Life-cycle thinking in inquiry-based sustainability education - peDOCS

Life-cycle thinking in inquiry-based sustainability education - peDOCS

Juntunen, Marianne; Aksela, Maija Life-cycle thinking in inquiry-based sustainability education - effects on students’ attitudes towards chemistry and...

5MB Sizes 0 Downloads 0 Views

Recommend Documents

Life-Cycle Thinking in Inquiry-Based Sustainability Education – Effects
life-cycle thinking project in chemistry education affect students' chem- .... present study applies inquiry-based chemi

Video Script - Whole System and Lifecycle Thinking
We're going to start by looking at the two most important global principles of sustainable design: Whole Systems and Lif

Branding Sustainability - Figure 8 Thinking
about fashion and the nature of contemporary society. riilero pros'ides well-chosen examples с'om Elsa Schiaparelli. Ro

Sustainability and the RICS property lifecycle
Published by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). Surveyor Court. Westwood Business Park. Coventry CV4 8

Social Sustainability In Portland - Oregon Higher Education
Jan 31, 2013 - Eileen Brennan, PSU, School of Social Work,. Regional Research Institute for Human Services. Veronica Duj

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education
Emerald Article: An international comparative analysis of sustainability transformation across seven .... Leadership and

Incorporating systems-based life cycle thinking and sustainability in
ABSTRACT. Systems-based life cycle thinking and sustainability have become significantly important in higher education a

Ethical Thinking and Sustainability in Role-Play Participants - CiteSeerX
with participants randomly assigned to play FABLE III, and a control condition. I explore two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (

Space for sustainability? From curriculum to critical thinking in
Aug 21, 2015 - Space for sustainability? Sustainable education in the tourism curriculum space. In D. Dredge, D. Airey a

Environmental education for sustainability - DRO
One thing we do not want to do is to develop a sense of doom and gloom .... seed pods, leaves, small branches or twigs,

Juntunen, Marianne; Aksela, Maija Life-cycle thinking in inquiry-based sustainability education - effects on students’ attitudes towards chemistry and environmental literacy CEPS Journal 3 (2013) 2, S. 157-180

Empfohlene Zitierung/ Suggested Citation: Juntunen, Marianne; Aksela, Maija: Life-cycle thinking in inquiry-based sustainability education - effects on students' attitudes towards chemistry and environmental literacy - In: CEPS Journal 3 (2013) 2, S. 157-180 - URN: urn:nbn:de:0111-opus-79989 in Kooperation mit / in cooperation with:

http://www.pef.uni-lj.si

Nutzungsbedingungen

Terms of use

Dieses Dokument steht unter folgender Creative Commons-Lizenz: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/de/deed - Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen sowie Abwandlungen und Bearbeitungen des Werkes bzw. Inhaltes anfertigen, solange Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen. Mit der Verwendung dieses Dokuments erkennen Sie die Nutzungsbedingungen an.

This document is published under following Creative Commons-License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/de/deed.en - You may copy, distribute and render this document accessible, make adaptations of this work or its contents accessible to the public as long as you attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor. By using this particular document, you accept the above-stated conditions of use.

Kontakt / Contact:

peDOCS Deutsches Institut für Internationale Pädagogische Forschung (DIPF) Informationszentrum (IZ) Bildung E-Mail: [email protected] Internet: www.pedocs.de

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

var ia

L i f e -C y c l e hT ink in g inInqu i r y -B a s edSu s t a in ab i l i t y Edu c a t ion–Ef e c t sonS tud en t s ’A t t i tud e stow a rd s Ch em i s t r yandEn v i r onm en t a lL i t e r a c y 2 Mar iann eJuntun en *1 and Ma i jaAk s e la



hTea imo fth ep r e s en ts tud yi stoimp r o v eth equ a l i t yo fs tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c yandsu s t a in ab i l i t yedu c a t ioninch em i s t r yt e a ch in g b ycom b in in gth eso c io s c i en t if ci s su eo fl i f e c y c l eth ink in gw i thinqu i r y -b a s edl e a rn in gapp r o a ch e s . hT i sc a s es tud yp r e s en t sr e su l t sf r om aninqu i r y -b a s edl i f e c y c l eth ink in gp r o j e c t :anin t e rd i s c ip l in a r yt e a ch in g mod e ld e s i gn edb ych em i s t r yt e a ch e r s . hT es t r en g tho fth ep r o j e c t i sth a tupp e r s e cond a r ys tud en t s(N= 10 5 )a r ea l low edtoin v e s t i g a t eth e l i f ec y c l eo fanop t ion a lp r odu c tb a s edonth e i rownin t e r e s t .S tud en t c en t r edt e a ch in gm e thod sa r esu g g e s t edtop r omo t eth es tud en t s ’in t e r e s tins tud y in g . hT er e s e a r chqu e s t ionw a s :H owdo e saninqu i r y -b a s ed l i f e c y c l eth ink in gp r o j e c t inch em i s t r yedu c a t ionaf e c ts tud en t s ’ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e sanden v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c y ? hT er e s e a r ch m e thod su s ed in c lud edsu r v e y sands em i s t ru c tu r edin t e r v i ew s . hT es tud yshow sth a t th ep r o j e c tpo s i t i v e l yaf e c t eds tud en t s ’a t t i tud e stow a rd sch em i s t r y l e a rn in g :th e yv a lu edth eind ep end en tandco l l abo r a t i v el e a rn in gs e t t in g . hT ech an g e s in th es tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c yw e r ee v id en t in th e i rn ewr e a l i s a t ion s :th e yemph a s i s edth e impo r t an c eo fen v i r onm en t a lp r o t e c t ionandr e c y c l in g ,bu tp e r c e i v edth a tch an g in gth e i rownb e h a v iou r i ss t i l ld if cu l t . hT e inqu i r y -b a s ed t e a ch in go f l i f e c y c l e th ink in g c anb es e ena sanef e c t i v eapp r o a chto mo r e mo t i v a t in gandsu s t a in ab l ech em i s t r yedu c a t ion .Fu r th e rr e s e a r chshou ldadd r e s sth ek ind so f know l ed g eou t com e sth a tth i st yp eo finqu i r y -b a s edl i f e c y c l et e a ch in g c r e a t e sins tud en t s .Fu r th e rmo r e ,o th e ru s e fu lapp r o a ch e stot e a ch in g su s t a in ab l ed e v e lopm en t inch em i s t r y l e s son sshou ldb esh a r ed . K e ywo rd s :A t t i tud e s ;Ch em i s t r y l e a rn in g ;En v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y ; Inqu i r y -b a s ed l e a rn in g ;L i f e c y c l eth ink in g

1 *C o r r e spond in gA u tho r .Un i to fCh em i s t r yhT e a ch e rEdu c a t ion ,D ep a r tm en to fCh em i s t r y , Un i v e r s i t yo fH e l s ink i ,F in l and m a r i ann e . jun tun [email protected] e l s ink i .f 2 Un i to fCh em i s t r yhT e a ch e rEdu c a t ion ,D ep a r tm en to fCh em i s t r y ,Un i v e r s i t yo fH e l s ink i ,F in l and

1 5 7

1 5 8

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

Ž i v l j en j s k ik r o g i zd e lko v inu č en j ezr a z i s ko v an j emz a t r a jno s tn ir a z vo j–vp l i vn aodno su č en c e vdok em i j e in o ko l j s k ap i sm eno s t Mar iann eJuntun en *and Ma i jaAk s e la



C il jr a z i s k a v e j e i zbo l j š an j ek ako vo s t iodno s ad i j ako vdok em i j e ,n j iho v e o ko l j s k ep i sm eno s t i indo t r a jn e g a i zob r a ž e v an j aspomo č jozd ru ž e v an j a so c ion a r a vo s lo vn ihv s eb in , t j .r a zm i š l j an j aož i v l j en j s k emk r o gu i zd e lko v , inp r i s topo vu č en j azr a z i s ko v an j em .Vt e jš tud i j ip r im e r asop r ed s t a v l j en ii z s l edk ip r o j e k t aou č en juzr a z i s ko v an j emp r iupo r ab ikon t e k s t a , po v e z an e g azž i v l j en j s k imk r o gomi zd e lko v .P r o j e k tsoko tin t e rd i s c ip l in a rn i mod e lpou č e v an j aob l iko v a l iu č i t e l j ik em i j e .N j e go v ap r edno s t j e ,d al ahkos r edn j e šo l c i(N=10 5 )r a z i s ku j e jož i v l j en j s k ik r o gpo l ju bn e g ap r edm e t ao z .i zd e lk ag l ed en až e l j ea l iin t e r e s ,s a jn a jb im e tod e pou č e v an j a ,k ivs r ed i š č epo s t a v l j a jou č en č e v ein t e r e s e ,spodbu j a l en j iho voz an im an j ez au č en j en e k ev s eb in e .R a z i s ko v a lnovp r a š an j ej eb i lo , k akop r i s topu č en j azr a z i s ko v an j emzupo r abokon t e k s t aož i v l j en j s k em k r o gui zd e lko vp r ipoukuk em i j evp l i v an aodno su č en c e vdok em i j e inn an j iho voo ko l j s kop i sm eno s t .P od a tk isob i l ip r idob l j en izank e t i r an j eminspo l s t ruk tu r i r an im iin t e r v ju j i .Š tud i j a j epo k a z a l a ,d a j eu čn i p r i s top ,upo r ab l j envp r o j e k tu ,po z i t i vnovp l i v a ln aodno sd i j ako vdo u č en j ak em i j e ;po z i t i vnosoo c en i l iind i v idu a lnoinsod e lo v a lnou č en j e . Sp r em em b evo ko l j s k ip i sm eno s t iu č en c e vsos ek a z a l evt em ,d aso u č en c ipoud a r j a l ipom em bno s tv a r o v an j ao ko l j ainr e c ik l i r an j a ,v end a r p avp l i v in asp r em em b en j iho v e g ar a vn an j an i sob i l iz a zn an i .U č en j ez r a z i s ko v an j emzupo r abokon t e k s t aož i v l j en j s k emk r o gu i zd e lko v l ahko u č inko v i tovp l i v an a mo t i v i r ano s tu č en c e vinu čn ep r i s top evk em i j s k emi zob r a ž e v an ju ,k it em e l j i jon at r a jno s tn emr a z vo ju . Vp r ihodn j e b ib i lot r eb ar a z i s k a t iš ev r s t eob l iko v an e g azn an j a ,k ig asto v r s tn im i zob r a ž e v an j emp r idob i jod i j ak ia l iu č en c i .P o l e gt e g ap ab i mo r a l iupo r ab l j a t itud id ru g ep r i s top evpou č e v an jut r a jno s tn e g ar a z vo j ap r ipouku k em i j e . K l ju čn eb e s ed e : odno s i ;u č en j ek em i j e ;o ko l j s k ap i sm eno s t ;u č en j ez r a z i s ko v an j em ;ž i v l j en j s k ik r o g i zd e lk a

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

In t rodu c t ion “ Iund e r s t o odh owmu c he v enasm a l lth in g ,su c ha sas im p l en ew s p a p e r , im p a c t sone v e r y th in g .I ti ss im p l et om anu f a c tu r ei tbu ts t i l li tc on sum e sa l o t . S oth eim p o r t an c eo fr e c y c l in gi shu g e .Im e an ,y oun e edt or e c y c l e ,o th e rw i s e n o th in gm a k e ss en s e . ” ( a1 5 y e a r -o ldg i r le xp r e s s in gh e ra t t i tud e saf e rth e l i f e c y c l ep r o j e c t ) hT er a t ion a l eo fth ep r e s en td e s i gnr e s e a r chi stoimp r o v eF inn i shs tud en t s ’a t t i tud e sands k i l l sr e l a t edtoch em i s t r y ,su s t a in ab i l i t yandth em a t e r i a l s o fv a r iou sp r odu c t s . hT es tud yadd r e s s e stwos ep a r a t econ c ep t s :ch em i s t r ya tt i tud e sanden v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y . hT econ c lu s ionandd i s cu s s iona im tod e t e r m in eth econn e c t ionb e tw e enth e s etwocon c ep t s . hT er e s e a r chp r ob l ema r i s e sf r omth ef a c tth a tth r ou ghou tEu r op eth e in t e r e s tink e ys c i en c esub j e c t samon gyoun gp eop l eh a sd e c l in ed(H o f s t e in , E i lk s , &B yb e e ,20 10 ;th eIn t e rA c ad em yP an e l ,20 10 ;K r app &P r en z e l ,20 1 1 ; O sbo rn e ,200 3 ; Ro c a rd ,C s e rm e l y ,J o rd e ,L en z en , W a lb e r g -H en r ik s son ,& H emmo ,200 7 ;V a s s i l iou ,20 1 1 ) .A sino th e rEu r op e ancoun t r i e s ,n a t ion a ls tudi e s inF in l andh a v er e v e a l ed th a tF inn i shs tud en t sp a r t i cu l a r l yd i s l ik ech em i s t r y (K ä rn ä ,H akon en ,&K uu s e l a ,20 1 2 ) . hT es e l e c t iono ftop i c sandt e a ch in gm e th od sa r eo fk e yimpo r t an c einsuppo r t in gs tud en t s ’in t e r e s tins tud y in gs c i en c e ( J uu t i ,L a von en ,U i t to ,&B ym an ,200 9 ;M and l e r ,M am lo k -N a am an ,B lond e r , Y a yon ,&H o f s t e in ,20 1 2 ;V anA a l s voo r t ,200 4 ) .En v i r onm en t a landso c i e t a li ssu e sr e l a t edtoth ed a i l yl i v e so fs tud en t sc ansuppo r tth e i rp e r c ep t iono fth e r e l e v an c eo fs tud y in gac e r t a insub j e c t(M and l e re ta l . ,20 1 2 ;M a r k s &E i lk s , 200 9 ;V anA a l s voo r t ,200 4 ;Y a g e r ,L im ,&Y a g e r ,200 6 ) .Inch em i s t r y ,F inn i sh s tud en t ss t ru g g l eth e mo s tw i thapp l i edt a s k sr e l a t edtov a r iou se v e r yd a ym a t e r i a l s(K ä rn ä ,H akon en , &K uu s e l a ,20 1 2 ) .Inr e spon s etoth i sch a l l en g e ,th e p r e s en ts tud yapp l i e s inqu i r y -b a s edch em i s t r yt e a ch in go f l i f e c y c l eth ink in gto th eupp e r s e cond a r ys choo l l e v e l . F r omanedu c a t ion a lpo in to fv i ew , l i f e c y c l e th ink in g i saso c io s c i en t i fi ct e a ch in gapp r o a ch ,a si ti sanin t e rd i s c ip l in a r ys c i en c ei s su eth a ti scomp l e x , con t r ad i c to r yandr e l e v an ttoth ed a i l yl i v e so fs tud en t s(K o l s to ,200 1 ;Ou l ton , D i l lon ,&G r a c e ,200 4 ;S ad l e r ,20 1 1 ) .Int e rm so fch em i s t r y ,i ten comp a s s e s g r e ench em i s t r yanden g in e e r in g(An a s t a s , &L ank e y ,2000 ;A s kh am ,20 1 1 ) . An a l y s in g th ecomp r eh en s i v e l i f ec y c l eo fap r odu c t i s in i t s e l fanad v an c edf e ld o fs c i en c eth a te v a lu a t e sth een v i r onm en t a lbu rd eno fap r odu c t ,in v e s t i g a t in g ap r o c e s so ra c t i v i t yb yqu an t i f y in gth en e tfow so fd if e r en tch em i c a l s ,m a t e r i a l sanden e r g y(B l a c k bu rn&P a yn e ,200 4 ) . hT ea s s e s sm en to fr e sou r c eu s eand

