Key Learning in Writing

Key Learning in Writing

Key Learning in Writing Lancashire Literacy Team September 2015 Update © Lancashire County Council (2015) Key Learning in Writing What is Key Lea...

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Key Learning in Writing

Lancashire Literacy Team September 2015 Update

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Key Learning in Writing What is Key Learning in Writing? The Key Learning in Writing statements relate to the age appropriate skills, knowledge and understanding for each year group. These key pieces of learning will support pupils in becoming effective and reflective independent writers. Where have they come from? The Key Learning statements have been identified primarily from the National Curriculum 2014 programmes of study. How might Key Learning in Writing be useful? The Key Learning statements should help to focus, and be exemplified during, whole class teaching. Taught in the context of lively, engaging and creative units of work, they help to ensure that pupils make progress as writers. Teaching should ensure that skills are modelled and scaffolded and that pupils are given opportunities to apply them in a range of different contexts. Regular teaching of skills would normally take place through a combination of lively 'warm up' sessions (particularly during the earlier phases of the teaching sequence), shared writing and guided writing. Pupils will practise applying their learning during independent and guided writing and have regular opportunities to reflect on how well they have done. To consolidate, children should be encouraged to apply their learning in their cross curricular writing.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Key Learning in Writing: Year 1 Composition Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

Transcription Composition

Spelling

ƒ Say, and hold in memory whilst writing, simple

Planning

ƒ Spell words using the 40+ phonemes already taught,

sentences which make sense. ƒ Write simple sentences that can be read by themselves and others. ƒ Separate words with spaces. ƒ Use punctuation to demarcate simple sentences (capital letters and full stops). ƒ Use capital letter for the personal pronoun I. ƒ Use capital letters for names of people, places and days of the week. ƒ Identify and use question marks and exclamation marks. ƒ Use the joining word and to link words and clauses. ƒ Extend range of joining words to link words and clauses using but and or. ƒ Make singular nouns plural using ‘s’ and ‘es’ e.g. dog, dogs; wish, wishes. ƒ Add suffixes to verbs where no spelling change is needed to the root word e.g. helping, helped, helper. ƒ Add the prefix ‘un’ to verbs and adjectives to change the meaning e.g. untie, unkind.

ƒ Orally plan and rehearse ideas. ƒ Sequence ideas and events in narrative. ƒ Sequence ideas and events in non-fiction. ƒ Use familiar plots for structuring the opening,

including making phonically plausible attempts at more complex words. ƒ Spell words with the sounds /f/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /k/ spelt ff, ll, ss, zz and ck, e.g. off, well, miss, buzz, back. ƒ Spell words with the /ŭ/sound spelt n before k, e.g. bank, think. ƒ Divide words into syllables, e.g. pocket. ƒ Spell words with -tch, e.g. catch, fetch, kitchen, notch, hutch. ƒ Spell words with the /v/ sound at the end of words, e.g. have, live, give. ƒ Add s and es to words, e.g. thanks, catches. ƒ Add the endings –ing, –ed and –er to verbs where no change is needed to the root word. ƒ Add –er and –est to adjectives where no change is needed to the root word. ƒ Spell words with vowel digraphs. ƒ Spell words with vowel trigraphs. ƒ Spell words ending –y (/i:/ or /կ/), e.g. happy. ƒ Spell words with new consonant spellings ph and wh, e.g. dolphin, wheel. ƒ Spell words using k for the /k/ sound, e.g. Kent. ƒ Add the prefix –un. ƒ Spell compound words, e.g. farmyard, bedroom. ƒ Spell common exception words (see below). ƒ Spell days of the week. ƒ Name the letters of the alphabet in order. ƒ Use letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound. ƒ Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far.

middle and end of their stories.

