Migration in Namibia Migration in Namibia - IOM Publications

Migration in Namibia Migration in Namibia - IOM Publications

Migration in Namibia A COUNTRY PROFILE 2015 The opinions expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views o...

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Migration in Namibia A COUNTRY PROFILE 2015

The opinions expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the report do not imply expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IOM concerning legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society. As an intergovernmental organization, IOM acts with its partners in the international community to: assist in the meeting of operational challenges of migration; advance understanding of migration issues; encourage social and economic development through migration; and uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.

Publisher: International Organization for Migration 17 route des Morillons P.O. Box 17 1211 Geneva 19 Switzerland Tel.: +41 22 717 9111 Fax: +41 22 798 6150 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.iom.int

_____________________________________________________ © 2016 International Organization for Migration (IOM) _____________________________________________________ All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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Migration in Namibia A COUNTRY PROFILE 2015 Prepared by Marius Olivier Consultant; Director: Institute for Social Law and Policy (ISLP); Extraordinary Professor: Faculty of Law, Northwest University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Adjunct-Professor: Faculty of Law, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

FOREWORD The Government of the Republic of Namibia and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) are pleased to release the country’s first Migration Profile, prepared under the guidance of the Technical Working Group chaired by the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration (MHAI). Migration Profiles were initially proposed by the European Commission in the Communication on Migration and Development in 2005, and conceived as a concise statistical report to understand the migration situation in a particular country. Since the first Migration Profiles in 2006, IOM has supported their development in more than 40 countries around the world. Over time, they have undergone considerable transformation in format, content and objectives. Migration Profiles are more than just statistical reports. They result from an elaborate process involving consultations with many different actors in an effort to help identify and develop strategies to address data gaps and produce the evidence required to inform policies. In short, a Migration Profile is a governmentowned tool, prepared in consultation with a broad range of stakeholders, which can be used to enhance policy coherence, evidence-based policymaking and the mainstreaming of migration into development plans. The decision to produce a National Migration Profile for Namibia was primarily driven by the decision to develop a comprehensive national migration policy that would address the complex migration dynamics that Namibia faces as a country of origin, transit and destination. Although data on migration exists across a wide range of ministries, departments and agencies, it remains scattered and of limited use for policymaking purposes. Through the development of this Migration Profile for Namibia, the MHAI and IOM have managed to consolidate data into one comprehensive document. The Migration Profile includes statistics and insights on trends and characteristics of migration in Namibia, the impact of migration on socioeconomics, political and health aspects of migration within the country, and existing governance frameworks. This will feed into migration initiatives currently in motion to enhance coordination within the government. In order to remain an effective information tool for policymaking, this Migration Profile for Namibia will be updated regularly and used throughout the entire policy development process. It must also be used to mainstream migration into national development frameworks, strategies and plans, as well as enhance data collection and management systems in the country.

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We would like to take this opportunity to express our most profound appreciation to the expert, Professor Marius Olivier, for drafting the Migration Profile; the MHAI-led Technical Working Group for providing valuable inputs and insights into it at all stages; the IOM Regional Office for Southern Africa for providing its technical expertise; the IOM Research Unit at Headquarters for reviewing and editing the Migration Profile, the IOM Office in Namibia for coordinating the process and the IOM Development Fund for its generous financial support.

Pendukeni Iivula-Ithana, MP Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration Government of the Republic of Namibia

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Rafaëlle Robelin

Head of Office a.i. International Organization for Migration, Namibia

Political map of Namibia

Source: www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/namibia-political-map.htm

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Executive Summary Part A: Aims and structure of migration profile Migration Profiles are country-owned tools, prepared in consultation with a broad range of government and non-government stakeholders, which can be used to enhance policy coherence, evidence-based policymaking and the mainstreaming of migration into development planning. This profile relies on national and international data sources and data sets.

Part B: Overview of the international and national data framework Reliable international migration data concerning Namibia are hard to find and difficult to verify. Included in this regard are data involving migration into and from Namibia, as well as migration through Namibia (such as in the event where Namibia is used as a temporary entry and exit country for human smuggling or trafficking purposes). It could be that the unavailability of certain national data and the inaccessibility of other available national data are contributing to this state of affairs. International data sources emanate from the World Bank, International Organization for Migration (IOM) and United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). These sources are not always consistent. UN DESA figures indicate the fluent nature and fluctuating trend of Namibian migration, assumingly caused by the significant impact that migration flows may have on a country with such a small population. For example, whereas UN DESA recorded that the international migration stock in Namibia constituted 8.9 per cent in 1990, this figure has moved down to 2.2 per cent in 2013. As far as national data sources are concerned, the Namibia Statistics Agency (NSA) was established in 2012 as the lead statistical institution in Namibia. The NSA is primarily responsible for national and household censuses and surveys. Some but limited data concerning migration facts, figures and trends are contained in some of the census and survey reports. Both expansion and adaptation are foreseen. The NSA published a Migration Report in 2015, which provides information on internal and to a lesser extent international migration covering both lifetime and short-term migrants based on the 2011 Namibia Population and Housing census. Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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Part C: The Namibian migration context: Socioeconomic indicators and migration perspectives Socioeconomic indicators While Namibia has made good progress in relation to socioeconomic developments, also steadily increasing growth and ensuring the general decline of poverty, inequality and unemployment remain key challenges. For certain segments of Namibian society, and in certain regions of the country, however, poverty levels remain high. According to the latest census data, most people in Namibia live in rural areas (57%). Significantly, between 2001 and 2011, the urban population grew by a staggering 49.7 per cent, and the rural population shrank by 1.4 per cent. The 2013 Labour Force Survey puts the number of workers in Namibia at around 690,000, of which some 324,000 form part of the informal economy. Almost 450,000 people were reported as being inactive (56.2% of them were female). Namibia is regarded as an upper-middle-income country. However, while there has been a significant improvement in certain areas (for example, the poverty head count went down from 69.3 per cent in 1994 to 28.7 per cent in 2009; the gender divide has also narrowed), improvements are needed as regards certain indicators – in particular Namibia’s Human Development Index ranking and its relatively high Gini coefficient (measuring inequality). It is estimated that the increase in urbanization has had a minimal effect on the overall change in total poverty rates. The country has registered mixed progress towards health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, health care remains a top government priority, receiving increasingly higher spending; although at 12.2 per cent of the national budget in 2014/15, it still falls short of the target of 15 per cent set by African Union countries in their 2001 Abuja Declaration.

Migration perspectives The Namibian migration context has to be understood against the background of global, African, Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Namibian developments. Globally, south–south migration (that is, migration among developing countries) has increased significantly, while remittances have gained in importance. The newly adopted Sustainable viii

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Development Goals contain several direct and indirect references to migration, its values and challenges. In the African context, several drivers of migration have influenced the extent and nature of migration. Unemployment is one of the main contributing factors to mixed migration flows, irregular migration, human trafficking and smuggling, but also regularized labour migration. In SADC, these and other factors, among which climate-related drivers of migration, have contributed to 90 per cent of SADC citizens migrating for work within the SADC region. Labour migration in SADC has had a long history; remittances play a crucial role as regards household survival and economic development. Independence of Namibia brought with it considerable changes in the internal migration patterns and population concentrations in the country. On the one hand, migratory labour to South Africa all but ceased, yet, on the other hand, internal migration and urbanization grew rapidly. The key dimensions of Namibian migration can be listed as including the following: • High level of internal (rural–urban) migration; • Cross-border movement for family reasons, economic opportunities and potential employment, better living conditions and access to services; • Irregular migration, trafficking and smuggling; • Regulation of movement; • Refugees and asylum-seekers intake; • Impact of rapid urbanization; • Spaces of health vulnerabilities; • Migration and the HIV epidemic; • Strengthening the migration management system; and • Disasters and climate change adaptation.

Part D: Migration trends and characteristics Arrivals, departures, travel and tourism Administrative data related to arrivals by foreign tourists and visitors are collected at Namibian border posts by the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration (MHAI) and indicate the relatively high percentages of those who migrate for holiday, business and family reasons. The 2014 World Travel and Tourism Council Report on Namibia notes that the long-term tourism growth (2014–2024) figures (9.1%) place Namibia within the range of the top-ranking countries in the world.

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Immigration Limited data are available in relation to immigrants, partly as a result of a lack of digitilization and inaccessibility of data emanating from the Aliens Control System (data in relation to work permits and work visa applications) and the Citizenship Automation System. Border management provides several challenges in the Namibian context, flowing from the porous nature of the borders and the sheer extent of border crossings between, for example, Namibia and Angola. This led to the conclusion of a bilateral agreement, already in 1996, between the Government of Namibia and the Government of Angola on the introduction of a border resident card (BRC) between the two countries. Several measures of a data nature are required to give effect to the envisaged BRC system. These measures require a high degree of cross-border cooperation, the streamlining of information technology systems and legislative changes, to the extent required. Data emanating from the Population and Housing census are of limited value as regards immigrants to Namibia, as the data in this regard could not be properly obtained. The NSA’s Migration Report suggests fairly significant differences between citizens and (in favour of) non-citizens as regards education attainment and employment status. There are a few thousand foreign students, but a relatively high number of foreign teachers. In relation to migration, health and well-being, the Namibia Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019 lists as a key shortcoming cross-border health issues not receiving adequate attention for border towns. Health-related data concerning internal and external migrants are hard to find. It was intended to develop a Namibia Migration and Health Promotion Strategy – this, however, would need to be informed by appropriate data in relation to access to health services by internal and external migrants. The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that it is in principle supporting the Government of Namibia with the strengthening of a Health Information System. An inventory has been conducted on health services facilities by the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) in 2012, but the information is not available and is reported to be outdated.

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Namibia has a history of extending protection to refugees. By September 2015, Namibia was hosting 2,914 refugees and asylum-seekers. An additional number of 1,742 former refugees from Angola are awaiting local integration. The aim is to reduce the number of refugees and asylum-seekers in Namibia through resettlement and local integration. Refugees are settled in Osire Refugee Camp. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) indicated its intention to phase out from Namibia as it has attained the objective of reaching its ultimate goal in Namibia, namely to find durable solutions for the refugees. Cross-border flows of internally displaced people may have migration implications and need to be dealt with in coordinated fashion relying, among others, on the principles developed within the framework of the so-called Nansen Initiative – aiming to build consensus among States about how best to address cross-border displacement in the context of sudden- and slow-onset disasters. It has been indicated that environmental-induced disasters have affected border areas as well, involving people across the Namibian, Angolan and Zambian borders.

Emigration Data on emigration of Namibians are insufficient, as far as both national and international sources are concerned. Data in connection with emigrants, although requested in the census form associated with the National Population and Housing Census, could not be sufficiently cleaned up due to the inadequacy of the responses. The Electoral Commission of Namibia keeps some information relating to Namibians who registered and voted abroad. The main international data source on trends in international migrant stock, as far as emigration is concerned, is that of UN DESA. Several conclusions can be drawn from the data provided by UN DESA, such as the following: • • • •

Feminization of Namibian migration; Significant increase in overall numbers of emigrants; African and Southern African countries are the priority destination; and Incomplete data.