1 5 9

1 60

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

em i s s ion s ,a sw e l la sth e i rh e a l thimp a c t s ,en ab l e simp r o v em en t stob em ad e inp r odu c tl i f e c y c l ep r o c e s s e sf r omanen v i r onm en t a lp e r sp e c t i v e(An a s t a s& L ank e y ,2000 ) .L i f e c y c l eth ink in gi sach em i s t r ytop i cinth en a t ion a ls t and a rd so fedu c a t ion inF in l and(M in i s t r yo fEdu c a t ion ,200 3 ,200 4 ) . R e c en t l y , th eUn i t edN a t ion sd e c l a r ed th ey e a r s200 5– 20 1 4 th ewo r ldd ec ad eon“Edu c a t ionfo rSu s t a in ab l eD e v e lopm en t ”(UNE SCO ,200 9 ) . hT ea im o fth i sd e c ad ei stoe x t endth eid e a lo fsu s t a in ab l ed e v e lopm en tina l la r e a so f edu c a t ion .D efn i t ion so fsu s t a in ab i l i t ya r ew id e l yd i s cu s s edg lob a l l y( J e rn e c k e ta l . ,20 1 1 ;J ohn s ton ,E v e r a rd ,S an t i l lo ,&Rob è r t ,200 7 ) .InF in l and ,how e v e r , i ti sawo r r y in gandp r ob l em a t i cf a c tth a tbo y sh a v e mo r en e g a t i v ea t t i tud e s tow a rd sen v i r onm en t a lp r o t e c t ionth ang i r l s(A sun t a ,200 3 ;K ä rn äe ta l . ,20 1 2 ; S a lo r an t a&U i t to ,20 10 ;U i t toe ta l . ,20 1 1 ) . hT e r e i snodoub tth a tfu tu r ec i t i z en s mu s th a v eth ew i l l in gn e s sands k i l l stoa c tsu s t a in ab l y ,wh e th e rinth er o l eo fa ch em i s t ,acon sum e r ,ap a r en t ,avo t e ro rad e c i s ion m ak e r .Ch em i s t r yt e a ch in g c anfo s t e rs tud en t s ’v i ew sons c i en c e -b a s edsu s t a in ab i l i t yi s su e s .B yu s in gr e l e v an tandcon t r ad i c to r yso c io s c i en t if c i s su e s , i t i spo s s ib l etosuppo r ts tud en t s ’ und e r s t and in go fhowch em i s t r ytop i c sa l sor ef e c tth e mo r a l ,so c i a landph y s ic a lwo r lda r oundth em(H o lb r oo k ,200 5 ;Z e id l e r ,S ad l e r ,S immon s ,& H ow e s , 200 5 ;W i lm e s&H ow a r th ,200 9 ) . hT et e rm‘ en v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c y ’r e f e r st oth es k i l l sand m o t i v a t iont o w o r kt ow a rd sth er e so lu t iono fen v i r onm en t a lp r o b l em s ,anda c t i v e in v o l v em en t inw o r k in g t ow a rd s th em a in t en an c eo fad yn am i cequ i l i b r iumb e tw e en th equ a l i t yo fl i f eandth equ a l i t yo fth een v i r onm en t(H su&Ro th ,1 9 9 8 ) .I ti sr e l a t edt o kn ow l ed g e ,af e c t ,s k i l l sandb eh a v iou ronth r e el e v e l s :n om in a l ,fun c t ion a land op e r a t ion a lcom p e t en c e s(Ro th ,1 9 9 2 ) . UNE SCOin c lud e skn ow l ed g e ,und e r s t and in g ,a t t i tud e sanda c t i v e in v o l v em en t in th e i ren v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y r e l a t ed s t a t em en t s(M a r c in k ow s k i ,1 9 9 1 ) . hT ea pp l i c a t ion sando b j e c t i v e so fen v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c ya r ec r o s s cu r r i cu l a randc lo s e l yr e l a t edt oth eo b j e c t i v e so f ‘ s c i en t if c l i t e r a c y ’(H o l b r oo k&R ann i km a e ,200 9 ;S imm on s ,1 9 8 9 ) .Inth ep r e s en ts tud y , ch an g e s ins tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c ya r ea s s e s s ed in t e rm so fen v i r onm en t a l l yr e spon s i b l ea t t i tud e sandp r o en v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou r(Y a v e z , Go ldm an , &P e e r ,200 9 ;s e ea l soE rdo g an ,M a r c in k ow s k i ,& O k ,200 9 ) . hT ein t en t iont o a c t–ino th e rw o rd s ,p r o en v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou r–i sapow e r fu lp r ed i c t o ro f r e spon s i b l een v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou r(H su&Ro th ,1 9 9 8 ) . Com b in in gl i f e c y c l eth ink in gandinqu i r y -b a s edl e a rn in gi san ew app r o a chtot e a ch in gch em i s t r y .Aninqu i r y -b a s edl e a rn in gs e t t in gw a su s ed b e c au s ei th adb e enshowntog en e r a t epo s i t i v ea t t i tud e stow a rd sch em i s t r y ins tud en t s(A k s e l a ,200 5 ;G ib son &Ch a s e ,200 2 ;J uu t ie ta l . ,200 9 ;M inn e r , L e v y ,&C en tu r y ,20 10 ;Ro c a rde ta l . ,200 7 ) .Inqu i r yapp r o a ch e sp l a c e mo r eo f

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

th er e spon s ib i l i t yfo rth et a s kons tud en t s(Co lbu rn ,2000 ) . hT e yc ansuppo r t ind i v idu a ld e c i s ion -m ak in gp r o c e s s e sandp r o vo k eso c io s c i en t if cd i s cu s s ion abou ttop i c ssu cha scon sum e rp r odu c t s(M a r k s&E i lk s ,200 9 ) . hT i sl e a rn in g s e t t in gi san ewe x amp l eo fhowtoin vo l v ea sp e c t so fsu s t a in ab i l i t y(hT undoe t a l . ,2000 )ande th i c s(Dond i ,20 1 1 ;Z e id l e re ta l . ,200 5 )inch em i s t r yl e s son s . Fu r th e rmo r e ,th i sapp r o a ch m e e t sth ego a l so f“ edu c a t ionth r ou ghs c i en c e ” th ink in g ,a soppo s edto“ edu c a t ionins c i en c e ”th ink in g( s e eH o lb r oo k&R an n ikm a e ,200 7 ) .

hT er e s e a r chp rob l emandth er e s e a r chqu e s t ion Ch em i s t r yt e x tboo k sinF in l andl a c kt a s k sr e l a t edtol i f e c y c l eth inkin gandinqu i r y( J un tun en & A k s e l a ,20 1 1 ) .Ino rd e rtosuppo r tth e wo r ko f t e a ch e r s ,in s e r v i c et r a in in gcou r s e sabou tl i f e c y c l eth ink in g ,inqu i r y -b a s ed t e a ch in gm e thod sandsu s t a in ab l ed e v e lopm en tw e r ea r r an g ed inF in l andf r om 20 10to20 1 2 .A tth e s ecou r s e s ,ato t a lo f20ch em i s t r yt e a ch e r sco l l abo r a t i v e l y d e v e lop edn ewinqu i r y -b a s ed ,l i f e c y c l eth ink in gt e a ch in g mod e l sfo rth e i r ownn e ed s( J o y c e& W e i l ,1 9 8 6 ;J un tun en&A k s e l a , inr e v i ew ) . hT ep r e s en tc a s e s tud y ,wh i chi sp a r to fal a r g e rc y c l i cd e s i gnr e s e a r chp r o j e c t(Ed e l son ,200 2 ) , in v e s t i g a t e ss tud en t s ’p e r sp e c t i v e sonth i sno v e lt e a ch in gapp r o a ch .Inp a r t i cu l a r ,th es tud y in v e s t i g a t e swh e th e r inqu i r y -b a s ed l i f e c y c l et e a ch in gaf e c t ss tu d en t s ’a t t i tud e stos tud y in gch em i s t r yandtob eh a v in ginanen v i r onm en t a l l y su s t a in ab l ew a y . hT er e s e a r chqu e s t ionw a s :H owdo e san inqu i r y -b a s ed l i f e c y c l eth ink in gp r o j e c t inch em i s t r yedu c a t ionaf e c ts tud en t s ’ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e s anden v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y ?

M e thod P a r t i c i pan t s hT eem p i r i c a lr e s e a r chw a scondu c t eddu r in gth e20 1 1– 20 1 2s ch oo ly e a r in th r e es ch oo l s inSou th e rnF in l and . hT ep a r t i c ip an t sw e r e10 5upp e r s e cond a r y s ch oo ls tud en t s inth e9 thy e a r( 1 4– 1 5y e a r s ) ,5 8o fwh omw e r eg i r l sand4 7bo y s . hT e i rch em i s t r yt e a ch e r s(N= 3 )t e s t edth en o v e la pp r o a cht ot e a ch in gl i f e c y c l e th in k in g . Ar e s e a r ch e rv i s i t edth eth r e es ch oo l sb e f o r eandaf e rth el i f e c y c l e p r o j e c tw o r kandco l l e c t edandan a l y s eda l lo f th ed a t au s ed in th i ss tud y .Am on g th ev o lun t e e r s ,2 7s tud en t sw e r er andom l ych o s enf o rin t e r v i ew s , wh i ch w e r e do cum en t edonaud ior e co rd in g s .A l lo fth eo th e rd a t aco l l e c t edw a s inaw r i t t en f o rm insu r v e y s . hT e l an gu a g eu s ed in th e in t e r v en t ionw a sF inn i sh ,bu ta l lo f th e an sw e r sp r e s en t ed inth ep r e s en tp a p e rh a v eb e ent r an s l a t ed in t oEn g l i sh .

1 6 1

1 6 2

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

In t e r v en t i on hT ein t e r v en t ionw a sap r o j e c two r kb a s edonth einqu i r y -b a s ed ,s tud en t c en t r ed ,so c i a lt e a ch in g mod e l( s e eCo lbu rn ,2000 ;J o y c e& W e i l ,1 9 8 6 ) . hT ea imo fth ep r o j e c tw a sfo rs tud en t s insm a l lt e am stocon s id e rth ep r o sand con so fth el i f e c y c l eo fap r odu c t . hT es tud en t scho s eth ep r odu c ta c co rd in g toth e i rownin t e r e s t .Du r in gth ep r o j e c t ,th es tud en t sw e r ein vo l v edins e t t in g th e i rownr e s e a r chqu e s t ion s ,s e a r ch in gfo rin fo rm a t ion ,d i s cu s s in gth e i rfnd in g s in t e am s ,r e v i ew in g th ewo r ko fo th e r t e am s ,andp r e s en t in g th er e su l t s .A f t e rth ep r o j e c t ,th es tud en t sh adanoppo r tun i t ytoen g a g e ind eb a t eabou tth e i r v i ew sr e g a rd in gth eu s e fu ln e s so fp r odu c t s ,r e spon s ib i l i t yandth eind i v idu a l ’ s po s s ib i l i t i e sfo ra c t ion . hT es tud en t sco l l e c t edd a t aabou tr aw m a t e r i a l s ,m anuf a c tu r in gp r o c e s s e sandu s a g e ,a sw e l la sr e c y c l in gandw a s t em an a g em en t .In c a s e swh e r eth et e amo fs tud en t sw a sp a r t i cu l a r l yc ap ab l e ,th e i rin v e s t i g a t ion s a l so in c lud ede l em en t ssu cha sp r e c i s e in fo rm a t iono re s t im a t e sabou t th ep r od u c t ’ s l i f e sp an ,foo tp r in t s ,h e a l thef e c t sanden v i r onm en t a l imp a c t s .D ep end in g onth et e a ch e r ,th es tud en tg r oupandth ep r odu c to fin t e r e s t ,th ein t e r v en t ion too kabou t10– 1 5hou r so v e rap e r iodo f2– 3w e e k s . hT econ t en to fth ewo r k w a suptoth es tud en t sth em s e l v e s ;thu sth e yl e a rn edtot ak er e spon s ib i l i t yo f th e i rownl e a rn in g . hT r ou ghou tth ep r o j e c t ,th er o l eo fat e a ch e rw a sth a to fa f a c i l i t a to r ,suppo r t in gth es tud en t sw i thid e a swh en e v e rth e yn e ed edh e lpo r en cou r a g em en t . R e s ea r chin s t rum en t s Asumm a r yo fth er e s e a r chin s t rum en t so fth es tud yi sp r e s en t edin hT ab l e1ande xp l a in edin mo r ed e t a i lb e low . Ono rd e rtoimp r o v eth ev a l id i t y o fth er e su l t s ,m i x ed -m e thod sandr e s e a r ch e r t r i an gu l a t ionw e r eu s ed .H e r e , r e s e a r ch e r t r i an gu l a t ion m e an sth a tano th e rr e s e a r ch e rind ep end en t l ycon du c t edas im i l a ran a l y s i so fa l lo fth ed a t a ino rd e rtov a l id a t eth es am er e su l t s . hT ab l e1 .R e s e a r c hI n s t rum en t s Chem i s t ryA t t i tude s Be fo r ethe in t e rv en t ion(p r e )

