Middle Eastern Regional Internet Trends - (TRA) Bahrain

Middle Eastern Regional Internet Trends - (TRA) Bahrain

Middle Eastern Regional Internet Trends December 2010 © 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com Page 2 Contents Executive Summary ...

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Middle Eastern Regional Internet Trends December 2010

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Contents Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................. 4 Key Findings ........................................................................................................................................ 5 Methodology and Interpretation ............................................................................................................. 9 Country Summaries ............................................................................................................................... 11 Iraq.................................................................................................................................................... 12 Oman ................................................................................................................................................ 16 Lebanon ............................................................................................................................................ 18 Syria .................................................................................................................................................. 21 Qatar ................................................................................................................................................. 22 Bahrain .............................................................................................................................................. 25 Jordan ............................................................................................................................................... 34 Kuwait ............................................................................................................................................... 37 Iran.................................................................................................................................................... 41 Egypt ................................................................................................................................................. 44 Saudi Arabia ...................................................................................................................................... 47 United Arab Emirates ........................................................................................................................ 52 Regional Trends in Internet Transit Markets .......................................................................................... 55 Market Dominance of International Providers: “On-Net” Percentages ............................................... 56 Market Dominance of Domestic Providers: “On-Net” Percentages..................................................... 60 Key Internet Outage Event of 2010 ........................................................................................................ 64 Snapshot of the IPv6 Regional Internet ................................................................................................. 67 IPv6 Trends by Country ...................................................................................................................... 68 The Future of the IPv6+IPv4 Dual Internet ......................................................................................... 68 Appendix A: Routing Terminology ......................................................................................................... 69

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Executive Summary The Bahrain Telecommunications Regulatory Authority has asked Renesys to examine recent trends in IP interconnection for Bahrain and its neighbors in the Gulf region. The goal of the 2010-2011 study will be to fairly and objectively characterize the evolution of the region’s primary Internet service providers, their patterns of interconnection, and their response to infrastructure incidents such as submarine cable cuts. At the close of 2010, the Middle East’s national Internet ecosystems contained nearly 11,000 distinct IPv4 networks, out of roughly 380,000 on Earth. Renesys continually monitors the paths traffic takes to reach every worldwide network, and actively verifies the performance of those paths using multipoint latency measurement. Together, these datasets permit the objective study of interconnection and Internet transit diversity, integrating regional network observations that have been collected continuously over a period of years. Key findings include: The largest domestic providers of the region tend to have a higher than average on-net market share, suggesting restricted competition. Bahrain is a notable exception to this trend, and leads the region in lowering the percentage of the domestic market seen on-net with the largest domestic providers. As 2010 comes to a close, Bahraini providers are taking advantage of more diverse international transit than ever before. Bahraini providers still have fewer available choices for international transit than others in the region. Two new submarine cable landings should improve this picture in 2011, and the region will have additional terrestrial connectivity options as well. The Bahrain Internet Exchange, once the default alternative provider in the Kingdom, is losing market share as with the arrival of more international transit diversity. Batelco’s lack of multihomed customers artificially constrains their on-net share of the domestic market, and potentially their growth. The April 2010 shunt fault on the Sea-Me-We-4 cable off of Alexandria showed that major cable failures are survivable, if nations pursue a strategy of achieving significant international transit diversity. The IPv6 Internet is growing very slowly in the region, despite the looming threat of IPv4 address space exhaustion. A prolonged and potentially painful multi-year transition period is inevitable, and may pose special challenges for regional regulators.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Key Findings The largest domestic providers of the region tend to have a higher than average on-net market share, suggesting restricted competition. However, Bahrain is a notable exception to this trend.

The average “largest domestic provider” on Earth sells to 36% of their own national market, as evidenced by published routes to domestic customers. Lower-thanaverage on-net percentages for largest providers are common in highly competitive markets such as the USA (9%), Great Britain (11%), Germany (14%), and Canada (27%), where a deep field of competitors reduces the likelihood that any single largest domestic provider will serve a dominant percentage of the national market. ”On-net" percentages for largest domestic providers. Orange indicates 50%+ of the domestic market on-net with a single provider, red 90%+. Bahrain is light green, at 28%.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Within the Gulf region, the weighted average is 71% on net with a single provider, roughly twice the worldwide average.

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Bahrain (28%), Kuwait (35%), Iraq (38%), and Egypt (38%) score in line with worldwide averages. In these countries, multiple independent service providers compete to offer access to international transit, so that no single provider gains what could be considered a dominant share of the domestic IP transit market “on net.” Saudi Arabia (69%) and Jordan (76%) are higher than average, but clearly have at least some active competitors gaining measurable IP market share. Lebanon (65%) has a high percentage of satellite Internet providers, each of which takes away potential market share from a strong incumbent.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Oman, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates all have more than 90% of their domestic market on-net with a single domestic provider. Few realistic alternatives exist for international IP transit, other than that mediated by the largest domestic provider.

As 2010 comes to a close, Bahraini providers are taking advantage of more diverse international transit than ever before. In March 2010, Saudi Telecom launched its Viva mobile service in Bahrain, utilizing dark fiber leased from GCCIA. Backup transit was provided over Flag FALCON via the Bahrain landing station. Bahraini providers Menatelecom, Kalaam, RTS, Etisalcom Bahrain, and GCCNGN/Rawabi quickly moved to acquire international transit via STC, and today, STC has an estimated 21% of the Bahraini market on-net. October 2010 saw a surge in Bahraini utilization of the Flag FALCON cable, with leading competitive providers Menatelecom and Zain Bahrain both showing evidence of substantial Flag transit for the first time. Flag’s on-net percentage of the domestic market has risen from 26% to 45% over the course of the year, with Tata’s on-net percentage falling from 93% to 82%, and Emirates’ from 35% to 28%. Bahraini providers still have fewer available choices for international transit than others in the region. Bahraini providers still do not have access to the full array of international service providers that are available in other countries at consortium-based cable landings. As 2010 closes, Bahraini providers have four choices for international transit: Tata, Flag, Emirates, or STC. By contrast, the largest providers in the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt typically have access to six, eight, or even ten international carriers, and use them all simultaneously for transit, letting them compete for every packet sent and received. In Bahrain, Tata and GBI both plan new submarine cable landings in 2011, which should increase the range of direct International transit available to domestic providers. Additional terrestrial connectivity options for the region are likely to materialize in 2011. The Gulf region has always lacked a terrestrial alternative to failure-prone submarine cables for European and Asian connectivity. Turkish, Russian, Iraqi, Azeri, and even Iranian carriers are stepping into the gap, hoping to provide attractive terrestrial routes for the region’s IP traffic. The JADI-link (Jeddah, Amman, Damascus, Istanbul) is theoretically complete and likely to be the first online, although it has not yet made a visible impact in the routing tables. Saudi-Iraqi and Jordanian-Iraqi routes are likely to follow, connecting the region to transcontinental Russian transit. The Bahrain Internet Exchange, once the default alternative provider in the Kingdom, is losing market share as with the arrival of more international transit diversity. LightSpeed Communications, who became a Flag customer in 2009, added the BIX as a backup provider in March, thereby reducing the likelihood of suffering a single-carrier outage. Because the BIX resells a 50-50 mix of Tata and Emirates traffic, it represents a very reasonable diversification strategy for any Bahraini company that uses a lot of Flag transit. © 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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On the other hand, with the market entry of STC, and the expanded presence of Flag, other companies may see opportunities to replace BIX transit with direct international capacity. Menatelecom dropped BIX transit at the start of August 2010, having added Saudi Telecom as a third provider 60 days earlier. Kalaam and RTS followed suit in October and November. Unless the BIX can reverse this trend, its historical role as the Kingdom’s default alternative service provider may be in doubt, and national transit diversity may suffer. Batelco’s lack of multihomed customers artificially constrains their on-net share of the domestic market, and potentially their growth. Of all the incumbent providers in the region, only Batelco continues to have no autonomous system customers downstream – that is, no customers that can have multiple service providers. Bahraini companies whose primary current provider is Tata, or the BIX, or STC, would presumably welcome the change to lower their risks by acquiring Batelco as a backup provider, given its Flag and Tata transit, Emirates peering, and physical diversity. Without a multihomed customer strategy, however, there’s a risk that Batelco’s relative on-net share of the Bahraini market will continue to shrink as the domestic market grows and diversifies around it. The April 2010 failure of SMW4 showed that major cable failures are survivable, if nations pursue a strategy of significant international transit diversity. Unplanned Internet infrastructure failures are the unintentional testing mechanism that reveals whether a country’s Internet ecosystem is sufficiently diverse. In 2010, the shunt fault encountered by SMW4 off of Alexandria, Egypt was the primary event of this type. Across the region, providers shifted European transit to alternative providers on alternative cables. In Bahrain, customers who were heavily dependent on Tata saw packet delays to Europe increase by hundreds of milliseconds, as traffic rerouted around the planet. The event was a reminder that international transit diversity is the best insurance against regional outages. The IPv6 Internet is growing very slowly in the region, despite the looming threat of IPv4 address space exhaustion. A prolonged and potentially painful multi-year transition period is inevitable. Today, only about 40 IPv6 networks from the Gulf region appear in the global routing table, and only a handful of domestic and international providers offer any kind of IPv6 connectivity. As IPv4 allocations are exhausted, telecommunications regulators throughout the region may rapidly find themselves overseeing a lucrative (and increasingly desperate) market for IPv4 address space, in which new market entrants can be shut out by existing providers for lack of adequate IPv4 addressing resources. Affected parties should begin to consider whether a country’s existing IPv4 allocations might constitute a finite national resource, like radio spectrum, that is potentially subject to regulatory oversight.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Methodology and Interpretation Renesys continually monitors the global Internet routing table, synthesizing second-by-second changes in the advertised paths to every connected network on earth, and measuring round-trip latencies to those networks from around the world. Years of consecutive continuous observations are then mined to produce summaries of evolving interprovider relationships in each country, and each region of the world.

