Addendum to the submitted NAS Report on Terracotta Cluster as sought for by NID With reference to the comments on the submitted NAS Report of Terracotta Cluster at Panchmura, Bankura, W.B., the following generalized and specific notes are added. General notes: The Terracotta Cluster in Panchmura at the present state of activity is found to be exclusively homogeneous, intensive and descendent of same ancestral type i.e. a sort of family business, being continued for generations. The units/artisans as observed in the present survey are utilizing the same raw materials (clay) collected from the single source. Their tools/equipments like potters’ wheels with danda, bamboo twigs, cutters’ blades, petai and dices are of equal design and have equal mode of functioning. The gear based wheel of 3-4 ft diameters are being used by every one and are supplied from a single local source. All are using the circular traditional kilns with enclosures on all sides with permanent stroke-hole. As been mentioned in the submitted unit wise report, all the units do not possess their own kilns, either they have family (same descendent) kilns or they use kiln installed in the premises of the Panchmura Mritshilpi Samabay Samity Limited. With regard to product profile there have been practically no variations and whatever variation is there it has been mentioned in the unit wise survey report. Response to specific queries: i. Since all units are functioning in total resemblance in process and product profiles, unit wise opportunity mapping, instead of cluster wise generalized one (as put in submitted NAS report) will be repetitive and redundant. If the mapping is done on unit basis, it will simply be a copy paste type (as observed by the NAS team) and will not be very useful. ii. With regard to workstation, infrastructure and tool design there have been no variations among the units. Unit wise opportunity mapping with respect to these parameters are not required as understood by the NAS team. Cluster wise technical interventions with regard to these items have been identified and narrated in the submitted report exhaustively. The need of the units with respect to these items as found in the survey closely resembles each other. The interventions will be discussed in the proposed DCW in detail. (some photographs enclosed) iii. With regard to product profiles, unit wise minor variations have been mentioned the report. The products of the cluster are of two types viz. (a) UTILITY TYPES e.g Haanri, Kalsi (water pot), pitcher, tea cup (bhhanr), ash tray, flower vase, tiles; (b) NOVELTY TYPES e.g. horse, elephant, manasa jhhar, door tapestry and small doll (some photographs are enclosed). iv. Ergonomics of running of wheel and throwing in its present form is the crux of all problem of the cluster. And it has been thoroughly described in the NAS Report as well as Unit Wise Report. Problem is proposed to be addressed in the DCW. Dr Asit B. Kundu Design Consultant Dated 13 June 2012
Impact analysis of Design Clinic Workshop (DCW) of Terracotta Cluster at Panchmura, Bankura under the Design Clinic Scheme of MSME, GoI Right after completion of the DCW, the views/comments or suggestions of the participants regarding the delivery of the workshop have been compiled and submitted with the report by filling feedback forms. The Association visited the cluster after 5 days’ workshop in order to assess the impact of workshop and also to arrange firing of green terracotta in kiln that have been fabricated with new clay recipe during the workshop. The following are the observations:
Product wise impact analysis with new clay mix on conventional Bankura Horse & Terracotta tiles •
• • • • •
• • •
The conventional horses of 42 inch weighs about 12.5 kg in the normal clay composition after firing. The fly ash mix clay (clay:fly ash = 60:40) made horse weighs 9.5 kg of the same size. 3 kg less weight means a good amount of saving in the logistics and transport. The breaking during firing for normal clay products is 10-12%. For new clay composition which has been designed by the Design Consultant in the DCW is less than 2%. Bending of products for regular clay during green curing and after firing is 8-10%. For new clay composition bending is less than 1%. Therefore wastage is much less. Bankura’s lateritic soil is sandy, therefore the terracotta products are a bit rough in their surface. The siltic fly ash mix gives the surface a smoother feel and shows luster. Stretchability of regular clay in the green level and after firing terracotta poroducts is between 7-10%. The same in new clay design is about 4%. Therefore wastage of clay is much less. To achieve a particulat terracotta quality where a regular clay requires 5000 C temperature, whereas new clay design made terracotta requires only 3000 C to achieve the same quality. Therefore the latter saves fuel cost. The tiles prepared with fly ash/rice husk ash and clay mixture have been found to be break less in numbers after firing which means productivity is higher in this case compared to conventional clay products. Tiles prepared with the new recipe are found lighter in weight and most of them remain straight lengthwise. There is no occurrence of curving. Results have encouraged the artisans/potters to use fly ash/rice mill husk ash in their clay composition. Some of them stated their own kiln ash to mix with the clay for terracotta fabrication.
Impact on Pedal driven wheel developed by IIT, Kharagpur and the Design Consultant •
• • • •
Pedal driven potters’ wheel supplied by IIT, Kharagpur in the workshop has been kept in the venue for three months in order to assess the impact of the improved wheel in the day to day throwing by maximum number of potters. An user’s register has been kept to keep record of list of users and time period of use. It shows that upto 12 inch products are optimally suitable for the potters to throw on the pedal wheel. Time of throwing is 20% less in the pedal wheel instead of conventinal wheel for products upto 12 inch. Time for throwing is 15% higher in the kick driven wheel and required further modification, though this wheel helps artisans to make big products.
The pedal wheel is patented by RDC, IIT Kharagpur and same would be transferred to New Window for dissemination among decentralised sectors. The pedal wheel is low cost (less than Rs 7000/- per set), thus affordable to every artisan.
Imapact on new product design • •
A series of owls of folkloric style has been designed and attracts customers. This design is a new type in the novelty type items. Corporate desk top items like paper tray, waste paper baskest, pen stand are new line in Panchmura, which have been given by the Design Consultant and they shall have a niche market for that. Flower vase with surface ornamentation is a new subject in Panchmura. The design services towards that during workshop will surely make some impact in business. Tiles designs have a fabulous acievement by the whole team during DCW. The designers have designed number of styles in the tiles and it will surely have an impact in their business.
Impact on motivation and demand for Design Projects from participants •
A number of artisans/entrepreneurs showed interest for Design Project under DCS. They are in regular contact with the association . The design consultant is expected to know more about the projects and the steps required to avail the facility. The entrepreneurs’ main interest has been found to be in the glaze application over terracotta utility items and for which they are eager to install a ceramic kiln (to get temperature above 1050 C). Because of their dependence on Samabay Samity for many activities they want to involve the Samity in the Design Projects. A ceramic kiln may be installed at the premises of Samabay Samity under the Design Clinic Scheme. The artisans/entrepreneurs are asking the association (New Window) to process application for the projects. Initiative is being taken by the association on this matter and likely to contact DCS for further action.
Further R &D by the Association •
• • •
Association is in touch with Rural Development Centre IIT, Kharagpur to develop a manual mixing machine of clay with the fly ash which is considered as an important part for large scale use of fly ash in terracotta product manufacture. Association is also trying to further modify the pedal driven wheel based on the feedback of the users in coordination with RDC, IIT, Kharagpur. Report of the DCW has been submitted to DIC, DRDC, NABARD as well as different departments of IIT Kharagpur for disseminations of the findings. Several tests of new clay mixed terracotta designs will be undertaken at the Materials Science Centre at IIT, Kharagpur by New Window.
Submitted by Atish Ch Chanda 79/1/A, A K Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 090 Cell: 09836002746 Dated 07/09/2012