There is no legal, policy, institutional or operational framework for (Namibian) diaspora engagement existing officially in Namibia. To the extent that could be determined, mapping of the Namibian diaspora has never been undertaken. There appear to be some Namibian diaspora associations operating in other parts of the world; however, the Government of Namibia has yet to develop a framework to formally include the diaspora. Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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There is no known available national data source on remittance inflows and outflows. There is further no regulatory framework in place, which deals with the cost of remittance transfers. There is therefore no reflection on remittances in the most recent (2014) Annual Report of the Bank of Namibia. However, some progress has been made at the SADC level to develop a SADC-wide framework for collecting remittance data as part of cross-border reporting systems. From the available information, it is clear that both the total of formal remittances received and the share of gross domestic product (GDP) constituted by remittances are generally low and trending downwards. Much needs to be done to develop an official remittance framework for Namibia and raise the contribution this could be making to the economy and the development of the country. Currently, Namibia does not have a legal, policy, institutional or operational framework informing labour exporting, although introducing labour exporting as a medium- to long-term objective is being proposed and supported by the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation (MLIREC). The Government of Namibia seeks to establish an interministerial coordination mechanism in which various relevant ministries, agencies and organizations are represented and gain a greater understanding of the current labour migration situation and needs within Namibia. It is envisaged that the interministerial coordination mechanism will also contribute to the development of skills to continue providing information on labour migration in order to build a comprehensive approach to policymaking.

Irregular migration No official national or international statistics on irregular migration could be detected in the course of preparing the Migration Profile. MHAI made available annual information on irregular migrants arrested and deported or issued with a 48-hour notice. Actual data on the extent of human trafficking and smuggling are difficult to obtain. A 2013 report commissioned by the Government of Namibia, which might help to shed light on actual figures, has not yet been released. Contextual information may be of some assistance to understand some of the nature and scope of the issues involved. Human trafficking in or involving Namibia is a matter that has attracted considerable international concern. In the 2015 United States Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report), Namibia is (again), for the fourth consecutive year, listed as a Tier 2 Watch List

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country. In its recent evaluation of Namibia’s country report on compliance with the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the relevant UN Committee entrusted with monitoring compliance with the Convention, noted the first criminal conviction in 2015 involving a case of human trafficking. However, the Committee expressed its concern that Namibia remained a source and destination country of trafficking in human beings, in particular women and girls, mainly for purposes of forced labour and sexual exploitation. Some groups of children remain vulnerable, without documentation, including unaccompanied and refugee children and undocumented rural poor children in families moving to cities. In particular, note should be taken of developments at the regional (SADC) level and commitments made in this regard by the Government of Namibia. An in principle related matter concerns the situation of undocumented minors who face the risk of statelessness. The Government of Namibia reported that it had conducted the National Child Activities Survey in 2005 to address the lack of updated socioeconomic data on the activities of Namibia’s child population. However, while the survey noted the widespread extent of child labour in Namibia, it contained only limited information about migrant children generally and non-Namibian children specifically.

Internal migration The NSA’s Migration Report concludes that internal migration appears to be common in Namibia, as elsewhere in Africa. Namibia experiences a significant measure of short-term population mobility. Furthermore, internal migration varies across regions, a phenomenon that relates partly to the urbanization drive. The age selective for migrants is different when compared to the age pyramid for non-migrants – that is, middle-age population is more likely to migrate than younger and older groups. Urbanization is an important phenomenon in Namibia. According to the Migration Report, a large portion of migration involves that from rural to urban areas, with major implications in terms of access to land, and health and development challenges. Also, the labour force participation rate is higher for migrants than non-migrants due to main motives for migrating being work. There are obvious links between migration, disasters and disaster resilience. In order to respond to the challenges of natural disasters, such as flood and drought, several efforts have been undertaken to strengthen the disaster risk management system in both Namibia and certain other SADC countries in the past years, and enhance national resilience to disasters. Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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Part E: The impact of migration Population change Namibia’s population in 2041 is projected to be 3.44 million, growing from a base of 2.11 million, that is, a growth rate of 63 per cent. However, there is substantial variation in expected changes within Namibia, due in large measure to the assumptions that recent patterns of migration will continue into the figure. From 2011 to 2041, rural areas are expected to shrink gradually, while the share of population living in urban areas is projected to increase from 43 per cent in 2011 to 67 per cent in 2041. Over this period, the urban population is expected to more than double while the rural population will gradually shrink.

Migration and development According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), there is a range of evidence about the positive impacts of migration on human development (that is, putting people at the centre of development), through such avenues as increased household incomes and improved access to education and health services. There is further evidence that migration can empower traditionally disadvantaged groups, particularly women. However, at the same time, risks to human development are also present where migration is a reaction to threats and denial of choice, and where regular opportunities for movement are constrained. In 2006, the African Union adopted two overarching African Union frameworks on migration, which both concern the debate on mainstreaming migration for developmental purposes – the African Union Migration Policy Framework for Africa (AUMPF) and the African Common Position on Migration and Development of 2006.

Economic development Globally, the evidence reveals that remittance income in developing countries that provides a stable flow of income is exceeded only by foreign direct investment, and exceeds donor and capital market flows. Despite temporary fluctuations, remittances remain a primary source of household income in migrant-sending countries. International migrants hold significant savings in their destination countries. Future inflows of remittances can be used as collateral to facilitate international borrowings by national banks in developing countries. Remittances can also facilitate access to international capital markets xiv

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by improving sovereign ratings and debt sustainability of recipient countries. In a recent development, rating agencies have started accounting for remittances in country credit ratings. In Africa, it is clear that little has been done to improve and extend the banking system to assist with the flow of remittances, despite the fact that the fees for monetary transfers within Africa could be quite substantial – in many cases well above 10 per cent of the principal amount. The value of the diaspora for the development and benefit not only of the country of destination, but also the country of origin, is increasingly appreciated. The value lies among others in the transfer of knowledge and skills, investments and the transfer of remittances. It is for this reason that governments, including governments in Africa, have gone to great lengths to establish legal, policy, institutional and operational frameworks to recognize, support, engage with and utilize diaspora for the development of the countries concerned. No legal, policy, institutional or operational framework exists in Namibia to include the diaspora in development in Namibia. The value of tourism needs to be understood from the perspective of its importance for the development of Namibia, as well as in the policy domain. The tourism sector has been identified as the fastest-growing industry in Namibia, considering its contribution towards GDP. It has also been identified as a strategic sector in the National Development Plan 4 (NDP4) with promise for growth and job creation by the Government of Namibia. The 2014 World Travel and Tourism Council Report on Namibia also refers to the economic impact of tourism, with particular reference to the value of travel and tourism to GDP, employment in Namibia and exports from and investment in Namibia.

Employment, labour market and skills development Migration, and therefore the availability of reliable data (including migration data) can contribute significantly to skills development in Namibia. The key importance of job creation, also as a measure to address rural–urban migration, already appears from two of Namibia’s foundational documents, namely Vision 2030 and NDP4. Large-scale structural unemployment in Namibia necessitates serious investment in skills development and job creation. The Government of Namibia has invested heavily in among others vocational training, supported by the compulsory imposition of a skills levy. This needs to be accompanied by a diversification of economic activity focus, away from a reliance primarily on agriculture and mineral extraction to manufacturing and

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the service sector. In this way, there would be less need to rely on migration as a way to secure an income. Several activation policies have been introduced by Namibia to bring jobless people from unemployment or inactivity into work, or at the very least, to influence the employment prospects of the unemployed positively – through activities, such as training, including on-the-job training, private sector incentive programmes, including wage subsidies and job-search efficiency services that provide job search assistance, vocational guidance and placement services. Mention should also be made of the newly established Employment Services Division of the MLIREC, focused on job-seekers’ registration, aiming to get people placed in jobs and boasting a computerized Integrated Employment Information System for purposes of registration. While over 50,000 people have been registered in this manner, under 2,000 people were placed during 2014/15.

Social development Consideration of the age demographic of migrants in Namibia (with lifetime migrations being most likely for people between ages 25–59 and short-term migration likelihood highest at ages 20–34) supports the view that employment and occupation are key drivers of internal migration. It must also be noted that people in Namibia living in rural areas, or in female-headed households or households headed by persons without formal education or reliant on pensions or subsistence farming are more likely to be living in poverty. NSA’s Migration Report notes that in Namibia, little is known whether this influx of migration to urban areas is helping to boost economic growth or contributing to poverty. Urbanization is an important phenomenon in Namibia. According to the report, a large portion of migration involves that from rural to urban areas, with major implications in terms of access to land, and health and development challenges. Namibia’s population density has been noted as a complicating factor in respect of service delivery, as well as in the context of social benefit provisioning. The WHO noted that while urbanization brings along development and other good opportunities, it is also associated with health challenges, such as overcrowding, pollution, poor sanitation, unhealthy lifestyles and all these factors contribute to poor health for citizens of a country. These harsh conditions are reflected in the Namibia urbanization environment and likely to have more impact on the economic and social development of shack dwellers in the informal settlements. Two recent studies on the health vulnerabilities of migrants and mobile populations – in three informal settlements in Windhoek

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and in Walvis Bay – have confirmed the vulnerable health context of certain migrant communities. Migration variables are considered by MOHSS in its programming for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Yet it has been noted that there is the need to improve data on health and migration to mobilize for increased research studies on migrant’s health and migration-related issues and increase advocacy. Also, support should be mobilized to strengthen the sustainability of sector-based workplace health programmes that are migrant inclusive – covering all spaces of vulnerability. These are matters also to be considered within the framework of the Partnership on Health and Mobility in East and Southern Africa (PHAMESA) II programme – that is, the programme that focuses on four spaces of vulnerability: transport corridors, mixed migration routes, urban settings and the extractive industry. The state of health and social well-being in Namibia is a matter of national importance. The Government of Namibia aims at the attainment of a level of health and social well-being by all Namibians, so that economically and socially productive lives may be led. Despite the stated focus, a range of shortcomings in respect of health delivery in the country have been identified in among others the Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry (2013), including the following: (a) Shortage of health professionals, including allied health professionals, partly caused by inadequate levels of training and lack of incentives; (b) The quality of patient care in public health facilities in Namibia is below par; (c) Quality of training; (d) Quality of public health facilities, with many facilities, such as hospitals, clinics and health centres being dilapidated and in decay; and (e) Status of available medical equipment and infrastructure.

Environment Floods, desertification and droughts also have to be appreciated within the context of the climate change debate. In a 2011 study, Namibia was classified as the seventh most at-risk country globally in terms of agricultural production losses due to climate change. It has been noted that this ranking is motivated by the already arid conditions prevailing in Namibia, naturally providing difficult climatic conditions for agriculture, which are further exacerbated by ongoing and future land degradation. Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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Namibia has been actively involved in the global climate change debate and committed itself to adopting appropriate measures, policies and strategies to deal with the adverse impact of climate change.

