Middle East - Lonely Planet

Middle East - Lonely Planet

© Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd Middle East PHRASEBOOK & DICTIONARY Acknowledgments Associate Publisher Mina Patria Managing Editor Angela Ti...

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© Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd

Middle East PHRASEBOOK & DICTIONARY

Acknowledgments

Associate Publisher Mina Patria Managing Editor Angela Tinson Editors Branislava Vladisavljevic Series Designer Mark Adams Managing Layout Designers Chris Girdler, Jane Hart Layout Designers Carol Jackson, Joseph Spanti Cover Image Researcher Naomi Parker

Thanks Shahara Ahmed, Chris Love, Wayne Murphy, Jacqui Saunders, John Taufa, Jeanette Wall, Juan Winata Published by Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd ABN 36 005 607 983 2nd Editionby – Sep 2013Planet Publications Pty Ltd Published Lonely ISBN 978 1 74179 139 6 ABN 36 005 607 983 Text © Lonely Planet 2013 8th Edition – March 2012 Cover Image Souq, Aswan, Egypt, Alan Copson/Getty Images© ISBN 978 1 74220 811 4 Printed in China 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Text © Lonely Planet 2012 Cover Image xxx – xxx Printed in China 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contact lonelyplanet.com/contact All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or ­otherwise, except brief extracts for the purpose of review, without the written permission of the publisher. Lonely Planet and the Lonely Planet logo are trade marks of Lonely Planet and are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. Lonely Planet does not allow its name or logo to be appropriated by commercial establishments, such as retailers, restaurants or hotels. Please let us know of any misuses: www.lonelyplanet.com/ip Although the authors and Lonely Planet try to make the ­information as accurate as possible, we accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by anyone using this book. Paper in this book is certified against the Forest Stewardship Council™ standards. FSC™ promotes environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests.

acknowledgments This book is based on existing editions of Lonely Planet’s phrasebooks as well as new content. It was developed with the help of the following people: • • • • • •

Shalome Knoll for the Modern Standard and Levantine Arabic chapters Siona Jenkins for the Egyptian Arabic chapter Kathryn Stapley for the Gulf and Tunisian Arabic chapters Yavar Dehghani for the Farsi chapter Mimoon Abu Ata for the Hebrew chapter Arzu Kürklü for the Turkish chapter

Special thanks to Shalome Knoll for proofing and additional translations for the Egyptian, Gulf and Tunisian Arabic chapters.

ack n owl ed g m en t s 3

contents MSA

Egyptian

Gulf

Levantine

Tunisian

Farsi

Hebrew

Turkish

chapter contents 13

39

65

91

117

143

173

203

9

9

9

145

175

205

10

10

10

146

176

206

66

92

118

148

178

208

67

93

119

149

179

209

68

94

120

150

180

210

42

68

94

120

150

180

210

43

69

95

121

151

181

211

45

71

97

123

153

183

213

72

98

124

154

185

214

introduction 9

9

pronunciation 10

10

language difficulties 14

40

time & dates 15

41

border crossing 16

42

tickets & luggage 16

transport 17

directions 19

C ON TE N TS

accommodation

4

21

46

banking & communications 22

48

74

100

126

156

186

216

76

102

128

158

188

218

sightseeing 24

49

MSA

Egyptian

Gulf

Levantine

Tunisian

Farsi

Hebrew

Turkish

shopping 25

51

77

103

129

159

189

219

79

105

131

161

191

221

photography 27

52

making conversation 27

53

79

105

131

161

192

221

55

81

107

133

163

193

223

56

82

108

134

164

194

224

83

109

135

164

195

225

57

83

109

135

165

195

225

58

84

111

137

166

197

227

60

86

112

138

198

228

eating out 29

drinks 30

special diets & allergies 31

57

emergencies 31

health 33

dictionary 34

168

233

history timeline arabic food hebrew food persian food turkish food festivals sustainable travel & responsible tourism