Env i ronmen ta lL i te r a cy

Sem i s t ru c tu r ed in t e rv iew s Asu rv e y(Y a v e ze ta l . ,2009 ) , (Ma r k s ,Be r t r am ,&E i l k s ,2008 ) sem i s t ru c tu r ed in t e rv iew s(Ma r k s , Be r t r am ,&E i l k s ,2008 )

A f t e rthe Anopenque s t ionna i r e(E i l k s , in t e rv en t ion(po s t ) 2005 ;Ma r k se ta l . ,2008 ) ,asu rv e y(Ma r k se ta l . ,2008 ) ,sem i s t ru c tu r ed in t e rv iew s(Ma r k s , Be r t r am ,&E i l k s ,2008 )

Anopenque s t ionna i r e(E i l k s , 2005 ;Ma r k se ta l . ,2008 ) ,asu rv e y (Y a v e ze ta l . ,2009 ) ,sem i s t ru c tu r ed in t e rv iew s(Ma r k s ,Be r t r am , &E i l k s ,2008 )

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

hT es tud en t s ’ ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e sw e r em e a su r edbo thqu a l i t a t i v e l y andqu an t i t a t i v e l y . Qu a l i t a t i v em e thod sin c lud edp r e -po s ts em i s t ru c tu r ed in t e r v i ew s(M a r k s ,B e r t r am , &E i lk s ,200 8 )andanop enpo s t -qu e s t ionn a i r e (E i lk s ,200 5 ) .Aqu a r t e ro fth es tud en t s(N= 2 7 )w e r ein t e r v i ew eding r oup so f 4– 5s tud en t sd i r e c t l yb e fo r eandaf e rth ein t e r v en t ion .S em i s t ru c tu r edqu e s t ion sw e r e mod if edf r om M a r k se ta l .( 200 8 )anda r ep r e s en t ed inhT ab l e2 . hT e an a l y s i so fth ed i s cu s s ion sw a scon t en td r i v en(hT uom i&S a r a j ä r v i ,200 6 ) ,w i th s tud en t s ’an sw e r sb e in gqu an t if eda c co rd in gtoth e i re xp l i c i te xp r e s s ion s . hT e an sw e r sw e r ec l a s s if ed int e rm so f : ( 1 )th es tud en t s ’r ef e c t i v ee xp r e s s ion sabou tth eu s e fu ln e s so rnon -u s e fu ln e s s o fs tud y in gch em i s t r y , ( 2 )ch em i s t r ycon t en t . hT ab l e2 .S em i s t ru c tu r edqu e s t i on sinth ein t e r v i ew s P re -D i s cu s s ion s

Po s t -D i s cu s s ion s

( 1 ) Wha t i sthe ma incon t en tyou lea rned in you rp r e v iou schem i s t ry le s son s ?

(6 ) Whydoyouth in ka l ls tuden t s mu s t lea rnchem i s t ry ins choo l ?

(2 ) Wha tk indo fwo r k ing me thod sha v eyou (7 )Howd idth i sp ro je c two r kd ife rf romthe u sed inchem i s t ry le s son sbe fo r e ? u sua l le s son s ? (3 )Howdoe sana v e r agechem i s t ry le s son ta k ep la c e ?

(8 )Inyou rop in ion ,wha ta r ethe ma in th ing syouha v e lea rned ?

(4 )D idyou lea rnsome th ing inyou rchem - (9 )Inthe la s tfeww ee k s ,youha v e lea rned i s t ry le s son stha tyoucanu sea thomeo r in a lo tabou t l i fe cy c leth in k ing .Doe sth i s you rf r eet ime ? ma k eyouth in kabou tp rodu c t s ’ l i fe cy c le s inyou rf r eet imea sw e l l ? (5 ) Wha tdoyouw an tf romchem i s t ry le s son s ?

( 10 )Inthe la s tfeww ee k s ,youha v e lea rned a lo tabou t l i fe cy c leth in k ing .Doe sth i s ma k eyouth in kabou tyou rbeha v iou ra sa con sume r ? ( 1 1 )Doyouth in kyou rbeha v iou rcou ld changedueto l i fe cy c leth in k ingandthe p ro je c t ?

hT efou rop enw r i t t enqu e s t ion su s edaf e rth e in t e r v en t iona r ep r e s en tedinhT ab l e3 . hT ef r s tth r e equ e s t ion sw e r eth es am ea stho s eo fE i lk s( 200 5 ) , wh i l eth efou r thqu e s t ionw a sadd edb a s edonth ep r e in t e r v i ew s(M a r k se ta l . , 200 8 ) . hT ean sw e r s(N= 10 5 )w e r econ t en t an a l y s edr e g a rd in ghowth es tud en t s r ef e c tth einqu i r y -b a s edl i f e c y c l eth ink in gp r o j e c to v e r a l l ,andwh e th e rth e y m en t ionimp r o v em en tinth e i rcommun i c a t ionab i l i t i e s ,coop e r a t i v es k i l l sand ind ep end en two r k(E i lk s ,200 5 ;hT uom i &S a r a j ä r v i ,200 6 ) . hT ean sw e r sw e r e c l a s s if eda spo s i t i v e ,n eu t r a lo rn e g a t i v e .P o s i t i v ee xp r e s s ion sin c lud eds t a t e m en t ssu cha s“ Il i k edi t ” ,“ Il o v edth ef r e ed omands tud y in gl i k eth i s ” ,“ I tw a s

1 6 3

1 6 4

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

fun ” ,“ I n t e r e s t in gt o l e a rn im p o r t an tth in g s ”o r “N i c et ob ec r e a t i v e ” .hT yp i c a ln eu t r a lan sw e r s in c lud eds t a t em en t ssu cha s“ I tw a s ju s tad if e r en tm e th odo fs tud y in g ”o r“N oo p in i on ” ,wh i l en e g a t i v ee xp r e s s ion sw e r etho s esu cha s“hT et o p i c w a sb o r in g ” ,“ Ip r e f e rth eo r d in a r y l e s s on s ” ,“U s e l e s s ”o r “hT o omu c hh om ew o r k ” . hT ab l e3 .hT ew r i t t eno p enp o s t qu e s t i onn a i r e(E i l k s ,2 0 0 5 ;M a r k se ta l . ,2 0 0 8 ) ( 1 ) Wha ta r ethe mo s t impo r tan td ife r en c e sbe tw eenth i sp ro je c tandthechem i s t ry le s son s youno rma l lyha v e ? (2 ) Wha t i syou rop in ionontheapp roa chba sedonyou rownque s t ion sand in t e r e s t ? Wha td idyou l i k ethe mo s tabou t i t ,andwha tcou ldbe imp ro v ed ? (3 ) Whydoyouth in kthet ea che rcho setou seth i sapp roa chfo rthe la s tfew le s son s ? (4 ) Wha tw e r ethe ma inth ing stha tyou lea rned inth i sp ro je c t ?

hT equ an t i t a t i v em e thodto m e a su r eth es tud en t s ’ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e s w a sa5 -po in tL ik e r tsu r v e y(M a r k se ta l . ,200 8 )adm in i s t e r edaf e rth ein t e rv en t ion . hT equ e s t ionn a i r ea s k eds tud en t sfo rth e i rop in ion sabou tth econ t en t (qu e s t ion s3 9 4 2 )and m e thod s(qu e s t ion s3 7 ,3 8 ,4 3 )o fth e l i f e c y c l ep r o j e c t ,a s w e l la sth e i rr ef e c t ion son i t(qu e s t ion s3 4 ,3 5 ,3 6and4 4 ) . hT ean sw e r s(N= 10 5 ) w e r ean a l y s edu s in gb a s i cs t a t i s t i c a lan a l y s i s . hT equ e s t ionn a i r ei sp r e s en t edin A pp end i x1 . hT es tud en t s ’ en v i ronm en t a ll i t e r a c yw a sm e a su r edbo thqu a l i t a t i v e l y andqu an t i t a t i v e l y . Qu a l i t a t i v em e thod sin c lud edp r e -po s ts em i s t ru c tu r ed in t e r v i ew s(M a r k se ta l . ,200 8 )andanop enpo s t -qu e s t ionn a i r e(E i lk s ,200 5 ; M a r k se ta l . ,200 8 ) . Aqu a r t e ro fth es tud en t s(N= 2 7 )w e r ein t e r v i ew edin g r oup so f4– 5s tud en t sd i r e c t l yb e fo r eandaf e rth e in t e r v en t ion . hT e in t e r v i ew qu e s t ion sa r ep r e s en t edinhT ab l e2 . hT ean a l y s i so fth ed i s cu s s ion sw a scont en td r i v en(hT uom i&S a r a j ä r v i ,200 6 ) . hT es tud en t s ’an sw e r sw e r equ an t if ed a c co rd in gtoth e i re xp l i c i te xp r e s s ion s .S t a t em en t se xp r e s s in gen v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c yw e r es e a r ch ed fo r inth ean a l y s i s ,andr e spon s e sw e r ec l a s s if ed int e rm s o fth e i rr ef e c t i v ee xp r e s s ion sabou t : ( 1 )en v i r onm en t a landso c i e t a law a r en e s s , ( 2 )con t r ad i c to r yandcon fu s in ga sp e c t s , ( 3 )d e v e lopm en to fs tud en t s ’ l i f e c y c l eth ink in gs k i l l s ,con sum e rb eh a v iou rand en v i r onm en t a l l yr e spon s ib l eb eh a v iou r . hT efou rop enw r i t t enqu e s t ion s–a s k edon l yaf e rth ep r o j e c two r k– a r ep r e s en t edinhT ab l e3 . hT eop enan sw e r s(N= 10 5 )f r omth equ e s t ionn a i r e r e g a rd in gth es tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c yw e r er ef e c t edinth ean a l y s i so f E i lk s( 200 5 )and M a r k se ta l .( 200 8 ) ,a sw e l la sb e in gcon t en tan a l y s ed(hT uom i

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

&S a r a j ä r v i ,200 6 ) . hT ean sw e r s ’con t en t -d r i v enc a t e go r i e sr e l a t edtoen v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c yw e r en ewthou gh t sandth eimpo r t an c eo fen v i r onm en t a lp r ot e c t ionandr e c y c l in g . En v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c y ,int e rm so fen v i r onm en t a la t t i tud e sandp r o en v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou r ,w a ss tud i edqu an t i t a t i v e l yw i thap r e -po s t5 -po in t L ik e r tsu r v e y(Y a v e ze ta l . ,200 9 ) . hT eo r i g in a lqu e s t ionn a i r ef r omY a v e z ,Go ldm an ,andP e e r( 200 9 )w a sa4 -po in tsu r v e yw i th4 3qu e s t ion s .O fth e s e ,3 2w e r e mod if edto m e e tth ego a l so fth ep r e s en ts tud y . hT een v i r onm en t a lknow l ed g e s e c t ionw a sno tcon s id e r eda sasu i t ab l em e a su r em en tin s t rum en to fen v i r on m en t a ll i t e r a c yfo rth ep r e s en tr a th e run s t ru c tu r edinqu i r y -b a s edl i f e c y c l e p r o j e c t .F o rth i sr e a son ,andino rd e rtol im i tth eamoun to fd a t a ,th i ss e c t ion w a som i t t ed .Aqu e s t ionabou te a t in gv e g e t a r i an foodw a s in c lud edb e c au s eth e top i c so fen v i r onm en t a la c t i v i smw e r eb r o ad en edf r omhou s in gandcon sump t iontoin c lud efoodcon sump t iona sw e l l . hT em a incompon en t sth a tm ak eup an ind i v idu a l ’ sen v i r onm en t a l foo tp r in tc anb ed i v id ed in to fou ra r e a s :hou s in g , food ,t r an spo r tandth econ sum ab l e sw ebu y(C a l co t t&Bu l l ,200 7 ) .hT r an spo r t a t ionw a som i t t edf r omth ep r e s en ts tud y . hT een v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c ysu r v e y u s ed i sp r e s en t ed inA pp end i x2 . hT equ an t i t a t i v ean sw e r so fth es tud en t s(N= 9 6 ,b e c au s e9o fth e10 5 an sw e r scou ldno tb eu s ed )w e r ean a l y s edw i thSP S S( S t a t i s t i c a lP a c k a g e fo rSo c i a lS c i en c e ,PA SWS t a t i s t i c s1 8 )u s in gb a s i cs t a t i s t i c a lan a l y s i s ,f a c to ran a l y s i s andth r e e -w a yANOVA .I tcou ldh a v ein c lud edth r e em a inef e c t s ,th r e etwo w a yin t e r a c t ion sandon eth r e e -w a yin t e r a c t ion ,bu th e r eon l yth em a inef e c t s ( g end e r ,p r e /po s t ,s choo l )andth etwo -w a y in t e r a c t ion s(b e tw e enp r e /po s tand g end e ro rs choo l )a r eo f in t e r e s t .Du etoth ef a c tth a tth er e l i ab i l i t i e so fth ef a c to rs co r e so fth esumv a r i ab l e su s edb yY a v e z ,Go ldm an ,andP e e r( 200 9 )w e r e w e ak(C r on b a ch ’ sa lph ab e tw e en0 . 4 9–0 . 8 2 ) ,f a c to ran a l y s i sw a su s edtoob t a in n ewf a c to rs co r e s ,wh i l eth eco r r e l a t ion so fth e s es co r e stog end e r ,s choo land p r e /po s t an sw e r sw e r ein v e s t i g a t ed w i thth r e e -w a y ANOVA . hT ee x t r a c t ion m e thod w a sP r in c ip a lA x i sF a c to r in gandth er o t a t ion m e thod w a sP r om a x w i th K a i s e rN o rm a l i s a t ion . hT ep a t t e rn m a t r i x e sa r eshowninhT ab l e s4and 5 . Qu e s t ion s1– 2 1w e r ei t e r a t edn in et im e s .Ino rd e rtoc r e a t em e an in g fu land r e l i ab l esumv a r i ab l e s ,af a c to rs co r e l im i to f0 . 4w a sa g r e eduponamon g s tth e r e s e a r ch e r s . hTu squ e s t ion s1 ,3 ,4 ,5and7d idno tr e l i ab l yf tin toan ysum v a r i ab l e sand w e r eom i t t edf r omsub s equ en tan a l y s i s .N ewcom b in a t ion so f b eh a v iou r f a c to rs co r e sw e r en am edtom e a su r een v i r onm en t a l l yr e s p on s i b l eb e h a v i ou r ind a i l y l i f e(qu e s t ion s1 5 ,1 8 ,1 9 ,20and2 1 ) , c i t i z en s h i pa c t i on s inn a tu r e (qu e s t ion s8 ,1 1 ,1 2 ,1 6and1 7 ) ,r e s ou r c ec on s e r v in ga c t i on sf o rp e r s on a lfn an c i a l b en ef t(qu e s t ion s6 ,9 ,10and1 4 )and r e c y c l in gef o r t s(qu e s t ion s2and1 3 ) . hT e