Part F: Migration governance Policy framework Vision 2030 is also designed to promote the creation of a diversified, open-market economy, with a resource-based industrial sector and commercial agriculture, placing particular emphasis on skills development. In particular, the main objectives of Vision 2030 include accelerating the process of job creation by increasing support for small- and medium-scale enterprises, including the creation of thousands of jobs. To achieve its vision, a series of seven five-year National Development Plans is envisaged, focusing particularly on reviving and sustaining economic growth, reducing inequality, creating employment, eradicating poverty, promoting gender equality and equity, reducing regional inequalities, ensuring environmental sustainability and combating HIV/AIDS. NDP4 is a high-level plan, leaving the detailed programmes on how to achieve the various NDP4 goals and targets to the various offices, ministries and agencies responsible, whose plans will be scrutinized by the National Planning Commission (NPC). NDP4 emphasizes employment creation, among others, as a measure to mitigate rural–urban migration. NDP has adopted three overarching goals: (a) High and sustained economic growth; (b) Increased income equality; and (c) Employment creation. Other policies are also relevant to the migration context, while several laws affect the migration context.

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As noted in Namibia’s National Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019, it is essential that Namibia embark on a structured approach for achieving compliance to different international and regional human rights instruments that it ratified. Namibia has indeed ratified a large number of international and regional instruments relevant to the migration area. However, note should in particular be taken of certain important instruments not yet ratified by Namibia, such as the following: • International Labour Organization (ILO) and United Nations (UN) Conventions in relation to migration, particularly ILO Convention 143 of 1975 and the UN Migrant Workers Convention of 1990; and • The two UN Conventions on statelessness – 1960 and 1975. At the level of international and regional cooperation, jointly with the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and with three international organizations – namely the ILO, IOM and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) – the African Union developed a programme that is intended to operationalize the AUMPF and strengthen the effective governance and regulation of labour migration and mobility in Africa, under the rule of law, at the RECs and national levels. Known as the African Union Commission (AUC)ILO-IOM-UNECA-RECs Labour Migration Governance for Development and Integration in Africa: A bold new initiative (also known as the AUC-ILO-IOMUNECA-RECs Joint Labour Migration Programme) (JLMP), this initial four-year programme with a ten-year vision was adopted by the Twenty-fourth Summit of the African Union in January 2015. The Programme will contribute to obtaining the development potential of labour and skills mobility in Africa by supporting effective governance of labour migration and protection of migrants. From a SADC perspective, note should be taken of Namibia’s involvement in both the SADC migration-related structures and the government-led Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDA) process, supported by IOM, UNHCR, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Regarding SADC, the development of a migration policy, labour migration policy and possibly also a migration and development policy for Namibia would fit in with the adoption of SADC of a labour migration policy framework and labour migration action plan.

Institutional framework A Technical Working Group (TWG) on Migration drawn from the Interministerial Coordinating Committee was recently established. When it

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comes to implementation of the profile, it is evident that there are also other crucial role players that need to be involved. Primary among these is the NPC, situated within the Office of the President. A separate multi-stakeholder TWG on health has been established, which deals, among others, with health-related issues in connection with migrants. Several key Namibian institutions are involved in broad area of migration.

Part G: Key findings and recommendations Key recommendation 1 (Remittances): Adopt an appropriate regulatory and policy framework, supported by a suitable institutional framework and operational measures, and improved data collection and analysis, to harness remittances for socioeconomic development in Namibia and address high remittance transfer costs. Key recommendation 2 (Diaspora): Profile and liaise with the Namibian diaspora, also via a capacitated institutional framework within the Government of Namibia, and promote their involvement in and contribution to the development of Namibia. Key recommendation 3 (Migration, health and well-being): Promote the health of migrants, their partners and dependants through dedicated strategic and policy frameworks and accessible preventive, educative, treatment, care and support services, focusing in particular on high-risk areas (such as areas of vulnerability). Key recommendation 4 (Skills): Enhance and use the labour market information system and skills audit data to determine available and required skills (supply and demand) in Namibia, and develop a priority skills retention/ acquisition strategy. Key recommendation 5 (Tourism): Facilitate the entire process of the compilation of and reporting on tourist arrivals to support economic and labour market development in Namibia. Key recommendation 6 (Labour migration): Harness skilled migration for development in Namibia by requiring immigrant professionals to provide training and imparting of skills, and support migrant workers from Namibia through dedicated pre-departure and return interventions, as well as support services while they work and reside in destination countries.

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Key recommendation 7 (Internal migration): Enhance intersectoral interventions to manage rural–urban migration and its effects on individuals and households, and on social cohesion and economic and spatial development, including decentralization and poverty reduction, and strengthen efforts to address causes of internal migration including poverty, environmental degradation, natural disasters and conflict, especially as they relate to the process of urbanization. Key recommendation 8 (Disaster risk management and climate change adaptation): Enhance protective and preventive interventions and consider undertaking a disaster risk management impact assessment study, as well as an assessment on the impact of climate change on human mobility to define appropriate evidence-based and appropriate measures and policies by taking into account the specific context of environmental migration. Key recommendation 9 (Refugees): Ensure the maintenance of a camp coordination and camp management structure for Osire camp under the lead of the Government of Namibia, and consider the development of mediumto longer-term solutions – such as voluntary return (where appropriate) and bilateral agreements – for the return of refugees to countries where a situation conducive to refugee departure from Namibia exists. Key recommendation 10 (Human trafficking): On the basis of the Namibian Gender Policy and the National Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019, develop a comprehensive and multisectoral approach addressing prevention, advocacy and awareness-raising, rehabilitation, integration and repatriation of the victims of human trafficking, as well as finalizing comprehensive legislation that criminalizes human trafficking for ease of prosecuting offenders. Key recommendation 11 (Border management): Strengthen the capacity of line ministries and other actors to adopt integrated and coordinated approaches to streamline and enhance coordinated border management, also through improved data collection and sharing with cross-border agencies, and undertake visa harmonization. Key recommendation 12 (Migration legal, policy and institutional framework): Develop concrete policies to give effect to core elements of the Migration Profile, supported by a dedicated institutional framework within the Government of Namibia, and consider the ratification and implementation of major migration standard-setting instruments of the ILO and the UN, as well as other relevant standard-setting instruments to guide migration policy and practice in Namibia. Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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Key recommendation 13 (Strengthening the NSA and the migration statistical environment): Support the migration statistical environment in Namibia by enhancing the NSA’s capacity to render a more comprehensive and emphatic service in the migration domain, by strengthening inter-institutional data cooperation, and by addressing capacity weaknesses. Key recommendation 14 (Key indicators for labour migration): Align data indicators and collection in Namibia with universally applicable labour migration concepts, definitions and methods. Key recommendation 15 (Other data-related recommendations): Enhance migration-related data in census and household surveys, mainstream migration data in Namibian policy and strategic frameworks and collect labour market data from major destination countries.

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Contents Foreword.............................................................................................iii Political map of Namibia.......................................................................v Executive summary............................................................................. vii Part A: Aims and structure of migration profile...............................................vii Part B: Overview of the international and national data framework..............vii Part C: The namibian migration context: Socioeconomic indicators and migration perspectives................................................ viii Part D: Migration trends and characteristics....................................................ix Part E: The impact of migration...................................................................... xiv Part F: Migration governance....................................................................... xviii Part G: Key findings and recommendations..................................................... xx

List of tables.................................................................................... xxiv List of figures and boxes.................................................................. xxvi List of acronyms...............................................................................xxvii Typology of international migration.................................................. xxx Part A: Introduction, aims and structure of migration profile................1 Part B: Overview of the international and national data framework relevant to the namibian migration context........................3 B.1. International data sources: an overview . ................................................. 3 B.2. National data context ............................................................................... 4

Part C: The Namibian migration context: Socioeconomic indicators and migration perspectives................................................13 C.1. Socioeconomic indicators ....................................................................... 13 C.2. Migration perspectives ........................................................................... 21

Part D: Migration trends and characteristics.......................................39

D.1. Arrivals, departures, travel and tourism.................................................. 39 D.2. Immigration............................................................................................. 43 D.3. Emigration............................................................................................... 56 D.4. Irregular migration . ................................................................................ 67 D.5. Internal migration ................................................................................... 75

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Part E: Impact of migration.................................................................83

E.1. Population change................................................................................... 83 E.2. Migration and development: A principled framework............................. 84 E.3. Economic development........................................................................... 87 E.4. Employment, labour market and skills development.............................. 95 E.5. Social development................................................................................ 100 E.6. Environment........................................................................................... 105

Part F: Migration governance............................................................107

F.1. Policy framework ................................................................................... 107 F.2. Legal framework .................................................................................... 109 F.3. International agreements ...................................................................... 110 F.4. International cooperation – African Union and SADC Context............... 112 F.5. Institutional framework.......................................................................... 114

Part G: Key findings and recommendations.......................................117

G.1. Migration and development, internal and involuntary migration......... 117 G.2. Migration management . ...................................................................... 138 G.3. Migration data....................................................................................... 141

Appendices.......................................................................................153

Appendix I: Sources consulted.................................................................... 153 Appendix II: Namibian higher education institutions: Foreign students by nationality............................................... 168 Appendix III: Trends in international migrant stock...................................... 169 Appendix IV: List of institutions consulted................................................... 173

list of tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7:

Key development indicators and US dollars (USD) statistics.................. 13 Basic health statistics............................................................................. 21 Sustainable Development Goals and migration..................................... 24 Human trafficking in Africa..................................................................... 27 Regional migration statistics (Southern Africa), 2013 ........................... 29 Trends in international migrant stock, Namibia, 1990–2013................. 38 Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia – Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin, World total, 1990–2013....... 38 Table 8: Total arrivals, 2010–2011, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014......................... 39 Table 9: Total departures, 2010–2011, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014................... 39 Table 10: Number of foreign arrivals by nationality, 2011–2014........................... 40 Table 11: Trends in international migrant stock, Namibia, 1990–2013................. 46

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Table 12: Foreign and Namibian students, by gender – country of origin (extract: 10 students or more from a foreign country).......................... 49 Table 13: Total number of foreign and Namibian students................................... 49 Table 14: Namibian and foreign staff (from selected countries – at least five staff members per country concerned).............................. 50 Table 15: Namibian and foreign staff, disaggregated by country of origin and gender............................................................................... 51 Table 16: Namibian and foreign staff, disaggregated by age cohort...................... 51 Table 17: Refugee stock in Namibia, 1990–2013 .................................................. 54 Table 18: 2014 Presidential elections: Namibian gender-disaggregated registrants abroad by age group............................................................ 57 Table 19: 2014 Presidential election results: Constituency – Namibian Missions Abroad Polling Stations........................................... 58 Table 20: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia – Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area and region, 2013 (gender-disaggregated)...................................... 59 Table 21: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia, 1990–2013 – Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area and region, 1990–2013.............. 60 Table 22: Migrant remittance inflows (USD million).............................................. 64 Table 23: Irregular migrants arrested and deported or issues with a 48-hour notice.................................................................. 67 Table 24: Regional statistics, 2014/15 Ministry of Health and Social Services...... 71 Table 25: Ratified international and regional human rights instruments governing migration issues.............................................. 111 Table 26: Foreign students by nationality............................................................ 168 Table 27: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia, 2013.............................................................. 169 Table 28: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia, 1990–2013 per country, Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area, region, country or area of destination, 1990–2013 ............................ 171

