Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste - Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste - Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste Mass Balance Study on Waste Incinerators to Improve Mercury Estimate wq-iw4-02f3 Ian Babineau Engineer Environmental...

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Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste Mass Balance Study on Waste Incinerators to Improve Mercury Estimate wq-iw4-02f3

Ian Babineau Engineer Environmental Analysis & Outcomes Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Background 3321 2843 2705

110

Background • TMDL products sector is large and not decreasing (~28% of total) • Mercury emitted from municipal solid waste during processing and handling is ~38% of products sector • We had “Very Low” confidence in our estimate for mercury emitted from municipal solid waste

Goal • Improve our estimate for mercury emitted from municipal solid waste during processing and handling regardless of fate • Do this by more accurately estimating the mercury content in municipal solid waste • Perform a mass balance on waste incinerators in MN to find mercury content of municipal solid waste

Goal • Improve our estimate for mercury emitted from municipal solid waste during processing and handling regardless of fate • Do this by more accurately estimating the mercury content in municipal solid waste • Perform a mass balance on waste incinerators in MN to find mercury content of municipal solid waste

Goal • Improve our estimate for mercury emitted from municipal solid waste during processing and handling regardless of fate • Do this by more accurately estimating the mercury content in municipal solid waste • Perform a mass balance on waste incinerators in MN to find mercury content of municipal solid waste

Goal • Improve our estimate for mercury emitted from municipal solid waste during processing and handling regardless of fate • Do this by more accurately estimating the mercury content in municipal solid waste • Perform a mass balance on waste incinerators in MN to find mercury content of municipal solid waste

Why Waste Incinerators? • Most available and extensive data for mercury concentrations in municipal solid waste

• Data for mercury concentration in ash streams were available • Data for mercury concentration in stack gas were available • Incinerators are located across many regions of the state

What Did We Find?

What Did We Find? 0.83 ppm in 2011[concentration of mercury in MSW] 244 pounds of mercury in 2011 Range: 0.22 – 1.16 ppm 65 – 340 pounds

What Did We Find? 0.83 ppm in 2011[concentration of mercury in MSW] 244 pounds of mercury in 2011 Range: 0.22 – 1.16 ppm 65 – 340 pounds

What Did We Find? 0.83 ppm in 2011[concentration of mercury in MSW] 244 pounds of mercury in 2011 Range: 0.22 – 1.16 ppm 65 – 340 pounds

Comparison to Historical Hg in MSW Estimates 1990

1995

2000

2005

New Mass Balance Hg in MSW Estimate 2011

MSW Composted [tons]

30,000

67,997

21,092

20,000

16,437

MSW Incinerated (Resource Recovery) [tons]

N/A

1,379,329

1,228,830

1,240,000

1,129,050

MSW Landfilled [tons]

800,000

1,145,067

1,909,152

2,120,000

1,789,612

TOTAL [tons]

2,200,000

2,592,393

3,159,074

3,380,000

2,935,099

Mercury Content [ppm]

3.66

0.97

0.62

0.50

0.83

Mercury Content [pounds]

16,104

5,029

3,917

3,380

4,872

Volatilization during handling and trasnport [pounds] (5% of Hg content)

805

251

196

169

244

MSW (MN Totals and Fates)

Historical Hg in MSW Estimates (taken from TMDL)

How did we get there? • Performed a mass balance on Olmsted, HERC, Perham, and Polk from 2005 – 2013 • Performed a trend analysis on Hg content for each facility from 2005 – 2013 • Selected an MSW content that best represents the state as a whole

Mass Balance Process Flow Stack Gas 𝐻𝑔𝐴𝑖𝑟 Carbon Injection Lime Injection

Fly Ash Lime Carbon

Sorted MSW 𝐻𝑔𝑀𝑆𝑊 Incineration

Bottom Ash

Combined Ash 𝐻𝑔𝐴𝑠ℎ

Mass Balance Process Flow Stack Gas 𝐻𝑔𝐴𝑖𝑟

Hg in stack gas was found to be statistically irrelevant when compared to Hg in combined ash.

Carbon Injection Lime Injection

Fly Ash Lime Carbon

Sorted MSW 𝐻𝑔𝑀𝑆𝑊 Incineration

Bottom Ash

Combined Ash 𝐻𝑔𝐴𝑠ℎ

Simplified Mass Balance

𝐻𝑔𝑀𝑆𝑊 ≈ 𝐻𝑔𝐴𝑠ℎ

Results

Range Facility Olmsted HERC Perham Polk

Average Hg content in MSW [ppm] 0.61 0.83 1.16 0.22

• 0.22 – 1.16 ppm • 65 – 340 pounds of Mercury emitted in 2011

HERC Facility

0.83 ppm



Processes wasted generated by ~2M residence in MN



Processes 32% of waste that is incinerated in MN



Diverse range of activities in the waste shed



No pre-sorter on the process



Further analysis of different waste sheds without incinerators would require more resources

Comparison to historical Hg in MSW Estimates Historical TMDL Historical Hg in MSW Estimates 1990

1995

2000

2005

New Mass Balance 2011

MSW Composted

30,000

67,997

21,092

20,000

16,437

MSW Incinerated (Resource Recovery)

N/A

1,379,329

1,228,830

1,240,000

1,129,050

MSW Landfilled

800,000

1,145,067

1,909,152

2,120,000

1,789,612

TOTAL

2,200,000

2,592,393

3,159,074

3,380,000

2,935,099

Mercury Content [ppm]

3.66

0.97

0.62

0.50

0.83

Mercury Content [pounds]

16,104

5,029

3,917

3,380

4,872

Volatilization during handling and trasnport [pounds] (5% of Hg content)

805

251

196

169

244

Fate of MSW (MN Totals)

More To Think About • All mercury disposal bans were in place by 1994 • Most product sale and use bans were put in effect between 1997 and 2007 • CFL sales boomed between 2007-2009 with disposal expected to be 3-7 years after purchase

Summary • We needed to improve our confidence in the mercury emitted from municipal solid waste during processing and handling • We wanted a standard methodology to use for future estimates • We found no trend in the data indicating that mercury levels in municipal solid waste are not changing • We are using HERC as the state-wide representation

Questions?

THANK YOU!

Olmsted Facility

• Average Hg content over 2010, 2011, and 2012 = 0.61 ppm

HERC Facility

• Average Hg content over 2005 – 2013 = 0.83 ppm

Perham Facility

• Average Hg content over 2005 – 2013 = 1.16 ppm

Polk Facility

• Average Hg content over 2005 – 2013 = 0.22 ppm