234 238 238 238 238 242 246

index

251

C ON TE NTS

culture section

5

Middle East Bulgaria Macedonia Albania

Portugal

Italy Spain

Tyrrhenian Sea

Ionian Sea

Tunis

Algiers

TUNIS I A

B L AC K Ankara

Greece

Malta

M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A Tripoli

Morocco

Cairo

ALGERIA

L I BYA

Mali

Niger

Enlargement

Lefkosia/ Nicosia

A

CYPRUS

Beirut

Benin

ISRAEL & THE CôtePALESTINIAN Ghana Togo D'ivoire TERRITORIES

L ANG UAGE MAP

Tel Aviv Jerusalem

6

Chad

SYRI A

Burkina LEBANON Faso

EGYPT

EGYPT

Damascus

Sudan

IRAQ

Nigeria

Central African Republic

Amman Cameroon

S AU D I

Equatorial ARABIA G u l f oJORDAN f São Tomé Guinea Congo G u i n e a & Príncipe Gabon 0 250 km 0 150 mi

Arabic (Modern Standard) Egyptian Arabic Gulf Arabic

Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)

Uganda Rwanda Burundi

Levantine Arabic Tunisian Arabic

Russia Georgia

LAC K SEA

T U R K EY

Uzbekistan

Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan

Turkmenistan

Tehran

Baghdad

Tajikistan

Kabul

A F G H A N I S TA N

IRAN

IRAQ

Pakistan

KUWAIT

See enlargement

Kuwait The Gulf

Riyadh

BAHRAIN Doha Abu Dhabi Q ATA R Gulf of Oman Muscat U.A.E.

SAUDI ARABIA

Re e d S

India

OMAN A R A B I A N S E A

a

San’a

YEMEN

Eritrea

Djibouti Ethiopia

Gulf of Aden

Suqutra Island (Yemen)

Somalia

Maldives Tanzania

0 0

500 km 300 mi

Kenya

Farsi Hebrew Turkish

Note: Language areas are approximate only. For more details see the relevant introduction.

E urope

A sia

MIDDLE E AST A fr ica

LAN GUAGE MAP

ganda

Kazakhstan Caspian Sea Armenia Azerbaijan

7

MI D D LE E AS T – AT A GLANCE

middle east – at a glance

8

The use of the term ‘Middle East’ is almost as complex as the history of the region itself. The expression first appeared in English at the start of the 20th century and had replaced the term ‘Near East’ by the middle of the century. In some languages, such as German or Russian, the region is still referred to as the ‘Near East’. In a cultural sense, the name ‘Middle East’ can be used only in relation to the Arab world, but it’s generally also applied to the non-Arabic lands of Israel, Turkey and Iran. In terms of geography, ‘Middle East’ means primarily the Levant (the eastern shore of the Mediterranean) and the Persian Gulf States (the Arabian Peninsula, Iran and Iraq). Broader geographical definitions, however, also include the Maghreb (Northern Africa) and even parts of Central Asia. Along with a wealth of religions and cultures, the Middle East boasts great linguistic diversity. Its languages belong to three large families – Afro-Asiatic, IndoEuropean and Ural-Altaic. Arabic is truly the lingua franca of the region, with official status in all Middle Eastern countries except for Iran and Turkey. Many of these countries have several minority languages as well – the Berber dialects in North Africa, or Kurdish and Armenian in Iraq and Turkey, for example. European languages are often widely used too – English throughout the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf, and French in North Africa and the Levant. In this book, we present Modern Standard Arabic and the four main colloquial Arabic varieties in one section, followed by the Farsi, Hebrew and Turkish languages.

did you know? • The League of Arab States (more informally called the Arab League) was formed by seven Arab states on 22 March 1945 with the Alexandria Protocol. Today, it has 22 member states from the Middle East and Africa. Its headquarters are in Cairo, Egypt. The official language of the League is Modern Standard Arabic. • The Middle Eastern countries use an array of currencies. The main ones are: dinar, dirham, lira, pound, riyal, shekel and shilling. Their official names always include the country name (eg ‘Egyptian pound’, ‘Saudi riyal’) • Al-Jazeera, the famous satellite television network, is headquartered in Doha, Qatar. It was launched in 1996 with a news and current affairs program in Arabic. Since then, several other specialty channels have been founded within the network, including an English-language current affairs channel. • Pharos of Alexandria and the Pyramids of Giza (Egypt); the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Iraq); the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus and the Temple of Artemis (Turkey). The two exceptions are the Colossus of Rhodes and the Statue of Zeus (both in Greece.