This report focuses on two particular kinds of measurements: on-net market share estimates and route selection percentages. On-net market share is an estimate of the percentage of a given market that is, directly or indirectly, the customer of a given provider. Renesys computes the provider’s customer base score (a proprietary model designed for comparative provider rankings, that incorporates a contribution from each network prefix originated or transited by any of the provider’s downstream customers). That customer base score is then divided by the total customer base score for the market as a whole (all network prefixes believed to geolocate there) to create the on-net percentage. Route selection percentages incorporate additional information: the percentage of Renesys observation points that believe that the given provider is the “best” (selected) route to a given prefix at any moment. This yields an estimate of instantaneous share for any provider within any market, which may fluctuate second by second as the customers in that market change their routing preferences among the providers with whom they have transit contracts. One can think of the on-net market size as a natural upper bound for the route selection percentage; the on-net market share is the percentage of a market that the provider could provide transit to, if it were always selected as the best route by all its customers. Note that route selection percentages sum to 100%, while on-net percentages generally sum to greater than 100%. To see why, consider a simplified scenario in which a country is served by two international carriers, and every customer in the country has direct transit contracts with both of them. Each of the two carriers would have 100% of the country on-net. But at any moment, all else being equal, they would each be expected to have a route selection percentage of 50%.

Starting on page 53, on-net tables show the on-net percentage of each international and domestic service provider within a given national market, as that percentage has evolved over a period of years. As a reminder, these are upper bounds for route selection, and will often sum to more than 100%, in situations where downstream customers have multiple provider choices.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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This report contains three primary kinds of visual displays.

Market graphs show the primary domestic and international providers for a country, along with their interconnection weights. Domestic providers are light blue; international providers are light red. Arrows indicate customer-provider relationships, and the percentage numbers on each arrow indicate the percentage of the national market that is estimated to be “on net” in that relationship. In other words, if that relationship were to disappear (because a cable was cut, or because a contract were not renewed), the label indicates the percentage of the national market that could potentially be affected by routing instability or outage.

Transit shift plots present a histogram of a given provider’s route selection percentages to each of their upstream transit providers, summing to 100%. The thickness of colored bands gives a visual indication of the importance of each provider in supplying Internet transit to the autonomous system in question over some lookback period (in this report, 2010).

Customer transit plots look at a provider’s downstream customers instead, estimating the contribution each one makes to the provider’s total national traffic . In this report, customer transit plots are normalized by national market size, to give additional information about the growth or decline of a given provider within the domestic market, based on the sum of inputs from each of its direct customers. .

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Country Summaries The countries of the Middle East vary widely in their approach to Internet economics. Some, like the Kingdom of Bahrain, show continuing trends towards increased competition and Internet transit diversification. Others have been slower to diversify, leaving a single domestic incumbent in control of market-dominant portions of the national Internet ecosystem. In all cases, geography is strongly determinative of international transit diversity. Countries with access to multiple consortium-based submarine cable landings have an abundance of international transit alternatives, which may or may not be made available to a broad set of competing domestic providers. The sections that follow provide capsule summaries of the leading domestic providers of each country in the region, summarizing their interconnections with international providers graphically. Additional plots illustrate the international transit available to each provider, and show how that transit blend has changed throughout 2010.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Iraq The smallest Internet economy in the region, and the 109th largest worldwide, is Iraq’s. The Internet economy of Iraq is once again growing, with new investment evident and new connections to neighboring countries appearing almost monthly. The US military’s portion of Iraq’s national Internet continues to drop, as the domestic market expands. While most visible autonomous-system level activity currently takes place in the northern provinces of Iraqi Kurdistan, one can also see evidence for growth and interconnection in the Baghdad area.

Looking forward, new cable landings at Basra in 2011 will connect Iraqi providers more firmly to the Gulf’s regional submarine cable network in the south, and new Turkish, Iranian, Azeri, and Russian connectivity will provide attractive terrestrial paths to Europe and Asia in the north. These paths can provide vital backup connectivity in the event of failures on the submarine cables that serve the Gulf, and will link up with existing Iraqi fiber connectivity to Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Indeed, if the Iraqi central and provincial governments can address security concerns, and continue reconstructing the nation’s fiberoptic backbone and metro networks, Iraq may emerge as a major regional conduit for low-latency IP transit between the Gulf states and Europe. Iraq’s incumbent operator, state-owned ITPC, has reaffirmed its stated policy of pursuing privatization and encouraging the growth of a diverse set of domestic Internet transit providers. Today, nearly all visible ASN-level Internet routing in Iraq takes place over terrestrial paths from Kurdistan to its neighbors in the north. © 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Primary Iraqi transit providers include Newroz Telecommunications (AS21277), based in Suleimaniya, which has 3 downstream ASN customers, 39 originated networks, and 18 transited networks. Newroz receives transit from Turk Telekom (80%) and Global Crossing (20%). It has 40% of the country “on-net” – that is, 40% of all Iraqi IP space receives Internet transit (at least partially) through Newroz.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Where Newroz looks west for transit, IQ networks (AS44217) looks east. With 4 downstream ASN customers, 6 originated networks, and 19 transited, IQ Networks has 18% of the country on-net, and now receives 100% of its Internet transit from Russian provider Rostelecom (AS12389), utilizing Iranian connectivity through the Azeri Internet Exchange in Baku.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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A third Iraqi provider, the Al-Sard Group (AS39216), utilizes a blend of Azeri transit (Delta Telecom) and Iranian transit (DCI Iran) along the same physical routes. Several downstream autonomous systems, including Goran Net, CellNet, and the American University at Suleimaniya, derive their transit from some combination of these, while others still utilize VSAT connectivity.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Oman Oman’s Internet ecosystem is slightly larger than Iraq’s, ranking 10th regionally and 103rd globally. Its domestic transit diversity is substantially lower, however. OmanTel (AS8529) has 100% of the nation’s IP space on-net, and transits a total of 106 networks, on behalf of 2 major downstream customers. Very little evidence for fixed-line or mobile IP diversity is evident in the national transit graph. The OmanTel NAP (AS28885) accounts for a third of the customer base, and Omani Qatari (AS50010) for another two-thirds. Omani Qatari appeared in January 2010, and is transiting large amounts of IP space on behalf of Nawras Mobile Broadband (the country’s 2nd mobile licensee).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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On the other hand, with cable landings from FLAG Falcon and SMW3, Oman can easily draw upon diverse international transit. OmanTel’s transit is spread across seven international providers.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Lebanon Lebanon’s Internet ecosystem (ranked 100th globally) has historically suffered from a lack of international consortium-based submarine cable landings, with connectivity only to Cyprus and Syria. It still has higher-than-expected international transit diversity, largely because enterprises rely on satellite connectivity from a large number of providers. At least 17 different Lebanese service providers have direct international IP connectivity of one form or another.

The proposed landing in 2011 of the new IMEWE cable at Trablous will change the entire dynamics of the Lebanese Internet marketplace. For the first time, a wide range of European and Asian carriers will be available to Lebanese operators, and the impacts on transit pricing and carrier diversity are likely to be profound.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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For now, the largest provider, Liban Telecom (AS42020), has 68% of the nation’s IP space on-net. It transits 363 IPv4 networks on behalf of 12 downstream ASN customers. Utilizing Cypriot connectivity, its transit providers include Level3, AT&T, Flag, and PCCW.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Second-place domestic provider Ogero Telecom (AS42003) has no customers downstream, but originates 45 IPv4 networks, representing 51% of the country’s IP base. It receives nearly all its transit from the incumbent, as well as a very tiny amount directly from PCCW.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Syria Ranked 97th globally, Syria’s Internet ecosystem is dominated by an incumbent provider, Syrian Telecom (AS29386), with 99% of the national market on-net, and no non-incumbent ASNs downstream. Transit is via submarine cable to Cyprus, and is largely provided by Deutsche Telekom. When the JADIlink project is complete, substantial additional transit should become available through Turk Telekom via terrestrial fiber. Turkish transit appears to have actually shrunk over the course of 2010, in favor of Deutsche Telekom.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Qatar The Qatari Internet ecosystem, like that of Oman, showcases a dominant incumbent with a broad set of international providers, made possible by three fiber connections to the neighboring UAE. Qatar is the 93rd largest Internet ecosystem globally.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Q-Tel (AS8781) is the dominant Qatari provider, with 99% of the national IP space on-net. It serves 9 downstream ASN transit customers, and transits 210 networks on their behalf. Its diverse array of transit providers includes Hurricane Electric, Tata, Flag, NTT, Level3, Stixlite Singapore, and AT&T.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science, and Community (AS29384) has become something of a service provider in its own right, with one downstream ASN customer, 15 originated networks, and 12% of the national IP space on-net. It has indirect international transit through Q-Tel, but also a direct connection to Flag, and phased out a direct connection to Tata earlier this year.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Bahrain Bahrain’s Internet ecosystem is the 92nd largest in the world, despite serving a population of less than one million people. In the context of the other regional Internet ecosystems, Bahrain is notable for its progress towards domestic competition in the IP marketplace, as the estimated on-net shares of the incumbent and competitive providers have come roughly into balance. The general availability of new international transit providers in the Bahrain market in 2010 (not only Flag, but also Saudi Telecom in connection with the launch of its Viva mobile service) has created significant change. Domestic transit relationships in 2010 have seen significant flux, as ISPs continue to seek reliable, low-cost connectivity to international markets for their customers.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Long-time observers of the Bahrain transit market will note that Zain, Mena, and Etisalcom Bahrain are now substantial consumers of Flag transit, in addition to Nuetel, Lightspeed, and Batelco. Flag’s percentage on-net of the Bahraini domestic market now approaches 45% (up from the 26% share it has held in recent years). Tata’s on-net share has dropped from 99% (Jan 2009) to 93% (Jan 2010) to just 82% today.