1 6 5

1 6 6

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

a t t i tud equ e s t ion sf r om2 2to3 6w e r ei t e r a t edth r e et im e s .H e r e ,on l yqu e s t ion 2 2w a som i t t ed ,a s i t s f a c to rs co r ew a s l e s s th an0 . 4 . hT en ewsumv a r i ab l e sw e r e n am eda sim p o r t an c eo fen v i r onm en t a ledu c a t i on ,l e g i s l a t i onanden f o r c em en t a sat o o lf o ren v i r onm en t a lm an a g em en t(qu e s t ion s24 ,2 5 ,2 7 ,2 8 ,30 ,3 1and3 2 ) andl o cu so fc on t r o landv a lu eo fth en a tu r a len v i r onm en t(qu e s t ion s2 3 ,2 6 ,2 9 and3 3 ) . fth ef a c t o r hT ab l e4 .hT ep a t t e rnm a t r i xa o s c o r e sf o rp r e en v i r onm en t a la c t i onqu e s t i on s f r om1t o2 1 ,o fwh i c hth en ewf a c t o r sw e r e c r e a t edu s in ga l im i to f v a lu e0 . 4

hT ab l e5 .hT ep a t t e rnm a t r i xa f a c t o rs c o r e s f o rt h ea t t i tu d e qu e s t i on s f r om2 2t o3 3 ,o fw h i c h t h en ew f a c t o r sw e r ec r e a t e d u s in ga l im i to fv a lu e0 . 4

F a c to r 1 15

2

3

F a c to r 4

5

1

.6 18

27

.66 7

20

.55 1

25

.653

18

.549

28

.635

2 1

.486

32

.630

19

.48 1

24

.593

3 1

.568

30

.524

7

.360

1

.339

.309

2

16

.5 7 4

26

17

.53 7

33

.6 14

1 1

.5 12

29

.436

8

.495

23

12

.4 76

22

3

.38 1

5

.293

9 14 10 6

.6 78 .605 .489 .406

13

. 734

2

.66 7

4

. 703

. 7 14

.403 .302

.303

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

R e su l t s Ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e s hT es tud en t s ’ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e sd e v e lop edinapo s i t i v ed i r e c t ion .In th e in t e r v i ew scondu c t edaf e r th e in t e r v en t ion ,e v e r ys in g l eon eo f th es tud en t s r ef e c t edth eu s e fu ln e s so fs tud y in gch em i s t r yb ye xp r e s s in ghowth e yl e a rn b en ef c i a lth in g s inch em i s t r y .M o r eth anath i rdo fth em(N= 1 1 / 2 7 )m en t ion ed th ecommonknow l ed g er o l eo fch em i s t r y l i t e r a c ya sb e in gimpo r t an ttoth em . hT econ t en ts tud en t sd e s c r ib edl e a rn in ginch em i s t r ysw i t ch edf r omch em i c a l p r e s en t a t ion stosub s t an c e s inv a r iou sp r odu c t s .Inth efou rop enw r i t t enqu e st ion s ,s tud en t sm en t ion edth eimp r o v em en tinth e i rcommun i c a t i v eab i l i t i e s (h a l fo fth es tud en t s ,N= 5 3 / 10 5 ) ,ind ep end en two r k in g( ath i rdo fth es tud en t s , N= 3 6 / 10 5 )andcoop e r a t i v es k i l l s( as e v en tho fth es tud en t s ,N= 1 5 / 10 5 ) .O v e r a l l , th e yr ef e c t edth einqu i r y -b a s edl i f e c y c l eth ink in gp r o j e c tinav e r ypo s i t i v e w a y .S im i l a r l y ,th esu r v e yshow edth a tth es tud ym e thod so fth ep r o j e c tapp e a l ed tobo thg i r l sandbo y s ,w i thg i r l sr a t in g th econ t en to f th ep r o j e c tand th e con c ep to f l i f e c y c l eth ink in g mo r epo s i t i v e l yth anbo y s . A mo r ed e t a i l ede x am in a t iono fth ein t e r v i ew s ’con t en tan a l y s i sr e v e a l s th a tth es tud en t s ’r ef e c t i v ee xp r e s s ion sabou ts tud y in gch em i s t r ytu rn edf r om non -u s e fu ln e s stou s e fu ln e s s .P r io rtoth ep r o j e c t ,m an ys tud en t se xp r e s s ed c au t iou sthou gh t sinth ein t e r v i ew s :“ I ’ v e l e a rn edt ob ec a r e fu lw i thsu b s t an c e s ” , “ I ’ma f r a id t oa p p l yc h em i s t r y inm y f r e e t im e ” ,“Y ouc anm a k eh o l e s iny ou rs k in ” . Af e rth ep r o j e c t ,mo r eth anath i rdo fth e in t e r v i ew eds tud en t s(N= 1 1 / 2 7 )m ent ion edth ecommonknow l ed g er o l eo fch em i s t r y l i t e r a c y . hT e ya g a ind e s c r ib ed a f ewd an g e r s ,su cha sto x i c sa thom eo runh e a l th y ,n a tu r e -h a rm in gsub s t an c e s ; how e v e r ,a l lo fth ems t a r t edtod e s c r ib ehowth e ya l sol e a rnb en ef c i a lth in g s inch em i s t r y :“Wh a ty ouu s e… Wh a tth ep r odu c t sin c lud e…S oth a ty ouw i l l n o tu s ei tth ew r on gw a y… H owi ti sp r odu c ed… Wh a ts a v e sth een v i r onm en t andwh a td o e sn o t…Im p o r t an tf o ry ou rfu tu r ep l an s… ” . hT econ t en tknow l ed g einth ep r o j e c tw a sc l e a r l y mo r ein t e r e s t in gtoth emb e c au s ei tw a sr e l a t ed toth e i rd a i l y l i f eandsu s t a in ab i l i t yi s su e s .P r io rtoth ep r o j e c t ,th es tud en t s d e s c r ib edth ech em i s t r ycon t en tknow l ed g eth e yh adl e a rn eda sa tom s ,ion s , mo l e cu l a rp r e s en t a t ion s ,r e a c t ion so rch em i c a ls ym bo l s ,andsub s t an c e sand th e i rcom b in a t ion inth e i rch em i s t r y l e s son s . hT eon l ye xp e r im en t a lwo r kth e y r em em b e r edw a s“ e l e ph an t ’ st o o th p a s t eandl i qu o r i c e ” .A c co rd in gtoa l lo fth e s tud en t s ,th et yp i c a lwo r k in gm e thodw a sw r i t in gandr e ad in go rdo in ga s s i gn m en t sf r omboo k s . hT e yr epo r t edth a tat yp i c a lch em i s t r y l e s sonin vo l v ed “ d o in gs om eth e o r yf r s t ”and“ l i s t en in gt oy ou rt e a c h e r sr an t ” ,fo l low edb yt a lk in g , do in ge xp e r im en t sandw r i t in g“ l i k ec r a z y ”inano t eboo k . hT es tud en t sw an t ed

1 6 7

1 6 8

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

toh a v e mo r ee xp e r im en t sandl e s sw r i t in ginth e i rch em i s t r yl e s son s . Af e r th ep r o j e c t ,th econ t en tknow l ed g eth e ym en t ion ed w a ssub s t an c e sinv a r i ou sp r odu c t s . hT es tud en t se xp l a in edth a tth e yh adl e a rn edabou tp l a s t i c sin acompu t e r mou s e ,sub s t an c e so fac i r cu i tbo a rd ,sub s t an c e so fanan t i a g e in g f a c ec r e am ,c a rbonfb r e sinani c eho c k e ys t i c k ,andch em i c a l sinal ip s t i c k .In comp a r i sontoo rd in a r ych em i s t r y l e s son s ,th es tud en t sd e s c r ib edth e l i f e c y c l e p r o j e c ta s :“M o r em e an in g fu landf r e e ,n i c e r ,andfunn i e r ” and “ y ouc ou ldinfu en c eth em e th od so fh owt os tud y ,y oul e a rn edb e t t e r ,i tw a sn o ts ob o r in g ” . hT i s w a sm a in l yb e c au s eth e yh adach an c eto“ s h a r eo p in i on s ,c o o p e r a t e ,s e a r c hth e I n t e rn e tandb o o k s ,m a k eph on ec a l l s ” .S tud en t ss a id : “Wh eny ous e a r c hf o rth e in f o rm a t i ony ou r s e l f…Y ouc h o o s e…Y oufndm o r ed i v e r s ekn ow l ed g e…Y oua r e r e s p on s i b l ef o ry ou rowna c t i on s…Y oud on o tn e edt oon l yl i s t ent or an t in g… Y ouc and os om e th in gy ou r s e l f…Y oug e ts t r a i gh tf e ed b a c k ”.On eo fth es tud en t s d e s c r ib edth ep r o j e c two r k :“Y ouy ou r s e l fs e eth er e su l to fwh a ty ou ’ v em an a g ed t od o…Im e an , th eo r d in a r yw e e k l y l e s s on sd on ’ t t e l lu se v e r y th in g .A sy ouh a v e t o d oe v e r y th in gy ou r s e l f f r omth eb e g inn in gt oth eend ,y our e a l l ys e eth er e su l tand h ow mu c hy oukn owa b ou ti taf e ra l l–inc om p a r i s ont oon l yan sw e r in gs om e qu e s t i on siny ou rn o t e b o o k… ” . hTu sth einqu i r y -b a s ed ,ind ep end en tandso c i a l l e a rn in gs e t t in gundoub t ed l y mo t i v a t edth es tud en t s ins tud y in gch em i s t r y . hT ean sw e r s to th e fou rop enw r i t t enqu e s t ion s in th esu r v e ya r ep r e s en tedinhT ab l e6 .Con t en tan a l y s i so fth ean sw e r sshow sth a tth es tud en t s(N= 10 5 ) r ef e c t edth einqu i r y -b a s edl i f e c y c l eth ink in gp r o j e c tinag en e r a l l ypo s i t i v e w a y(N= 8 5 / 10 5 ) ,w i thg i r l sb e in g mo r epo s i t i v eth anbo y s .On l yaf ews tud en t s (N= 7 / 10 5 )h adn e g a t i v ea t t i tud e stow a rd sth ep r o j e c t . hT e ywou ldh a v e l ik edto h a v e mo r et im efo rth e i rin v e s t i g a t ion s .A l so ,op en end eda s s i gnm en tin s t ru ct ionc au s edsom econ fu s ion ,ands tud en t sa s k edfo r mo r ee xp l i c i tgu id e l in e s . hT eimp r o v em en tincommun i c a t ionab i l i t i e sinen v i r onm en t a ld i s cou r s ew a s r ef e c t edb ya lmo s th a l fo fth es tud en t s(N= 5 3 / 10 5 ) . hT e yp e r c e i v edimp r o v e m en t sinth e i rc r i t i c a lth ink in gs k i l l s : “W ec anc r i t i c i s eth ef a c t s ” ,“M o s to fth e in f o rm a t i ona b ou tth ep r odu c tm anu f a c tu r in gw a sh idd en ” ,“W eh adac h an c et o s t a t eou ro p in i onandh e a r th o s eo fo th e r s ” .Ind ep end en t l e a rn in go rwo r k in gw a s m en t ion ed inapo s i t i v ew a yb yabou tath i rdo fth es tud en t s(N= 3 6 / 10 5 ) :“M o r e f r e e ” ,“En c ou r a g edt os e a r c h f o r in f o rm a t i on ind e p end en t l y ” ,“Y ouc an in v e s t i g a t e wh a ty ouw an t ” ,“ I t i sg o odt o l o o ka tasu b j e c t f r omd if e r en tp e r s p e c t i v e sandang l e s ” ,“Ownw o r k ” ,“Y ou t o o kr e s p on s i b i l i t y f o ry ou r s e l f ” ,“Y ouc ou lds e a r c h f o r th e in f o rm a t i onc r e a t i v e l y ” .Coop e r a t i v es k i l l sw e r epo s i t i v e l yd i s cu s s edb yabou t e v e r ys e v en ths tud en t(N= 1 5 / 10 5 ) :“hT eb e s tth in gw a st ow o r kw i thaf r i end ” , “Y oul e a rn edt oc o o p e r a t e ” ,“A sy ous tud yt o g e th e r ,y oud i s cu s sy ou rw o r kand g e td if e r en to p in i on sa b ou t i t ” ,“ I tw a s in t e r e s t in gt o l e a rnwh a to th e rg r ou p sh ad