introduction to arabic

MIDDLE EAS T – AT A GLAN C E

The Arabic language is characterised by a number of colloquial varieties. Here, we introduce you to Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) – the lingua franca of all Arabic countries – alongside the four most common Arabic varieties spoken across the Middle East: Egyptian, Gulf, Levantine and Tunisian. Muslims say that Arabic is the most perfect language of all, as it’s the language in which the Quran was revealed. Religious beliefs aside, the international status of Arabic is impressive: it’s one of the world’s 10 most widely spoken languages, with over 200 million speakers. Arabic is spoken as the first language across the Middle East and North Africa and is widely used as a second language throughout the ­Islamic world. It has official status in 25 countries, the Arab League and the African Union, and it’s one of the six official languages of the United Nations. As a member of the Afro-Asiatic language family’s Semitic branch, Arabic is related to Hebrew and Amharic, and to the ancient Aramaic and Phoenician languages. It’s a bit misleading to speak just of ‘Arabic’, however, as there are many varieties of this language. It’s often given as an example of ‘diglossia’ – two varieties of the same language used in different contexts. Classical Arabic (‫اللغة العربية الفصحى‬ al·lu·gha·tul ’a·ra·bee·ya·tul fus·ha), the highly respected language of the Quran and classical literature, is used mainly for literary and religious purposes. Modern Standard Arabic or MSA (‫ اللغة العربية الحديثة‬al·lu·gha·tul ’a·ra·bee·ya·tul ha·dee·tha) is the modernised version of Classical Arabic, used in schools, administration and the media – the official lingua franca of the Arab world. The colloquial language, ie everyday spoken version of modern Arabic (‫ اللغة العامية‬al·lu·gha·tul ’aa·mee·ya), has many regional dialects, sometimes mutually unintelligible and with no official written form. Each dialect is strongly influenced by the indigenous or colonial languages of the area in which it’s spoken (eg Berber or French in North Africa). Of all the dialects, Egyptian Arabic (‫ اللهجة المصرية‬al·lah·ja·tul mis·ree·ya) is probably the most familiar to all Arabic speakers, thanks to the popularity of Egyptian television and cinema. Gulf, Levantine and Tunisian Arabic are other spoken varieties that cover broad parts of the Middle East. Take one look at the elegant Arabic script and it’s obvious why calligraphy is an art form in the Arab world. The Arabic alphabet evolved from the Aramaic script in the 4th century, and its earliest written record dates from AD 512. Arabic is written from right to left and the form of each letter changes depending on whether it’s at the start, in the middle or at the end of a word or whether it stands alone. The huge impact of Arabic on English and many other languages is easily visible, although it often came by way of other languages, for example Spanish or Hindi. It’s the source of many common English words – alcohol, candle, coffee, cotton, jar, mattress and syrup, to name only a few – and is also responsible for a few more eso­teric terms like assassin, elixir, genie, harem, zenith …

9

pronunciation The sounds of Modern Standard Arabic are the basis for the pronunciation of other Arabic varieties. However, there are a few variations in pronunciation, as shown in the following tables. The regional differences between the varieties of Arabic are indicated in brackets – the other sounds are common to all versions of Arabic included in this phrasebook. If you follow our coloured pronunciation guides, you won’t have problems being understood.