Drafting and Writing ƒ Orally compose every sentence before writing. ƒ Re-read every sentence to check it makes sense. ƒ Compose and sequence their own sentences to write short narratives. ƒ Compose and sequence their own sentences to write short non-fiction texts, e.g. recounts, information texts, instructions. ƒ Use formulaic phrases to open and close texts. ƒ Write in different forms with simple text type features e.g. instructions, narratives, recounts, poems, information texts. Evaluating and Editing ƒ Discuss their writing with adults and peers. Performing ƒ Read aloud their writing audibly to adults and peers.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Handwriting ƒ Sit correctly at a table and hold a pencil correctly.

ƒ Hold a pencil with an effective grip. ƒ Form lower-case letters correctly –

starting and finishing in the right place, going the right way round, correctly oriented. ƒ Form digits 0-9 correctly. - Practise forming letters in handwriting families: - ‘Long ladders’ – i, j, l, t, u, - ‘One armed robots’ – b, h, m, n p, r - ‘Curly caterpillars’ – c, a, d, e, g, o, q, f, s - Zig-zag letters – k, v, w, x, y, z

ƒ Have clear ascenders (‘tall letters’) and descenders (‘tails’).

ƒ Form capital letters correctly.

Key Learning in Writing: Year 2 Composition Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation As above and: ƒ Say, write and punctuate simple and compound sentences using the joining words and, but, so and or (co-ordination). ƒ Use sentences with different forms: statement, question, command, exclamation. ƒ Secure the use of full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks and question marks. ƒ Use commas to separate items in a list. ƒ Use apostrophes for contracted forms e.g. don’t, can’t, wouldn’t, you’re, I’ll. ƒ Use apostrophes for singular possession in nouns, e.g. the girl’s name. ƒ Use subordination for time using when, before and after e.g. We went out to play when we had finished our writing. When we had finished our writing, we went out to play. ƒ Use subordination for reason using because and if e.g. I put my coat on because it was raining. Because it was raining, I put on my coat. ƒ Use the subordinating conjunction that in a sentence, e.g. I hope that it doesn’t rain on sports day. ƒ Select, generate and effectively use verbs. ƒ Explore the progressive form of verbs in the present tense (e.g. she is drumming) and past tense (e.g. he was shouting) to mark actions in progress. ƒ Use past tense for narrative, recount (e.g. diary, newspaper report, biography) historical reports. ƒ Use present tense for non-chronological reports and persuasive adverts. ƒ Select, generate and effectively use nouns. ƒ Add suffixes ness and er to craate nouns e.g. happiness, sadness, teacher, baker.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Transcription Composition

As above and: Planning ƒ Plan and discuss what to write about e.g. story mapping, collecting new vocabulary, key words and ideas. Drafting and Writing ƒ Orally rehearse each sentence prior to writing. ƒ Develop a positive attitude to writing. ƒ Develop stamina for writing in order to write at length. ƒ Write about real and fictional events. ƒ Write simple poems based on models. ƒ Make simple notes from non-fiction texts, e.g. highlighting and noting key words. ƒ Use specific text type features to write for a range of audiences and purposes e.g. to instruct, inform, entertain, explain, discuss, persuade. Evaluating and Editing ƒ Edit and improve own writing in relation to audience and purpose. ƒ Evaluate their writing with adults and peers. ƒ Proofread to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation. ƒ Proofread to check for correct form of verbs within sentences, e.g. correcting he walking to the shop to he walked to the shop. Performing ƒ Read aloud their writing with intonation to make the meaning clear.

Spelling As above and:

ƒ Segment spoken words into phonemes and represent these by graphemes, spelling many correctly.

ƒ Learn new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known.

ƒ Learn to spell common exception words (see below). ƒ Learn to spell more words with contracted forms, e.g. can’t, didn’t, hasn’t, couldn’t, it’s, I’ll.

ƒ Learn the possessive apostrophe (singular), e.g. the girl’s book.