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list of FIGURES Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5:

Global migration share.......................................................................... 21 International remittance flows............................................................... 22 Non-citizens by age and sex................................................................... 46 Citizens and non-citizens – Proportion distribution by occupation........ 48 2014 Presidential elections: Namibian gender-disaggregated registrants abroad by age group............................................................ 57 Figure 6: Personal remittances, received (USD million)........................................ 64 Figure 7: Personal remittances, received (per cent of GDP)................................. 65 Figure 8: Lifetime migrants by age and sex, 2011................................................. 77 Figure 9: Projected population for Namibia, urban and rural, 2015–2040: Medium variant.................................................................. 83 Figure 10: MIDA Ghana Health Project................................................................... 92

list of BoxES Box 1: Box 2: Box 3: Box 4: Box 5: Box 6: Box 7: Box 8: Box 9: Box 10: Box 11: Box 12: Box 13: Box 14: Box 15: Box 16: Box 17: Box 18: Box 19: Box 20:

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Aims of a Migration Profile...................................................................... 1 The importance of sufficient and current migration data........................ 6 Lifetime and short-term migrants............................................................ 7 Migrant workers in Africa....................................................................... 26 Migration in the Southern African Development Community: An overview....................................................................... 28 The significance of remittances in Southern Africa................................ 32 Migration impact of political liberation.................................................. 33 Overview – Refugees and asylum-seekers in Namibia........................... 53 Receipt and use of remittances by Namibian households..................... 63 Human trafficking in Namibia................................................................ 68 Labour force participation of internal migrants and non-migrants........ 78 The nexus between migration and development.................................. 84 Remittances and economic development.............................................. 89 The value of remittances........................................................................ 89 The cost of transferring remittances...................................................... 91 Measures adopted by SADC governments to harness the role of diasporas for development................................................... 93 Structural unemployment, skills development and job creation........... 98 Health vulnerabilities of migrants and mobile populations................. 103 Sourcing/exploring dedicated work opportunities for surplus labour in other countries................................................... 126 DDRM/CCCM Strategic Plan priorities.................................................. 132

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

LIST OF ACRONYMS AUC AUMPF BRC CCCM CEDAW COMESA DDRM DHS DRM ESA FAO GDP HDI IBM ILO IOL IOM JLMP LFS LMIS MDG MHAI MIDA MIDSA MLIREC MOHSS MOU NAMCOL NCAS

African Union Commission African Union Migration Policy Framework for Africa Border resident card Camp coordination and camp management Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Directorate of Disaster Risk Management Demographic and Health Survey Disaster risk management Employment Service Act Food and Agriculture Organization Gross domestic product Human development index Integrated Border Management International Labour Organization Institute of Open Learning International Organization for Migration Joint Labour Migration Programme Labour Force Survey Labour Market Information System Millennium Development Goal Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration Migration for Development in Africa Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation Ministry of Health and Social Services Memorandum of understanding Namibia College of Open Learning Namibia Child Activities Survey

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NCHE NDP NEP NGO NHIES NHRP NODSOM NPC NPCC NSA NSS ODA OECD OPM PHAMESA POCA RECs SADC SAMP SDGs SSC TIP TTCI TWG UN UNCCD UN DESA UNDP UNECA UNESCO UNFPA UNICEF

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National Council for Higher Education National Development Plan Namibian National Employment Policy Non-governmental organization Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey National Human Resources Plan Namibia’s Occupational Demand and Supply Outlook Model National Planning Commission National Policy on Climate Change Namibia Statistics Agency National Statistics System Overseas Development Assistance Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Office of the Prime Minister Partnership on Health and Mobility in East and Southern Africa Prevention of Organised Crime Act of 2009 Regional Economic Communities Southern Africa Development Community Southern African Migration Project Sustainable Development Goals Social Security Commission Trafficking in persons Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index Technical Working Group United Nations United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Population Fund United Nations Children’s Fund

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

UNODC UNPAF UNHCR USAID VET VOTs WHO

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime United Nations Partnership Framework United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United States Agency for International Development Vocational and Education Training Victims of trafficking World Health Organization

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Typology of international migration Type of migration

Main characters

Asylum-seekers

Persons seeking to be admitted into a country as refugees and awaiting decision on their application for refugee status under relevant international and national instruments. In case of a negative decision, they must leave the country and may be expelled, as may any alien in an irregular situation, unless permission to stay is provided on humanitarian or other related grounds.

Irregular migrant

Someone who, owing to illegal entry or the expiry of his or her visa, lacks legal status in a transit or host country.

Labour migration

Movement of persons from one State to another, or within their own country of residence, for the purpose of employment.

Migrant flow

The number of migrants counted as moving or being authorized to move, to or from a country to access employment or to establish themselves over a defined period of time.

Migrant stock

The number of migrants residing in a country at a particular point in time.

Mixed flows

Complex population movements including refugees, asylum-seekers, economic migrants and other migrants.

Permanent residence

The right, granted by a host State to a non-national, to live and work therein on a permanent (unlimited) basis.

Permanent settlers

Legally admitted immigrants who are accepted to settle in the receiving country, including persons admitted for the purpose of family reunion.

Refugee

A refugee, according to Article 1(A)(2), Convention relating to the Status of Refugees Article 1A(2), 1951 as modified by the 1967 Protocol, is a person who, “owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinions, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”. In addition, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa defines a refugee as any person compelled to leave his or her country “owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country or origin or nationality.”

Temporary migrant workers

Skilled, semi-skilled or untrained workers who remain in the receiving country for definite periods as determined in a work contract with an individual worker or a service contract concluded with an enterprise.

Source: R. Perruchoud and J. Redpath-Cross (eds.), Glossary on Migration, 2nd edition (International Organization for Migration, Geneva, 2011).

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PART A: INTRODUCTION, AIMS AND STRUCTURE OF MIGRATION PROFILE The overall objective of developing a Migration Profile for Namibia is to support evidence-based policymaking and promote the mainstreaming of migration into the policymaking process by making current existing reliable and comprehensive migration-related data available to government and other stakeholders. The Profile was preceded by a data assessment report, which identified gaps and made recommendations for the development of a national data management and dissemination strategy. This Profile, as was the case with the data assessment report, deals with key migration variables, and takes into account priority areas indicated by the multi-stakeholder Technical Working Group (TWG) on Migration, as well as six key regional areas of intervention as laid out in the International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) Regional Strategy for Southern Africa (2013–2015). These are as follows: • Mixed migration (inclusive of trafficking and assisted voluntary return and reintegration) • Labour migration and development (inclusive of diaspora engagement and remittances) • Immigration and border management • Migration health • Emergencies and transition • Regional cooperation Box 1: Aims of a Migration Profile Migration Profiles are country-owned tools, prepared in consultation with a broad range of government and non-government stakeholders, which can be used to enhance policy coherence, evidence-based policymaking and the mainstreaming of migration into development planning. Source: IOM, Migration Profiles: Making the Most of the Process (IOM, Geneva, 2012), p. 89.

Bearing in mind the priority areas (key migration variables) and key regional areas of intervention indicated above, this Profile has adjusted the proposed Migration Profile template to reflect these priority and key areas respectively. Particular attention is paid to the data context, given the challenges experienced in this regard in Namibia. The structure of the Profile is indicated on the following page.

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The Profile also relies on identified key migration data sources and available and accessible data sets, with special reference to the following: (a) National data sources and data sets (in particular those emanating from the National Statistical Agency (NSA), including the Labour Force Survey (LFS), Population and Housing Census, Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES), Sectoral Reports); and (b) International data sources and data sets (in particular those emanating from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), World Bank, IOM and African Development Bank). The structure of this Profile is as follows: (a) Part A deals with the introduction and the aims and structure of the Profile; (b) Part B provides an overview of the international and national data framework relevant to the Namibian migration context; (c) Part C reflects on background information concerning the Namibian migration context, with particular reference to socioeconomic indicators and migration perspectives; (d) Part D concerns migration trends and characteristics; (e) Part E discusses the impact of migration in particular areas of concern; (f) Part F summarizes the migration governance framework; (g) Part G contains key findings and recommendations; and (h) Relevant appendices added at the end of the Profile.

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

PART B: OVERVIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL DATA FRAMEWORK RELEVANT TO THE NAMIBIAN MIGRATION CONTEXT B.1. International data sources: An overview Reliable international migration data concerning Namibia are hard to find and difficult to verify. Included in this regard are data involving migration into and from Namibia, as well as migration through Namibia (such as in the event where Namibia is used as a temporary entry and exit country for human smuggling or trafficking purposes). It could be that the unavailability of certain national data and inaccessibility of other available national data are contributing to this state of affairs. Nevertheless, an attempt has been made by certain international organizations to quantify the Namibian migration stock and flows. In addition to the World Bank figures provided in Part C below, mention should also be made of the figure quoted by the IOM that Namibia records one of the highest percentages of international migrants in Southern Africa (6.3%); IOM further remarks that Namibia is also experiencing increasing internal migration, owing largely to rapid urbanization and rural–urban migration.1 Statistics on international migration provided by the UN DESA indicate the fluent nature and fluctuating trend of this phenomenon, assumingly caused by the significant impact that migration flows may have on a country with such a small population. For example, whereas UN DESA recorded that the international migration stock in Namibia constituted 8.9 per cent in 1990, this figure has moved down to 2.2 per cent in 2013 (males: 2.4%; females: 2.1%).2

IOM Namibia, Country Strategy 2013–2017 (2013), pp. 3, 13, referring to 2009 data from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). 2 UN DESA, Population Division, Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2013). Available from http://esa.un.org/unmigration/TIMSA2013/Data/ subsheets/UN_MigrantStock_2013T3.xls on 30 May 2015. See Table 6 below. 1

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B.2. National data context B.2.1. Overview of available migration data The Namibia Statistics Agency (NSA) was established in 2012 as the lead statistical institution in Namibia, in terms of the Statistics Act No. 9 of 2011. The Act also provides for the powers and functions of the Agency, as well as the development of the National Statistics System and its components and objectives. The NSA is primarily responsible for national and household censuses and surveys. As discussed below, some but limited data concerning migration facts, figures and trends are contained in some of the census and survey reports. Both expansion and adaptation are foreseen, as indicated below. Furthermore, the NSA has been involved in planning and assisting with the development and/or execution of further sector-specific data procurement with an impact potentially on the area of migration as well. As discussed elsewhere in this report, two of these contexts relate to the following: (a) new occupational skills audit survey, the results whereof are expected soon; and (b) development of a Labour Market Information System (LMIS). Importantly, the NSA published a Migration Report in 2015, which provides information on internal and international migration covering both lifetime and short-term migrants based on the 2011 Namibia Population and Housing census.3 Limited migration-related sectoral statistics of an administrative nature are available from line ministries, agencies and other institutions, appearing both from administrative data collected at, for example, border posts and from census information: (a) The Ministry of Environment and Tourism publishes a Tourist Statistical Report, which reflects on foreign arrivals, disaggregated among others with reference to tourists, same-day visitors and returning residents, and indicating the main purpose of entry, in particular visiting friends/relatives, business and holiday.4 (b) The Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture produces an Annual Education Census, which contains the following: (i) Relatively detailed information on foreign teachers (with reference to indicators, such as nationality, country of origin, Namibia Statistics Agency (NSA), Namibia 2011 Census Migration Report (NSA, Windhoek, Namibia, 2015). Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Tourist Statistical Report 2012 and 2013 (Directorate of Tourism and Gaming, October 2014).