Batelco’s continuing lack of downstream ASNs has resulted in the steady erosion of the percentage of the national Internet ecosystem that it can count among its customers. Today, Batelco (AS5416) retains an estimated 26% of the country’s Internet ecosystem on-net, representing 143 IPv4 networks. Batelco receives approximately 60% of its transit from Tata, and 40% from Flag; the percentage of Flag transit has drifted gradually upward over the course of 2010 within a 10% band.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Competing provider Zain Bahrain (AS31452) has 28% of the national market on-net, and like Batelco, splits its transit between Flag (45%) and Tata (55%). After achieving access to Flag transit in October, Zain rapidly moved to phase out its Emirates transit and cut its reliance on Tata by approximately half.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Another competitor, Menatelecom (AS39015), has 30 originated networks (22% of Bahrain on-net), and splits its transit between Saudi Telecom (40%), Flag (35%), and Tata (25%). Mena added transit through Saudi Telecom in June, phased out its transit through the Bahrain Internet Exchange in August, and gained access to Flag transit in October, finishing the year with a very different transit spectrum than it started with.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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LightSpeed Communications (AS39273) added transit through the Bahrain Internet Exchange in March, restoring some measure of transit diversity (they had been single-homed to Flag since 2009).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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The Bahrain Internet Exchange (AS35019) now has 12 ASNs downstream, and approximately 17% of the nation on-net. The BIX continues to retain Tata and Emirates for transit, in the same 50-50 mix utilized in recent years.

In 2010, the BIX had only one significant customer win: LightSpeed communications, returning to the BIX in March after a long absence in order to obtain backup transit and restore dual-homed status. Offsetting this gain were several key customer losses in the second half of the year, perhaps driven by broader availability of FLAG and STC transit as competitive options. Menatelecom (AS39015) left in August and is now triply-homed to Tata, Flag, and STC. Kalaam (AS35443) left in October, and RTS (AS42931) left in November; both are now singly-homed to STC (a net loss of national transit diversity).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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This plot captures the steady decline in total route selection percentage through the BIX over the last 4 years. At its peak in early 2007, the BIX could expect to route traffic for nearly 50% of the national IP transit market: everyone but the incumbent. Since then, the BIX customer base has stayed relatively fixed, with only minor additions and subtractions, and no participation by the incumbent. Meanwhile, the rest of the domestic market has grown steadily. In the closing months of 2010, the BIX has lost customers to alternative providers as access to international direct transit has improved. With 17% of the Kingdom on-net, route selection percentages are now below 10% (with providers treating BIX transit as their backup route, and preferring other, direct routes via STC, Tata, or Flag). If these trends continue, the BIX could easily be reduced to single-digit route selection share by the end of 2011. There is an implicit risk in such a scenario: if the so-called ‘single-homed’ autonomous systems, who buy from a single provider, choose to replace the dual-homed BIX with a single international carrier, then the Kingdom’s net transit diversity will decline, and more service-impacting Internet outages may result.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Viva (AS51375) entered the Bahrain mobile market as the Kingdom’s third mobile licensee. Owner Saudi Telecom (AS41426) began offering Internet transit to Bahraini companies in June 2010, several months thereafter. As this plot shows, STC’s route selection percentage of the national market has grown steadily with each passing month. At the close of 2010, just over 20% of the Bahrain IP transit market is estimated to route through STC on any given day, despite having neither Batelco nor the BIX as customers.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Finally, Flag (AS15412) also picked up substantial new Bahrain market share at the end of 2010, growing to route nearly 40% of the total transit market within a matter of weeks. Tata (AS6453) saw mirrorimage declines in their on-net and route-selection percentages, as direct STC and Flag transit became more broadly available to Bahrain’s domestic providers.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Jordan Jordan’s modern relationship with France Telecom continues to guide the development of its Internet ecosystem (the 90th largest worldwide), with transit from Orange over the Flag FEA cable at Aqaba representing the majority of the country’s Internet transit.

Incumbent Jordan Telecom (AS8697), which still has 75% of the national market on-net, serves 13 downstream ASN customers, transits 104 networks on their behalf, and originates 9 IPv4 blocks (plus one IPv6 block) for itself. Besides France Telecom (60%), its transit providers include Level3 (15%), Saudi Telecom (15%), and Tinet (5%).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Critically, Jordan Telecom controls the FLAG landing facility at Aqaba; a second FLAG landing facility, to be managed by competitor Vtel, has been nearing completion for the last year and may improve competing providers’ access to international IP bandwidth. When the JADI-Link project reaches fruition, terrestrial connectivity through Syria to Turkey will likely add Turk Telekom (AS9121) as an additional source of Jordanian transit to Europe.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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XOL Jordan (AS42912) is a distant second-place competitor, with 14% of the country on-net (4 ASN customers downstream, 6 originated IPv4 networks, 23 transited networks), and a single provider (Saudi Telecom). Another competitor, Neu Telecom (AS47887) comes in just behind XOL, with 8% of the country online (8 ASNs downstream and 43 networks). Neither competitor uses the incumbent for IP connectivity, preferring instead to connect directly with international carriers (Saudi Telecom for XOL, PCCW and TInet for Neu Group).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Kuwait Kuwait’s Internet ecosystem is the 63rd largest globally; it is characterized by a fairly large set of competing service providers, none of whom has a dominant share of the domestic market.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Kuwait Data Center Company (AS43852, with 34% of the domestic market on-net) has 3 ASNs downstream, and 126 networks transited.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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QualityNet (AS9155, with 24% of the domestic market on-net) has 11 ASNs downstream, 184 networks originated, and 115 transited.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 39

Other Kuwaiti providers with substantial market share include Gulfnet Kuwait (AS3225, 19% on-net), Wataniya (AS29357, 18%), and KEMS (AS6412, 20%). These providers typically get their transit from five or six international and regional providers, including Tata, Level3, PCCW, Emirates, and Q-Tel, and from each other (creating a complex web of ad-hoc bilateral transit and peering arrangements that substitute for a local Internet exchange).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Iran A regional discussion of Internet transit would be incomplete without a look at Iran, the 50th largest Internet ecosystem worldwide. The state-owned telecommunications company, DCI (AS12880) is the dominant provider, with 89% of the national market on-net; they serve 76 domestic ASN customers and transit more than 900 IPv4 networks.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Iranian international transit is diverse, with submarine cable connectivity providing the incumbent with access to Telia, PCCW, Tinet (since March 2010), Singtel, Cable and Wireless (since August 2010), TI Sparkle, Telecom Malaysia (since June 2010), and Flag. Terrestrial fiber connectivity in the north provides additional geographic diversity, with significant transit from both Turk Telekom and (since January 2010) Russia’s Rostelecom. Indeed, today Rostelecom has become the most important international carrier serving the Iranian market.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 42

Beyond DCI, international transit for Iran is scarce but growing. Iranet/IPM (AS6736, with 18% of the Iranian market on-net) is a distant second, with 19 ASNs downstream and 248 networks transited. Iranet receives international transit from Azeri Delta Telecom (60%) and Telia (40%).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Egypt Egypt’s Internet ecosystem (ranked 47th globally) is similar in size to Iran’s, but exhibits significantly higher domestic diversity.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 44

Etisalat Misr (AS36992, with 37% of the Egyptian market on-net) has 14 ASN customers, 648 networks originated, and 252 transited. International transit is balanced between TI Sparkle and Tata, with minor contributions from PCCW and Emirates.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 45

The incumbent, Telecom Egypt (AS8452, 31% on-net) has 30 ASN customers, originates 1114 IPv4 networks (plus 1 IPv6), and transits 552 more. International transit is broadly distributed across TI Sparkle (40%), Level3 (15%), Cogent (15%), NTT (15%), Tata (5%), TM Net (5%), and Flag (5%). This transit blend has been largely stable in recent years, except during times of crisis (such as the April 2010 SMW4 shunt fault incident, clearly visible in the transit shift plot below).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 46

Saudi Arabia The 44th largest Internet ecosystem in the world belongs to Saudi Arabia.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 47

Incumbent Saudi Telecom (AS39386) maintains a dominant share of 68% of the domestic market. STC originates 10 IPv4 networks and 1 IPv6 network, transits 703 networks on behalf of 37 ASN customers, and maintains a very broad set of 13 international service providers (see transit shift plot below).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 48

Mobily/Bayanat (AS35819), STC’s primary domestic competitor, is a distant second, with only 18% of the domestic market on-net. Mobily provides service to 17 downstream ASNs, originates 206 IPv4 and 2 IPv6 networks, and transits 159 networks. Its providers include France Telecom (25%), Tata (25%), Global Crossing (20%, new since May 2010), Level3 (20%), and Emirates (10%).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 49

Etihad Atheeb (AS47794) comes in an even more distant third in the Saudi market, with nobody downstream and 44 self-originated networks, totaling 6% of the domestic market on-net.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 50

As an example of a smaller Saudi provider, Zain KSA (AS43766) originates four Saudi prefixes, splitting its transit between STC and ITC.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 51

United Arab Emirates The UAE has, by some measures, the largest regional Internet ecosystem (ranked 40th globally), though certainly not the most diverse. The Internet transit market consists of a duopoly between two largely state-owned incumbents, Etisalat and Du.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 52