ƒ To spell correctly, distinguish between homophones

(e.g. here and hear; sea and see; bear and bare; night and knight) and near-homophones (e.g. quite and quiet; one and won; are and our). ƒ Add suffixes ness and er e.g. happiness, sadness, teacher, baker. ƒ Add suffix ment to spell longer words, e.g. enjoyment. ƒ Add suffixes ful and less e.g. playful, careful, careless, hopeless. ƒ Use suffixes er and est e.g. faster, fastest, smaller, smallest. ƒ Use suffix ly e.g. slowly, gently, carefully. Spell words with: - the /d֗/ sound spelt as ge and dge at the end (e.g. age, badge), and spelt as g elsewhere (e.g. magic, giant). - the /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y, e.g. ice, cell - the /n/ sound spelt kn and gn at the beginning, e.g. knee, gnat. - the /վ/ sound spelt wr at the beginning e.g. wrote, wrong. - the /l/ or /ˎl/ sound spelt –le at the end of words, e.g. table, apple. - the /l/ or /ˎl/ sound spelt –el at the end of words, e.g. camel, tunnel. - the /l/ or /ˎl/ sound spelt –al at the end of words, e.g. pedal, capital.

Handwriting As above and: ƒ Form lower-case letters of the correct size relative to one another. ƒ Orientate capital letters correctly. ƒ Use capital letters appropriately e.g. not always writing A as a capital, not using capitals within words. ƒ Write capital letters and digits of the correct size relative to one another and to lower case letters. ƒ Start using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined. ƒ Use spacing between words which reflects the size of the letters.

Key Learning in Writing: Year 2 ƒ Create compound words using nouns, e.g.

whiteboard and football. ƒ Select, generate and effectively use adjectives. ƒ Identify, generate and effectively use noun phrases, e.g. the blue butterfly with shimmering wings (for description), granulated sugar (for specification). ƒ Add suffixes ful or less to create adjectives e.g. playful, careful, careless, hopeless. ƒ Use suffixes er and est to create adjectives e.g. faster, fastest, smaller, smallest. ƒ Select, generate and effectively use adverbs. Use suffix ly to turn adjectives into adverbs e.g. slowly, gently, carefully.

- the ending –il e.g. pencil, fossil, nostril. - the /aկ/ sound spelt –y at the end of words, e.g. try, reply.

- The /՚:/ sound spelt a before l and ll, e.g. call, walk - The /֑/ sound spelt o, e.g. mother, Monday - The /i:/ sound spelt –ey, e.g. key, donkey - The /՘/ sound spelt a after w and qu, e.g. wander, quantity

- The /ա:/ sound spelt or after w, e.g. word, worm - The /՚:/ sound spelt ar after w, e.g. war, warm - The /֗/ sound spelt s, e.g. television, usual ƒ Add –es to nouns and verbs ending in –y, e.g. copies, babies.

ƒ Add –ed, –ing, –er and –est to a root word ending in – y with a consonant before it, e.g. copied, copier.

ƒ Add the endings –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words ending in –e with a consonant before it, e.g. hiking, hiked, hiker. ƒ Add –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter, e.g. patting, patted. ƒ Spell words ending in -tion, e.g. station, fiction Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Key Learning in Writing: Year 3 Composition Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation As above and: ƒ Identify clauses in sentences. ƒ Explore and identify main and subordinate clauses in complex sentences. ƒ Explore, identify and create complex sentences using a range of conjunctions e.g. when, if because, although, while, since, until, before, after, so. ƒ Use the comma to separate clauses in complex sentences where the subordinate clause appears first, e.g. Although it was raining, we decided not to take our coats. ƒ Identify, select, generate and effectively use prepositions for where e.g. above, below, beneath, within, outside, beyond. ƒ Select, generate and effectively use adverbs e.g. suddenly, silently, soon, next, eventually. ƒ Use inverted commas to punctuate direct speech (speech marks). ƒ Use perfect form of verbs using have and has to indicate a completed action e.g. He has gone out to play (present perfect) instead of he went out to play (simple past). ƒ Use the determiner a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or vowel e.g. a rock, an open box. ƒ Explore and collect word families e.g. medical, medicine, medicinal, medic, paramedic, medically to extend vocabulary. ƒ Explore and collect nouns with prefixes super, anti, auto.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Transcription Composition