3 4

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

employment type (status, level and period of appointment), age, gender and geographical spread in Namibia); and (ii) (Currently only) limited information on foreign learners (reflecting only on the total number of non-Namibian learners, disaggregated by gender).5 (c) The National Council of Higher Education has statistics available on foreign teachers and students at higher education institutions falling under the auspices of the Council. (d) The Electoral Commission of Namibia keeps data on the Namibian citizens who register abroad for national elections (disaggregated by age group and gender), and who vote in these elections.6 (e) Statistics on services provided to victims of human trafficking are gathered by the Ministry of Gender (although largely inaccessible), as well as by the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS). (f) As discussed later in this Profile, data on border entry and exit, immigration, work permits and visas are kept by the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration (MHAI), but is not publicly accessible. Despite its obvious importance to Namibia, the area of migration data and the management of these data are weakly developed. As noted in the Migration Report:

Migration is a powerful driver of population change and can have important consequence of economic, political and social changes. Because of its great impact on societies, migration needs to be adequately measured and understood. Reliable statistical data is the key to the basic understanding of this important demographic phenomenon. Yet in many countries, including Namibia, statistics on migration are incomplete, out-of-date or do not exist. Improvement in this area requires knowledge of the principles of collecting, compiling and analysing migration statistics.7

Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture, Annual Education Census. For example, this data pertaining to the most recent presidential election were made available to the consultant. 7 NSA, 2015b, p. ii. 5 6

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Box 2: The importance of sufficient and current migration data In its Migration Report, the NSA notes the importance of sufficient and current data about migration patterns and trends to inform policymaking and planning: It is important for policymakers and planners to know about population movements. It should however be mentioned that migration is a complex subject and without sufficient up to date statistical dated data it is difficult to give a complete picture of current migration pattern and trends for any population due to lack of data. Migrants are a diverse group of people who move to different geographic areas for different reasons: e.g. in search for better living conditions, work, family circumstances, study, economic hardship, or even social unrest. Source: NSA, 2015b, p. iii.

It is not clear from the Migration Report, and in fact also not from other surveys and data sets currently available in Namibia, what policy purposes could be served by international (in-, out- and transit-) migration data – for example for purposes of immigration policy and planning, to inform diaspora policies, support labour exporting or assist with policy formulation regarding human trafficking (involving both internal and international migrants). In fact, the remit of the NSA has thus far been a limited though expanding one. It has not, for example, covered core migration areas, such as immigration, irregular migrants, human trafficking, the diaspora and remittances, and disaster risk management (DRM).

B.2.2. National and household censuses and surveys: The Namibia Statistics Agency B.2.2.1. Introduction Currently, migration-related indicators are provided for only to a limited extent and in a few of the census and survey formats although, once again, expansion is foreseen. B.2.2.2. National Population and Housing Census As indicated elsewhere in this Profile, the Census, which is being conducted every 10 years, covers both internal and, to a more limited extent, international migration. It draws a distinction between short-term and long-term migration. In addition to citizenship, it asked about one’s usual residence in 2011, as well as the areas of birth and the previous residence in 2010.

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Box 3: Lifetime and short-term migrants In the Migration Report, an individual is considered a lifetime migrant if the area of birth does not match the area of current residence. Similarly, an individual is considered a short-term migrant if the area of usual residence in 2010 and 2011 do not match. Source: NSA, 2015, p. 3.

Of course, as noted in the report, both of these figures may understate overall population mobility – even when residences do match at the two endpoints, an individual might have moved in between them. The report indicates yet another flaw in the wording of the question about previous residence in that it asked about where people “usually lived since September 2010”: “This wording may have caused some respondents who actually did live at a different residence a year ago to report their current residence as their former residence, biasing downwards estimates of short-term migration. Migration should be estimated at distinct points in time.”8 Importantly, data in connection with emigrants, although requested in the census form, could not be sufficiently cleaned up due to the inadequacy of the responses. Form C of the Census questionnaire asked for different types of information about the persons who left the particular household to other countries since 2001 and did not spend the census reference night in Namibia: their sex, age, highest grade/standard or level of completed education, professional training/occupation, the reason for staying abroad, any remittance sent to any household member, the country of current residence destination, and the year of departure. Apparently, the requested information was not well understood by the enumerators. It is suggested that the specific questions asked and the way in which they have been formulated need to be revisited. Also, it is necessary to ensure that enumerators are appropriately trained. B.2.2.3. Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey As noted above, these surveys have been carried out every five years since 1994. It is important to note that the questionnaire for the next survey, the 2015/2016 NHIES, effectively scheduled as an intercensal survey, has been designed to obtain data on a range of internal, in-migration and outmigration related indicators. These indicators relate to the following matters (some comments are provided):

8

NSA, 2015b, p. 3.

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(a) Temporary absence (absence for a period less than six months); (b) Movement from one region, or country, to another in the past five years – as well as the following: (i) when the person moved to the present region or country; (ii) the name of the region/country the person was living in just before moving to the present region; (iii) the reason for moving to present region (an open-ended list of reasons is provided); and (iv) with whom did the person move to the present region (an open-ended list of household and other possibilities is indicated); (c) Country of citizenship; (d) Absence from home any day during the past 12 months and, if so, the reason for absence (the main reasons needs to be selected from an open-ended list of reasons); (e) Number of months’ absence from the household during the past 12 months – however, an instruction given to the enumerator that “[If the person was absent for 6 months or more, cross their name from the roster and do not ask anything else]” may have to be revisited, as it takes away the opportunity to collect data on, among others, the sources of income and the occupation of the person concerned; (f) Enrolment in an educational institution during the current or previous year, among others outside Namibia; (g) Receipt of a scholarship or financial assistance for educational purposes in the previous year, also from relatives abroad; (h) Duration of employment contract and period of employment at current job – which could be relevant also in the case of foreign workers in Namibia; (i) (Value of) remittances received in cash or in kind from individuals who are not household members, during the last 12 months, and the purpose(s) for which the remittances were used, including both household expenses and business or investments; (j) (Value of) remittances sent to individuals who are not household members, living in Namibia or abroad; (k) Type of income received by household over the past 12 months, including cash remittances (not including alimony/child support); (l) Main source of income for the household, including cash remittances (not including alimony/child support); and (m) Main source of funding to cover outstanding household loans or debts, including from relatives in Namibia and relatives abroad.

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

The indicators above evidently assist with gaining income and expenditurerelated picture of household members who could be internal migrants or foreign migrants living and/or working in Namibia. However, more pertinent questions could be asked in relation to the immigrant and occupational status of foreign migrants, as well as the occupational status of internal migrants, also in view of the inadequate provision made in the LFS in relation to foreign migrants. Furthermore, as indicated, the current format of the census questions leaves little room to explore details of emigrant status, to the extent that household members in Namibia may be privy to such information. Finally, while some questions are asked regarding the receipt of remittances, one or more further questions could be posed in order to obtain a picture of how/for what purpose(s) use is being made of remittances. B.2.2.4. Other censuses and surveys (a) Demographic and Health Survey: In 2013, the NSA collaborated with the MOHSS in conducting the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).9 This serves as a periodic update of the demographic and health situation in Namibia, and is the fourth comprehensive, national-level population and health survey conducted in Namibia as part of the global DHS programme.10 As indicated in the survey report, the overall objective of the survey is to provide demographic, socioeconomic and health data necessary for policymaking, planning, monitoring and evaluation at both the national and regional levels.

The survey was designed to generate recent and reliable information on fertility, family planning, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, nutrition, domestic violence, and knowledge and prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other non-communicable diseases, which allows monitoring progress through time with respect to these issues.11 The report indicates that the information provided will aid in assessments of current health- and population-related policies and programmes, and that will also be useful in formulating new population and health policies and programmes. A long-term objective of the survey is

See Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) and ICF International, The Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2013 (MOHSS and ICF International, Windhoek, Namibia and Rockville, Maryland, USA, 2014). 10 Ibid., p. xvii: The 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey was implemented by the MOHSS in collaboration with the NSA and the National Institute of Pathology. Technical support was provided by ICF International, with financial support from the Government of Namibia, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Global Fund. 11 Ibid. In addition, the survey measured the prevalence of anaemia, high blood pressure and high blood glucose among adult women and men and the prevalence of anaemia among children age 6–59 months; it also collected anthropometric data to assess the nutritional status of women, men and children. 9

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to strengthen the technical capacity of local organizations to plan, conduct, process and analyse data from complex national population and health surveys. Moreover, the 2013 DHS is comparable to similar surveys conducted in other developing countries and therefore affords a national and international comparison. The 2013 DHS therefore adds to the vast and growing international database on demographic and health-related variables.12

However, it should be noted that none of the indicators investigated in the DHS, nor any of the questionnaire questions, refer to migrant or nationality status. Based on the data obtained via the DHS, it is therefore not possible to obtain a picture of the extent to which the data may apply to short- and long-term migrants, or to internal or external migrants.

