M25 Community Evolution - math.chalmers.se

M25 Community Evolution - math.chalmers.se

M25  Community  Evolution   Organizers:  Jörgen  Ripa,  Per  Lundberg,  Mikael  Pontarp,  Jacob  Johansson   Contact:  [email protected]   Topi...

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Cultural Evolution

M25  Community  Evolution  

Organizers:  Jörgen  Ripa,  Per  Lundberg,  Mikael  Pontarp,  Jacob  Johansson   Contact:  [email protected]  

Topic  description   Understanding  the  structure  of  present  day  ecological  communities  requires   knowledge  about  the  process  that  created  them.  Presumably,  evolution  has   played  and  still  plays  a  major  role,  but  the  question  is  how.  How  does   coevolution  in  the  long  term  create  complex  systems  of  interacting  species?   What  is  the  feedback  between  coevolution  on  the  one  hand  and  ecological   interactions  on  the  other  hand?  What  types  of  traits  are  typically  conserved   during  an  adaptive  radiation  and  what  traits  are  evolutionary  labile?  Is  it   possible  to  infer  past  processes  from  current  phylogeographic  patterns?  With   this  symposium  we  aim  to  highlight  current  theories,  ranging  from  micro-­‐  to   macro-­‐evolution,  aiming  at  a  more  synthetic  view  on  community  evolution.  

Program  in  brief  (abstracts  below)   Monday  June  16,  11.40  –  13.00   Chair:  Jörgen  Ripa     11.40  –  11.45  Introduction     11.45  –  12.10  F.  Massol,  “Community  dynamics  and  the  evolution  of  dispersal"     12.10  –  12.35  M.  Pontarp,  "The  biogeography  of  adaptive  radiations  and  the   geographic  overlap  of  sister  species"     12.35  –  13.00  C.  Rueffler,  "Does  Organismal  Complexity  Favor  the  Evolution  of   Diversity?"     Monday  June  16,  14.10  –  15.00   Chair:  P.  Lundberg     14.10  –  14.35  A.  Birand,  "Patterns  of  Species  Ranges,  Speciation,  and  Extinction"     14.35  –  15.00  J.  Ripa,  "Niche  conservatism  through  species  turnover"        

Abstracts   Francois  Massol     Title:  "Community  dynamics  and  the  evolution  of  dispersal"   Affiliation:     GEPV  laboratory,  CNRS  UMR  8198,  Université  Lille  1,  Bâtiment  SN2,  F-­‐59655,  Villeneuve   d'Ascq  cedex,  France   email:  [email protected]­‐lille1.fr  

Abstract:   One  of  the  tenets  of  modern  community  ecology  is  that  dispersal  might  affect,   positively  or  negatively,  the  coexistence  of  species.  This  can  occur  e.g.  when   species  have  different  abilities  to  compete  (the  so-­‐called  competition-­‐ colonization  trade-­‐off)  or  when  the  environment  is  heterogeneous  and  different   species  fare  best  in  each  type  of  environment  (species  sorting  and  source-­‐sink   effects).  Here,  I  will  present  recent  advances  linking  the  evolution  of  dispersal  to   community  dynamics  and  structure.  In  particular,  I  will  focus  on  the  effect  of   environmental  heterogeneity  on  the  evolution  of  dispersal,  and  how  this   evolution  of  dispersal  might  in  turn  affect  biodiversity  patterns.     Mikael  Pontarp   Title:  "The  biogeography  of  adaptive  radiations  and  the  geographic  overlap  of   sister  species"   Affiliation: 1.  Department  of  Biology  (Theoretical  Population  Ecology  and  Evolution  Group),   Ecology  Building,  Lund  University,  SE-­‐223  62  Lund,  Sweden 2.  Institute  of  Evolutionary  Biology  and  Environmental  Studies,  University  of  Zurich,   Winterthurerstrasse  190,  CH-­‐8057  Zurich,  Switzerland   email:  [email protected]  

Abstract:   We  simulate  adaptive  radiations  of  a  single  clade  in  a  spatially  explicit   environment.  We  investigate  the  geographical  overlap  of  lineages  during  and   after  evolutionary  branching  (speciation).  The  spatial  overlap  at  speciation   varied  continuously  from  complete  ("sympatry")  to  none  ("allopatry")   depending  on  the  ecological  circumstances  (local  and  regional  environmental   heterogeneity,  dispersal  rate,  and  species  richness  in  the  communities).  The   frequency  distribution  of  the  geographical  overlap  at  speciation  was  strongly   bimodal  regardless  of  ecological  circumstance.  The  mean  overlap,  however,   varied  considerably  during  the  course  of  a  single  radiation,  in  some  cases  with  a   consistent  negative  trend.  The  relationship  between  mean  geographical  overlap   of  sister  species  and  time  since  speciation  was  surprisingly  flat,  i.e.,  old  sister   species  tended  to  have  roughly  the  same  overlap  as  young  ones.  However,  if  local   heterogeneity  was  relatively  low  (few  local  niches)  and  dispersal  rate  high,  then   the  mean  overlap  increased  with  time  since  speciation.  Post-­‐speciation  range   shifts  and  the  changes  in  geographical  overlap  at  speciation  with  time  during  the   cladogenesis  lead  us  to  the  conclusion  that  the  relationship  between  current   sister  species  overlap  and  time  since  speciation  is  of  limited  use  for  inferring  the   mode  of  speciation.        

