Learning(from(failure(and(the(transformation( of - SWITCH-Asia

Learning(from(failure(and(the(transformation( of - SWITCH-Asia

Eco8city(practices(in(China:( Learning(from(failure(and(the(transformation( of(implementation(mechanism( +(2(Cases Tao$Zou$$Dr.$/$Director$ Departmen...

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Eco8city(practices(in(China:(

Learning(from(failure(and(the(transformation( of(implementation(mechanism( +(2(Cases Tao$Zou$$Dr.$/$Director$ Department$of$Sustainable$City$Planning$ Beijing'Tsinghua'Tongheng'Urban'Planning'and'Design'Institute'

! Cleaner'Production'for'Livable'Cities' SWITCH?Asia''Networking'Conference'2014

A(brief(review(of(eco8city(practices(in(China

The first officially announced eco-city project begins in Yichun in Jiangxi province in 1985 !

NEPB’s incentive measures form the first wave of eco-city movement in China

D O N G TA N E C O - C I T Y The first ‘zero-carbon’ eco-city initiated in early 2006. A new town located besides a large area of national wetland reserve in the east end of Chongming island, north of Shanghai.

SINO-SINGAPORE TIANJIN ECO-CITY (SSTEC)

30 km2 coastal new town lies east of Tianjin, and starts all its work from a list of 26 indicators

CAOFEIDIAN INTERNATIONAL ECO-CITY Locating near a new superport in Tangshan Symbiocity concept was introduced A target system of 141 indicators

ECO-CITY FERVENCY

Dozens of newly planned eco-cities have emerged within the last 5 years, mostly combining with local new town development.

Emerging(failures(and(major([email protected](factors

Dongtan Eco-city, ceased in 2008

CAOFEIDIAN ECO-CITY Housing projects were loosely spread and infrastructure stand-down

SINO-SINGAPORE TIANJIN ECO-CITY Often commented as a large-scale real estate development; down-turn since 2010; light rail system was obliged to ‘eco-valley’ concept had to be given up

+

realign, and the original transit oriented

POOR DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF TOP-LEVEL MECHANISM

• low extend of power • structural complexity too high to run • incooperation among sectors

LACK OF KNOWLEDGE AND PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT

• immature knowledge system • lack of standards • lack of knowledge supportive structure

I N C O O R D I N AT I O N A M O N G M A J O R S TA K E H O L D E R S

• natural monopoly of large-scale infrastructure • separation of ownership and operation • lack of feedback from users.

L A C K O F S I M P L I C I T Y A N D C A PA B I L I T Y IN MANAGEMENT PROCESS

• Sophisticated and ineffective indicator system • lack of statistical capability

LACK OF SOCIAL OVERSIGHT

• Lack of concerns to uncertain population growth • Absence of public participation

M A J O R FA C T O R S I N F L U E N T I A L T O I M P L E M E N TAT I O N O F E C O - C I T I E S

FA C T O R 1 I N F L U E N C E F R O M N AT I O N A L TA X AT I O N SYSTEM AND LAND USE RIGHT POLICY

FA C T O R 2 L O C A L PAY I N G C A PA C I T Y O F D I F F E R E N T PA R T I E S

Positive correlation between green building and local GDP per capita

Z

Furnished housing ratio negatively correlated to local GDP per capita

FA C T O R 3 DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS S TA N D A R D S

Transformation(of(implementation(mechanism

T H E PA R A D I G M S H I F T • An interesting phenomenon is that fewer officials are hoping to import

ideas and technologies directly from abroad, but rather to make adjustment and alter within its own conventional management structure. It might be that the failure of Dongtan and Caofeidian has downturn the enthusiasm of cooperating with foreign experts, and it is not easy to foreseen the loose cooperation among those with different understanding on economy, society and cultures.

• It is becoming clearer that sustainable development is a “glocal” issue,

that global environmental concerns shall be the vision, while local is the keyword for implementation.

• The formation of eco-cities know-how is transforming from “learning

from others” to “learning by doing”.

M U LT I P L E T Y P E S O F TOP-LEVEL MECHANISM DESIGN

MOHURD AND SOME PROVINCIAL G O V E R N M E N T S H AV E HELPED MANY LOCAL AUTHORITIES TO MAKE CHANGES.

M U LT I P L E T Y P E S O F TOP-LEVEL MECHANISM DESIGN

• SSTEC • simplification • limitation • supervision

RETURNING TO PUBLIC FINANCE • SSTEC • high standard social

welfare is not as costly as expected • easily balanced by

cutting down irrational governmental participation in the market realm

RETURNING TO PUBLIC FINANCE • SSTEC • careful matching on the

scale of public service center and community size

• proven false the

assumption of rising standards equals to increasing budget on public issues

LOCAL PROFESSIONAL SUPPORTIVE STRUCTURE E S TA B L I S H I N G

• SSTEC: 


Green Building Institute • Beijing TBD and Wuxi Taihu

New Town: 
 Eco-city Engineering Technology Research Center • Changxindian Eco-city and

Chenggong New-zone
 routine cooperation network

Underlying(transformation(( in(the(social(and(economic(vision

T R A N S F O R M AT I O N ON A SOCIAL VISION

安徽农业大学“绿色家园”环保协会联合五里墩街道财经科志愿者,昨天在街头进行“命运共同体”、“捐赠空气”、“无声抗议”等

Possible trends for the transition to the post-industrial stage

OUTLOOKS • (1) the making of eco-cities in China are experiments on sustainable

development models that may one day be applied over the country, and this process will not stop or slow down due to national sustainable development and security reasons; • (2) these eco-cities are pushing forward social development out of

expectation of politicians, which might lead to a more open and public participatory urban society in the coming decades; • (3) the learning from international experiences is becoming more careful

than ever, local implementation processes will eventually play the main role, and the diversification of eco-city models might be generated in the near future, and hopefully forming several exporter in knowledge economy realm concerning urban sustainable development.

the case of Chenggong New Zone, Kunming, Yunnan !

by Peter Calthorpe / EF

Chenggong New Zone Status Quo

Alternative Small Block Plan

Existing Plan

One Way Couplet

CHALLENGES & EXPERIENCES

• Slow growing rate in real-estate market • Reluctancy in early stages • Embed new plans into existing management system • Persuasion of both primary and secondary developers

the case of Tiantanghu Chizhou, Anhui !

by THUPDI

open space design challenging land finance

CHALLENGES & EXPERIENCES

• Local decision makers apt to rely on BAU • Who will be the first to contribute to BMP? • Embed KPI indicators in to control plan stage • Longterm relationship with local officials

Thanks!

Z O U TA O @ V I P. S I N A . C O M