(b) LFS: The NSA is also responsible for (the now annual) LFS. However, labour migration variables have not been included, except for the incorporation of citizenship as a variable in the chapter providing information on demographic characteristics of the population.13 The NSA acknowledges that there is need, on the basis of a SADC requirement to this effect, to include appropriate labour migration variables in the next LFS. Apparently, the International Labour Organization (ILO) is assisting the NSA in this regard.14 (c) Occupational skills audit survey: The Namibia Occupational Skills Audit Survey was conducted, at establishment level, by the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation (MLIREC) in collaboration with the NSA in 2014. The soon-to-be expected outcome of the assessment will give an indication of the skills situation/needs in Namibia. Certain migration-related variables have reportedly been captured in the audit report. These relate to the following: (i) whether the establishment employs foreigners and, if so, which occupational levels do they occupy (e.g. managers), what their qualifications are, and from which country do they originate; and (ii) whether the establishment is a foreign, Namibian or a joint venture establishment. Another variable that may have some bearing on the employment of foreign workers (at least in the future), relates to a question on which occupations prove difficult to fill in the establishment.15 Ibid. See NSA, Namibia Labour Force Survey Report 2013 (NSA, Windhoek, 2014), p. 39. 14 Information shared with the consultant by the NSA. 15 Information conveyed to the consultant by Ms Wilhelmine Shigwedha, Chief Economist, Mr Malakia Malakia, Economist and Ms Hilya Iita, Chief Development Planner of the MLIREC, on 15 June 2015. 12 13

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

(d) Tourism Statistical Report: The involvement of the NSA in the production of the Tourism Statistical Report was noted above. (e) Labour Market Information System: It is further envisaged that an LMIS (with assistance from ILO) will be developed and updated on an ongoing basis.16 Migration is increasingly being regarded as one of the dimensions of employment policy. It has been noted that the development of efficient, comprehensive and integrated LMIS comprising labour migration information is a prerequisite for efficient employment and migration policies, as well as for the implementation of bilateral migration agreements.17 (f) Youth unemployment report: Finally, developing a youth (un)employment report, based on the 2012 and 2013 LFS reports is apparently being considered by the NSA.18 This will add value to the understanding of youth (un)employment in Namibia. However, given the limited framework related to migration variables included in the LFS reports, it is doubtful whether this report on youth (un)employment will make a meaningful contribution to understanding youth (un)employment from the perspective of in-migration and outmigration. Recently, an analysis of the 2011 National Population and Housing Census data in relation to the well-being of children and young people in Namibia across different dimensions of their lives, was undertaken by the NSA.19 Internal migration by children and young people was one of the themes covered by the analysis.

Information shared with the consultant by the NSA. I. Martin, Labour Market Information Systems and Labour Migration Information in Six Developing Countries: The Challenge of Integration (IOM, 2011), p. 5. 18 Information shared with the consultant by the NSA. 19 NSA and UNICEF, Young people in Namibia: An analysis of the 2011 Population & Housing Census (Research and Information Services of Namibia, Namibia, 2014), in particular pp. 16–17. 16 17

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PART C: THE NAMIBIAN MIGRATION CONTEXT: SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS AND MIGRATION PERSPECTIVES C.1. Socioeconomic indicators Table 1: Key development indicators and US dollars (USD) statistics Demography Total population (World Bank, 2013)

2,303,000

Rural population (Census, 2011)

57%

Urban population (Census, 2011)

43%

Male population (Census, 2011)

48.36%

Female population (Census, 2011)

51.64%

Official language

English Socioeconomic indicators

Human development index (HDI) (Human Development Report, 2013)

HDI

Rank

0.608

128 out of 186 countries

Life expectancy (Human Development Report, 2013)

62.6 years

Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (current USD) (World Bank, 2011)

5,293

Gini coefficient (NHIES, 2009/10)

0.5971

Proportion of population below the poverty line (NSA, 2011)

29%

Proportion of seats in National Assembly held by women (2014)*

41% (43 out of 104 seats)

Female-headed households (Census, 2011)

44%

Unemployment rate – broad definition (Namibia LFS, 2014)

28.1% (Male: 24.3%; Female: 31.7%)

Youth unemployment rate (Namibia LFS, 2014)

39.2%

Labour force absorption rate (Namibia LFS, 2014)

49.6% (Male: 71.6%; Female: 66.9%)

Youth labour force absorption rate (Namibia LFS, 2014)

38.6%

Labour force participation rate (Namibia LFS, 2014)

69.1%

Adult literacy rate (age 15–49) (NHIES, 2009/10)

88.51%

Ratio of girls-boys (in primary school) (Education Management Information System 2011)

104.4%

Infant mortality rate (DHS, 2006/07)

45.61 deaths/1,000 live births

Maternal mortality rate (DHS, 2006/07)

449 deaths/100,000 live births

Adult HIV prevalence (African Economic Outlook, 2015)

16.9%

Population with access to safe water (for drinking and cooking) (Census, 2011)

80% (Urban: 97.7%; Rural: 62.8%)

Population with no toilet facility (Census, 2011)

48.6% (Urban: 22.4%; Rural: 74.0%)

Source: Adjusted from United Nations Partnership Framework (UNPAF) (Namibia) (2014–2018): A Partnership for Growth, Job Creation and Equity (United Nations Country Team, Windhoek, Namibia, 2013), p. 4. * Quota Project: Global Database of Quotas for Women, Namibia. Available from www.quotaproject.org/uid/countryview. cfm?country=160 (accessed 16 October 2015).

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C.1.1. Economic and demographic background According to the African Economic Outlook for Namibia in 2015,20 Namibia’s economy is in recovery, growing at rates above 5 per cent since 2010.21 This has been particularly due to robust construction activity and high consumer demand, coupled with tight monetary policy.22 While Namibia has made good progress in relation to socioeconomic developments, also steadily increasing growth and ensuring the general decline of poverty, inequality and unemployment remain key challenges. For certain segments of Namibian society, and in certain regions of the country, however, poverty levels remain high. According to the latest census data, most people in Namibia live in rural areas (57%). The other 43 per cent who live in urban areas are concentrated in Khomas (36% of the total urban population), followed by Erongo (15% of the total urban population). Significantly, between 2001 and 2011, the urban population grew by a staggering 49.7 per cent, and the rural population shrank by 1.4 per cent.23 This demonstrates the high rate of rural-to-urban migration (reflected on in more detail elsewhere in the Profile), also driven by labour market considerations.24 Recently undertaken studies relying on qualitative and quantitative data sources reflect on the causes and consequences of rural–urban migration. These sources indicate that migrants to cities and towns in Namibia come from rural areas in search of employment opportunities and to have a better urban life, for education, as a result of climatic conditions such as floods, and improved services and facilities.

M. Phiri and O. Odhiambo, African Economic Outlook: Namibia 2015 (African Development Bank, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2015), p. 1. Available from www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/fileadmin/uploads/aeo/2015/CN_data/CN_ Long_EN/Namibia_GB_2015.pdf (accessed on 17 September 2015). 21 Reduction in poverty head count, poverty gap and severity in Namibia has been attributed mainly to a general increase in consumption by Namibians (NSA, Poverty dynamics in Namibia: A comparative study using the 1993/94, 2003/04 and the 2009/10 NHIES surveys (NSA, Windhoek, Namibia, 2012), p. 38). 22 Ibid. 23 International Labour Organization (ILO), Namibia Social Protection Floor Assessment (ILO Decent Work Team for Eastern and Southern Africa and ILO Country Office for South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland, 2014), p. 16. The urban areas have a large proportion of working-age people (between 15 and 59 years of age) and a smaller proportion of the elderly compared to rural areas. The proportion of the elderly living in rural areas is 9.1 per cent, and half of that figure in urban areas. 24 NSA, 2015b. 20

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

C.1.2. Labour market information The 2013 Labour Force Survey puts the number of workers in Namibia at around 690,000, which consist of the following: (a) (b) (c) (d)

Some 324,000 form part of the informal economy; Approximately 83,000 work in the public sector; A little over 30,000 are employees of parastatal organizations; Some 225,000 work in what might be considered formal privatesector occupations; and (e) The balance of 27,000 find themselves in employment that is classified as part of the formal economy, but may be characterized as vulnerable, largely in households of various types.

Earnings statistics, notwithstanding unreliability of this type of information, suggest that income among these workers is as follows: (a) Highest among government employees and then parastatal employees; (b) Subject to a substantial spread in formal private-sector work, but on average lower than for public servants and workers at parastatal organizations; and (c) Generally low among vulnerable formal-sector workers and very low for those working in the informal economy. The inactive population, also referred to as the not economically active population, comprise persons who were unavailable to take up any form of employment due to a variety of reasons.25 Almost 450,000 people were reported as being inactive (over the age of 15 years) in the recent Namibia LFS. Of this group, 56.2 per cent were female.26

NSA, Namibia Labour Force Survey 2014 Report (NSA, Windhoek, Namibia, 2015), p. 49. Ibid., p. 51.

25 26

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

15

C.1.3. Poverty indicators The World Bank has captured essential country data in relation to Namibia.27 In terms of this data, Namibia is regarded as an upper-middle-income country, with the following statistics (relevant year indicated in brackets): (a) GDP of USD 12.58 billion (2013); (b) Total population of 2.303 million (2013); (c) Poverty head count of 28.7 per cent (2009), significantly down from the figure for 2004 (37.7%) and 1994 (69.3%); (d) Life expectancy of 64 (2012); (e) Gross national income (GNI) per capita of USD 5,840 (2013); and (f) Economic growth rate of 3.3 per cent. General data contained in the most recent UNDP Human Development Report of 2013 reveals the following:28 (a) HDI ranking (128 out of 187 countries) (2012) (informed partly by progress in the following areas: life expectance at birth, years of schooling, increase of GNI per capita by about 45 per cent between 1980 and 2012); (b) Gender inequality index – 86 out of 148 countries (2012), noting among others the lower female labour participation rate (58.6% in comparison with the male labour participation rate (69.9%); and (c) Multidimensional poverty index (based on 2006/2007 figures): (i) Population below the poverty line: 31.9 per cent; (ii) Population vulnerable to poverty: 23.6 per cent; and (iii) Population in severe poverty: 14.7 per cent. Perhaps one of the most prominent achievements has been the 40 per cent reduction in poverty between 1993/94 and 2009/2010, with the biggest improvement in rural areas.29

See http://data.worldbank.org/country/namibia#cp_surv, accessed on 4 July 2015. "Poverty headcount" refers to the proportion of a population that exists, or lives, below the “poverty line”. GNI (Gross national income) is defined as "the sum of value added by all producers who are residents in a nation, plus any product taxes (minus subsidies) not included in output, plus income received from abroad such as employee compensation and property income" (Investopedia, Gross National Income, Available from www. investopedia.com/terms/g/gross-national-income-gni.asp, accessed on 27 January 2015). 28 See http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/Country-Profiles/NAM.pdf 29 Phiri and Odhiambo, 2015, p. 22. 27

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

C.1.4. Poverty, inequality and vulnerability Individuals in Namibia are more likely to live in poverty if they are in rural areas, female-headed households, households headed by persons with no formal education, and households relying on pensions and income from subsistence farming.30 The highest incidence of poverty is found in the Kavango region, where 43 per cent of the households are poor and 24 per cent are severely poor. However, Namibia has made progress in reducing geographical income disparities despite its largely arid climate and low population density.31 Poverty rates are especially high in households headed by the elderly, with almost 40 per cent of households headed by persons aged 65 and older being considered poor. Most employed poor are involved in subsistence farming activities.32 Interestingly, the ILO estimates that the increase in urbanization has had a minimal effect on the overall change in total poverty rates. According to the 2014 Social Protection Floor Assessment Report, the decline has largely been as a result of direct improvement in the well-being of people in both rural and urban areas.33 Although the Gini coefficient for Namibia has declined during the past two decades, the level of inequality is still considered to be high.34 As has been argued, “…the relatively high Gini coefficient suggests that inclusive growth remains elusive”.35 There is also a difference between the Gini coefficient rates of inequality in rural areas, compared to urban areas, with a steady decline in inequality in rural areas.36 Still, Namibia has been credited with making good progress in reducing poverty, despite uneven results across the 14 regions (with two registering increases in poverty over the past decade).37 It has been noted that the current social grant system has had a significant impact on poverty but a more limited impact on inequality, primarily because of the lower level of the grants relative to other income sources, as well as the fact that not all vulnerable groups are covered.38