Emirates Telecom (“Etisalat,” AS8966) is the dominant half of the duopoly, with 98% of the domestic Internet transit market on-net. Region-wide, they serve 19 ASN customers downstream, and over 840 transited networks. Domestically, there are only a few ASNs downstream, including the TRA, competing incumbent Du, Emirates Internet (AS5384, operated by Etisalat), and the ISC’s Dubai instance of the Froot server. International transit diversity, on the other hand, is very strong, thanks to the landings of every major regional and consortium-based submarine cable. In 2010, Level3’s contribution grew most strongly, after a brief outage during the April shunt fault.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 53

Emirates Integrated Telecom (“Du”, AS15802) provides some internal competition to Etisalat, and has 28% of the domestic market on-net. They originate 127 IPv4 prefixes, and offer Internet transit service to the Dubai Mercantile Exchange (AS5613), but have no other autonomous system customers downstream. Like Etisalat, Du enjoys significant international transit diversity, and has steadily increased the proportion of its routes selected through direct international providers, while reducing its visibility through its competitor. Flag has been the largest beneficiary of this process in 2010, and now appears in nearly 60% of selected routes for Du, with newcomer Level3 picking up another 10% in the last months of 2010.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 54

Regional Trends in Internet Transit Markets To begin to summarize some of the trends exposed in these brief country summaries, it’s helpful to look at the nation-scale transit picture from two different perspectives: international provider strength (measuring diversity available at the cable landing), and domestic provider strength (measuring diversity available in the local market). The following sections contain tables of on-net customer percentages to support both perspectives on the data, looking back over the period 2007-2010.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 55

Market Dominance of International Providers: “On-Net” Percentages Looking first at international carrier dominance in each market, the “on net” percentages show how much of each national Internet Ecosystem is a customer of each provider over time. A carrier’s on-net percentage can rise if it is successful in selling to more customers. The most common cause of a reduction of on-net percentage is the entry of new carriers into the market, leading existing customers to fail to renew existing contracts. However, on-net percentages can also fall even when existing customers are satisfied, if the domestic market is growing quickly and new growth accrues to other competitors. Note that percentages will sum to more than 100% in markets where customers have multiple service providers – on-net percentages are upper bounds for route selection percentages. The following tables list selected on-net percentages for the largest international providers serving each national market, from 2007 through 2010 . “On-net” is computed by dividing a given provider’s estimated domestic customer base by the total size of the national market for IP transit. A “domestic provider” is one that originates no more than 30% of its total customer base outside the country. CC AE AE AE AE AE AE AE AE AE

ASN 3356 3549 2914 6762 1239 15412 6453 7473 3491

NSP Level 3 Global Crossing NTT Telecom Italia Sparkle Sprint Flag Telecom Tata SingTel PCCW

Jul-07 Jan-08 Jul-08 Jan-09 Jul-09 Jan-10 Jul-10 Nov-10 59% 50% 30% 33% 40% 46% 49% 54% 51% 48% 18% 41% 24% 20% 29% 43% 56% 46% 17% 13% 29% 24% 27% 41% 35% 36% 27% 25% 40% 29% 40% 39% 69% 66% 45% 33% 48% 51% 45% 37% 56% 46% 18% 16% 16% 15% 18% 28% 24% 50% 20% 26% 49% 47% 23% 15% 3% 28% 31% 34% 33% 43% 25% 8% 21% 41% 17% 26% 3% 2% 2% 1%

BH BH BH BH BH BH BH BH

6453 1239 3356 2914 15412 6762 8966 3549

Tata Sprint Level 3 NTT Flag Telecom Telecom Italia Sparkle Emirates Global Crossing

93% 46% 44% 43% 42%

EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG

1239 6762 3356 6453 2914 15412 3549 701

Sprint Telecom Italia Sparkle Level 3 Tata NTT Flag Telecom Global Crossing Verizon Business

90% 25% 68%

91% 44% 58%

68% 68%

58% 58%

37%

12%

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

95% 45% 47% 47% 46%

92% 58% 58% 30% 32% 27% 27%

99% 26% 26% 56% 26%

92% 74% 53% 1% 49% 49% 1% 6%

60% 43% 62% 28% 45% 55% 10% 8%

31%

97% 51% 51% 35% 22% 35% 35% 35%

93% 60% 60% 60% 26% 35% 35% 35%

93% 61% 24% 55% 20% 42% 38% 42%

82% 72% 59% 48% 45% 42% 28% 28%

73% 36% 77% 19% 51% 41% 15% 10%

69% 45% 55% 26% 32% 34% 12% 7%

75% 59% 46% 30% 22% 25% 13% 3%

77% 59% 40% 32% 28% 23% 8% 3% Page 56

CC IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ

ASN 3549 3356 1299 9121 3491 701 702 1239 209 22351 6453 2914 174

NSP Global Crossing Level 3 Telia Turk Telekom PCCW Verizon Business Verizon Business EMEA Sprint Qwest Intelsat Tata NTT Cogent

Jul-07 Jan-08 Jul-08 Jan-09 Jul-09 Jan-10 Jul-10 Nov-10 20% 29% 55% 11% 7% 57% 72% 71% 18% 17% 26% 60% 91% 66% 54% 55% 3% 9% 13% 35% 34% 41% 47% 45% 8% 17% 21% 29% 40% 1% 20% 25% 11% 16% 19% 37% 24% 6% 11% 11% 9% 8% 19% 28% 24% 6% 11% 11% 9% 29% 49% 36% 46% 57% 35% 8% 77% 61% 9% 7% 9% 8% 9% 18% 13% 6% 7% 7% 9% 8% 16% 24% 35% 21% 16% 3% 2% 3% 16% 17% 30% 43% 9% 2% 8% 6% 19% 7% 15% 8%

IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR

1299 3549 3356 3491 3257 3561 9121 12389 2914 6762 1239 7473 15412

Telia Global Crossing Level 3 PCCW Tinet Savvis Turk Telekom Rostelecom NTT Telecom Italia Sparkle Sprint SingTel Flag Telecom

4% 79% 75% 50% 2% 52% 73%

5% 38% 85% 35% 4% 70% 69%

2% 26% 82% 26% 31% 71% 41%

77% 64% 90% 33%

93% 80% 88% 39%

59% 89%

76% 57%

84% 82% 91% 43% 63%

88% 89% 89% 69% 66%

60% 62% 69% 71% 37%

47% 80% 87% 61% 58%

39% 56% 70% 76% 39%

JO JO JO JO JO JO JO JO JO JO

5511 3356 39386 7018 6762 1239 3561 6453 3257 8452

France Telecom - Orange Level 3 Saudi Telecom AT&T Telecom Italia Sparkle Sprint Savvis Tata Tinet Telecom Egypt

97% 1%

100%

98%

100%

88% 27% 1%

3% 94% 13%

1%

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

14%

21%

1%

1%

49%

9% 30%

49% 49% 1%

21% 21% 10%

97% 72% 76% 36% 32% 10% 56% 10% 20% 41% 48% 50% 12%

94% 72% 66% 55% 65% 31% 31% 33% 3% 25% 27% 41% 3%

91% 61% 51% 51% 44% 31% 29% 15% 14% 8% 8% 6%

85% 28% 5% 5% 12% 30% 5% 24% 30% 8%

77% 29% 36% 35% 30% 24% 5% 22% 21% 9%

75% 37% 31% 27% 26% 23% 22% 20% 19% 10% Page 57

JO JO CC KW KW KW KW KW KW KW KW KW KW KW KW KW

3549 3491 ASN 6453 1239 3549 6762 8966 3356 2914 15412 3491 7473 1273 3561 701

Global Crossing PCCW NSP Tata Sprint Global Crossing Telecom Italia Sparkle Emirates Level 3 NTT Flag Telecom PCCW SingTel Cable and Wireless Savvis Verizon Business

9% 12% 22% 5% 13% 8% 7% 8% 4% Jul-07 Jan-08 Jul-08 Jan-09 Jul-09 Jan-10 Jul-10 Nov-10 59% 59% 60% 75% 74% 78% 72% 76% 53% 41% 49% 36% 51% 57% 44% 54% 48% 56% 3% 25% 51% 64% 60% 48% 39% 30% 44% 10% 41% 56% 49% 41% 38% 32% 47% 60% 42% 57% 51% 39% 47% 39% 38% 46% 49% 57% 40% 35% 43% 38% 36% 31% 41% 59% 49% 25% 43% 38% 37% 37% 9% 14% 11% 21% 15% 55% 1% 11% 8% 14% 18% 16% 17% 34% 33% 36% 19% 5% 38% 2% 56% 31% 29% 36% 2% 51% 30% 7% 1% 1%

LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB

3356 7018 1299 3549 6453 3491 1239 2914 30721 8764 12989 15412 174 3257

Level 3 AT&T Telia Global Crossing Tata PCCW Sprint NTT SatGate TEO LT AB Eweka Internet Flag Telecom Cogent Tinet

63%

78%

76%

36% 32% 6% 32% 59% 48% 8% 8%

40% 68% 1% 47% 64% 46% 11% 11%

57% 64%

66% 36% 44% 52%

48% 1%

59% 3% 4%

35% 55% 35% 38% 38% 3% 35% 8% 19%

27% 23% 1% 40% 37% 6% 13% 1% 17%

OM OM OM OM OM OM OM OM OM OM

6762 3491 3549 1239 3257 286 3356 7473 9121 4755

Telecom Italia Sparkle PCCW Global Crossing Sprint Tinet KPN Level 3 SingTel Turk Telekom Tata

