Unit Learning Objectives • Differentiate between nuclear & extended families. • Distinguish between family orientation & family procreation. • Define and differentiate between kinds of descent groups and postmartial residence rules.
• Differentiate between lineages an clans • Differentiate between genealogical kin types and kin terms. • Demonstrate your understanding of kinship diagrams through an activity.
Kinship (a.k.a) ‘Basic Building Block of Society’ • Basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories
• Considerable diversity observed across cultures
Kinship Calculation • How people in a particular society reckon kin relations • Ego: position from which one views an egocentric genealogy
• Kinship is culturally variable • Terms will differ from culture to culture • BUT there are a limited # of patterns in which people classify their kin
Genealogical Kin Types & Kin Terms • Genealogical Kin Types vs. Kin Terms • Genealogical Kin (e.g. father’s brother) • Kin Terms (e.g. uncle) • See p244, Figure 10.6 (and the following slide)
Kinship Diagram Symbols
World Distribution of Kinship Systems
Eskimo System • 1/10th of the world’s societies • Associated with bilateral descent • Emphasizes the nuclear family by using separate terms (mother, father, sister, brother) that are not used outside the nuclear family.
Eskimo Kinship System
Hawaiian System • Found in 1/3 of the societies in the world. • Uses a classification system based on sex & gender: • A person’s father, father’s brother, and mother’s brother are all referred to as father.
• In EGO’s generation, the only distinction is based on sex
• Nuclear family members are roughly equivalent to more distant kin.
Iroquois System • EGO’s father and father’s brother are called by the same term, mother’s brother is called by a different term.
• EGO’s mother and mother’s sister are called by one term, a different term is used for EGO’s father’s sister.
• EGO’s siblings are given the same term as parallel cousins.
Omaha System • Emphasizes patrilineal relationships • EGO’s father and father’s brother are called by the
same term, and EGO’s mother and mother’s sister are called by the same term.
• On the mother’s side of the family, is ‘lumped’ across generations
• That merging of generations does not occur on the father’s side
Crow System • Concentrates on matrilineal kin • Mirror image of the Omaha system. • The father’s side of the family are ‘lumped’ across generations
• On EGO’s mother’s side of the family, which is the important descent group, generational distinctions are recognized.
Sudanese • The most complex naming system. • Each category of relative is given a specific term. • Therefore there can be as many as 8 different terms for cousins.
• This naming system is found in Sudan and Turkey • It mirrors the society in how naming can reflect class, occupation and political power.