ILO, 2014, p. 34. Phiri and Odhiambo, 2015, p. 2. 32 ILO, 2014, p. 36. 33 Ibid. Also see NSA, Poverty Dynamics in Namibia (2012). 34 See NSA, Namibia Household Income Expenditure Survey (2009/2010). 35 Phiri and Odhiambo, 2015, p. 12. 36 ILO, 2014, p. 49. 37 Phiri and Odhiambo, 2015, p. 11. 38 ILO, 2014, p. 113. 30 31

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

17

From the perspective of gender equality, while Namibia has narrowed the gender divide in education, politics and public service, a number of challenges remain, particularly in respect of labour market participation, high female unemployment, high maternal mortality and high poverty incidence in respect of women.39 Also, the UN Country Team also focuses on increasing livelihood opportunities for people below the poverty line (for example, those impacted by drought). Furthermore, in a recent development, a new ministry focusing on addressing poverty has been instituted, that is, the Minister of Poverty Eradication and Social Welfare. Also, the Government of Namibia has committed itself to develop a white paper and hold national consultations with all regions, in order to develop a 10-year action plan, with a view to eradicate poverty totally by 2025. In a recent keynote address by the President of the Republic of Namibia, His Excellency Hage Geingob, put forward several key components of the fight against poverty and the achievement of poverty eradication by 2025:40 (a) The acknowledgement that everyone deserves a dignified life, which includes decent employment, shelter, water, sanitation, education and access to health care. He indicated that the Government of Namibia is close to finalizing the legal framework to reduce the income gap. (b) Creation of economic opportunities for Namibians, by growing the economy in an inclusive manner and enhancing the capabilities of all Namibians to fully participate in the economy and in society. (c) Increase in the non-contributory old age pension grant by some 66 per cent in this financial year, with further increases factored into the current Medium Term Expenditure Framework. (d) Introduction of a solidarity tax in the next budget that will call on each income-making Namibian above a certain threshold to make a contribution towards a fund that will be earmarked for poverty eradication activities. (e) Enticing owners of companies to dilute shareholding to include workers.

Phiri and Odhiambo, 2015, p. 12. Keynote address by His Excellency Hage G. Geingob, President of the Republic of Namibia, National Conference on Wealth Redistribution and Poverty Eradication, 26 October 2015, Safari Hotel Conference Centre, Windhoek). Available from www.gov.na/documents/10181/22710/KEY+NOTE+ADDRESS+BY+HIS+E XCELLENCY+HAGE+G+GEINGOB%2C+PRESIDENT+OF+THE+REPUBLIC+OF+NAMIBIA+NATIONAL+CONFEREN CE+ON+WEALTH+REDISTRIBUTION+AND+POVERTY+ERADICATION+%282015+10+26%29/62643192-abcc40b5-97d3-6114b0dfcf1a

39 40

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

(f) Establishment of food banks in all parts of Namibia to halt hunger poverty in Namibia, especially in urban areas where there is no access to productive land. (g) Availment of land for agricultural-related youth enterprise activities. (h) Strengthening of education outcomes with a view to bring about greater equality – through the introduction of free secondary school education and replacing scholarship for tertiary students with a grant system. (i) Addressing of land reform and provision of affordable housing to all Namibians, through an urban land clearing exercise, and the subsidization of qualifying local authorities to address the housing backlog in Namibia. (j) Structural and institutional reforms to support the war against poverty – henceforth, the Ministry of Poverty Eradication and Social Welfare will resort under the Presidency, to enable it to fully play its coordinating function and receive support from the highest level. (k) The development of an anti-poverty plan with clear goals, critical success factors, targets, actions, timelines and responsibilities; the plan, which comes into effect 1 April 2016, will be aligned to the next Medium-Term Expenditure Framework to ensure that it is adequately resourced. Finally, in this regard, it has been noted that “the ability of Namibians to escape poverty could depend on their ability to obtain wages and salaries from employment”.41

C.1.5. Health indicators The 2015 African Economic Outlook for Namibia reports that the country has registered mixed progress towards health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): (a) While the under-five child mortality rate has declined from about 75 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 54 per 1,000 live births in 2013, the country is unlikely to meet the MDG target. (b) Also, at 358 deaths per 100,000 live births, the maternal mortality rate is higher than the 186 average for medium HDI countries. This is largely due to two key factors: 1 in 10 births is not attended by skilled health personnel, and the adolescent birth rate of 82 per cent remains high. NSA, Poverty Dynamics in Namibia, 2012, p. 22.

41

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

19

(c) The national HIV prevalence rate at 16.9 per cent in 2014 had declined by 23 per cent with the prevalence among women aged 20–24 falling from 22 per cent to 9.8 per cent.42 The report further notes the following: (a) Between 1996 and 2013, deaths from malaria per 100,000 population declined from 31 to 1; and43 (b) The percentage of deaths associated with tuberculosis declined from 7 in 2,000 to 3.5 in 2012. It indicates that health care remains a top government priority, receiving increasingly higher spending, although at 12.2 per cent of the national budget in 2014/15, it still falls short of the target of 15 per cent set by African Union countries in their 2001 Abuja Declaration. Regarding HIV/AIDS, while it has been noted that systematic data on HIV prevalence rates and risk behaviours among key populations and vulnerable populations at higher risk are not currently available, HIV prevalence among people aged 15 and above was estimated at 12.8 per cent in 2013/14. However, antenatal HIV prevalence varied considerably, from a high of 37.7 per cent (Katima Mulilo) to a low of 9.6 per cent (Windhoek Central Hospital).44 However, once adopted for Namibia, the new WHO (2013) Treatment Guidelines are likely to have a dramatic impact on the trajectory of AIDS-related mortality.45 It has been suggested that the main driving factors of HIV infection (biological, behavioural, social and structural) are understood to be a combination of low levels of male circumcision, multiple and concurrent partnerships, low and inconsistent use of male and female condoms, low-risk perception, alcohol abuse, intergenerational sex, transactional sex, oscillatory mobility and migration, and relatively few people married or in cohabiting relationships: “Of particular relevance in Namibia is cross-border migration and the transport corridors to major ports, with associated high levels of transactional sex and documented high HIV prevalence (as indicated in the sentinel surveys noted earlier). Katima Mulilo is the most affected, with over one-third of women in Phiri and Odhiambo, 2015, p. 11. See also World Health Organization (WHO), World Malaria Report 2014 (WHO, Switzerland, 2014), p. 127. 44 By age group, HIV prevalence was observed to be highest among women aged 35–39 years (33.9%) and women aged 30–34 years (30.8%). The HIV prevalence rate was lowest among women aged 15–19 years (5.4%) and women aged 20–24 years (10.9%). A notable and disturbing trend has been the increase in new infections among young women. See MOHSS, Mid-Term Review Report of the National Strategic Framework for HIV and AIDS 2010/11–2016/17 (MOHSS, Windhoek, Namibia, December 2014), pp. 20–23. 45 Ibid. 42 43

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

antenatal care being HIV positive. Informal settlements in both urban and rural areas have also been identified as having many high risk factors for HIV.”46 A comprehensive institutional, operational and treatment framework to address HIV/AIDS has been rolled out by the Government of Namibia.47 The following health statistics provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) are also relevant (with source year indicated):48 Table 2: Basic health statistics Birth registration coverage Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) Deaths due to HIV/AIDS (per 100,000 population) Deaths due to malaria (per 100,000 population) Deaths due to tuberculosis among HIV-negative people (per 100,000 population) Leading cause of death – HIV/AIDS

78% (2011) 54 (2013) 130 (1990) 159.1 (2012) 0.1 (2012) 57 (2013) 3,600 (2012)

Sources: WHO, Namibia: WHO statistical profile. Available from www.who.int/gho/countries/nam.pdf?ua=1 (accessed on 18 September 2015); Phiri and Odhiambo, 2015.

C.2. MIGRATION PERSPECTIVES C.2.1. Global developments Figure 1: Global migration share

Source: World Bank, Migration and Remittances: Recent Developments and Outlook, Special Topic: Financing for Development, Migration and Development Brief 24, 13 April 2015. Available from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/ Resources/334934-1288990760745/MigrationandDevelopmentBrief24.pdf, p. 3.

Ibid., pp. 23–24. MOHSS, National Coordination Framework for the Multi-sectoral HIV and AIDS Response in Namibia, 2013–2017 (MOHSS, Windhoek, Namibia, 2014). 48 WHO, 2015. 46 47

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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As indicated by Figure 1 above and the list below, based on the recently following data provided by the World Bank, migrants are rather equally distributed among three key types (south–north, south–south and north–north): (a) (b) (c) (d)

35 per cent are from the south and live in the north. 37 per cent are from the south and live in the south. 23 per cent are from the north and live in the north. Only 5 per cent are from the north and live in the south.

According to the Population Division of UN DESA, the international migrant stock has risen from 154 million in 1990 to 237 million in 2015, with Europe and Asia hosting the largest number of international migrants.49 However, the World Bank suggests that, using newly available census data, the stock of international migrants is estimated at 247 million in 2013, significantly larger than the previous estimate of 232 million, and is expected to surpass 250 million in 2015.50 UN DESA notes that most international migration occurs within regions: for Africa, the percentage of migrants within Africa stood at a high 82 per cent in 2013 (down from 86% in 1990).51 Women accounted for about half (48%) of all international migrants in 2013.52 There are substantial remittance flows to the developing world: Figure 2: International remittance flows

Source: World Bank, 2015a, p. 3.