Claus  Rueffler     Title:  "Does  Organismal  Complexity  Favor  the  Evolution  of  Diversity?"   Affiliation:  Dept.  of  Animal  Ecology,  EBC,  Uppsala  Univ.,  Sweden   email:  [email protected]  

Abstract:   It  has  recently  been  proposed  (Doebeli  &  Ispolatov  2010,  Science  382:494-­‐497)   that,  on  theoretical  grounds,  one  should  expect  a  positive  correlation  between   organismal  complexity  and  diversity.  This  conclusion  is  based  on  the  finding  that   in  a  Lotka-­‐Volterra  competition  model,  so-­‐called  evolutionary  branching  points   are  more  likely  to  exist  the  more  quantitative  traits  determine  the  carrying   capacity  function  and  the  competition  coefficient  of  an  evolving  species.  We   present  two  results  elaborating  on  this  finding.  First,  the  prediction  can  also  be   derived  in  a  model  independent  manner  based  on  properties  of  the  fitness   landscape  in  a  multidimensional  trait  space.  Second,  in  order  to  get  a  more   mechanistic  understanding  of  this  finding  we  analyze  an  explicit  Lotka-­‐Volterra   consumer-­‐resource  model  in  which  consumers  and  resources  are  both   characterized  by  several  quantitative  traits  and  in  which  the  fitness  landscape   emerges  from  the  interaction  between  these  traits.  This  analysis  supports  the   results  by  Doebeli  and  Ispolatov  and  our  generalization  with  the  addition  that   not  only  increasing  consumer  complexity  but  also  increasing  resource   complexity  facilitates  evolutionary  branching.     Aysegul  Birand   Title:  "Patterns  of  Species  Ranges,  Speciation,  and  Extinction"   Affiliation:  Department  of  Biology,  Middle  East  Technical  University,  06800   Cankaya,  Ankara,  TURKEY   email:    [email protected]   Abstract:   The  exact  nature  of  the  relationship  among  species  range  sizes,  speciation,  and   extinction  events  is  not  well  understood.  The  factors  that  promote  larger  ranges,   such  as  broad  niche  widths  and  high  dispersal  abilities,  could  increase  the   likelihood  of  encountering  new  habitats  but  also  prevent  local  adaptation  due  to   high  gene  flow.  Similarly,  low  dispersal  abilities  or  narrower  niche  widths  could   cause  populations  to  be  isolated,  but  such  populations  may  lack  advantageous   mutations  due  to  low  population  sizes.  Here  we  present  a  large-­‐scale,  spatially   explicit,  individual-­‐based  model  addressing  the  relationships  between  species   ranges,  speciation,  and  extinction.  We  followed  the  evolutionary  dynamics  of   hundreds  of  thousands  of  diploid  individuals  for  200,000  generations.   Individuals  adapted  to  multiple  resources  and  formed  ecological  species  in  a   multidimensional  trait  space.  These  species  varied  in  niche  widths,  and  we   observed  the  coexistence  of  generalists  and  specialists  on  a  few  resources.  Our   model  shows  that  species  ranges  correlate  with  dispersal  abilities  but  do  not   change  with  the  strength  of  fitness  trade-­‐offs;  however,  high  dispersal  abilities   and  low  resource  utilization  costs,  which  favored  broad  niche  widths,  have  a   strong  negative  effect  on  speciation  rates.  An  unexpected  result  of  our  model  is   the  strong  effect  of  underlying  resource  distributions  on  speciation:  in  highly   fragmented  landscapes,  speciation  rates  are  reduced.      

Jörgen  Ripa   Affiliation:  ThePEG,  Dept.  of  Biology,  Lund  University,  Sweden   email:  [email protected]   Title:  "Niche  conservatism  through  species  turnover"   Abstract:     The  rate  of  trait  evolution  within  a  clade  varies  depending  on  the  organism  and   the  trait.  Some  traits  are  evolutionary  conserved,  some  are  more  labile.  If  traits   related  to  habitat  adaptation  are  conserved  it  leads  to  phylogenetic  clustering,   i.e.  that  local  coexisting  species  are  more  closely  related  than  species  drawn   randomly  from  the  regional  species  pool.  I  have  used  eco-­‐evolutionary  models  of   an  adaptively  radiating  clade  to  theoretically  study  the  origin  and  maintenance   of  such  phylogeographic  patterns.  Of  particular  interest  is  what  type  of  traits  are   conserved  during  and  after  an  adaptive  radiation,  i.e.  what  part  of  an  organism's   niche  that  are  expected  to  be  conserved.  One  conclusion  is  that  patterns  of  niche   conservatism  become  successively  more  pronounced  through  cycles  of   extinction  and  speciation  events,  such  that  old  clades  are  predicted  to  show   stronger  patterns  than  young  clades.  The  underlying  mechanism  can  be   described  as  habitat  monopolization,  or  more  generally  niche  monopolization.   These  results  are  discussed  in  relation  to  extant  well-­‐studied  adaptive  radiations.