As above and: Planning ƒ Read and analyse narrative, non-fiction and poetry in order to plan and write their own versions. ƒ Identify and discuss the purpose, audience, structure, vocabulary and grammar of narrative, non-fiction and poetry. ƒ Discuss and record ideas for planning using a range of formats, e.g. chunking a plot, story maps, flow charts, boxing up. Drafting and writing ƒ Create and develop settings for narrative. ƒ Create and develop characters for narrative. ƒ Improvise, create and write dialogue. ƒ Create and develop plots based on a model. ƒ Generate and select from vocabulary banks e.g. noun phrases, powerful verbs, technical language, synonyms for said appropriate to text type. ƒ Use different sentence structures (see VGP). ƒ Group related material into paragraphs. ƒ Use headings and sub headings to organise information. Evaluating and Editing ƒ Proofread to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation in own and others’ writing. ƒ Discuss and propose changes with partners and in small groups. ƒ Improve writing in the light of evaluation. Performing ƒ Use appropriate intonation, tone and volume to present their writing to a group or class.

Spelling As above and:

ƒ Use further prefixes dis_, mis_, re_, and suffixes _ly, _ous, and understand how to add them.

ƒ Add suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words of more than one syllable.

ƒ Spell homophones and near homophones. ƒ Spell words containing the /֑/ sound spelt ou, e.g. young, touch, double

ƒ Spell words with endings sounding like /֗ˎ/ e.g. treasure, enclosure, pleasure.

ƒ Spell words with endings sounding like or /tֈˎ/, e.g. creature, furniture, adventure.

ƒ Spell words with the /eկ/ sound spelt ei, eigh, or ey, e.g. vein, weigh, eight, neighbour, they, obey

ƒ Identify and spell irregular past tense verbs, e.g. send /sent, hear / heard, think/ thought

ƒ Identify and spell irregular plurals, e.g goose/ geese, woman/women, potato /es

ƒ Use the first two letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary.

ƒ Write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the

teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far. ƒ Spell words from the Year 3 list (selected from the statutory Year 3/4 word list) - see below.

Handwriting As above and: ƒ Form and use the four basic handwriting joins. ƒ Write legibly.

Key Learning in Writing: Year 4 Composition Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation As above and: ƒ Create complex sentences with adverb starters e.g. Silently trudging through the snow, Sam made his way up the mountain. ƒ Use commas to mark clauses in complex sentences. ƒ Create sentences with fronted adverbials for when e.g. As the clock struck twelve, the soldiers sprang into action. ƒ Create sentences with fronted adverbials for where e.g. In the distance, a lone wolf howled. ƒ Use commas after fronted adverbials. ƒ Identify, select and use determiners including:

- articles: a/an, the - demonstratives : this/that; these/those - possessives: my/your/his/her/its/our/their - quantifiers: some, any, no, many, much, every ƒ Use inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech e.g. The tour guide announced, “Be back here at four o’ clock.” ƒ Identify, select and effectively use pronouns. ƒ Use nouns for precision, e.g. burglar rather than man, bungalow rather than house. ƒ Explore, identify, collect and use noun phrases e.g. the crumbly cookie with tasty marshmallow pieces. ƒ Explore, identify and use Standard English verb inflections for writing e.g. We were instead of we was. I was instead of I were, I did instead of I done. She saw it instead of she seen it. ƒ Use apostrophes for singular and plural possession e.g. the dog’s bone and the dogs’ bones.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Transcription Composition