vowel sounds

P RON UN C I ATI ON – ARABIC

symbol

10

english equivalent

arabic example

transliteration

‫ أَن َْت‬an·ta

a

act

aa

father

ae (Levantine(

air

َ ‫اآلن‬ al·aan ٌ ‫جامعة‬ jae·mi·’a

ai (Egyptian, Gulf, Tunisian)

aisle

َ‫ أَيْن‬ai·na

aw

law

ay

say

e (Egyptian, Levantine, Tunisian(

bet

ee

see

‫ ِف ْي ٌل‬feel

i

hit

‫َاب‬ ٌ ‫ ِكت‬ki·taab

o (Egyptian, Tunisian(

pot

oo

zoo

u

put

‫ نوم‬nom ‫ ُف ْو ٌل‬fool ‫ ُث ََّم‬thum·ma



like the pause in the middle of ‘uh-oh‘

ٌ‫ َيوْم‬yawm ‫ َب ْي ٌت‬bayt ‫ بنزين‬ben·zeen

‫ ا ْل َع َر ِب َّي ٌة‬al·’a·ra·bee·ya

word stress Stress usually falls on the first syllable of a word or the one with a long vowel. Just follow our pronunciation guides, in which the stressed syllable is always in italics.

consonant sounds symbol

english equivalent

b

bed

ch (Gulf(

cheat

d

dog

dh (not in Egyptian( that

arabic example

transliteration ‫ َب ْي ٌت‬bait ‫ ﻜﺘﻑ‬chatf

‫دَا ٌر‬ ‫ َظ ْه ٌر‬,‫َذا ِك َر ٌة‬ ‫َف ٌم‬ َ ‫ ق ِدي ٌْم‬, ٌ‫جَ ِديْد‬

daar dhaa·ki·ra, dhahr fam

f

fun

g (not in MSA(

go

gh

a guttural sound, like the Parisian French ‘r‘

h

hat

j (not in Egyptian(

jar

k

kit

kh

as the ‘ch’ in the Scottish loch

‫ خَ ِري َْط ٌة‬kha·ree·ta

l

lot

m

man

n

not

r

run (rolled(

‫ لَ ْي ٌل‬lail ‫ َم ْطحَ ٌف‬mat·haf ‫ َنظِ ْي ٌف‬na·dheef ‫ ِري ٌَال‬ri·yaal

s

sun

sh

shot

t

top

w

win

y

yes

z

zero

zh (Egyptian(

pleasure



like the pause in the middle of ‘uh-oh‘

‫ هُ َو‬,‫ حُ ْل َو ٌة‬hal·wa, hu·wa ٌ‫ جَ ِديْد‬ja·deed

‫ َق ِدي ٌْم‬,‫َاب‬ ٌ ‫ ِكت‬ki·taab, ka·deem

‫ صَ ْي ٌف‬,‫ َس ْبع ٌَة‬sab·’a, saif

‫ شِ تَا ُء‬shi·taa‘ ‫ َطا ِئ َر ٌة‬,‫ ت ِْسع ٌَة‬tis·’a, taa·’i·ra ‫ َث ِق ْي ٌل‬tha·keel ٌ‫ وَسِ ْي َلة‬wa·see·la ‫ َي ِم ْين‬ya·meen

‫ َز َم ٌان‬za·maan

‫جراج‬ ga·raazh ٌ

,‫ ُس َؤ ٌال‬,‫ َسأَ َل‬, ٌ‫‘ َع ْين‬ain, sa·’a·la, su·’aal, ‫ شِ تَاء‬,‫ َسائ ٌِل‬saa·’il, shi·taa‘

PRONUN C I ATI ON – AR ABI C

th (not in Egyptian( thin

ga·deed, ga·deem

‫ َغا ِد ٌر‬ghaa·dir

11

‫‪arabic alphabet‬‬ ‫‪letter‬‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬

‫اــ‬ ‫بـ‬ ‫تـ‬ ‫ثـ‬ ‫جـ‬ ‫حـ‬ ‫خـ‬ ‫د ــ‬ ‫ذــ‬ ‫رــ‬ ‫زــ‬ ‫سـ‬ ‫شـ‬ ‫صـ‬ ‫ضـ‬ ‫طـ‬ ‫ظـ‬ ‫عـ‬ ‫غـ‬ ‫فـ‬ ‫قـ‬ ‫كــ‬ ‫لــ‬ ‫مــ‬ ‫نــ‬ ‫هــ‬ ‫و ــ‬ ‫يــ‬