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

l e a rn ed ” .hT einqu i r y -b a s ed ,ind ep end en tandso c i a ll e a rn in gs e t t in gen cou ra g edimp r o v em en t sinth es tud en t s ’commun i c a t i v eab i l i t i e s ,c r i t i c a lth ink in g s k i l l sandcoop e r a t i v es k i l l s . hT ab l e6 .hT er e su l t so fth ec on t en tan a l y s i so fw r i t t eno p enan sw e r s Ca tego ry ,whe reanan swe rw a sc la s s ified

g i r l s(N=58 )

bo y s(N=47 )

Independen t lea rn ing

27

9

Coope r a t iv e lea rn ing

10

5

Commun i ca t ionab i l i t ie s

3 1

22

Po s i t iv ea t t i tude ingene r a ltow a rd sthep ro je c t

53

32

Neu t r a la t t i tude ingene r a ltow a rd sthep ro je c t

2

1 1

Nega t iv ea t t i tude ingene r a ltow a rd sthep ro je c t

3

4

hT er e su l t so fth equ an t i t a t i v esu r v e y(A pp end i x1 )a r einl in ew i thth e r e su l t sf r omth ein t e r v i ew sandop enw r i t t enqu e s t ion s . hT es tud en t s ’op in ion s abou t l i f e c y c l e th ink in g , th econ t en to f th ep r o j e c tand th es tud ym e thod sw e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l ye v a lu a t edaf e rth ein t e r v en t ion . hT em e an sands t and a rdd e v i a t ion so fth eg i r l sandbo y sa r eshowninhT ab l e7 .Ar e spon s ew i thth ev a lu e1 co r r e spond sto“ s t r on g l yd i s a g r e e ” , wh i l e5 m e an s“ s t r on g l ya g r e e ” . hT eg i r l s po s i t i v e l yr ef e c t edp r odu c t l i f e c y c l eth ink in g(qu e s t ion s1 ,2 ,3and1 1 ,m e an= 3 . 6 )and th econ t en to f th ep r o j e c t(qu e s t ion s5 ,6and10 ,m e an3 . 9 ) ,wh e r e a s th e bo y sw e r en eu t r a l(bo thm e an s=3 .0 ) . hT es tud ym e thod sapp e a l ed tobo thg i r l s (qu e s t ion s6 ,7 ,8and9 ,m e an=4 . 1 )andbo y s(m e an=3 . 8 ) . hT ab l e7 .hT em e an sands t and a r dd e v i a t i on so fth eg i r l sandb o y ss tud i ed

P ro je c te v a lua t ion

G i r l s(N=58 )

Bo y s(N=47 )

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

Refle c t ion

3 .6

0 .9

3 .0

1 .0

Con t en t

3 .9

0 .9

3 .0

1 . 1

S tudy me thod s

4 . 1

0 .9

3 .8

1 .0

En v i r onm en ta l l i t e r a c y Inth ein t e r v i ew sh e ldp r io rtoth ein t e r v en t ion ,th es tud en t sd idno t m en t ionan y th in gr e l a t edtoen v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c ya sp e c t s . Af e rth ein t e rv en t ion ,th e ypo s i t i v e l yr ef e c t edth ed e v e lopm en to fth e i rl i f e c y c l eth ink in g s k i l l s(N= 1 3 / 2 7 )andcon sum e rb eh a v iou r(N= 9 / 2 7 ) .N on e th e l e s s ,a lmo s th a l f

1 6 9

1 70

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

o fth es tud en t s(N= 1 2 / 2 7 )d idno tth inkth a tth ep r o j e c th adaf e c t edth e i rown en v i r onm en t a l l yr e spon s ib l eb eh a v iou r . hT em a jo r i t yo fth emd id ,how e v e r , th inkth a tth i st yp eo fp r o j e c tcou ldinfu en c eo th e ryoun gp eop l e s ’b eh a v iou r (N= 1 7 / 2 7 ) .In th e fou rop enw r i t t enqu e s t ion s ,a lmo s te v e r ys tud en t(N= 8 2 / 10 5 ) m en t ion edth a tth emo s t impo r t an tou t com efo rth emw a sn ew id e a sandr e a l is a t ion s .Inr e spond in gtoth esu r v e y ,th e ye x t en s i v e l ye xp r e s s edth e impo r t an c e o fen v i r onm en t a lp r o t e c t iono rr e c y c l in g .Inth equ an t i t a t i v esu r v e yr e su l t s ,no s i gn if c an t(p<0 .0 1 )d if e r en c e sins tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a la t t i tud e so rb eh a v iou rw e r eno t i c ed . A mo r ed e t a i l ede x am in a t iono fth ein t e r v i ewan sw e r sr e v e a l sth a ts tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a landso c i e t a law a r en e s sin c r e a s edc l e a r l y ,a sth e mo s timpo r t an tth in g sth es tud en t ss a idth e yh adl e a rn edw e r eso c i e t a l :“ I ti sn o tju s t th a tth ep r odu c ti sm anu f a c tu r edandu s ed ,bu tth a ti tin c lud e sa l lf o rm sand e v e r y th in g ,t r an s p o r t a t i on ,p a p e rw o r kandcu l t i v a t i on…I tm ad em eth in ka b ou t wh a tt obu yandh owy ouaf e c tth i ss y s t em . ” Ath i rdo fth es tud en t s(N= 9 / 2 7 ) thou gh tth a tth ep r o j e c tinfu en c edth ed ep tho fth e i rl i f e c y c l eth ink in gand con sump t ionh ab i t stosom ee x t en t :“ It r yt os a v een e r g y…I ’ v es t a r t edt oth in k a b ou tm yw a t e rc on sum p t i on…Y outh in kwh a ty ouw a s t eandwh a ty ous a v e . ” A lmo s ta l lo fth es tud en t sd e s c r ib edth e impo r t an c eo fr e c y c l in g :“ I fy oud on o t r e c y c l e ,wh a th a p p en s , i tc ant a k ed e c ad e sb e f o r e i tc om bu s t s…S oth em a inp o in t mu s th a v eb e enth a ty ouh a v et or e c y c l e… W e l o o k eda tth etw ow a y s–e i th e rt o r e c y c l eo rn o t–andth e r ew a sahu g ed if e r en c e ! ” . hT econ t r ad i c to r ya sp e c t sth a t th es tud en t sob s e r v edw e r einth el im i t edop enn e s so fin fo rm a t ion ,inh e a l th c l a im s ,o rinth ep r o sandcon so fm anu f a c tu r in gp r o c e s s e sinth ecoun t r i e so f p r odu c t ion .Int e rm so fth ed e v e lopm en to f l i f e c y c l eth ink in gs k i l l s ,con sum e r b eh a v iou randen v i r onm en t a l l yr e spon s ib l eb eh a v iou r ,th er e su l t sshowth a t a lmo s th a l fo fth es tud en t s(N= 1 2 / 2 7 )s t a t edth a tth el i f e c y c l ep r o j e c td idno t m ak eth emth inkabou tth e i rcon sump t ionh ab i t so rp r odu c t s ’l i f e c y c l e sdu rin g th e i r f r e e t im e : “N o tmu c h…I fy ou ju s tbu y f r omas h o py oud on ’ t th in ka b ou t h owi th a saf e c t edth eE a r tho rend edu ph e r e . ” M o s t l ys tud en t sw e r econ fu s ed abou tth ee x t en s i v en e s so fl i f e c y c l eth ink in g :“ Is t a r t edt oth in ka b ou to th e r p r odu c t sa th om et o o ,bu tth enIc ou ldn ’ t .Id idn ’ tkn owwh a th adr e a l l yh a p p en ed ,s oI l e ti tb e… ”S t i l l ,th em a jo r i t yo fth es tud en t s(N= 1 7 / 2 7 )b e l i e v edth a t ing en e r a lth e i rb eh a v iou r ,o rth a to fo th e ryoun gp eop l e ,cou ldch an g eb e c au s e o fs choo lp r o j e c t s :“ I fs tud en t sd i s cu s si tth em s e l v e s ,i tw i l lm a t t e r…I fp a r en t s t e l lth e i rc h i ld r ent or e c y c l eth e yw on ’ td oi t ,bu ti fi t ’ sth e i rf r i endi taf e c t sth em m o r e…S oth ec l e v e ron e sw i l ll e a rni t…I fth ep r o j e c tc on t inu edl on gen ou gh , p e o p l ew ou lds t a r tt oc a r em o r eand m o r e ,e v enth ou ghth e r ea r ea lw a y sp e o p l e wh ow on ’ tc a r e ”.Som eo f th es tud en t sw e r ea l sos c ep t i c a l : “W ea r eb e in gr a i s ed t o

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

th i se a s in e s s…I ta l lc om e s f r omas h o p , i fy ous t a r t edt os tud y i tm o r e ,y ouw ou ld endu pcu l t i v a t in gy ou rowng a r d en ,i t ss e ed sandac owt og e tf e r t i l i s e r s ” .hT e in t e r v en t ionc au s edr ef e c t i v eth ink in gabou tth eind i v idu a l ’ sa c t ions k i l l sand th e l i f e c y c l e so fp r odu c t s .Ath i rdo fth es tud en t sh adpo s i t i v ethou gh t sabou t th e i rownen v i r onm en t a l l yr e spon s ib l eb eh a v iou r .A lmo s th a l fo fth emcou ld no ts e ean ych an g e inth e i rownb eh a v iou r ,bu tthou gh tth a tth i st yp eo fp r o j e c t cou ld infu en c eth eb eh a v iou ro fo th e r s . hT ean sw e r stoth efou rop enw r i t t enqu e s t ion sinth esu r v e ysuppo r t ed th er e su l t so fth ein t e r v i ew s .M o s ts tud en t s(N= 8 2 / 10 5 )w r o t eth a tth e mo s t impo r t an tou t com efo rth emw a ssom ehown ews c i en t if cthou gh t sabou tth e wo r ld :“ S im p l eth in g sa r em o r ec om p l e xth anth e yl o o k ” ,“Y oun e ed m an yth in g s t om anu f a c tu r ee v enasm a l lp r odu c t ”“ Is t a r t edt oth in ka b ou tE a r thi s su e s . ” hT e impo r t an c eo fen v i r onm en t a lp r o t e c t ionandr e c y c l in gw a se x t en s i v e l yr ef e c t ed :“W ed i s cu s s edr aw m a t e r i a l sm o r eth anu su a l ” ,“H ow m an yc h em i c a l sand h ow mu c hh idd enw a t e rth em anu f a c tu r in go fp r odu c t sc on sum e s ” ,“hT el i f ec yc l e so fd if e r en tp r odu c t s l o o ka l i k e ” ,“ Ikn owb e t t e rn owh ow th eb i r tho fap r odu c t o p p r e s s e sn a tu r e ” ,“hT o om an yth in g sa r eb e in gu s ed ,s ow eo v e r l o ad ” . hT equ an t i t a t i v esu r v e yr e su l t sd idno tshowan ych an g e s ins tud en t s ’env i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y in t e rm so fa t t i tud e so rp r o en v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou r .Fu r th e rmo r e ,th el i f e c y c l ep r o j e c td idno tc au s ean ys i gn if c an t(p<0 .0 1 )p r e /po s t d if e r en c e sinth er e su l t so fth e5 -po in tL ik e r tsu r v e y(A pp end i x2 ) .Ino rd e r toan a l y s eth eco r r e l a t ion so fg end e r ,s choo landp r e /po s tan sw e r stoth een v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c ysumf a c to r s ,th r e e -w a yANOVAw a su s ed . hT em a inef e c t s ( g end e r= sp ,p r e /po s tands choo l=kou lu )andtwoo fth etwo -w a y in t e r a c t ion s (b e tw e enp r e /po s tandg end e ro rs choo l )w e r ean a l y s ed .Inf a c to r1(qu e s t ion s 1 5 ,1 8 ,1 9 ,20 ,2 1 ) , f a c to r2(qu e s t ion s8 ,1 1 ,1 2 ,1 6 ,1 7 )and f a c to r5(qu e s t ion s24 ,2 5 , 2 7 ,2 8 ,30 ,3 1 ,3 2 ) ,g end e rands choo lbo thh adas i gn if c an tm a inef e c t .Inf a c to r 6(qu e s t ion s2 3 ,2 6 ,2 9 ,3 3 ) ,on l yg end e rh adas i gn if c an tm a inef e c t .Inf a c to r 3(qu e s t ion s6 ,9 ,10 ,1 4 )andf a c to r4(qu e s t ion s2 ,1 3 ) ,th e r ew e r enos i gn if c an t m a inef e c t s . hT e r ew e r enos i gn if c an ttwo -w a yin t e r a c t ionef e c t sinan yo f th ef a c to r s ,m e an in gth e r ew e r enop r e /po s t ef e c t sr e l a t edtog end e ro rs choo l . A lon gw i thg end e r ,s choo lcu l tu r eandp r a c t i c es e em edtos t r on g l yinfu en c e th es tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y . hT eg i r l s ’b eh a v iou randa t t i tud es co r e s in th esu r v e yw e r emo r een v i r onm en t a l l yr e spon s ib l eth antho s eo fth ebo y s ,bo th b e fo r eandaf e rth e in t e r v en t ion .Fu r th e rmo r e ,th es tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a la tt i tud es co r e sw e r eg en e r a l l ymo r epo s i t i v e th an th e i rp r o en v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou rs co r e s . hT er e l i ab i l i t i e so fth esumf a c to r sa sC r on b a ch ’ sa lph a sa r eshown inhT ab l e8 ,wh i cha l soshow sth er e l i ab i l i t i e sfo ra l lb eh a v iou rqu e s t ion s( 1– 2 1 ) andfo ra l la t t i tud equ e s t ion s( 2 2– 3 3 ) . hT ev a lu e sa r egoodenou ghtocon c lud e

1 7 1

1 7 2

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

th a tth esu r v e yw a scon s i s t en t . hT i sm e an sth a tth ed if e r en c e sapp e a r eddu e toth es tud en t sb e in gd if e r en t ,no tb e c au s eo fcon fu s in go run c l e a rqu e s t ion s . hT ab l e8 .hT eC r on b a c h ’ sa l ph a sf o rth esumf a c t o r s f a c to r1=En v i ronmen ta l lyr e spon s ib lebeha v iou r inda i ly l i fe

0 . 703

f a c to r2=C i t i z en sh ipa c t ion inna tu r e

0 .6 7 4

f a c to r3=Re sou r c econ se rv inga c t ion sw i thpe r sona lfinan c ia lbenefi t

0 .09 1*

f a c to r4=Re cy c l ingefo r t s

0 .65 1

f a c to r5=Impo r tan c eo fen v i ronmen ta ledu ca t ion , leg i s la t ionanden fo r c emen t a satoo lfo ren v i ronmen ta l managemen t

0 . 799

f a c to r6=Lo cu so fcon t ro landv a lueo fthena tu r a len v i ronmen t

0 .624

A l lbeha v iou rque s t ion s

0 .828

A l la t t i tudeque s t ion s

0 . 789

*I fque s t ion6 i som i t t ed ,theC ronba ch ’ sa lpha i s0 .643 .