Spelling

As above and: Planning ƒ Read and analyse narrative, non-fiction and poetry in order to plan their own versions. ƒ Identify and discuss the purpose, audience, structure, vocabulary and grammar of narrative, non-fiction and poetry. ƒ Discuss and record ideas for planning e.g. story mountain, text map, non-fiction bridge, story board, boxing-up text types to create a plan. Drafting and Writing ƒ Develop settings and characterisation using vocabulary to create emphasis, humour, atmosphere, suspense. ƒ Plan and write an opening paragraph which combines setting and character/s. ƒ Improvise and compose dialogue, demonstrating their understanding of Standard and nonStandard English. ƒ Generate and select from vocabulary banks e.g. adverbial phrases, technical language, persuasive phrases, alliteration. ƒ Use different sentence structures (see VGP). ƒ Use paragraphs to organise writing in fiction and non-fiction texts. ƒ Use organisational devices in non-fiction writing, e.g. captions, text boxes, diagram, lists. ƒ Link ideas across paragraphs using fronted adverbials for when and where e.g. Several hours later…, Back at home… Evaluating and Editing ƒ Proofread to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation. ƒ Discuss and propose changes to own and others’ writing with partners/small groups. ƒ Improve writing in light of evaluation. Performing ƒ Use appropriate intonation, tone and volume to present their writing to a range of audiences.

As above and: ƒ Use further prefixes, e.g. in- , im- ir–, sub–, inter–, super–, anti–, auto–. ƒ Use further suffixes, e.g. –ation, - tion, –ssion, –cian. ƒ Investigate what happens to words ending in f when suffixes are added, e.g. calf/calves. ƒ Identify and spell words with the /k/ sound spelt ch (Greek in origin), e.g. scheme, chorus. ƒ Identify and spell words with the /ֈ/ sound spelt ch (mostly French in origin), e.g. chef, chalet, machine. ƒ Identify and spell words ending with the /g/ sound spelt –gue and the /k/ sound spelt –que (French in origin), e.g. tongue, antique. ƒ Identify and spell words with the /s/ sound spelt sc (Latin in origin), e.g. science, scene. ƒ Understand how diminutives are formed using e.g. suffix - ette and prefix mini-. ƒ Investigate ways in which nouns and adjectives can be made into verbs by the use of suffixes e.g. pollen (noun) and –ate = pollinate (verb). ƒ The /կ/ sound spelt y elsewhere than at the end of words, e.g. myth, gym, Egypt. ƒ Use the first three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary. ƒ Write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far. ƒ Explore and use the possessive apostrophe, e.g. boy’s books (books belonging to a boy) and boys’ books (books belonging to more than one boy). ƒ Spell words from the Year 4 list (selected from the statutory Year 3/4 word list) - see below.

Handwriting As above and:

ƒ Use a joined style throughout their independent writing.

ƒ Write with consistency in size and proportion of letters, e.g. by ensuring that the downstrokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch.

Key Learning in Writing: Year 5 Composition Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation As above and: ƒ Create complex sentences by using relative clauses with relative pronouns who, which, where, whose, when, that e.g. Sam, who had remembered his wellies, was first to jump in the river. The thief broke into the house which stood on the top of the hill. ƒ Create complex sentences where the relative pronoun is omitted e.g. Tina, standing at the bus stop, pondered the day ahead. ƒ Create and punctuate complex sentences using ed opening clauses e.g. Exhausted from the race, Sam collapsed in a heap. ƒ Create and punctuate complex sentences using ing opening clauses, e.g. Grinning with anticipation, Paul launched himself from the diving board. ƒ Create and punctuate sentences using simile starters, e.g. Like a fish out of water, she conversed awkwardly with the other guests. ƒ Demarcate complex sentences using commas in order to clarify meaning. ƒ Use commas to avoid ambiguity, e.g. ‘Let’s eat Grandma.’ and ‘Let’s eat, Grandma.’ ƒ Identify and use commas to indicate parenthesis, e.g. The house, lonely and abandoned, teetered on the edge of the cliff. ƒ Identify and use brackets to indicate parenthesis, e.g. in formal writing: The Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) inhabits open grassland in Africa. ƒ Identify and use dashes to indicate parenthesis, e.g. in less formal writing: The cake was lovely – delicious in fact – so I had another slice. ƒ Link ideas across paragraphs using adverbials for time, place and numbers e.g. later, nearby, secondly.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Transcription Composition