98% 98% 98% 98%

100% 100% 100% 100%

100% 100% 100% 100%

100%

56% 68%

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

71% 51% 31% 28% 2% 11% 32% 11% 21% 21% 1% 9% 17% 19%

77% 52% 28% 31% 1% 9% 11% 7% 22% 22% 17% 6% 17% 3%

88% 52% 32% 31% 17% 9% 11% 6% 20% 20% 20% 5% 18% 3%

86% 48% 28% 23% 14% 10% 6% 6% 5% 5% 5% 5% 4% 1%

25% 100% 100%

68% 88% 88% 60%

91% 85%

76% 76%

83% 93% 100% 55% 13% 90% 90% 70%

99% 96% 96% 96% 94% 86% 90% 75% 1% 86%

100% 97% 97% 97% 95% 87% 85% 82% 62%

77%

Page 58

CC QA QA QA QA QA QA QA QA QA

ASN 8781 6453 3356 6939 1239 15412 2914 7018 7473

NSP Qatar Telecom (Q-Tel) Tata Level 3 Hurricane Electric Sprint Flag Telecom NTT AT&T SingTel

Jul-07 Jan-08 Jul-08 Jan-09 Jul-09 Jan-10 Jul-10 Nov-10 83% 83% 85% 75% 98% 99% 99% 99% 85% 95% 93% 98% 96% 92% 86% 98% 66% 67% 55% 82% 65% 91% 85% 92% 18% 51% 77% 87% 66% 77% 41% 79% 46% 91% 70% 81% 66% 63% 41% 79% 50% 85% 69% 80% 66% 63% 41% 79% 45% 82% 23% 80% 58% 56% 68% 52% 55% 72% 52% 76% 50% 68% 57%

SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA

1239 3356 6762 6453 7018 3561 3549 701

Sprint Level 3 Telecom Italia Sparkle Tata AT&T Savvis Global Crossing Verizon Business

90% 52% 81% 62% 64% 36% 40% 89%

93% 23% 89% 80% 77% 8% 13% 62%

90% 22% 82% 82% 74% 15% 16% 52%

84% 46% 78% 78%

SY SY SY SY SY SY SY SY SY

6762 1299 1239 3491 3549 3320 9121 3356 6453

Telecom Italia Sparkle Telia Sprint PCCW Global Crossing Deutsche Telekom Turk Telekom Level 3 Tata

42%

97%

87%

42% 53% 53%

97% 63% 63%

87% 54% 52%

54%

50%

46%

4%

3%

58%

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

10% 85% 6%

78% 64% 80% 68% 51% 32% 71% 46%

80% 78% 77% 76% 57% 22% 71% 49%

83% 78% 81% 72% 51% 60% 74% 26%

57% 22% 15% 36% 36%

69% 14% 69% 37% 44%

28% 65% 22% 41% 41%

22% 22% 84%

14% 7% 40%

65% 9% 38%

4% 59% 57% 44% 52% 57% 59% 51% 13%

81% 79% 78% 76% 53% 53% 48% 17%

65% 30% 25% 60%

16%

Page 59

Market Dominance of Domestic Providers: “On-Net” Percentages Similarly, one can compute the on-net percentages for the largest domestic providers in each national market. In the tables of domestic provider on-net numbers on the following pages, note that Iran, Syria, the UAE, Qatar, and Oman all have a single largest domestic carrier with more than 75% of the domestic market on-net, potentially signaling an IP transit market in which competition is limited. Jordan, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia are intermediate cases, whose incumbent provider still retains between 50% and 75% of the national market on-net. In each case, the emergence of a strong competitor (typically a mobile provider) is driving demand for international transit on better terms. As rival solutions to the international transit puzzle emerge, and domestic providers reach out to international carriers directly, the incumbent’s share of domestic on-net market gradually declines. Kuwait, Egypt, Iraq, and Bahrain all have a largest domestic provider with less than 50% of the market on-net, indicating that no single provider controls access to a simple majority of IP space. Here, on-net percentages may sum to more than 100% if one of these domestic providers sells to one of the other listed domestic providers, as they each get credit for their overlapping customer bases.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 60

ASN NSP 8966 Etisalat 5384 Emirates Internet (Etisalat) 15802 Emirates Integrated Telecom (Du)

Jul-07

Jan-08

Jul-08

Jan-09

Jul-09

Jan-10

Jul-10

Nov-10

90% 71%

92% 77%

93% 82%

97% 78%

97% 79%

98% 80%

98% 71%

98%

26%

21%

16%

20%

19%

19%

28%

28%

BH BH BH BH

5416 31452 39015 35019

BATELCO-BH Zain Bahrain Menatelecom Bahrain Internet Exchange

41% 4% 2% 51%

45% 4% 2% 45%

55% 7% 1% 31%

40% 24% 5% 32%

34% 27% 10% 36%

31% 27% 15% 26%

27% 33% 17% 21%

26%

EG EG EG EG EG

8452 36992 24863 24835 15475

TE ETISALAT MISR Link Egypt (Link.NET) RAYA Telecom Nile Online

34% -25% 24% 19%

55% -19% 29% 14%

80% -19% 27% 10%

82% -21% 24% 13%

51% 18% 31% 20% 12%

39% 25% 33% 14% 14%

34% 34% 27% 16% 7%

31%

IQ IQ

21277 Newroz Telecom Ltd. --- US DoD

-77%

-72%

-49%

8% --

17% --

21% 29%

26% 20%

40%

IQ IQ IQ

44217 IQ Networks 49571 CellNet ltd ASN block 50597 ScopeSky Communication

----

----

----

----

----

-10% --

12% 10% --

18% 10% 8%

IR IR IR

90% 3% 16%

91% 2% 13%

94% 4% 14%

98% 5% 15%

94% 9% 16%

92% 11% 13%

90% 14% 10%

89% 18% 8%

IR

12880 DCI 6736 IRANET/IPM 21341 Soroush Rasaneh Institute 34513 TSTonline

11%

9%

2%

1%

2%

3%

2%

2%

JO

8697 Jordan Telecom

97%

77%

75%

34%

100 % 46%

85%

8376 Jordan Data Communications 42912 XOL Jo 9038 Batelco Jordan

100 % 36%

88%

JO

100 % 38%

41%

44%

37%

37%

-9%

-16%

-15%

-12%

1% 11%

5% 8%

11% 8%

14% 8%

CC AE AE AE

JO JO

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

70%

28% 22% 17%

37% 25% 17% 9%

19%

Page 61

Percentage of domestic market on-net with leading providers. Dominant incumbents typically have 75%+ on-net. Percentages that add to more than 100% signify multihoming (consumer networks on-net with multiple providers).

CC

ASN NSP

Jul-07

Jan-08

Jul-08

Jan-09

Jul-09

Jan-10

Jul-10

Nov-10

27% 28% 20% 22% 13% 9%

23% 20% 20% 26% 17% 9%

30% 25% 19% 23% 16% 9%

33% 26% 19% 21% 15% 18%

34%

KW KW KW KW KW KW

43852 9155 21050 6412 3225 29357

Kuwait Data Center co. QualityNet Fast W.L.L. KEMS Gulfnet Kuwait WATANIYA TELECOM

-27% 24% 22% 18% 1%

26% 19% 24% 24% 5%

-28% 17% 26% 20% 5%

LB LB LB LB LB LB

42020 42003 20535 39010 8261 24634

Liban Telecom OGERO Telecom InSat GmbH TerraNet sal Archway Cyberia

-18% -25% -14%

40% 26% 4% 19% -18%

30% 21% 3% 20% -14%

45% 23% 2% 17% -12%

66% 42% 2% 17% -13%

64% 42% 3% 18% 12% 13%

63% 46% 6% 16% 14% 11%

68%

OM OM OM

8529 28885 50010

OmanTel OmanTel NAP Omani Qatari

98% 98% --

100% 100% 100% 91% ---

100% 100% --

100% 100% --

100% 100% --

99% 86% 13%

100%

QA QA

8781 29384

Qatar Telecom Qatar Foundation

83% 17%

83% 16%

85% 14%

75% 15%

98% 15%

99% 15%

99% 12%

99%

SA

39386

70%

80%

79%

75%

65%

67%

72%

68%

SA SA SA

25019 35819 34400

Saudi Telecom Company SaudiNet Mobily/Bayanat Ettihad Etisalat

17% 2%

17% 2% 4%

24% 2% 8%

26% 6% 7%

31% 18% 10%

31% 15% 11%

48% 12% 8%

49% 18% 11%

SY SY

29386 24814

Syrian Telecom SCS

54% 42%

63% 34%

64% 32%

52% 44%

66% 33%

84% 27%

99% 28%

99% 28%

24% 20% 20% 19% 18%

51% 18% 14% 13% 10%

87% 13%

12%

Percentage of domestic market on-net with leading providers (continued). Percentages that add to more than 100% signify multihoming (consumer networks on-net with multiple providers).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 62

Top wholesale Internet providers in the Middle East region, as a single unified ranking. These providers supply IP transit to the autonomous systems in each national market that originate the largest share of Middle Eastern IP space. Source: Renesys Market Intelligence, Nov. 2010. http://www.renesys.com/products_services/market_intel/

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 63

Key Internet Outage Event of 2010 By far, the most significant regional Internet outage event of 2010 was the April 13th shunt fault of SMW4 off Alexandria, Egypt. During the repair window, which lasted several days in the last week of April, customers relying on this cable for transit encountered problems, as traffic to Europe and the US was re-routed through Asia, resulting in congestion and higher latencies. This effect is clearly visible in traceroute timeseries from various observation points to Bahrain through the month of April, with a short spike in measured latencies on the day of the shunt fault, a modest rise due to congestion in subsequent weeks, and a more significant increase (by a factor of 3x or more) during the multiday repair window itself.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 64

Looking at traceroute round trip latencies from London to Bahrain broken out by the last international carrier, one can see clear differences in customer experience, depending on whether the paths traversed Tata, FLAG, or Emirates.