D i s cu s s ionandcon c lu s ion s hT er e su l t sind i c a t eth a tinqu i r y -b a s edl i f e c y c l es tud yh a spo s i t i v ee ff e c t sons tud en t s ’a t t i tud e stow a rd sch em i s t r yanden v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c y . hT e s tud en t sv a lu ed th eno v e lch em i s t r y l e a rn in gs e t t in g ,wh i chw a sv e r y ind ep end en tbu ts t i l lco l l abo r a t i v e . hT eapp r o a chi sac l e a re x amp l eo f mo r e mo t i v a t in g andsu s t a in ab l ech em i s t r yedu c a t ion . hT er e su l t sa r e in l in ew i thp r e v iou se v id en c e . hT e low in t e r e s t ins tud yin gch em i s t r y(K ä rn äe ta l . ,20 1 2 )cou ldb et r an s fo rm edin toin t e r e s tb yu s in g mo r er e l e v an ttop i c sandt e a ch in gm e thod s( s e ea l soJ uu t ie ta l . ,200 9andV an A a l s voo r t ,200 4 ) .A c co rd in gtoth es tud en t s ,th esu s t a in ab i l i t ya sp e c t sinth e p r o j e c t mo t i v a t edth emtos tud y . hT een v i r onm en t a landso c i e t a l i s su e sr e l a t ed toth ed a i l y l i v e so fth es tud en t s in c r e a s edth e i rs en s eo fth er e l e v an c eo fch em i s t r y( s e eM and l e re ta l . ,20 1 2 ;M a r k s&E i lk s ,200 9 ;V anA a l s voo r t ,200 4 ;Y a g e r e ta l . ,200 6 ) . Af e rth el i f e c y c l ep r o j e c t ,m an yo fth es tud en t ss t a r t edtos e e ch em i s t r ya sasub j e c tth a tsuppo r t sg en e r a lknow l ed g eo rg en e r a ll i t e r a c y .A l l o fth es tud en t s in t e r v i ew eds t a t edth a tth e yh ad l e a rn edb en ef c i a lth in g sabou t sub s t an c e sandp r odu c t sinth ech em i s t r yl e s son s . hT e yd e s c r ib edth ep r o j e c t a s mo r em e an in g fu landd i v e r s eth anth e i ro rd in a r ych em i s t r yl e s son s ,wh i ch mo s tof enin c lud eon l yw r i t in gandl i s t en in gtoth et e a ch e r ’ sl e c tu r e s . hT e i r p r e v iou s l yc au t iou sthou gh t sr e g a rd in gu s in gch em i s t r yinth e i rd a i l yl i f eb ec am e mo r een v i r onm en t a l l yo r i en t a t ed .

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

hT einqu i r y -b a s edl e a rn in g m e thod s emp lo y ed g en e r a t ed po s i t i v e ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e sins tud en t s ,a sw a se xp e c t edandp r e v iou s l yob s e r v ed( e . g . , A k s e l a ,200 5 ;G ib son & Ch a s e ,200 2 ;J uu t ie ta l . ,200 9 ;M inn e re ta l . ,20 10 ; Ro c a rde ta l . ,200 7 ) .A sinth efnd in g so fJ uu t ie ta l .( 200 9 ) ,g i r l sl ik edth e inqu i r y -b a s ed m e thod s mo r eth anbo y s .M o s ts tud en t sno t i c edimp r o v em en t , e sp e c i a l l y inth e i rcommun i c a t ionab i l i t i e so rc r i t i c a lth ink in gs k i l l s . hT i st yp eo fs tud y in gc l e a r l yg en e r a t e sso c io s c i en t if cth ink in gands tud en t -d r i v end i s cu s s ion sinth ec l a s s r oom . hT e mo s timpo r t an tou t com eo fth e p r o j e c t fo r th es tud en t sw a s th en ewp e r sp e c t i v e sandr e a l i s a t ion s .A th i rdo f th e s tud en t ss t a t edth a tth ep r o j e c th adh adaninfu en c eonth ed ep tho fth e i r l i f e c y c l e th ink in gandcon sump t ion .H ow e v e r ,m an ys tud en t sw e r econ fu s edabou t th ee x t en s i v en e s so fl i f e c y c l eth ink in gands awcon t r ad i c to r ya sp e c t sinth e qu a l i t yo fin fo rm a t ionf r omd if e r en ts t ak eho ld e r s .A l thou ghth e r ew a ssom e s c ep t i c i sm ,th em a jo r i t yo fth es tud en t sin t e r v i ew edb e l i e v edth a ting en e r a l th e i rownb eh a v iou r ,o rth a to fo th e ryoun gp eop l e ,cou ldch an g edu etoth i s t yp eo fp r o j e c t .A lmo s ta l lo fth es tud en t sadd r e s s edth eimpo r t an c eo fen v i r onm en t a lp r o t e c t ion ,e sp e c i a l l yr e c y c l in g . hT i s i sund e r s t and ab l e ,a sr e c y c l in g i sg en e r a l l yth esu s t a in ab i l i t yth em eth a ts tud en t sa r eth e mo s tf am i l i a rw i th (A sun t a ,200 3 ;hT un g ,H u an g ,&K aw a t a ,200 2 ) . E v enthou ghe xp r e s s ion so fen v i r onm en t a law a r en e s sandso c i e t a lv i ew s in c r e a s eds i gn if c an t l y ,qu an t i t a t i v e l ys i gn if c an tch an g e sinen v i r onm en t a l l y o r i en t edb eh a v iou ro ra t t i tud e sw e r eno tindu c ed . hT i sm a yb edu etoth ef a c t th a tch an g e sina t t i tud e sandb eh a v iou ra r eap e r son a l ,andof ens low ,p r o c e s s (Dw y e r ,L e em in g ,Cob e rn ,P o r t e r ,&J a c k son ,1 9 9 3 ) .G end e rs e em edtoaf e c t th es tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c ys i gn if c an t l y ,a sfound inp r e v iou sr e s e a r ch ( e . g . ,Bo gn e r& W i s em an ,1 9 9 9 ;hT ikk a ,K u i tun en ,&hT yn y s ,2000 ;U i t to ,J uu t i , L a von en ,B ym an ,& M e i s a lo ,20 1 1 ) ,w i thg i r l ss co r in gb e t t e rth anbo y sinth i s a r e a .G en e r a l l y ,th es tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a la t t i tud e sapp e a r edtob emo r epo s i t i v eth anth e i rp r o en v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou r ,wh i chi sa l soinl in ew i the a r l i e r r e s e a r ch( e . g . ,E rdo g an&O k ,20 1 1 ) . hT er e su l t sa r een cou r a g in g . hT ep r o j e c tw a ssho r t ,bu ti tpo s i t i v e l ya ff e c t edth es tud en t s ’ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e sandsu c c e s s fu l l yp l an t edth eimpo r t an t s e ed so fen v i r onm en t a ll i t e r a c y . hT es tud en t s ’n ewr e a l i s a t ion sind i c a t eth a t th e i rp e r son a lp r o c e s so fa t t i tud eandb eh a v iou r a lch an g eh a ss t a r t ed . hT e r e w e r ea l sos i gn if c an td if e r en c e sb e tw e ens choo l s .F o rth et e a ch e r , i t i s mo t i v a tin gtoknowth a ts choo lcu l tu r ec anaf e c ts tud en t s ’en v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y( s e e E rdo g an ,M a r c inkow s k i ,&O k ,200 9 ) . hT ocon c lud e ,th er e su l t ssuppo r tth ee v id en c eth a tt e a ch in gl i f e c y c l e th ink in gu s in g inqu i r y -b a s edm e thod s i sasoundop t ion fo r imp r o v in gs tud en t s ’

1 7 3

1 7 4

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

ch em i s t r ya t t i tud e sanden v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y .I ti sane x amp l eo fhowtoc r e a t ean e c e s s a r y ,m e an in g fu landin t e rd i s c ip l in a r yl inkb e tw e ench em i s t r yl e s son s ,su s t a in ab i l i t yi s su e s ,e th i c sandth ed a i l yl i v e so fs tud en t s .M o r er e s e a r ch i sn e ed edtoin v e s t i g a t eth ek indo fknow l ed g eou t com e sth i st yp eo ft e a ch in g c r e a t e s .Ino rd e rtoa ch i e v eth ego a l so fsu s t a in ab l ed e v e lopm en t(UNE SCO , 200 9 ;J ohn s ton ,E v e r a rd ,S an t i l lo ,&Rob è r t ,200 7 ) , fu r th e rr e s e a r chshou lda l so in v e s t i g a t eth er an g eo fo th e rad v i s ab l eapp r o a ch e sth a tch em i s t r yt e a ch e r su s e wh ent e a ch in gsu s t a in ab l ed e v e lopm en t .hT och an g eth ewo r ld ,edu c a t ionth a t g enu in e l ych an g e sb eh a v iou rshou ldb efound .

A cknow l ed g em en t s W ewou ldl ik etoa c know l ed g eth eR e s e a r chF ound a t iono fth eUn i v e rs i t yo fH e l s ink iandth ea s so c i a t ion M a a j av e s i t e k t i ik antuk ir y . fo rth e i rfn an c i a lsuppo r t .

R e f e r en c e s A k s e l a ,M .( 200 5 ) .Su p p o r t in gm e an in g fu lc h em i s t r y l e a rn in gandh i gh o r d e rth in k in gth r ou gh c om pu t e r a s s i s t edin qu i r y :Ad e s i gnr e s e a r c ha p p r o a c h .H e l s ink i :Un i v e r s i t yP r in t . An a s t a s ,P . ,&L ank e y ,R .( 2000 ) .L i f ec y c l ea s s e s sm en tandg r e ench em i s t r y :th ey inandy an go f indu s t r i a le co lo g y . G r e enCh em i s t r y, 2 ( 6 ) ,2 8 9– 2 9 5 . A sun t a ,hT .( 200 3 ) .Kn ow l ed g eo fen v i r onm en t a li s su e s :wh e r epu p i l sa c qu i r ein f o rm a t i onandh owi t af e c t sth e i ra t t i tud e s ,o p in i on s ,and l a b o r a t o r yb e h a v i ou r .J y v ä s k y l ä :Un i v e r s i t yP r in t . B l a c k bu rn ,R .S . ,&P a yn e ,J .D .( 200 4 ) .L i f ec y c l ean a l y s i so fco t tontow e l s : imp a c to fdom e s t i c l aund e r in gandr e comm end a t ion sfo re x t end in gp e r iod sb e tw e enw a sh in g . G r e enCh em i s t r y, 6 ( 7 ) , 5 9– 6 1 . Bo gn e r ,F .X . ,& W i s em an ,M .( 1 9 9 9 ) .hT ow a rd m e a su r in gado l e s c en ten v i r onm en t a lp e r c ep t ion . Eu r o p e anP s y c h o l o g i s t ,4( 3 ) , 1 3 9– 1 5 1 . C a l co t t ,A . ,&Bu l l ,J .( 200 7 ) .C a rbonP l an , WWFUK :E co lo g i c a lF oo tp r in to fB r i t i shc i t yr e s id en t s . R e t r i e v edJ anu a r y2 520 1 3 ,f r omh t tp : / / a s s e t s .ww f .o r g .uk /down lo ad s / c i t y_ foo tp r in t 2 .pd f Co lbu rn ,A .( 2000 ) .An inqu i r yp r im e r .S c i en c es c o p e ,2 3 ( 6 ) ,4 2– 4 4 . Dond i ,F .( 20 1 1 ) .E th i c s inch em i c a ledu c a t ion :hT ow a rd sth ecu l tu r eo fr e spon s ib i l i t y .A r t i c l e p r e s en t eda tth econ f e r en c e“hT eCon c ep to fR e spon s ib i l i t y :E th i c s ,Ch em i s t r yandth e En v i r onm en t ” ,M od en a ,I t a l y . Dw y e r ,W . ,L e em in g ,F . ,Cob e rn ,M . ,P o r t e r ,B . ,&J a c k son ,J .( 1 9 9 3 ) .C r i t i c a lr e v i ewo fb eh a v iou r a l in t e r v en t ion stop r e s e r v eth een v i r onm en t :R e s e a r chs in c e1 9 80 . En v i r onm en tandB e h a v i ou r ,2 5( 3 ) , 2 7 5– 3 2 1 . Ed e l son ,D .( 200 2 ) .D e s i gnr e s e a r ch : Wh a tw e l e a rnwh enw een g a g e ind e s i gn .J ou rn a lo fL e a rn in g