‫أَ‬ ‫ُأ‬ ‫إِ‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ُأو‬ ‫إِيْ‬ ‫أَ ْو‬ ‫أَيْ‬

‫أَ‬ ‫ُأ‬ ‫إِ‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ُأو‬ ‫إِيْ‬ ‫أَ ْو‬ ‫أَيْ‬

‫ــاــ‬ ‫ــبـ‬ ‫ــتـ‬ ‫ــثـ‬ ‫ــجـ‬ ‫ــحـ‬ ‫ــخـ‬ ‫ــد ــ‬ ‫ــذ ــ‬ ‫ـــرــ‬ ‫ــزــ‬ ‫ــسـ‬ ‫ــشـ‬ ‫ــصـ‬ ‫ــضـ‬ ‫ــطــ‬ ‫ــظـ‬ ‫ــعـ‬ ‫ــغـ‬ ‫ــفــ‬ ‫ـــقــ‬ ‫ــكـ‬ ‫ــلــ‬ ‫ــمـ‬ ‫ــنـ‬ ‫ــهــ‬ ‫ــو ــ‬ ‫ــيــ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ــئَـ ــ َؤ‬ ‫ــئُــ ــ ُؤ‬ ‫ــئِـ ــ ِؤ‬ ‫ــئْــ ــ ْؤ‬ ‫ـــَا ــ‬ ‫ـ ُـ ْو ـ‬ ‫ــِي ْـ‬ ‫ــَو ْـ‬ ‫ــَ ْيــ‬

‫ــا‬ ‫ــب‬ ‫ـــت‬ ‫ــث‬ ‫ــج‬ ‫ــح‬ ‫ــخ‬ ‫ــد‬ ‫ــذ‬ ‫ــر‬ ‫ــز‬ ‫ــس‬ ‫ــش‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ــض‬ ‫ــط‬ ‫ــظ‬ ‫ــع‬ ‫ــغ‬ ‫ــف‬ ‫ــق‬ ‫ــك‬ ‫ـــل‬ ‫ــم‬ ‫ــن‬ ‫ــه‬ ‫ــو‬ ‫ــي‬ ‫ــأ‬ ‫ُـأ‬ ‫ــإ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ــأ‬ ‫ــَا‬ ‫ـ ُـو‬ ‫ــ ِْي‬ ‫ــَ ْو‬ ‫ــَي‬

‫‪AL PHABE T – ARAB I C‬‬

‫‘‪alef‬‬ ‫‪‘ba‬‬ ‫‪‘ta‬‬ ‫‪‘tha‬‬ ‫‪jeem‬‬ ‫‪‘ha‬‬ ‫‪‘kha‬‬ ‫‪daal‬‬ ‫‪dhaal‬‬ ‫‪‘ra‬‬ ‫‪‘za‬‬ ‫‪seen‬‬ ‫‪sheen‬‬ ‫‪saad‬‬ ‫‪daad‬‬ ‫‪‘ta‬‬ ‫‪‘dha‬‬ ‫‘‪ain‬‬ ‫‪ghain‬‬ ‫‪‘fa‬‬ ‫‪kuf‬‬ ‫‪kaf‬‬ ‫‪lam‬‬ ‫‪mim‬‬ ‫‪nun‬‬ ‫‪‘ha‬‬ ‫‪waw‬‬ ‫‪‘ya‬‬ ‫‪hamza‬‬ ‫‪a‬‬ ‫‪u‬‬ ‫‪i‬‬ ‫( ‪‘ )glottal stop‬‬ ‫‪aa‬‬ ‫‪oo‬‬ ‫‪ee‬‬ ‫‪aw‬‬ ‫‪ay‬‬

‫‪word-initial alone‬‬

‫‪word-medial‬‬

‫‪word-final‬‬

‫‪12‬‬

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