Because of this provider-dependent behavior, Bahraini customers of Batelco suffered little disruption during the event (Batelco utilizes diverse FLAG and Tata transit, and peers with Emirates).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 65

Other countries in the region generally experienced similar latency increases if they were reliant on SMW4 transit for around-the-world routing to the destinations in question. Lebanon experienced no measurable change in latency from any site, since their connectivity (via Cyprus) was unaffected. Jordanian customers experienced some degree of latency increase if they were exposed to SMW4 routing via Saudi terrestrial transit, but no increase if they relied on FLAG FEA. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, and Oman experienced increased latencies that were similar to those experienced by Bahraini consumers, with the least severe impact in Qatar, and the most severe in Kuwait.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 66

Snapshot of the IPv6 Regional Internet Country ASN IPv6 Prefix AE AS47862 2001:8f8::/44 AE AS51182 2a02:1718::/32 EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG JO JO

AS24863 2001:4300:2001::/48 AS24863 2001:4300:2002::/48 AS24863 AS2561 AS2561 AS31065 AS8452 AS8697 AS8934

2001:4300:2019:/48 2001:4300:2000::/43 2001:4300:2020::/48 2001:4300:5503::/48 2001:4388::/32 2a00:18d8::/32 2a02:9c0::/32

LB OM QA QA QA SA

AS41833 AS8529 AS8781 AS8781 AS8781 AS29684

2a02:f50::/32 2001:1670::/32 2001:1a10:300::/40 2001:1a10::/32 2001:1a10:3999::/48 2a00:1560::/32

SA

AS30857 2001:67c:130::/48

SA SA SA SA

AS31416 AS35819 AS35819 AS39386

SA SA

AS41176 2a02:d70::/32 AS8895 2001:1490::/32

Transit Via…

Originator

AS11537 (Internet2)

ANKABUT (U.A.E Research Edu Network)

AS6939 (Hurricane Electric) and AS47862 (ANKABUT) AS33789 (MCIT)

United Arab Emirates University

AS33789 (MCIT)

Link Egypt (Link.NET)

AS33789 (MCIT)

Link Egypt (Link.NET)

AS24863 (Link Egypt)

Egyptian Universities Network

AS24863 (Link Egypt)

Egyptian Universities Network

AS8452 (Telecom Egypt)

Ministry of Communications and IT

AS6762 (Telecom Italia)

Telecom Egypt

AS551 (France Telecom)

Jordan Telecom

AS47887 (NEU), via AS3257 (Tinet) AS41589 (Sidus)

National Information Technology Center Moscanet (WISE)

AS286 (KPN)

OmanTel

AS6939 (Hurricane Electric)

Q-Tel

AS6939 (Hurricane Electric)

Q-Tel

AS6939 (Hurricane Electric)

Q-Tel

AS6939 (Hurricane Electric) and AS35819 (Mobily) AS6939 (Hurricane Electric) and AS8895 (KACST) AS6939 (Hurricane Electric)

Nournet

AS3356 (Level3)

Mobily/Bayanat

AS3356 (Level3)

Mobily/Bayanat

AS174 (Cogent) and AS6762 (Telecom Italia) AS6939 (Hurricane Electric)

Saudi Telecom Company

AS5400 (BT), AS6453 (Tata), and AS174 (Cogent)

KACST/ISU Riyadh

Link Egypt (Link.NET)

… 19 consecutive blocks..

2a00:18f8::/32 2a02:9b0::/32 2a02:ce0::/32 2001:16a0::/32

Communications and IT Commission (CITC) Applied Technologies Co

Sahara Net

IPv6 routes currently seen from regional providers (Nov 2010).

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

Page 67

IPv6 Trends by Country The table on the previous page summarizes the origination and routing of the region’s still-modest contribution to the global IPv6 routing table – about 40 networks in all, out of a global table of about 3,500 IPv6 routes. Egypt has the most extensive IPv6 Internet ecosystem, representing about half of the total regional routes. Telecom Egypt ultimately transits all Egyptian IPv6 transit, by way of Telecom Italia. Jordan’s IPv6 Internet follows similar lines of division as its IPv4 Internet, with one block advertised by the incumbent through France Telecom, and the other advertised by NITC, through NEU, using TINet for international transit. The UAE connects to the IPv6 Internet through the Internet2 research project, and through Hurricane Electric. Lebanon’s sole IPv6 allocation, appropriately enough, transits a German satellite provider; Oman’s transits KPN, and Qatar’s 5 networks transit Hurricane Electric. Saudi Arabia’s IPv6 Internet is interesting because of its international diversity. In addition to tunnels provided by Hurricane Electric, Saudi providers have succeeded in establishing IPv6 connectivity with Level3, Tata, Cogent, and Telecom Italia. This level of transit diversity, in the absence (so far) of significant amounts of traffic, suggests that IPv6 growth is an important strategic goal for the Kingdom. While it does not yet appear that any IPv6 networks are being originated by Kuwaiti or Bahraini providers, it should be noted that the IPv6 routing table is still in its infancy. Total worldwide traffic volumes for IPv6 are, as of yet, unmeasurably small, compared to the existing IPv4 Internet.

The Future of the IPv6+IPv4 Dual Internet A lack of IPv6-only content has contributed to a chicken-and-egg problem for service providers worldwide: service providers are reluctant to invest in IPv6 absent clear demand from users, users have no demand for IPv6 because there’s no content to view, and content providers are not eager to invest in IPv6 services because there’s no audience. Despite the failure of IPv6 to thrive, the IPv4 Internet is shortly going to become a somewhat more crowded place to do business. As IPv4 address space becomes exhausted, regional providers will find themselves having to use existing allocations of that address space more efficiently. They should plan for a transition period lasting many years, in which large providers with large, mostly unused IPv4 allocations will find themselves in control of a valuable (and monetizable) asset. Telecommunications regulators throughout the region may rapidly find themselves overseeing a lucrative (and increasingly desperate) market for IPv4 address space, in which new market entrants can be shut out by existing providers for lack of adequate IPv4 addressing resources. Affected parties should begin to consider whether a country’s existing IPv4 allocations might constitute a finite national resource, like radio spectrum, that is potentially subject to regulatory oversight.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Appendix A: Routing Terminology Internet routing has developed its own terminology over time, which may not be familiar to the nonexpert. This section provides context for some of the terms used in this report.

Prefix (or “network”): a sequence of IP addresses that an enterprise may use to identify machines that it attaches to the Internet (computers, routers, etc.) •

Example: 77.92.160.0/19, which is a contiguous block of 8 million IP addresses belonging to Rawabi Telecommunications and Software.

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP): the software protocol used to establish Internet connections between different organizations. Autonomous System: An organization that has applied for an Autonomous System Number (ASN), in order to be allowed to advertise its own prefixes in the global routing table. •

Example: Batelco (ASN 5416), or the BIX (ASN 35019).

Border Router: networking equipment deployed at the edge of an organization's network, in order to establish connections to other organizations by exchanging BGP messages with them. Advertise (or “Announce”) a Prefix: An organization that wants other people to be able to reach its prefixes must announce them to its transit providers and peers. It does this by configuring its border routers to send BGP messages describing networks it knows how to reach, and listen for BGP messages that announce other people's networks. Path to a prefix, ASPath: each BGP announcement contains an autonomous system path: a sequence of one or more autonomous systems who passed on the announcement, representing the “best path” to the announced prefix. •

Example: a BGP announcement containing the ASPath “7473 8966 35019 39273 30882” indicates that the best path to the prefix goes from Singtel (AS7473), to Emirates Telecom (AS8966), to the Bahrain Internet Exchange (AS35019), to Lightspeed Telecom (AS39273), and finally on to Benefit Company (AS30882), in that order.

“Having a Route”: when a router hears another router announce a path to a prefix, it enters it into its routing table, and is then said to “have a route” to that prefix. If the new route is an improvement over its existing route, it will re-announce that improved route to all of its other neighbors. Amazingly, a new or improved route to any prefix generally propagates to all of the routers worldwide through reannouncement within 15 seconds.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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Transit, Transit Provider: When an autonomous system signs a contract to carry another enterprise's traffic to and from the global Internet, it is serving as a Transit Provider (i.e., “selling transit” to the other party). •

Example: FLAG (AS15412) sells transit to Batelco.

Singlehomed, Multihomed: if an autonomous system has only one transit provider, they are said to be singlehomed. If they have more than one transit provider, they are multihomed. Multihoming significantly reduces the risk of having Internet instability and outages, because if one provider has a problem, traffic can transparently fail over to the other provider. •

Example: LightSpeed is multihomed to FLAG (AS15412) and to the BIX (AS35019).

Reachable, Unreachable (or “Outaged'): If a router has a route to a given prefix, that prefix is Reachable from its perspective; if it no longer has a route, the prefix is Unreachable. When a network prefix becomes unreachable (that is, it is no longer being announced to any transit provider), it is no longer connected to the Internet. Instability: When the routes to a prefix change very quickly (often because a physical link is very congested, or “flapping” in and out of service), the prefix is said to be unstable. A route to it may exist, but traffic may not be flowing smoothly because link quality is poor. “On Net”: a given network is said to be on-net with a given provider if they receive Internet transit from that provider, directly or indirectly. Your customers, your customers’ customers, and so forth are all said to be on-net with you. “On Net Percentage”: the percentage of a given market (set of prefixes) that are on net with a given provider. ONP serves as a rough measurement of market penetration or leverage, although the existence of a high or low on-net percentage is not sufficient to conclude anything specific about the economics or politics of the Internet ecosystem or the provider’s role in it. Global Routing Table: the ideal routing table consisting of all the known “best paths” to all of the prefixes on earth, from all of the border routers on earth. Renesys builds an approximation of this ideal global picture by connecting to hundreds of organizations' border routers and synthesizing a continuous map of their routes at one-second granularity.

© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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© 2010 Renesys Corporation. http://www.renesys.com

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AS43395 Afrooz Network Solutions

<1%

<1%

AS51001 Shensa Educational and Cultural Institute

AS44356 Epsilon Ltd

<1%

AS44703 Thuraya Satellite

<1%

<1%

3%

AS6453 Tata Communications

3%

AS1239 Sprint

AS7473 Singapore Ltd

<1%

8%

3%

2% Internet Core

11%

16% 3%

<1%

<1%

<1%

<1%

AS8422 NETCOLOGNE

3% <1%

1%

4%

AS3549 Global Crossing

<1%

AS51140 Gulf DTH FZ LLC

<1%

AS701 MCI Communications Services, Inc. d/b/a Verizon Business

AS1299 TeliaNet Global Network

<1%

AS30981 Horizon Satellite Services Cologne Teleport

AS47862 ANKABUT (U.A.E Research and Educational Network)

AS8220 COLT Technology Services

<1%

AS2914 NTT Communications

3%

16%

AS15802 Emirates Integrated PJSC ...

AS15412 Flag Telecom Global

3%

AS3356 Level 3 Communications, LLC

2%

AS8966 Emirates

Systems Consortium, Inc., Dubai, UAE (AS30125) Regulatory Authority (AS47201) United Arab Emirates University (AS51182)

U n i t e d A r a b E m i r at e s

5%

4%

1%

AS6762 Telecom Italia Sparkle

3%

Emirates (AS5384) Dubai Mercantile Exchange (AS5613)

AS39386 Saudi Telecom

<1%

AS50030 Almazaya gateway L.L.C

<1%

13%

7% 21%

35%

4%

21%

10%

13% 14%

Internet Core

32%

4%

AS31452 MTC-Vodafone Bahrain

AS35019 Bahrain Exchange

AS6453 Tata Communications

Ba h r a i n

AS39386 Saudi Telecom

<1%

AS41426 Saudi Telecom

Kalaam Telecom Bahrain (AS35443) ASN-RTS (AS42931) GCCNGN (AS44075) VIVA Bahrain BSC Closed (AS51375)

W.L.L

5%

AS8966 Emirates

5%

<1%

AS42 WoodyNet

<1%

AS44876 Gateway Gulf

<1% AS39273 LightSpeed Communication in Bahrain

AS35313 2Connect

Northstar Technology W.L.L. (AS35546) Business Communication Networks (AS41110) Ascentech Technical Services (AS41303) iCOL PLUS WLL (AS44167) Kulacom communication SPC (AS47380) ...and 1 more

AS30882 The Benefit B.S.C. (C)

AS35457 ETISALCOM BAHRAIN COMPANY

AS39015 Mena Broadband

AS15412 Flag Telecom Global

<1%

2%

AS35568 Nuetel Communications

AS5416 BATELCO-BH

AS7513 Hitachi Information Systems, Ltd.

<1%

AS3750 Net Point LLC

<1%

AS51406 2Connect UK Ltd

MGC-Egypt (AS34778) Central Bank of Egypt (AS36929) Piraeus Bank Egypt (AS37091)

Commercial International Bank (Egypt) (AS30995) Duravit Egypt (AS36893)

Vodafone Egypt Telecommunication S.A.E (AS36935) International Turnkey Systems for Information Services ... (AS37132) e-finance (AS37193) AS36906 Egyptian Operating for Liquefied Natural Gas

AS33782 Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Link

<1%

AS3549 Global Crossing

2%

19%

3%

1%

<1%

AS8452 TE

8%

4%

1%

Internet Core

<1%

4%

24%

25%

24%

AS6453 Tata Communications

AS174 Cogent Communications

AS12956 Telefonica Backbone

AS3356 Level 3 Communications, LLC

AS15412 Flag Telecom Global

9%

NETKONECT COMMUNICATIONS EUROPE (AS3328) Egyptian National Scientific & Technical Information Network (AS6879) Menanet Communications (AS15834) Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (AS36885) Raya Holding (AS37191)

(EUN)

11%

AS6762 Telecom Italia Sparkle

9%

AS36870 IT Worx

Egypt Cyber Center aka ECC Solutions (AS25364) Mantrac Group (AS33778)

AS36992 ETISALAT MISR

2%

Nile Online (AS15475) Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (AS24736)

NetworksValley (Yalla Online) (AS20484) AFMIC (AS25576)

Xceed Contact Center (AS37003) MISR Information Services and Trading (AS37031) Dar Al-Handasah (AS37112)

The American University in Cairo (AUC) (AS8524) City Stars (AS31619)

AS2561 Egyptian Universities Network

AS31065 Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

Egypt

<1%

5%

4%

AS24863 Egypt (Link.NET)

AS701 <1% MCI Communications Services, Inc. d/b/a Verizon Business

2% 7%

AS24835 RAYA Telecom

City Net Telecom (AS33785) Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (AS33789) The Egyptian for Mobile Services (Mobinil) (AS37069)

IDSC (AS6127) Systems Consortium, Inc. (AS33078) Egypt Network S.A.E (AS33777) GPX Egypt LTD (AS36971) EFG Hermes Holding (AS36978) ...and 2 more

<1%

Egypt Co. (AS5536) Soficom (AS21152)

<1%

<1%

AS21320 DANTE Ltd

AS20965 The GEANT IP Service

AS15804 The Wayout Solutions

AS20928 The Noor Group

Allianz Insurance Egypt (AS36964) Beltone Financial (AS37226) GB Auto (AS37252)

<1%

6%

<1%

AS49004 ACTEL S.A.L.

AS22351 INTELSAT GLOBAL SERVICE CORPORATION

AS6939 Hurricane Electric, Inc.

AS48407 TigrisNet

<1%

6% <1%

AS9051 IDM <1%

<1%

AS3549 Global Crossing

AS6461 Abovenet Communications, Inc

<1%

Turk

3%

iraq

3%

32% Internet Core

19%

1%

EarthLink

5%

1%

1%

AS5603 Telekom Slovenije d.d.

<1%

AS50030 Almazaya gateway L.L.C

1% <1%

AS41589 SIDUS S.A.R.L.

1%

AS50710 Ltd. Communications& Services

AS50597 ScopeSky Communication and Ltd.

AS12880 DCI

AS29049 Delta Telecom LTD.

1%

5%

AS39216 Al-Sard for Trading agencies Ltd.

AS51539 The American University of Iraq-Sulaimani

AS9121 Telekomunikasyon Anonim Sirketi

32%

AS12389 JSC Rostelecom

19%

AS44217 IQ Networks

AS49571 CellNet ltd ASN block

AS21277 Newroz Telecom Ltd.

AS35160 Communications and Media Commission (CMC)

AS51018 Goran Net ISP LTD.

AS13768 Peer 1 Network

Inc.

<1%

<1% <1%

4%

19%

AS3491 PCCW Global

AS12389 JSC Rostelecom

19%

19%

AS12880 DCI

AS3257 Tinet SpA

5%

4%

Internet Core

4%

6%

17% Turk

iran

5%

AS6762 Telecom Italia Sparkle

AS7473 Singapore Ltd

6%

5%

AS6736 IRANET/IPM

AS35285 .ir ccTLD of Iran

5%

AS51788 PartPayam Shahin Shahr ISP

24%

AS1299 TeliaNet Global Network

7%

<1%

5%

AS8495 INTERNET AG Global Network

AS29049 Delta Telecom LTD.

5%

AS34513 TSTonline connection provider

<1%

AS34341 Namvaran Consulting Engineers and Managers

AS9121 Telekomunikasyon Anonim Sirketi

Vana Electric Co. Ltd. (AS34837) Ministry of Science Research and Technology (AS48821) Samaneh Sama Pishro Persian (AS49344) Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) (AS50460)

Shiraz Hamyar Co. (AS1756) DP IRAN (AS5618) Pardis Ettela Resaan Sepehr (AS8571) PARSONLINE (AS16322) DATAK Telecom (AS25124) ...and 71 more

4% 19%

AS42586 IRIB

AS1273 Cable and Wireless Worldwide plc

AS30981 Horizon Satellite Services Cologne Teleport

<1%

Sharif University of Technology, Tehran,Iran (AS12660) Iranian Research Organization for Science & Technology (AS15611) Arian Rasaneh Pars (AS15696) Tehran Stock Exchange (AS21172) Soroush Rasaneh Institute (AS21341) ...and 38 more

AS39200 .ir ccTLD of Iran

AS29079 IRAN News Agency.

<1%

AS33944 Fraunhofer FOKUS CC SatCom

<1%

AS44410 ENTEKHAB INDUSTRIAL GROUP

AS5377 Taide Network

<1%

<1%

<1%

AS50670 Vtel Holdings Limited /Jordan Co

<1%

AS42912 XOL Jo

<1%

5%

56%

14%

2% 1%

j o r da n

8%

6%

4%

1%

<1%

4%

AS3491 PCCW Global

Batelco Jordan (AS9038) wi-tribe limited - Jordan (AS44290)

AS33831 Royal Hashemite Court

3%

AS3257 Tinet SpA

AS44466 metrobeam

AS3356 Level 3 Communications, LLC

Internet Core

56%

7%

AS8697 Jordan Telecom

AS5511 France Telecom - Orange - Worldwide IP Backbone

AS39386 Saudi Telecom

9%

AS8452 TE

<1%

AS47887 NEU Telecom & Technologies

JORDAN TV CABLE & INTERNET SERVICES CO (AS44702) Smart Links of Telecommunication Services (AS47969) Al Mutatawera for Mobile Applications company (AS50955)

Jordan Data Communications LLC (AS8376) INDEX (AS12524) Farah Trading & Contracting Co. (AS21088) Jordanian Universities Netwotk L.L.C. (AS35656) LaSilkee Virtual Connection Ltd. (AS35839) ...and 2 more

AS8934 National Information Technology Center

AS48832 Linkdotnet-Jordan

AS28730 Broadband Communications

AS701 MCI Communications Services, Inc. d/b/a Verizon Business

<1%

<1%

<1%

AS35207 Stellar PCS GmbH, Germany

<1%

K.S.C.