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

S c i en c e ,1 1 ( 1 ) ,10 5– 1 2 1 . E i lk s ,I .( 200 5 )E xp e r i en c e sandr ef e c t ion sabou tt e a ch in ga tom i cs t ru c tu r e ina j i g s awc l a s s r oom in low e rs e cond a r ych em i s t r y l e s son s . J ou rn a lo fCh em i c a lEdu c a t i on ,8 2 ( 2 ) ,3 1 3– 3 1 9 . E rdo g an ,M . ,M a r c inkow s k i ,hT . ,&O k ,A .( 200 9 ) .Con t en tan a l y s i so fs e l e c t edf e a tu r e so fK 8 en v i r onm en t a ledu c a t ionr e s e a r chs tud i e s inhT u r k e y ,1 9 9 7 200 7 .En v i r onm en t a lEdu c a t i onR e s e a r c h , 1 5 ( 5 ) ,5 2 5– 5 4 8 . E rdo g an ,M . ,&O k ,A .( 20 1 1 ) .Ana s s e s sm en to fhT u r k i shyoun gpup i l s ’en v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c y :A n a t ionw id esu r v e y .I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eEdu c a t i on ,3 3 ( 1 7 ) ,2 3 7 5– 240 6 . G ib son ,H .L . ,&Ch a s e ,C .C .( 200 2 ) .Lon g i tud in a l imp a c to fan inqu i r y -b a s eds c i en c ep r o g r amon m idd l es choo ls tud en t s ’a t t i tud e stow a rds c i en c e .S c i en c eEdu c a t i on , 8 6 ( 5 ) ,6 9 3– 70 5 . H o f s t e in ,A . ,E i lk s ,I . ,&B yb e e ,R .( 20 10 ) .So c i e t a l i s su e sandth e i r impo r t an c efo rcon t empo r a r y s c i en c eedu c a t ion–ap ed a go g i c a l ju s t if c a t ionandth e s t a t e -o f a r t inI s r a e l ,G e rm an y ,andth eU SA . I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eand M a th em a t i c sEdu c a t i on ,9 ( 6 ) ,1 4 5 9– 1 4 8 3 . H o lb r oo k ,J .( 200 5 ) ,M ak in gch em i s t r yt e a ch in gr e l e v an t .Ch em i c a lEdu c a t i onI n t e rn a t i on a l ,6 ( 1 ) . R e t r i e v edJ anu a r y2 520 1 3 ,f r omh t tp : / /o ld . iup a c .o r g /pub l i c a t ion s / c e i / vo l 6 /0 6_H o lb r oo k .pd f H o lb r oo k ,J . ,&R ann ikm a e ,M .( 200 7 ) . hT en a tu r eo fs c i en c eedu c a t ionfo renh an c in gs c i en t if c l i t e r a c y . I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eEdu c a t i on , 2 9 ( 1 1 ) ,1 3 4 7– 1 3 6 2 . H o lb r oo k ,J . ,&R ann ikm a e ,M .( 200 9 ) . hT em e an in go fs c i en t if c l i t e r a c y .I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo f S c i en c eEdu c a t i on , 4 ( 3 ) ,2 7 5– 2 8 8 . H su ,S . J . ,&Ro th ,R .E .( 1 9 9 8 ) .Ana s s e s sm en to fen v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c yandan a l y s i so fp r ed i c to r s o fr e spon s ib l een v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou rh e ldb ys e cond a r yt e a ch e r s inth eH u a l i ena r e ao fhT a iw an . En v i r onm en t a lEdu c a t i onR e s e a r c h ,4( 3 ) ,2 2 9– 2 50 . th eIn t e rA c ad em yP an e l( 20 10 ) .hT a k in gin qu i r y b a s eds c i en c eedu c a t i on( IB SE )in t os e c ond a r y edu c a t i on .Y o r k :N a t ion a lS c i en c eL e a rn in gC en t r e ,Un i v e r s i t yo fY o r k .R e t r i e v edJ anu a r y2 520 1 3 , f r omh t tp : / /www . a l l e a .o r g /Con t en t /ALLEA /WG% 20 S c i en c e% 20Edu c a t ion /P r o g r amm e IB SE_YORK . pd f J e rn e c k ,A . ,O l s son ,L . ,N e s s ,B . ,And e rb e r g ,S . ,B a i e r ,M . ,C l a r k ,E . ,H i c k l e r ,hT . ,H o rn bo r g ,A . , K r on s e l l ,A . ,Lö vb r and ,E . ,&P e r s son ,J .( 20 1 1 ) .S t ru c tu r in gsu s t a in ab i l i t ys c i en c e .Su s t a in a b i l i t y S c i en c e ,6 ,6 9– 8 2 . J ohn s ton ,P . ,E v e r a rd ,M . ,S an t i l lo ,D . ,&Rob è r t ,K . -H . ,( 200 7 ) .R e c l a im in gth eD efn i t iono f Su s t a in ab i l i t y .En v i r onm en t a lS c i en c eandP o l lu t i onR e s e a r c h ,1 4( 1 ) , 60– 6 6 . J un tun en ,M . ,&A k s e l a ,M .( 20 1 1 ) .L i f e c y c l eth ink in gand inqu i r y -b a s ed l e a rn in g inch em i s t r y edu c a t ion .In M .A k s e l a ,J .P e rn a a ,& M .H appon en(Ed s . ) ,I n qu i r ym e th od st oc h em i s t r yt e a c h in g :IV N a t i on a lc h em i s t r yedu c a t i ond a y s–as ym p o s iumw e bb o o k (pp .1 10– 1 2 1 ) .R e t r i e v edJ anu a r y2 520 1 3 , f r omh t tp : / /www .h e l s ink i .f / k emm a /d a t a / kop 20 1 1 .pd f J un tun en ,M . ,&A k s e l a ,M .( inr e v i ew ) .L i f e c y c l eth ink in gand inqu i r y -b a s ed l e a rn in g inch em i s t r y t e a ch in g . J o y c e ,B . ,& W e i l ,M .( 1 9 8 6 ) .M od e l so ft e a c h in g .N ewJ e r s e y :P r en t i c eH a l l ,In c . J uu t i ,K . ,L a von en ,J . ,U i t to ,A . ,&B ym an ,R .( 200 9 ) .S c i en c et e a ch in gm e thod sp r e f e r r edb yg r ad e9

1 7 5

1 76

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

s tud en t s inF in l and .I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eand M a th em a t i c sEdu c a t i on ,8 ( 4 ) ,6 1 1– 6 3 2 . K e y s ,C . ,&B r y an ,L .( 200 1 ) .Co con s t ru c t in g inqu i r y -b a s eds c i en c ew i tht e a ch e r s :E s s en t i a lr e s e a r ch fo r l a s t in gr e fo rm .J ou rn a lo fR e s e a r c hinS c i en c ehT e a c h in g , 3 8 ( 6 ) ,6 3 1– 6 4 5 . K o l s to ,S .( 200 1 ) .S c i en t if c l i t e r a c yfo rc i t i z en sh ip :hT oo l sfo rd e a l in gw i thth es c i en c ed im en s iono f con t r o v e r s i a lso c io s c i en t if c i s su e s .S c i en c eEdu c a t i on ,8 5 ( 3 ) ,2 9 1– 3 10 . K r app ,A . ,&P r en z e l ,M .( 20 1 1 ) .R e s e a r chon in t e r e s t ins c i en c e :th eo r i e s ,m e thod s ,andfnd in g s . I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eEdu c a t i on , 3 3 ( 1 ) ,2 7– 50 . th c l a s sin2 0 1 1 . K ä rn ä ,P . ,H akon en ,R . ,&K uu s e l a ,J .( 20 1 2 ) .S c i en c ekn ow l ed g eands k i l l sa tth e9

O b s e r v a t i onr e p o r to fedu c a t i on ,2 ,M in i s t r yo fEdu c a t i on.hT amp e r e :Un i v e r s i t yP r e s s . M and l e r ,D . ,M am lo k -N a am an ,R . ,B lond e r ,R . ,Y a yon ,M . ,&H o f s t e in ,A .( 20 1 2 ) .H i gh s choo l ch em i s t r yt e a ch in gth r ou ghen v i r onm en t a l l yo r i en t edcu r r i cu l a .Ch em i s t r yEdu c a t i onR e s e a r c hand P r a c t i c e, 1 3 ( 2 ) ,80– 9 2 . M a r c inkow s k i ,hT .( 1 9 9 1 ) hT er e l a t ion sh ipb e tw e enen v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c yandr e spon s ib l e en v i r onm en t a lb eh a v io r inen v i r onm en t a ledu c a t ion .In M .M a ld a g l e(Ed . ) ,M e th od sandhT e c hn i qu e s f o rE v a lu a t in gEn v i r onm en t a lEdu c a t i on .P a r i s :UNE SCO . M a r k s ,R . ,B e r t r am ,S . ,&E i lk s ,I .( 200 8 ) .L e a rn in gch em i s t r yandb e yondw i th l e s sonp l anonpo t a to c r i sp s ,wh i chfo l low saso c io c r i t i c a landp r ob l em -o r i en t edapp r o a chtoch em i s t r y l e s son s–ac a s e s tud y .Ch em i s t r yEdu c a t i onR e s e a r c handP r a c t i c e, 9 ( 3 ) ,2 6 7– 2 76 . M a r k s ,R . ,&E i lk s ,I .( 200 9 ) .P r omo t in gS c i en t if cL i t e r a c yU s in gaSo c io c r i t i c a landP r ob l em O r i en t edA pp r o a chtoCh em i s t r yhT e a ch in g :Con c ep t ,E x amp l e s ,E xp e r i en c e s.I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo f En v i r onm en t a l&S c i en c eEdu c a t i on, 4 ( 3 ) ,2 3 1– 24 5 . M inn e r ,D .D . ,L e v y ,A .J . ,&C en tu r y ,J .( 20 10 ) .Inqu i r y -b a s eds c i en c e in s t ru c t ion– Wh a t i s i tand do e s i tm a t t e r ?R e su l t sf r omar e s e a r chs yn th e s i sy e a r1 9 8 4to200 2 .J ou rn a lo fR e s e a r c hinS c i en c e hT e a c h in g, 4 7 ( 4 ) ,4 7 4– 4 9 6 . O sbo rn e ,J .( 200 3 ) .A t t i tud e stow a rd ss c i en c e :ar e v i ewo fth e l i t e r a tu r eand i t s imp l i c a t ion s . I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eEdu c a t i on , 2 5 ( 9 ) ,10 4 9– 10 7 9 . Ou l ton ,C . ,D i l lon ,J . ,&G r a c e ,M .M .( 200 4 ) .R e con c ep tu a l i z in gth et e a ch in go fcon t r o v e r s i a l i s su e s . I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eEdu c a t i on , 2 6 ( 4 ) ,4 1 1– 4 2 3 . Ro c a rd ,M . ,C s e rm e l y ,P . ,J o rd e ,D . ,L en z en ,D . ,W a lb e r g -H en r ik s son ,H . ,&H emmo ,V .( 200 7 ) . S c i en c eEdu c a t i onN ow :Ar en ew edp ed a g o g yf o rth efu tu r eo fEu r o p e .B ru s s e l s :Eu r op e anComm i s s ion D i r e c to r a t e -G en e r a lfo rR e s e a r chS c i en c e ,E conom yandSo c i e t y .R e t r i e v edJ anu a r y2 520 1 3 ,f r om h t tp : / / e c . eu r op a . eu / r e s e a r ch / s c i en c e so c i e t y /do cum en t_ l ib r a r y /pd f _0 6 / r epo r t r o c a rd -on s c i en c e edu c a t ion_ en .pd f Ro th ,C .E .( 1 9 9 2 ) .En v i r onm en t a lL i t e r a c y :I t sR o o t s ,E v o lu t i on ,andD i r e c t i on sinth e1 9 9 0 s. Co lum bu s :ER IC /C SMEEPub l i c a t ion s . S ad l e r ,hT .D .( 20 1 1 ) .So c io s c i en t if c i s su e s -b a s ededu c a t ion : Wh a tw eknowabou ts c i en c eedu c a t ion inth econ t e x to fS S I .InhT .D .S ad l e r(Ed . ) , S o c i o s c i en t if ci s su e sinc l a s s r o om :t e a c h in g , l e a rn in gand r e s e a r c h(pp .3 5 5– 3 6 9 ) .N ewY o r k :Sp r in g e r . S a lo r an t a ,S . ,&U i t to ,A .( 20 10 ) .Opp i l a ankou luko k emu s t enyh t e y symp ä r i s tö a s en t e i s i in j a

