Madison Lake - Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Madison Lake - Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Madison Lake Blue Earth County Sentinel Lakes Prepared in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Minnesota Lake ID: 07-0044...

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Madison Lake Blue Earth County

Sentinel Lakes

Prepared in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

Minnesota Lake ID: 07-0044 Area: 1,344 Acres Watershed Area: 5,547 acres Ecoregion: Western Corn Belt Plains (WCBP)

Trophic State: Eutrophic Maximum Depth: 59 feet Mean Depth: 11 feet Mixing Status: Intermittent Figure 2. Madison Lake 3D depth contour

Figure 1. Madison Lake watershed land use

Table 1. Land use composition

Land use

Madison Lake land use percentage

WCBP typical land use percentage

Developed

9

0 – 16

Cultivated (Ag)

48

42 – 75

Pasture & Open

10

0–7

Forest

2

0 – 15

Water/ Wetland

31

3-26

Feedlots (#)

10

wq-slice07-0044 February 2009 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency • 520 Lafayette Rd. N., St. Paul, MN 55155-4194 • www.pca.state.mn.us 651-296-6300 • 800-657-3864 • TTY 651-282-5332 or 800-657-3864 • Available in alternative formats

Table 2. Madison Lake summer-mean as compared to typical range for WCBP ecoregion reference lakes MPCA data based on 1985-86 and 2008 sample collections Madison 2008

Madison 2006

Parameter

WCBP

Number of reference lakes

16

Total Phosphorus (µg/L)

81 ± 11

75

65 – 150

Chlorophyll mean (µg/L)

47 ± 5

27

30 – 80

Secchi Disk (meters)

0.7 ± .06

1.1

1.6 – 3.3

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (mg/L)

1.8 ± 0.1

1.3

1.3 – 2.7

Alkalinity (mg/L)

144 ± 2

140

125 – 165

Color (Pt-Co U)

18 ± 2

20

15 – 25

pH (SU)

8.7 ± 0.1

8.0

8.2 – 9.0

Chloride (mg/L)

20.6 ± 0.2

22

13- – 22

Total Suspended Solids (mg/L)

10.0 ± 1

7.6

7 – 18

Total Suspended Inorganic Solids (mg/L)

2.1 ± .04

2.8

3–9

Conductivity (umhos/cm)

267.5 ± 67

358

300 – 650

22.5:1

16.3:1

17:1 – 27:1

TN:TP ratio µg/L = micrograms per liter

Pt-Co-U = Platinum Cobalt Units

mg/L = milligrams per liter

SU = Standard Units

umhos/cm = micromhos per centimeter

Figure 3. Madison Lake 2006 and 2008 temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles 2008 Madison Lake DO Profiles mg/L 0

2

4

6

8

2006 Madison Lake DO Profiles mg/L DO

10

12

14

0

0 2

6

8

10

12

14

4

6

Depth Meters

Depth Meters

4

2

4

8 10 12

6 8 10 12

14

14

16

16

18

18

April Early July October

May August

June September

5

10

15

20

25

30

5

0

2

2

4

4

Depth Meters

0

6 8 10 12

July

Late August

September

16 18

Page 2 of 4

20

25

12

18

Madison Lake • wq-slice07-0044 • February 2009

15

8

14

June September

10

10

16

May August

June

Early August

6

14

April Early July October

May

2006 Madison Lake Temperatue Profiles mg/L DO

2008 Madison Lake Temperature Profiles Deg. C.

Depth Meters

2

0

May

June

July

Early August

Late August

September

30

0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

µg/L

150

100 50 0

May

June

July

TP

Early Aug.

Chl-a

Late Aug.

2008 Madison Lake Trophic Indicators

200

0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

150 µg.L

200

Meters

2006 Madison Lake Trophic Indicators

100

50

0

Sept.

April

Secchi Depth

May June

TP

July

Meters

Figure 4. Madison Lake 2006 and 2008 trophic indicators

Aug. Sept. Oct.