Spelling

Handwriting and Presentation

As above and: Planning ƒ Identify the audience and purpose. ƒ Select the appropriate language and structures. ƒ Use similar writing models. ƒ Note and develop ideas. ƒ Draw on reading and research. ƒ Think how authors develop characters and settings (in books, films and performances).

As above and: ƒ Investigate verb prefixes e.g. dis-, re-, pre-, mis-, over-. ƒ Recognise and spell words ending in –ant, –ance/–ancy, –ent, –ence/–ency. ƒ Recognise and spell words ending in –able and –ible. ƒ Recognise and spell words ending in –ably and –ibly. ƒ Recognise and spell words with the /i:/ sound spelt ei after c, e.g. deceive, receive. ƒ Recognise and spell words containing the letter-string ough. ƒ To recognise and spell the suffixes -al,- ary,- ic. ƒ To spell further suffixes, e.g. ll in full becoming l. ƒ Spell some words with ‘silent’ letters, e.g. knight, psalm, solemn. ƒ To spell unstressed vowels in polysyllabic words. ƒ Develop self-checking and proof reading strategies. ƒ Spell words that they have not yet been taught by using what they have learnt about how spelling works in English. ƒ Use the first three or four letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary. ƒ Use a thesaurus. ƒ Spell words from the Year 5 list (selected from the statutory Year 5/6 word list) - see below.

As above and: ƒ Write fluently using a joined style as appropriate for independent writing. ƒ Choose when it is appropriate to print (lower case or upper case) rather than to join writing e.g. printing for labelling a scientific diagram or data, filling in a form, writing an e mail address.

Drafting and Writing ƒ Select appropriate structure, vocabulary and grammar. ƒ Blend action, dialogue and description within and across paragraphs. ƒ Use different sentence structures with increasing control (see VGP). ƒ Use devices to build cohesion (see VGP). ƒ Use organisation and presentational devices e.g. underlining, bullet points, headings. Evaluating and Editing ƒ Assess the effectiveness of own and others’ writing in relation to audience and purpose. ƒ Suggest changes to grammar, vocabulary and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning. ƒ Ensure consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing. ƒ Ensure consistent subject and verb agreement. ƒ Proofread for spelling and punctuation errors. Performing ƒ Use appropriate intonation and volume. ƒ Add movement. ƒ Ensure meaning is clear.

Key Learning in Writing: Year 5 ƒ Use devices to build cohesion within a

paragraph e.g. firstly, then, presently, this, subsequently. ƒ Use expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely, e.g. carnivorous predators with surprisingly weak jaws and small teeth. ƒ Explore, collect and use modal verbs to indicate degrees of possibility e.g. might, could, shall, will, must. ƒ Explore, collect and use adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility e.g. surely, perhaps, maybe, definitely, alternatively, certainly, probably. ƒ Use suffixes –ate, -ise, -ify to convert nouns and adjectives into verbs. Investigate verb prefixes e.g. dis-, de-, re-, pre-, mis-, over-.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