<1%

1%

6% 3%

6%

Internet Core

3%

7%

1%

AS8781 Qatar Telecom (Q-Tel)

4%

12%

35%

8%

<1%

3%

5%

15%

2%

2%

AS6762 Telecom Italia Sparkle

AS8966 Emirates

<1%

AS3225 Gulfnet Kuwait 4% AS39386 Saudi Telecom

<1%

AS42642 Gulf Investment

AS29029 Kowait National Petroleum

National Investments KSC Closed (AS43184) Kuwait Telecommunication Company (AS47589)

KEO International Consultants (AS39504) MTC GPRS (AS42961) Mada Communications (AS47442)

AS9155 QualityNet

AS6453 Tata Communications

<1%

AS3356 Level 3 Communications, LLC

6%

2% <1%

AS6412 KEMS

k u wa i t

4%

AS15412 Flag Telecom Global

3%

2%

12%

AS43852 Kuwait Data Center co.

Kuwait Finance & Investment (AS41576) Tawasul Telecom Kuwait (AS41669) TawasulServices-1 (AS42013) Kuwait Ministry of Defense (AS47519)

Kuwait and Middle-East Financial Investment Co. K.S.C.Closed (AS39682) Public Authority for Civil Information (AS41890) Al-Jareeda Journalism, Publishing, and Distribution Co. / ... (AS42606) Kuwait Petroleum (AS49205) Orion Brokerage Co. KSCC (AS50774)

AS29357 WATANIYA TELECOM

AS3491 PCCW Global

AS3320 Deutsche Telekom AG

<1%

AS21050 Fast W.L.L.

Kuwait Ministry of Finance (AS16060) Computer Information Systems Kuwait University Kuwait (AS25242) Aiwagulf (AS31488) Zajil International Telecom (AS42781) Kuwait Industrial Bank KSC (AS43158) ...and 2 more

AS24627 GULFSATCOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY

AS35181 Public WareHouse

AS25122 Gulfsat Communications Co.

AS43080 Kuwait Oil

4%

AS20535 InSat GmbH, Saarbrucken, DE

4%

<1%

5%

47%

<1%

AS30998 Netcom Africa Limited

AS3356 Level 3 Communications, LLC

5%

<1%

<1%

<1%

<1%

<1%

Internet Core

<1% <1%

3%

<1%

AS3491 PCCW Global

AS31126 SODETEL SAL

47%

3%

<1%

<1%

<1%

<1%

AS9051 IDM

11%

2%

AS42020 Liban Telecom

AS43680 DSP

<1%

AS42334 Broadband Plus Service Provider

5%

AS30721 SatGate LLC

AS30981 Horizon Satellite Services Cologne Teleport <1%

AS50430 P-Group S.A.L. (Offshore)

AS24634 Cyberia

AS39010 TerraNet sal

AS24982 Banque de la Mediterranee, sal

Lebanese Ministry of Finance (AS12376) Bank of Beirut (AS34741) MTC Touch (AS38999) Byblos Bank (AS39275) Banque Libano-Francais (AS41211) ...and 4 more

FRANSABANK SAL (AS39868) Online Money Transfer S.A.L. (AS48740)

lebanon

<1%

AS701 MCI Communications Services, Inc. d/b/a Verizon Business

<1%

<1%

AS5511 France Telecom - Orange - Worldwide IP Backbone

<1%

<1%

AS50285 onetplus

<1%

CSC Lebanon (AS34370) Azal Group Holding SAL (AS39918) Middle East Airlines (AS44189)

AS16130 FiberLink Networks

AS41589 SIDUS S.A.R.L.

AS35074 Cobranet Limited

<1%

1%

AS22351 INTELSAT GLOBAL SERVICE CORPORATION

AS8261 Archway Communication Solutions

AS8447 A1 Telekom Austria AutonomousSystem

AS16422 New Skies Satellites, Inc.

<1%

AS34160 Transtrum

AS35197 Virtual ISP s.a.l.

8% <1%

8%

3%

AS42852 Solidere Beyrouth Downtown Metro Ethernet

AS42003 OGERO Telecom

<1%

1%

AS16229 ThunderWorx Ltd

<1%

<1%

<1%

AS39216 Al-Sard for Trading agencies Ltd.

<1%

AS47760 Credit Card Services Co. Sal

AS7018 AT&T WorldNet Services

<1%

<1%

AS44217 IQ Networks

AS47935 ComNet ISP

AS34708 Gulf Research & Development

AS29259 IABG Teleport, DE

1%

12%

AS6762 Telecom Italia Sparkle

41%

8%

41%

12%

13%

8%

3%

Turk

AS9121 Telekomunikasyon Anonim Sirketi

Information Technology Authority (AS15679) OmanTel NAP (AS28885) Omani Qatari SAOC (AS50010)

8%

AS24493 STIXLITE Transit Service Provider Singapore 3%

AS286 KPN

13%

oman

Internet Core

12%

AS3549 Global Crossing

AS3491 PCCW Global

AS9498 12% BHARTI Airtel Ltd.

8%

AS8529 Oman - OmanTel

1%

1%

AS7018 AT&T WorldNet Services

24%

3%

6%

3%

Internet Core

9%

AS3356 Level 3 Communications, LLC

6%

15%

1%

AS6939 Hurricane Electric, Inc.

AS6453 Tata Communications

1%

AS24493 STIXLITE Transit Service Provider Singapore

9%

q ata r

AS2914 NTT Communications

16%

15%

Qatar Telecom (AS42298) Vodafone Qatar Q.S.C. (AS48728)

AS8781 Qatar Telecom (Q-Tel)

AS15412 Flag Telecom Global

8%

AS29384 Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community ...

AS47901 Meeza LLC

<1%

AS5583 Orange Business Services (formerly Equant) AS for BENELUX

<1%

<1% <1%

<1%

<1%

AS25233 Awalnet

2%

2%

2%

2%

9%

3% 9%

3% AS1273 Cable and Wireless Worldwide plc

AS7018 AT&T<1% WorldNet Services

AS35819 Mobily/Bayanat <1%

<1%

23%

AS3356 Level 3 Communications, LLC

6%

<1% 6%

AS8966 Emirates

<1% <1%

10%

1%

<1%13%

14%

AS6762 Telecom Italia Sparkle

AS6453 Tata Communications

2%

AS47794 Etihad Atheeb Telecom

1%

<1%

<1%

<1%

<1%

1%

AS174 Cogent Communications

<1%

AS50517 King Saud University

AS35753 ITC

AS1239 Sprint

<1%

1%

1%

1%

<1% AS15412 Flag Telecom Global

sol (AS41132) OrbitNet RIPE (AS41810) Saudi International Telecom & Electronics Co (AS42067) Channels Center For Electronics Est (AS43706) Samba Financial Group (AS47146) ...and 1 more

AS8895 KACST/ISU Riyadh

Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Foundation Program for (AS28938) Nour Communication Co.Ltd - Nournet (AS29684) Applied Technologies Co (AS31416) VODATEL'S (AS39919) Sahara Net Main NOC (AS41176) ...and 3 more

Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) (AS30857) Ministry of Higher Education (AS44689)

AS5400 BT European Backbone

4%

AS7473 Singapore Ltd

Internet Core

<1%

20%

<1%

AS39386 Saudi Telecom

SaudiNet (AS25019) GulfNet KSA (AS29255) Atheer Jeraisy (AS29690) Shabakah Net (AS34426) Banque Saudi Fransi (AS41594) ...and 5 more

AS30815 Detecon Al Saudia Co. Ltd.

s au d i a r a b i a

5%

3% <1%

<1%

Ettihad Etisalat (AS34400) Middle East Financial Investment (AS44623) Interkey (AS44995)

AS3549 Global Crossing 2%

AS5080 Aramco

Cyberia Riyadh (AS34397) Digital Solutions Provider (AS43775) The National Commercial Bank (AS48937)

Sale For Distribution & Communication Co. Ltd (AS12529) Cyberia is an Service provider in SA Serving (AS24731) International Computer ICC (AS25438) Arabcircle Internet Services for Saudi Arabia (AS29160) bank al jazira aut.name (AS31699) ...and 26 more

AS5511 France Telecom - Orange - Worldwide IP Backbone

AS701 MCI Communications Services, Inc. d/b/a Verizon Business

AS702 Verizon Business EMEA - Commercial IP service provider in ...

<1%

AS39370 Saudi Basic Industries Co

AS39432 AlHarbi International for Telecom..

AS50999 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

AS6762 Telecom Italia Sparkle

AS3491 PCCW Global

6%

49%

6%

21%

Turk

6%

Internet Core

49%

AS3320 Deutsche Telekom AG

21%

AS29386 Syrian Establishment

12%

syria

6%

AS9121 Telekomunikasyon Anonim Sirketi

12%

<1%

AS6453 Tata Communications

AS21320 DANTE Ltd

<1%

AS39154 Syrian Higher Education Network

SCS (AS24814) Syrian Establishment (AS29256)