187,191 Typhus, 65 TYTELL, JOHN,104-5 Tzitzith; see Fringes

ULLMAN,ISAAC M., 18 Under 30 (Newman and H e n k i ) , 200 Unemployment, 153 Union College, 92 Union Haggadah, 154 Union League, Charleston, S.C.,112 Union of American Hebrew Congrega-


tions, 151, 158, 160 Union of Jewish Students, 113 Unitarians, 72 United Hebrew Charities, New York City, 63 United Nations, 120 United States, 6, 8, 11-12, 21-22, 24, 31, 36-37, 41, 53, 66, 75-76, 83, 91-92, 98, 101-2, 106-8, 114, 118, 122, 142, 144, 150, 160, 162, 184, 187, 197; Army, 28; Federal Division of Information, 9; Immigration Commission, 15-17; Post Office, 34; see also America Universalism, 14849 Universities, 44, 52, 105, 126, 147, 196-97; Bar Ilan, 114; Berlin, 44; Brandeis, 197; California, 107, 120; California, Los Angeles, 120; Chicago, 85, 108, 138, 141, 147, 198; Divinity School, 14142, 144; Columbia, 78, 85, 103; Columbia University Law School, 7; Connecticut, 39; Dorpat, 44; Duke, 115; Emory, 112; Haward, 85, 141; Hebrew, Jerusalem, 1034, 120; Heidelberg, 44; Johns Hopkins, 78; Kent State, 6; Kharkov, 44; London, 8 1; Maryland, 78-79; New York, 8-9, 85; Pemsylvania, 134; Princeton, 85; Puerto Rico, 196; St. Petersburg, 44; Tel Aviv, 88; Temple, 134; Vienna, 81; Wayne State, 103; Yale, 134, 150; see also Colleges, Medical colleges University Settlement, New York City, 73 UPDIKE,JOHN,198 Upper classes, 7 Upper middle class, 90 Uprooted (Handlin) , 4 1 Urban areas, 9-10, 36, 43, 46, 52, 107, 60-62, 75-76, 91, 95-96, 119, 128-29, 142-44, 148, 151-52, 155, 157, 165; see also Towns, Villages Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa., 133

v Vacations, 67, 135 Value, 109, 159 VANPELT, PETERI., 121 VAUGEOIS,DENIS, 108


V m , LESTER,108 Venice, Italy, 56 Veterans, 119, 154 Vetoes, 18, 21-22, 24 Vice-Presidents, United States, 121-22 Victorville, Cal., 151 Vietnamese War, 121 Vigilantes, 37 Villages, 59, 95, 128, 160 VXNER,WILLIAMK., 119 Virginia, 102; see also Alexandria, Charlottesville, Danville, Harrisonburg, Lynchburg, Richmond, Staunton Virtues, 96 Vital statistics, 99 VOGEL,MANFRED,196 VOLTBE, 188 VOORSANGER, ELKANC., 116; MRS. ELKAN C., 116; JACOB, 116 VORHAUS, BERNARD, 84; LILLIAN, 84 VORSPAN, ALBERT,104, 108-9 Vote, 21, 61, 88, 176, 179

Wayne State University, Detroit, 103 Wealth, 6, 27, 42, 46, 52, 54, 72, 78, 87,95, 143, 153


WELLBORN, CHARLES,109 Wellesley College, 83 WERNER,ALFRED,103 WERTHEIM,JACOB,14 West (United States), 83; Jews of, 122

WEST, NATHANAEL, 106 WESTHEIMER, IRVIN F., 119 White Plains, N. Y., 80 WHITEHEAD,CHARLES,118 Whites, 31, 132 WHITSITT,RICHARD,34 WHITTEMORE,BEN, 37 WADDINGHAM, COLONEL,32 Wholesalers, 42, 80, 82-83, 143, 156 Wagons, 27-28, 132 Widowhood, 54-55, 65 WALD,LILLIAND., 12 WIERNIK,PETER,116 WALLACE,HENRY A., 121-22 WILDER,THORNTON,108 WALLANT,EDWARD LEWIS, 106 WILLIS, HENRIETTACOHEN,114 WALLENSTEIN, BARRY,105 Wills, 85, 88, 100, 112 Walton Way Temple, Augusta, Ga., Wilmington, Del., 135-36 102 WILSON, EDMUND,198; ROBERT,32; Wanamaker's, Philadelphia, 136 WOODROW, 21-22, 24, 75, 88 War, 14243, 149, 198-99; see also Wine, 131, 146 Six-Day, Vietnamese WINE,SHERWINT., 106 WARBURG, FELIX M., 10, 18, 24, 116 WINESTINE,NORMAN,111 WARNER,MARVINL., JR., 122; MARVIN WISCHNITZER, MARK,103 L., SR., 122 WISE, MRS. GABRIEL, 168; ISAAC MAYER, WARREN,FRANCIS E., 17 94-97, 116-17, 123, 160-73, 175-83; Wartime Journols (Lindbergh), Reminiscences, 161-62, 166, 169, 176; 198-99 PAULINE,116-17; STEPHENS., 152Washington (state) ; see Seattle 53, 156-57 Washington Avenue Temple (B'nai IsWise Temple, Cincinnati, 145 rael), Evansville, Ind., 110 Washington County Historical Society, WOHL, SAMUEL,117 WOLF, LUCIEN,25; SIMON,18 Hagerstown, Md., 118 WOLSEY,LOUIS, 115 Washington, D. C., 11, 18, 109 Women, 13, 27, 31, 34, 66, 68-69, WASKOW,ARTHURI. 109 , 75-76, 83, 89, 106, 122, 14344, Water, 128-29 175, 187, 192; rights of, 184; Waterloo, Iowa, 27 women's movements, 184 WAX,JAMESA,, 117

Women's Lib. [Women's Liberation Movement], 184 WOOD,ALBERT,158;MRS. ALBERT,158 Wood Library, Wynnefield, Pa., 158 Wood-Ridge, N. J., 77 Worcester, Mass., 115 Work, 42, 46, 49, 52-54, 66-69, 74,

78, 80, 82, 125-26, 129 Working class, 8, 16, 42-43, 67-68, 75;see also Labor World, 8, 50, 82, 85, 89, 157 World Conference of Jewish Communities on Soviet Jewry, 121 World Union for Progressive Judaism,

110 World Wars; see First World War, Second World War Worship, 110, 113, 135, 137-38, 143,

146-47, 149, 151, 155-57, 161-62, 165-67, 171, 175, 181, 183 W.P.A. [Works Progress Administration], 153 Writers, 40, 44, 68, 79-80, 102,

105-6, 109, 131, 160-61, 199 WYDEN,BARBARA, 106 Wynnefield, Pa., 153, 155-56 Wynnewood, Pa., 155 Wyoming, 117

Y Yale University, 134, 150 Yankees, 61 YELLIN,SAMUEL,105 Yeshivas, 42,44, 54, 71, 89 Yiddish culture and literature, 10, 43,

46, 56, 59, 62-63, 80, 92, 101-2, 120, 130, 132, 142, 148 Yiddish




101-2 Yom Kippur, 71, 116 YOUDIN,VICTORIA K., 88 Youngstown, Ohio, 11 1 Youth, 27-28, 68, 89, 95, 107, 126, 150

z Zagare, Courland, 39-40, 42-46, 49-51,

54,59,62,73,89 ZANGER, AARON, I15


197, ZIGMOND, MAWCE L., 196 Zionism, 76, 92, 111, 116, 133, 142;see a

also Federation of American Zionists, Sons of Zion ZLOTOWTZ,BERNARD,120 ZUCKERMAN, BARUCH,119