Key Learning in Writing: Year 6 Composition

Transcription

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

Composition

As above and: ƒ Manipulate sentences to create particular effects. ƒ Use devices to build cohesion between paragraphs in persuasive, discursive and explanatory texts e.g. adverbials such as: on the other hand, the opposing view, similarly, in contrast, although, additionally, another possibility, alternatively, as a consequence. ƒ Use devices to build cohesion between paragraphs in narrative e.g. adverbials such as: in the meantime, meanwhile, in due course, until then. ƒ Use ellipsis to link ideas between paragraphs. ƒ Use repetition of a word or phrase to link ideas between paragraphs. ƒ Identify and use semi-colons to mark the boundary between independent clauses e.g. It is raining; I am fed up. ƒ Investigate and collect a range of synonyms and antonyms e.g. mischievous, wicked, evil, impish, spiteful, well-behaved. ƒ Identify the subject and object of a sentence. ƒ Explore and investigate active and passive e.g. I broke the window in the greenhouse versus the window in the greenhouse was broken. ƒ Explore, collect and use examples of the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause e.g. I had eaten lunch when you came (past perfect); She has eaten lunch already or I have eaten lunch already (present perfect); I will have eaten lunch by then (future perfect). ƒ Punctuate bullet points consistently. ƒ Identify and use colons to introduce a list. ƒ Identify and use semi-colons within lists. ƒ Explore how hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity e.g. man eating shark versus maneating shark.

As above and: Planning ƒ Identify audience and purpose. ƒ Choose appropriate text-form and type for all writing. ƒ Select the appropriate structure, vocabulary and grammar. ƒ Draw on similar writing models, reading and research. ƒ Compare how authors develop characters and

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

settings (in books, films and performances).

ƒ Use a range of planning approaches e.g. storyboard, story mountain, discussion group, post-it notes, ICT story planning. Drafting and Writing ƒ Select appropriate vocabulary and language effects, appropriate to task, audience and purpose, for precision and impact. ƒ Select appropriate register for formal and informal purposes, e.g. a speech for a debate (formal), dialogue within narrative (formal or informal), text message to a friend (informal). ƒ Blend action, dialogue and description within sentences and paragraphs to convey character and advance the action e.g. Tom stomped into the room, flung down his grubby, school bag and announced, through gritted teeth, “It’s not fair!" ƒ Consciously control the use of different sentence structures for effect. ƒ Use a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs. ƒ Deviate narrative from linear or chronological sequence e.g. flashbacks, simultaneous actions, time-shifts. ƒ Combine text-types to create hybrid texts e.g. persuasive speech.

Spelling As above and: ƒ Recognise and spell endings which sound like /ֈˎs/, spelt – cious or –tious.

ƒ Recognise and spell endings which sound like /ֈˎl/, e.g. official, partial.

ƒ Investigate adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words ending in –fer, e.g. referring, reference.

ƒ Investigate use of the hyphen. ƒ Investigate and use further prefixes, e.g. bi- trans- telecircum-.

ƒ Distinguish between homophones and other words that are often confused.

ƒ Identify root words, derivations and spelling patterns as a support for spelling.

ƒ Be secure with all spelling rules previously taught. ƒ Use a number of different strategies interactively in order to spell correctly.

ƒ Develop self-checking and proof-checking strategies, including the use of a dictionary and thesaurus.

ƒ Spell words from the Year 6 list (selected from the statutory Year 5/6 word list) - see below.

Handwriting and Presentation As above and:

ƒ Write, using a joined style, with increasing speed.

ƒ Choose the writing implement that is best suited for a task e.g. pencil for quick notes, handwriting pen for letters, marker pens for posters.

Key Learning in Writing: Year 6 ƒ Explore, collect and use vocabulary typical of

formal and informal speech and writing e.g. find out – discover, ask for - request, go in – enter. ƒ Explore, collect and use question tags typical of informal speech and writing e.g. “He’s your friend, isn’t he?" ƒ Explore, collect and use subjunctive forms for formal speech and writing e.g. If I were able to come to your party, I would; The school requires that all pupils be honest.

