Livestock Winter Feeding Stations - Spokane Conservation District

Livestock Winter Feeding Stations - Spokane Conservation District

Livestock Winter Feeding Stations A FEED AND WASTE MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE DESIGNED TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY 1 2004 Table of Contents Winter Feeding ...

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Livestock Winter Feeding Stations

A FEED AND WASTE MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE DESIGNED TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY 1

2004

Table of Contents Winter Feeding Stations Overview ........................................................................... 3 Structure Development – Engineering ...................................................................... 4 Placement of Structures ............................................................................................. 5 Construction ................................................................................................................ 6 Budget ........................................................................................................................... 8 Plan Cover Sheet ......................................................................................................... 9 Plan View .................................................................................................................... 10 Floor Plan - 30 Animals ............................................................................................ 11 Floor Plan - 60 Animals ............................................................................................ 12 Roof & Truss Details - Covered Feeding Area ..................................................... 13 Post & Floor Details - Covered Feeding Area ...................................................... 14 Roof & Truss Details - Covered Stack Pad ........................................................... 15 Floor & Wall Details - Covered Stack Pad ........................................................... 16 Nail Bracing and Purlin Details .............................................................................. 17 Optional Side Entrance Details ............................................................................... 18 Curb & Floor Details ................................................................................................ 19 RC&D’s in Illinois ..................................................................................................... 20

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency Bureau of Water P.O. Box 19276 Springfield, IL 62794-9276 (217) 782-3362 Fax (217) 785-1225 www.epa.state.il.us

Southwestern Illinois RC&D, Inc. 406 E. Main Mascoutah, IL 62258 (618) 566-4451 Fax (618) 566-4452 www.swircd.org

Funding for this project has been provided by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Bureau of Water; Section 319 program, agreement number 3190203. Technical assistance provided by USDA NRCS. Document prepared by the Southwestern Illinois RC&D, Inc. The Southwestern Illinois RC&D, Inc./NRCS is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Document printed on recycled material. Cover drawing sketch: Jenny Reiman

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W inter F eeding Sta tions Ov er vie w Feeding Stations Over view “ Feed and waste management structures, specially designed to reduce sedimentation and nutrient runoff.” Snow, ice and frequent freeze thaw cycles provide a special challenge to Illinois livestock producers. These factors often severely impact access around a farm in winter and early spring months, forcing farmers to feed livestock in more confined areas. The resulting impact on vegetation increases the opportunity for soil erosion, while also increasing the concentration of manure within specific areas of the farm. Snowmelt and heavy spring rains often compound erosion issues caused by concentrated livestock, and also flush build-ups of manure, which has accumulated over the winter, into local water bodies. Both sedimentation and high levels of nutrients are potentially harmful to aquatic life in the water bodies and also to human users of the water. Improper pasture management practices in winter months lead to excess flushes of nutrients and sediments into local water bodies, and also diminish pasture quality. Winter feeding stations are facilities specially designed to allow for the feeding of livestock in combination with the safe storage of manure. When implemented with properly developed nutrient management plans, grazing management plans as well as overall operation plans for the facility, livestock producers can significantly reduce the amount of sediment and excess nutrients entering local water bodies. Through the use of heavy use perimeters (geotextile fabric, aggregate) in combination with concrete floors in the feeding and manure storage areas, erosion is significantly reduced. In addition, manure is stored “under roof”, so that it can be safely applied to fields in times that it can best be utilized by forages or crops. Units are available in two sizes, 30-head and 60-head, to meet the needs of your particular farm. Facilities in excess of 60-head are encouraged to construct multiple units rather than increase the size of existing plans. Other details include: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Holds 5-7 days of feed (both 30 & 60 head units) 20% reduction in wasted hay Stores 90-120 days of waste (both 30 & 60 head units) Gutters and downspouts reduce stormwater runoff & directs it away from unit Capable of holding watering facilities Better herd health

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This facility can be cost-shared through the federally funded Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) when included as a component of a comprehensive grazing plan. Please visit with staff at your local Soil & Water Conservation District/NRCS field office, regarding the development of a winter feed station on your farm.

Str uctur e De velopment – Engineering Structur ucture Dev In general, winter feed stations are semi open-sided, covered structures with concrete floors. Livestock has access to one end, which is fitted with a frost-proof water tank and hay panels. The center section is open to allow for manure load out, and the remaining end is enclosed on three sides with a four-foot (above-grade) concrete wall for manure storage. The perimeter of the unit is protected with a heavy use area, and gutters, downspouts and drain tile are utilized to properly drain stormwater away from the structure. When correctly designed and developed on a site, winter feed stations will reduce contamination of nearby water bodies. The concrete floors in conjunction with the heavyuse protection area reduce erosion and sedimentation, which are common occurrences in the winter feeding of livestock. In addition, the design of the unit retains manure, while shedding rainfall, thereby reducing the amount of nutrients that are flushed into local water bodies.