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

ymp ä r i s tö v a s tuu l l i s e enk ä y t t ä y t ym i s e en .InH .R i s ku -N o r j a ,E .J e r on en ,S .K u rpp a ,M .M ikko l a ,& A .U i t to(Ed s . ) ,[F o od– hT er e qu i r em en tandth ea s s e tint e a c h in g ](pp .3 3– 4 7 ) .H e l s ink i :Ru r a l i a in s t i tu t e . S immon s ,D .A .( 1 9 8 9 ) .M o r e in fu s ioncon fu s ion :A loo ka ten v i r onm en t a ledu c a t ioncu r r i cu lum m a t e r i a l s .J ou rn a lo fEn v i r onm en t a lEdu c a t i on , 2 0 ( 4 ) , 1 5– 1 8 . hT ikk a ,P .M . ,K u i tun en ,M .hT . ,&hT yn y s ,S .M .( 2000 ) .Ef e c t so fedu c a t ion a lb a c k g r oundons tud en t s ’ a t t i tud e s ,a c t i v i t y l e v e l s ,andknow l ed g econ c e rn in gth een v i r onm en t .hT eJ ou rn a lo fEn v i r onm en t a l Edu c a t i on ,3 1( 3 ) , 1 2– 1 9 . hT uom i ,J . ,&S a r a j ä r v i ,A .( 200 6 ) .L a adu l l in entu t k imu s j as i s ä l l ön an a l y y s i[Qu a l i t a t i v er e s e a r chand con t en tan a l y s i s ] .J y v ä s k y l ä :Gumm e ru sP r in t in gH ou s eO y . hT undo ,P . ,An a s t a s ,P . ,B l a c k ,D . ,B r e en ,J . ,Co l l in s ,hT . ,M emo l i ,S . ,M i y amo to ,J . ,P o l y akof ,M . ,& hT um a s ,W .( 2000 ) .S yn th e t i cp a thw a y sandp r o c e s s e s ing r e ench em i s t r y .In t r odu c to r yo v e r v i ew .Pu r e A p p l i edCh em i s t r y ,7 2( 7 ) , 1 20 7– 1 2 2 8 . hT un g ,C . ,H u an g ,C . ,&K aw a t a ,C .( 200 2 ) . hT eef e c t so fd if e r en ten v i r onm en t a ledu c a t ion p r o g r am sonth een v i r onm en t a lb eh a v iou ro fs e v en th g r ad es tud en t sandr e l a t edf a c to r s .J ou rn a lo f En v i r onm en t a lH e a l th ,6 4 ( 7 ) ,24– 2 9 . U i t to ,A . ,J uu t i ,K . ,L a von en ,J . ,B ym an ,R . ,& M e i s a lo ,V .( 20 1 1 ) .S e cond a r ys choo ls tud en t s ’ in t e r e s t s ,a t t i tud e sandv a lu e scon c e rn in gs choo ls c i en c er e l a t edtoen v i r onm en t a l i s su e s inF in l and . En v i r onm en t a lEdu c a t i onR e s e a r c h ,1 7( 2 ) , 1 6 7– 1 8 6 . UNE SCO( 200 9 ) .U n i t edN a t i on sD e c ad eo fEdu c a t i onf o rSu s t a in a b l eD e v e l o pm en t(DE SD2 0 0 5 2 0 1 4 ) .R e v i ewo fC on t e x t sandS t ru c tu r e sf o rEdu c a t i onf o rsu s t a in a b l eD e v e l o pm en tL e a rn in gf o ra su s t a in a b l ew o r ld .P a r i s :UNE SCO . V anA a l s voo r t ,J .( 200 4 ) .A c t i v i t yth eo r ya satoo ltoadd r e s sth ep r ob l emo fch em i s t r y ’ s l a c ko f r e l e v an c e ins e cond a r ys choo lch em i c a ledu c a t ion .I n t e rn a t i on a lJ ou rn a lo fS c i en c eEdu c a t i on ,2 6 ( 1 3 ) , 1 6 3 5– 1 6 5 1 . V a s s i l iou ,A .( 20 1 1 ) .Edu c a t ion inEu r op e :N a t ion a lP o l i c i e s ,S c i en c eP r a c t i c e sandr e s e a r ch .Eu r op e an Comm i s s ionEdu c a t ion ,A ud io v i su a landCu l tu r eE x e cu t i v eA g en c y .R e t r i e v edJ anu a r y2 520 1 3 ,f r om h t tp : / / e a c e a . e c . eu r op a . eu / edu c a t ion / eu r yd i c e /do cum en t s / th em a t i c_ r epo r t s / 1 3 3EN .pd f W i lm e s ,S . ,&H ow a r th ,J .( 200 9 ) .U s in g i s su e s -b a s eds c i en c e inth ec l a s s r oom . hT eS c i en c ehT e a c h e r, 76 ( 7 ) ,24– 2 9 . Y a g e r ,S .O . ,L im ,G . ,&Y a g e r ,R .E .( 200 6 ) . hT ead v an t a g e so fanShT Sapp r o a cho v e rat yp i c a l t e x tboo kdom in a t edapp r o a ch in m idd l es choo ls c i en c e .S c h o o ls c i en c eand M a th em a t i c s , 1 0 6 ( 5 ) , 24 8– 2 60 . Y a v e z ,B . ,Go ldm an ,D . ,&P e e r ,S .( 200 9 ) .En v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c yo fp r e s e r v i c et e a ch e r s inI s r a e l :a comp a r i sonb e tw e ena tth eon s e tandendo fth e i rs tud i e s .En v i r onm en t a lEdu c a t i onR e s e a r c h, 1 5 ( 4 ) , 3 9 3 –4 1 5 . Z e id l e r ,D . ,S ad l e r ,hT . ,S immon s ,M . ,&H ow e s ,E .( 200 5 ) .B e yondShT S :Ar e s e a r ch -b a s edf r am ewo r k fo rso c io s c i en t if c i s su e sedu c a t ion .S c i en c eEdu c a t i on , 8 9 ( 3 ) ,3 5 7– 3 76 .

1 7 7

1 7 8

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

App end i x1 . hT ea t t i tud esu r v e yg i v ent os tud en t saf e rth e in t e r v en t i on H owd idy ou l i k eth e l i f e c y c l ep r o j e c t ?(M a r kth ec o lumnth a tb e s td e s c r i b e s y ou ro p in i onw i than“ x ” :s t r on g l ya g r e e ,a g r e e ,h a v en oo p in i on ,d i s a g r e e , s t r on g l yd i s a g r e e ) 1 . hTep r o j e c tm ad em eth in ka bou tm yc on sum p t i onh a b i t s . 2 . In owc on s id e rp r odu c t sd if e r en t l yth anb e f o r eth ep r o j e c t . 3 . Iun d e r s t oodwh a tth ed i s cu s s i ona bou t in c r e a s in gsu s t a in a b i l i t y i sa bou t . 4 .I l i k edth ep r o j e c tb e c a u s e i td idn o ton l yd e a lw i th ‘ ch em i c a lc on t en t ’ . 5 .I l i k edth ep r o j e c tb e c a u s e i td e a l tw i thth in g sth a ta r e in t e r e s t in gt om e p e r son a l l y . 6 .I l i k edth ep r o j e c tb e c a u s eIg o tt ow o r kt o g e th e rw i thm yc l a s sm a t e s . 7 . Byu s in gar an g eo fm e th od s ,ch em i s t r y l e s son sb e c om em o r e in t e r e s t in g . 8 . Id idn o t l i k eth ep r o j e c tb e c a u s eI l e a rn edn o th in g f r om i t . 9 . Id idn o t l i k eth ep r o j e c tb e c a u s eIh adt or e adt oom u ch . 10 .Id idn o t l i k eth ep r o j e c tb e c a u s e i td e a l tt oo l i t t l ew i thch em i c a lc on t en tand e xp e r im en t s . 1 1 .Myv i ewonp r odu c t s ’ l i f e c y c l e sd idn o tch an g e . App end i x2 .hT een v i r onm en t a l l i t e r a c ysu r v e yg i v ent os tud en t sb e f o r eandaf e r th e in t e r v en t i on H owof end oy ouc ondu c tth e f o l l ow in ga c t i v i t i e s ?(M a r kth ec o lumnth a tb e s t d e s c r i b e sy ou ro p in i onw i than“ x ” :a lw a y s ,v e r yof en ,som e t im e s ,v e r ys e ld om , n e v e r ) 1 .S t a ys i l en tand ind if e r en tw i thr e g a rdt oen v i r onm en t a lp r o b l em s . 2 . Br in gn ew sp a p e r s ,c an s ,e t c .t or e c y c l in gc o l l e c t i onpo in t s . 3 . Wr i t em e s s a g e st o( so c i a l )m ed i aonen v i r onm en t a lp r o b l em s . 4 . hT rowb e v e r a g ec an sandbo t t l e s in t om i x edw a s t e . 5 . Re -u s eu s edw r i t in gp a p e ra sd r afp a p e r . 6 . Us ep l a s t i cb a g son l yon c e . 7 . Pu rch a s e ‘ en v i r onm en t a l l y f r i end l y ’p r odu c t s( su cha s :e c o l o g i c a l l y f a rm ed f ood ,p r odu c t sw i thr e c y c l a b l ep a c k a g in g ,e c on om ys i z ep r odu c t s ) . 8 . Co l l e c tth in g sth a tp eo p l eh a v eth r ownaw a y inpu b l i ca r e a sandd i spo s eo f th em inru b b i shb in s . 9 . Con s e r v een e r g yb ytu rn in gof l i gh t sande l e c t r i ca p p l i an c e swh enn o t inu s e . 10 .Con s e r v ew a t e ra th om e( c l o s e f a u c e twh enb ru sh in g t e e th ,w a sh in gd i sh e s ,e t c . ) .

o cepsJ ou rn a l|Vo l . 3 |N 2 |Y e a r2 0 1 3

1 1 .Comm en tt op eo p l ewh oth r owru b b i sh inapu b l i cp l a c eo rd am a g eth e en v i r onm en t inan ym ann e r . 1 2 .Le a v eru b b i sh( th a tp eo p l eh a v eth r ownaw a y ) inth en a tu r a len v i r onm en t . 1 3 .D ispo s eo fu s edb a t t e r i e s inap r o p e rc o l l e c t i onc on t a in e r in s t e ado fa w a s t e b a s k e t . 1 4 .Le a v eth ehTVonwh enI l e a v eth er oom . 1 5 .Wh enI ’mou t s id eIn o t i c eth eb i rd ss in g in g ,an im a l sandf ow e r s . 1 6 .hT a k ep a r t inc am p a i gn s f o rp r e v en t i ono fen v i r onm en t a ld am a g e(m on e y c o l l e c t i on s ,p e t i t i on s ,d em on s t r a t i on s ,e t c . ) . 1 7 .I( o rsom e bod y inm y f am i l y )b e l on gt oanen v i r onm en t a lo r g an i s a t i on . 1 8 .Re ada r t i c l e sonen v i r onm en t a l i s su e s inm a g a z in e sandso c i a lm ed i a . 1 9 .Wa t chp r o g r amm e sonn a tu r eandth een v i r onm en tonhTV . 20 .a k ew a l k sandt r i p s inn a tu r a len v i r onm en t s . 2 1 .Ea tv e g e t a r i an f ood . hT owh a te x t en td oy oua g r e ew i thth e f o l l ow in gs t a t em en t s ?(M a r kth ec o lumn th a tb e s td e s c r i b e sy ou ro p in i onw i than“ x ” :s t r on g l ya g r e e ,a g r e e ,h a v en o o p in i on ,d i s a g r e e ,s t r on g l yd i s a g r e e ) 2 2 .Ic anc on t r i bu t et oth equ a l i t yo fth een v i r onm en tth r ou ghm yp e r son a l b eh a v i ou r . 2 3 .hTe r e i sn ou s e int r y in gt o infu en c em y f am i l yo r f r i end sr e g a rd in g en v i r onm en t a l i s su e s . 2 4 .I fIh adm o r ekn ow l ed g eIw ou ld in t e g r a t een v i r onm en t a lc on s id e r a t i on s in t o m yd a i l yh a b i t s . 2 5 .I t i se v e r y on e ’ sr e spon s i b i l i t yt ot a k ec a r eo fth een v i r onm en t . 2 6 .Ev en i fIs a v ew a t e ro ren e r g yo rp u r ch a s een v i r onm en t a l l y f r i en d l yp r od u c t s , i t w on ’ tm a k ean yd if e r en c eb e c a u s e th e inf u en c eo fo th e rp e o p l e i s t o og r e a t . 2 7 .I t i s im po r t an tt os tud yen v i r onm en t a lsu b j e c t sandv a lu e s ins ch oo l . 2 8 .Env i r onm en t a lt o p i c ssh ou ldg e th i gh e rp r i o r i t y int e a ch in gth anth e yd oa t p r e s en t . 2 9 .I t i sh um an k ind ’ sr i gh tt oe xp l o i tn a tu r a lr e sou r c e s(w ood ,o i l ,m in e r a l s ,e t c . ) a c c o rd in gt oth e i rn e ed sw i th ou tr e s t r i c t i on s . 30 .F a c t o r i e ssh ou ldb ep en a l i s ed f o ren v i r onm en t a ld am a g e . 3 1 .Pr i v a t ep eo p l esh ou ldb ep en a l i s ed f o ren v i r onm en t a ld am a g e . 3 2 .I ndu s t r ysh ou ldb e f o r c edt or edu c epo l lu t an tem i s s i on s ,e v en i fth i sen t a i l s h i gh e rc on sum e rp r i c e s . 3 3 .hTev a lu eo f l i v in gc r e a tu r e s inn a tu r e i sd e t e rm in edso l e l yb yth e i ru s e f o r h um an i t y .

1 7 9

1 80

l ife -cycleth ink ingininqu iry -ba sedsu sta inab il ityeduca t ion

B io g r aph i c a lno t e Ma i jaAk se la,P r o f e s so r ,PhD ,i sbo thth eh e ado fth eUn i to fCh em i s t r yhT e a ch e rEdu c a t ion Un i tando fF in l and ’ sS c i en c eEdu c a t ion C en t r ein Un i v e r s i t yo fH e l s ink i ,F in l and .H e rr e s e a r chin t e r e s t sa r e ,fo re x amp l et e a ch e r edu c a t ion ,su s t a in ab l eedu c a t ionandinqu i r y -b a s edl e a rn in g .Sh eh a sw r i t t en o v e r2 60pub l i c a t ion s ins c i en c eedu c a t ion . Mar ianneJuntunen, M . S c . ,M .hT e ch . , i sach em i s t r y t e a ch e rcu r r en t l y do in gh e rPhDabou tSu s t a in ab i l i t yinCh em i s t r yEdu c a t ionin Un i v e r s i t yo f H e l s ink i ,F in l and .H e rm a inr e s e a r ch in t e r e s t sa r er e l a t ed toso c io s c i en t if cand su s t a in ab i l i t yi s su e sinedu c a t ion .Sh et e a ch e sinasm a l ls choo lin N o r th e rn L ap l andandvo lun t e e r sfo rNGO s .