© Lancashire County Council (2015)

ƒ Evaluate, select and use a range of organisation

and presentational devices to structure text for different purposes and audiences e.g. headings, sub-headings, columns, bullet points, tables. ƒ Find examples of where authors have broken conventions to achieve specific effects and use similar techniques in own writing – e.g. repeated use of ‘and’ to convey tedium, one word sentence. ƒ Make conscious choices about techniques to engage the reader including appropriate tone and style e.g. rhetorical questions, direct address to the reader. ƒ Use active and passive voice to achieve intended effects e.g. formal reports, explanations and mystery narrative. ƒ Précis longer passages. Evaluating and Editing ƒ Reflect upon the effectiveness of writing in relation to audience and purpose, suggesting and making changes to enhance effects and clarify meaning. ƒ Proofread for grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors. Performing ƒ Use appropriate and effective intonation and volume. ƒ Add gesture and movement to enhance meaning. ƒ Encourage and take account of audience engagement.

Word lists Year 1 Common Exception Words the

a

do

to

today

of

said

says

are

were

was

is

his

i

you

your

they

be

he

me

she

we

no

go

so

by

my

here

there

where

love

come

some

one

once

ask

friend

school

put

push

pull

full

house

our

and/or others according to the programme used

 Year 2 Common Exception Words door

floor

poor

because

find

kind

mind

behind

child

children

wild

climb

most

only

both

old

cold

gold

hold

told

every

everybody

even

great

break

steak

pretty

beautiful

after

fast

last

past

father

class

grass

pass

plant

path

bath

hour

move

prove

improve

sure

sugar

eye

could

should

would

who

whole

any

many

clothes

busy

people

water

again

half

money

Mr

Mrs

parents

Christmas

– and/or others according to the programme used

 

© Lancashire County Council (2015)



Word lists Year 3 accident(ally)

century

February

length

popular

strange

actual(ly)

circle

forward(s)

library

potatoes

thought

address

decide

fruit

minute

promise

through

answer

describe

heard

naughty

purpose

weight

arrive

early

heart

notice

quarter

woman/women

believe

earth

height

occasion(ally)

question

bicycle

eight/eighth

history

often

reign

centre

enough

learn

perhaps

sentence

appear

continue

grammar

material

possible

suppose

breadth

different

group

medicine

pressure

surprise

breathe

difficult

guard

mention

probably

therefore

build

disappear

guide

natural

recent

though/although

busy/business

exercise

imagine

opposite

regular

calendar

experience

important

ordinary

remember

caught

experiment

increase

particular

separate

certain

extreme

interest

peculiar

special

complete

famous

island

position

straight

consider

favourite

knowledge

possess(ion)

strength

 Year 4

 

© Lancashire County Council (2015)



Word lists Year 5 apparent

cemetery

determined

explanation

interfere

occupy

rhythm

amateur

communicate

develop

familiar

language

occur

secretary

ancient

community

dictionary

foreign

leisure

persuade

shoulder

available

conscience*

environment

forty

lightning

physical

soldier

average

convenience

equip (-ped, -ment)

government

muscle

programme

stomach

bargain

curiosity

excellent

hindrance

neighbour

queue

temperature

bruise

desperate

existence

individual

nuisance

recognise

twelfth

rhyme

vegetable

accommodate

category

disastrous

immediate(ly)

privilege

sincere(ly)

accompany

committee

embarrass

interrupt

profession

sufficient

according

competition

especially

marvellous

pronunciation

suggest

achieve

conscious*

exaggerate

mischievous

recommend

symbol

aggressive

controversy

frequently

necessary

relevant

system

appreciate

correspond

guarantee

opportunity

restaurant

thorough

attached

criticise (critic + ise) definite

harass

parliament

sacrifice

variety

identity

prejudice

signature

vehicle

 Year 6

awkward yacht    

© Lancashire County Council (2015)



For further information please contact: Lancashire Professional Development Service The Centre for Learning Excellence Woodlands Conference Centre Southport Road Chorley PR7 1QR Tel: Email: Web:

01257 516100 [email protected] www.lancashire.gov.uk/lpds