60-head Unit

The initial step in the development of a winter feeding station for your facility is to contact staff at your local Soil & Water Conservation District/ NRCS field office, who will assist in locating the structure on your property, in accordance with approved grazing management practices, and will also assist, when applicable, in applying for cost-share matching funds through an appropriate program, such as “EQIP”. The Illinois state office of USDA NRCS has developed an approved set of plans for these structures, as depicted on pages nine (9) through nineteen 30-head Unit with concrete heavy-use area 4

(19) of this document. However, as periodic updates to the plans are anticipated, landowners should seek guidance as to the most current design. Landowners should NOT construct units based solely on the enclosed drawings! Unlike other structures designed specifically for waste storage, due to the seasonal nature of these facilities, state permits are often not needed. However this topic should be fully researched prior to beginning construction of the unit(s). Local or county permits are generally required for the building of these structures and should be obtained prior to construction. Please note that a truss design, prepared by a Certified Truss Manufacturer, is normally required to obtain a local or county permit. Working plans have been developed for two sized units, 30-head (32’ x 54’) and 60-head (32’ x 98’), or approximately 50 square feet of structure per animal unit (1,000 pounds of live weight). Producers should use the size most closely matching the maximum size of their herd. In the event that their herd exceeds 60 animal units, multiple structures should be constructed rather than attempting to enlarge existing plans. Components necessary to fabricate the winter feed station include: trusses, girders, posts, purlins, bolts, nails, bracing, roofing materials, guttering, siding for gable ends, steel reinforcement bars and concrete. In addition, the heavy-use protection area, which surrounds entrances to the unit, requires geotextile fabric as well as course and fine aggregate.

Placement of Str uctur es Structur uctures As with the development of any structure, proper placement on the landscape will help ensure future success. When considering where to place a winter feed station, a number of factors must be taken into consideration, including: ƒ Grazing Management Plan ƒ Utilities ƒ Surface Water Flow ƒ Winter Access NRCS will assist you in developing a Prescribed Grazing Plan (528A), which in addition to assisting in locating a site for your winter feed station, will also meet one or more of the following purposes: 1. Improve or maintain the health and vigor of key plant species and to maintain a stable and desired plant community. 2. Provide or maintain food and shelter for animals of concern. 3. Improve or maintain animal health and productivity. 4. Maintain or improve water quality and quantity through manure management and erosion control. 5. Reduce accelerated soil erosion and maintain or improve soil condition for sustainability of the resource. 5

Utilities to the facility are generally NOT cost-shared under programs such as EQIP, and fall to the responsibility of the producer. Although not depicted on the enclosed plans, producers should install a frost-proof water tank adjacent to the feeding area. This item has been intentionally omitted from the enclosed plans as it is recommended that producers follow manufacturers instructions for installation. Posts and planking should be in-place to keep livestock from accessing the tank from the heavy –use protection area. Electricity to the unit is generally not required, however if readily available, could be useful in keeping livestock from accessing and bedding in the manure storage area. It is important to have surface water flow away from these units; so placement on a low ridge is preferable, if available. Your NRCS staff will be able to review your site and advise of additional practices that might complement your winter feed station, including fencing, berms, filter strips and stream crossings. By addressing the general landscape as a whole, rather than just the immediate site, a greater benefit will be achieved in both water quality and environmental stewardship. Additional practices may be a requirement for eligibility for cost-share funds. A final, and very critical concern when considering locations for a winter feed station is accessibility in the winter. Typically these units can be “stocked up” with feed prior to a storm, but access will still be required every few days. A hard-surfaced road will therefore be required to the unit. This road will also become important in the spring as you work to distribute manure that has been stored over the winter months.

Construction It is again important to reiterate that these units should be built following guidelines provided in approved construction plans for your facility provided by USDA NRCS. The attached construction plans have been developed in accordance with USDA NRCS Code 313 Construction Specifications for Waste Storage Facility, and will ensure that the end product will be beneficial to your operations, as well as the environment. In 2002, Southwestern Illinois RC&D, Inc. received a grant through the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Bureau of Water; Section 319 program, (agreement number 3190203), to develop a demonstration project within Southwestern Illinois. Over the next 18-months a total of three units were constructed within the region, including two 60-head units and one 30-head unit. In each case the producers chose to construct their own units, as a mechanism for meeting the grant’s matching requirements, rather than paying a contractor to construct the unit. Figures for both labor and materials that are included within this document are reflective of costs associated with the project in years 2003 and 2004 in Southwestern Illinois. In general, producers wishing to construct one of these units would require some degree of construction knowledge if taking the project on without the assistance of a professional contractor. Equipment required for the project would include a highlift or dozer, backhoe, front-end or skid loader, power 6