Chl-a

Secchi Depth

200

0

180

-0.5

160

-1

140

-1.5

120

-2

100

-2.5

80

-3

60

-3.5

40

-4

20

-4.5

Chl-a

Secchi

2008

2007

2006

2005

1994-2004

1993

1990-1992

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

1984

1980

1981-1983

1979

1978

1977

1974 TP

1975-1976

1971-1973

1970

1956-1969

1955

1948-1954

-5 1947

0

Meters

µg/L

Figure 5. Madison Lake long-term trophic indicators summer mean

Linear (Secchi)

Water quality, fishery and watershed management issues Madison Lake is located east of the Mankato area in south central Minnesota. Madison is one of the more popular lakes in southern Minnesota, known for its walleye population. The lake has a long water quality monitoring history going back to 1947. The lake has small watershed-to-lake area ratio at 4:1. In addition to the 2008 monitoring, Madison Lake was included in a 2006 algal toxin study and a comparison is provided in Table 2. Temperature profiles from 2008 revealed a temporary thermocline in July and August at about 6-8 meters (Figure 3). This temperature stratification resulted in anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion during these months. Profiles from 2006 revealed temperature stratification from June through September. DO concentrations declined rapidly with depth and the thermocline was anoxic for most of the summer. Fall mixing was underway in September 2006. This comparison for 2006 and 2008 indicates that stratification patterns may vary from year to year in Madison Lake, likely as a function of wind intensity, direction and related factors. Seasonal patterns in water quality vary as well from year-to-year in Madison. Monitoring from 2008 revealed increasing Secchi and decreasing chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from April to June, but increased thereafter (Figure 4). Maximum total phosphorus (TP) was observed in June corresponding to the onset of stratification. TP declined in July and August when the lake was stratified but increased in September when fall mixing was underway. Monitoring data from 2006 exhibited a similar patterns and range of concentrations. In general, the summer-mean TP, Chl-a and Secchi values for Madison were within the typical range for WCBP Madison Lake • wq-slice07-0044 • February 2009 Page 3 of 4

lakes (Table 2); however, its summer-mean values do exceed the eutrophication standards for deep WCBP lakes: 65 µg/L, 22 µg/L and 0.9m respectively and it is likely Madison will be assessed as nutrient-impaired on the 2010 303(d) assessment. Long-term TP and Chl-a data indicate these measures vary from year to year and peak measures correspond to the drought period of 1987-1989 (Figure. 5). Summer-mean Secchi data dating to 1947 show a slightly positive trend.

Fishery and aquatic plant survey summary Table 3. Focal species captured during recent surveys and their size and abundance compared with other lakes in its lake class

Species Walleye* Northern Pike Black Crappie* White Crappie Largemouth bass Bluegill* Gizzard Shad Yellow perch

Stocked Y N N N N N N N

Abundance Average Average High Average Low Average Variable Average

Size Large Large Large Average Small Average Variable Small

Trend Stable Stable Increasing Decreasing Stable Increasing Decreasing Increasing

Notes

Discovered in 1970

Table 4. Aquatic plant summary Percent cover of aquatic plants ≤ 15ft deep Number of common species (i.e., > 10% cover) Lake depth at which most vegetation disappeared Infested with non-native plants

25% 0 3.8ft Curly-leaf pondweed (lightly)

Narrative Madison Lake is productive both from a nutrient and fishery standpoint and sustains heavy angling pressure. High nutrient productivity generally favors pelagic-oriented species such as walleye and crappie, while reducing aquatic plant growth, and plant-oriented species such as northern pike, largemouth bass, yellow perch, and bluegill. Northern pike are generally large in Madison Lake, but recruitment appears to have declined over time, presumably due to habitat alterations. Madison is the only inland Minnesota lake harboring a population of gizzard shad. Gizzard shad are oily fish that can provide a high-fat food source for large predators; however, these prolific species quickly outgrow the gape-size of predators and can further exacerbate internal nutrient loading through their omnivorous feeding habits. Reducing external nutrient loads to favor greater aquatic plant growth should benefit a wide range of native species and potentially limit habitat suitability for gizzard shad. Physical habitat and plant assessments at 10 random sites on Madison Lake in 2008 by MPCA staff suggest that curly-leaf pondweed infestation may be quite high on the lake early in the summer. A June assessment indicated the northeast bay (Figure 1 and picture) was nearly impassable because of curly-leaf dominance. As with other lakes, the growth and senescence of curly-leaf may influence the seasonal cycling (Fig. 4) and relationships of the trophic status variables. Future work on Madison can address this in more detail.

Madison Lake • wq-slice07-0044 • February 2009 Page 4 of 4