compactor, concrete forms, concrete finishing tools, rebar bending equipment, framing tools, boom lift and rolling scaffolding. USDA NRCS Code 313 Construction Specifications for Waste Storage Facility as well as the construction plans for the winter feed station provide much of the guidance required for constructing these units. Features that are not found on the plans, which should be considered, are the watering unit, manure storage area exclusion (keeping livestock from entering the manure storage area) and the hay panels. The first two issues have been addressed on page 5 & 6, and the third issue, the hay panels will be addressed here. For this project, panels specifications included, 14-gauge, 2" diameter steel with a powder coat finish, with a “z” bar design that keeps calves out of the feeders. Panels should connect together. Producers either placed 4" x 4" pressure-treated posts into the concrete to keep the gates from shifting, or screwed flanges to the floor to secure the posts.

Producer has added a feeder at the end of the hay panels. The facility will hold 5-7 days worth of hay, and having the hay undercover results in up to a 20% reduction in hay loss.

Producer has raised the feeding area to keep manure out of the hay.

Left - Posts secured to the concrete keep panels from shifting. Right – Rolled curbing at entrances keeps manure from leaving the building. Gates are utilized to restrict access at certain entrances. 7

Budget Averaged construction costs for the demonstration project include:

Actual 30-H ead U nit Building Materials C oncrete Aggregate Material Hard Goods Labor Total 30-H ead U nit

$7,000 $3,020 $800 $1,200 $9,980 $22,000

60-H ead U nit Building Materials C oncrete Aggregate Material Hard Goods Labor Total 60-H ead U nit

$8,500 $7,200 $900 $2,000 $13,400 $32,000

*

Amounts indicated are reflective of material costs in 2003/2004, some of which are inflated due to the price of metal.

*

Most labor was performed “in-kind” by landowners at the following rates: Foreman - $23.91/hour; laborer $20.70/ hour.

This manure storage area will hold 90-120 days of waste. Gates, electric fence, or other means should be in place to keep livestock from feeding in the manure storage area.

The heavy-use area extends 10’ from entrance areas and consists of geotextile fabric, 6" of base course material and 2" of surface aggregate.

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Plan Cover Sheet

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Plan View

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Floor Plan - 30 Animals

NOT TO SCALE

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Floor Plan - 60 Animals

NOT TO SCALE

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Roof & Truss Details - Covered Feeding Area

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Post & Floor Details - Covered Feeding Area

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Roof & Truss Details - Covered Stack Pad

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Floor & Wall Details - Covered Stack Pad

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Nail Bracing and Purlin Details

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Optional Side Entrance Details

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Curb & Floor Details

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RC&D’ s in Illinois C&D’s For more information, please visit these websites: Blackhawk Hills RC&D - www.blackhawkhills.com Heartland of Illinois RC&D - www.illinoisrcd.org/heartland.htm Illini Valley RC&D - www.illinoisrcd.org/illini.htm Interstate RC&D - www.interstatercd.org Lincoln Heritage RC&D - www.illinoisrcd.org/lincoln.htm Lower Sangamon River RC&D - www.lowersangamonriverrcd.org Post Oak Flats RC&D - www.illinoisrcd.org/postoak.htm Prairie Hills RC&D - www.prairiehillsrcd.org Prairie Rivers RC&D - www.prairieriversrcd.org Shawnee RC&D - www.shawneercd.org Southwestern Illinois RC&D - www.swircd.org Two Rivers RC&D - www.2riversrcd.org Wabash Valley RC&D - www.illinoisrcd.org/wabash.htm

Illinois RC&D Water Quality Projects Blackhawk Hills RC&D • Yellow Creek Watershed • Nutrient Management Alliance Expo MWIL Nutrient Management Alliance • Driftless Area Initiative • Milkhouse Waste Management Systems (IEPA-319) Prairie Hills RC&D • Spoon River Watershed Management Plan Prairie Rivers RC&D • Governor’s Conferences on the Management of the Illinois River System Shawnee RC&D • Cache Watershed Partnership Special WRP Project • Big Muddy Watershed Project • Kinkaid Shoreline Protection Project • Clean Streams Initiative Southwestern Illinois RC&D • American Bottom River Corridor Resource Inventory • Lake Branch Watershed Section 319 Animal Waste Project • Kaskaskia River Water Quality Databank • Kaskaskia River Hypoxia Analysis

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