UN DESA, Key trends in international migration (Expert Group Meeting on The Post-2015 Era: Implications for the Global Research Agenda on Population and Development (UN, New York, 10 April 2015). Available from www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/events/pdf/expert/22/2015-EGM_Migration.pdf (accessed on 18 September 2015). 50 World Bank, 2015a, p. 1. 51 See par. C.2.2. below – other sources estimate the Africa intraregional rate of migration at 65 per cent. See also ILO, International labour migration: A rights-based approach (ILO, Geneva, 2010), p. 17. 52 UN DESA, 2015. 49

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Remittances comprise both social remittances, including education and gender equality, and financial inflows. Regarding the latter, migrants’ remittances to developing countries are estimated to have reached USD 436 billion in 2014.53 Finally, it is important to take note of the prominence given to issues of migration within the framework of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The UN Secretary-General’s Synthesis Report notes the interrelationship between the SDGs and migration.54 In its call for equality, equity and inclusion, the report indicates that no one should be left behind; special attention should be paid to the people, groups and countries most in need. These include vulnerable groups, such as migrants, refugees and displaced persons, as well as those affected by climate change and those living in places struck by complex medical and humanitarian emergencies.55 The report further notes that ensuring that all people, including among others migrants have decent employment, social protection and access to financial services, will be a hallmark of economic success.56 It stresses that efforts should be intensified to reduce costs on the transfer of remittances in a manner fully respecting the rights of migrants and welcome the commitment of the countries of the Group of 20 to reduce the global average cost of transferring remittances to 5 per cent.57 The importance of migration data is also highlighted: “Mechanisms to review the implementation of the goals will be needed, and the availability of and access to data would need to be improved, including the disaggregation of information by gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant to national contexts.”58 What is needed is a global compact: “Societies are under serious strain, stemming from the erosion of our common values, climate change and growing inequalities, to migration pressures and borderless pandemics.”59 The link with migration is evident as far as several of the specific SDGs are concerned. This is the case even where the link is not explicitly mentioned. One such example is SDG 3, which emphasizes ensuring healthy lives and the promotion of well-being for all ages. Another example is SDG 11, which places the focus on making cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and World Bank, 2015a, p. 1. UN, The road to dignity by 2030: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet (Synthesis report of the Secretary-General on the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, 4 December 2014). Available from www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/700&Lang=E (accessed on 16 October 2015). 55 Ibid., pp. 11–12 (par. 51). See also p. 17 (par. 68). 56 Ibid., p. 18 (par. 72). 57 Ibid., p. 25 (par. 117). 58 Ibid., p. 7 (par. 46). 59 Ibid., p. 33 (par. 157). 53 54

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sustainable. More explicit references to migration are contained in the following SDGs (emphasis added): Table 3: Sustainable Development Goals and migration SDG Target/Indicator

Migrant/migration reference

SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth)

“Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment” (8.8)

SDG 10 (Reduce inequality within and among countries)

“Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and wellmanaged migration policies” (10.7)

SDG 10 (Reduce inequality within and among countries)

“By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent” (10.c)

SDG 11 (Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable)

“By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels” (11.b)

SDG 17 (Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development)

“By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts” (17.18) (Relevant topic – Targets: Data, monitoring and accountability)

Source: UN DESA, Division for Sustainable Development, Sustainable Development Goals. Available from https://sustainabledevelopment. un.org/topics (accessed on 19 September 2015).

Note should also be taken of the emphasis placed on human trafficking in the SDGs: (a) SDG 5 – on achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls – requires the elimination of all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation (5.2). (b) SDG 8 – on the promotion of sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all – enjoins countries to take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025, end child labour in all its forms (8.7).

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

(c) SDG 16 – on the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provision of access to justice for all and the building of effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels – emphasizes the ending of abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children (16.2).

C.2.2. African migration trends and characteristics60 Salient details concerning migration in the African context include the following: (a) There were 18.6 million migrants in Africa in 2013. (b) 31.3 million African people are living in countries other than their birthplace. (c) Half of African migrants stay in Africa. (d) 65 per cent of sub-Saharan Africa migrants remain in sub-Saharan Africa: (i) 71–80 per cent in West Africa (ii) 66 per cent in Southern Africa (iii) 52 per cent in East Africa (iv) 23 per cent in Central Africa (v) 6 per cent in North Africa (e) Several drivers inform labour migration within and from Africa: (i) Demographic pressures, in particular ageing and increasing deficits in labour forces: Africa confronts a growing, educated youthful population. (ii) Jobless growth and a dearth of decent work opportunities. (iii) Growing inequalities between and within countries (rising exclusion). (iv) Fragility of States – breakdown of effective governance. (v) Globalized access to information. (vi) Global skills shortage, which is set to worsen: ₋₋ In 2006, 4.3 million shortage of health workers (WHO) and will reach 12.9 million in 2035. ₋₋ McKinsey Global Institute study calculated that by 2020, global shortages of high-skilled professionals will reach “38 million to 40 million fewer workers with tertiary education (college or postgraduate degrees) than employers will need”. See UN DESA, 2013b; AUC-ILO-IOM-UNECA-RECs, AUC/ILO/IOM/ECA Joint Labour Migration Programme – Labour Migration Governance for Development and Integration in Africa: A bold new initiative, PowerPoint presentation (2015) and World Bank, 2015a.

60

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

25



(f) Remittances to sub-Saharan Africa are estimated to have increased to USD 32.0 billion in 2014, with particularly strong growth in Kenya, South Africa and Uganda. (i) Remittances to sub-Saharan Africa are estimated to have increased to USD 32.0 billion in 2014, with particularly strong growth in Kenya, South Africa and Uganda. (ii) Nigeria alone accounts for around two thirds of total remittance inflows to the region. (iii) In some countries, remittances constitute a large percentage of GDP: Remittances in Comoros, Gambia, Lesotho and Liberia equal about 20 per cent of GDP. (iv) Remittances financed one third of imports in Nigeria in 2013.

Labour migration, especially within Africa, has for long been a hallmark of migration by Africans. ILO estimated the number of migrant workers in Africa at 8.4 million in 2010, out of an estimated 105.4 million economically active migrants worldwide. The position of migrant workers in Africa has been summarized in the following terms: Box 4: Migrant workers in Africa As African economies are largely dominated by urban informal economy and agriculture, migrant workers in the continent are often found in settings characterized by low incomes and wages, lack of social protection, precarious jobs and workplaces, abysmal working conditions, and low skills portfolios. Many migrants are self-employed or employed in agriculture and informal activity, while significant numbers may be found in industry and services. There is also significant cross-border, ‘circular’ mobility of commercial tradespeople, accompanied by increased cross-border trade flows that promote local growth and employment. Source: ILO, 2010a, p. 17.

Travel within the continent remains difficult and visa requirements stringent for African migrants. The state of implementation of existing provisions relating to the right of residence and establishment is even more limited. Migration within the continent remains governed by national legislations, which often discriminate on the basis of nationality. Smuggling and its dramatic consequences are well documented. There are a number of key mixed migration routes originating particularly from East Africa and the Horn of Africa: “the western route (via Sudan, into Libya and across the Mediterranean); the northern route (Egypt and into Israel – severely restricted as of mid-2012); the southern route (down the Eastern Corridor towards South

26

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Africa); and the eastern route (into Yemen to Saudi Arabia and beyond)”.61 Trafficking is widespread, both internally within countries and cross-border, affecting in particular women and children.62 Forced labour is the most frequently detected form of trafficking in Africa (49%), followed by sexual exploitation (36%). Policy responses to the phenomenon remain incomplete, although significant progress has been made with the ratification and domestication of the Palermo Protocol on trafficking. Table 4: Human trafficking in Africa Year

Prosecutions

Convictions

Victims identified

New or amended legislation

2008

109 (18)

90 (20)

7,799

10

2009

328 (47)

117 (30)

10,861

8

2010

272 (168)

163 (113)

9,626

5

2011

340 (45)

217 (113)

8,900 (5,098)

2

2012

493 (273)

252 (177)

10,043 (6,544)

4

2013

572 (245)

341 (192)

10,096 (2,250)

7

2014

811 (49)

317 (33)

9,523 (1,308)

4

Source: US Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report) (July 2015), p. 55. Note: The statistics above are estimates only, given the lack of uniformity in national reporting structures. The numbers in parentheses are those of labour trafficking prosecutions, convictions and victims identified. The number of victims identified includes information from foreign governments and other sources.

Sub-Saharan Africa was host to almost 2.8 million refugees – out of 15.4 million globally – in 2012. South Africa was the third receiver of asylum applications worldwide in 2012.63 In addition, more than a third of the world’s 28.8 million conflict internally displaced persons (IDPs) in 2012 were displaced in Africa.

Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, Responses to mixed migration in the Horn of Africa & Yemen: Policies and assistance responses in a fast-changing context (Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya, 2013). 62 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 (UNODC, Vienna, 2012). 63 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Global Trends 2012. Displacement, the New 21st Century Development Challenge (UNHCR, Geneva, 2013). 61

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

27

C.2.3. Migration from a Southern African Development Community perspective:Trends and characteristics64 Box 5: Migration in the Southern African Development Community: An overview In 2013 […], the Southern African region recorded over four million migrants, excluding irregular migrants, of which 44 per cent were female and 20 per cent were under 19 years of age. By far the largest number of migrants is found in South Africa (2.4 million, including some 1.5 million from Zimbabwe) followed by the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC] (447,000) and Zimbabwe (361,000). Among the four million migrants are approximately 200,000 registered refugees, primarily in the DRC and South Africa. The Southern Africa region continues to experience a significant rise in mixed and irregular migration flows. These flows originate mostly from the Horn of Africa, particularly Ethiopia and Somalia, and consist of refugees, asylum-seekers, economic migrants, and victims of trafficking, including women and children. The large majority of these migrants attempt to reach their destinations through established smuggling and trafficking networks. At least 20,000 migrants travel through the Great Lakes and [Southern African Development Community] SADC regions to try to reach South Africa each year. Human rights violations and the lack of protection of migrants, including from extortion, abandonment and physical, and to a certain extent sexual, violence continue to be a harsh reality for these mobile populations. In addition, relatively large mobile populations move between Angola and the DRC, as well as from Zimbabwe to South Africa, and often prompt the affected governments to take measures to promote the departure of irregular migrants. Insecurity, lack of economic livelihood, drought and crop failure are some of the push factors that motivate migrants seeking better opportunities to undertake risky migratory routes. Labour migration remains one of the dominant forms of population movement in the region. Some migrants experience xenophobia, including negative social attitudes, discrimination and at times violence. Source: IOM, Regional Strategy for Southern Africa 2014–2016 (IOM Regional Office Pretoria, South Africa, 2014). Available from www.iom.int/sites/default/files/country/docs/AUP00579-RO-Pretoria-Regional-Strategy.pdf, p. 7.

Migration in the SADC context confirms many of the international trends indicated above.65 As has been noted, Southern African cross-border mobility tends to occur within the region or with neighbouring regions, while only a small percentage moves overseas, confirming the south–south nature of SADC migration.66 In fact, intra-SADC movement is the prevailing characteristic of migration from SADC countries.67 It has been estimated that in 2005, over See M. Olivier, Social security developments in the SADC Region and future prospects for coordination. In: Social Security and Migrant Workers: Selected studies of cross-border social security mechanisms (R. Blanpain, P. Ortiz, G. Vonk and M. Olivier, eds.) (Kluwer, 2014), pp. 82–86, from where part of the text below has been adjusted. 65 Currently, SADC has 15 Member States, namely Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It has a population size of 257.7 million inhabitants, and an aggregate GDP of 471.1 USD billion (www.sadc.int/about-sadc/). 66 P. Mudungwe, Migration and Development in the Southern Africa Development Community: The Case for a Coherent Approach (Intra-ACP Migration Facility, 2012), p. 45. 67 See M. Olivier, Political and regulatory dimensions of access, portability and exclusion: Social security for migrants, with an emphasis on migrants in Southern Africa. In: Migration and Social Protection: Claiming social rights beyond borders (R. Sabates-Wheeler and R. Feldman, eds.) (Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2011), pp. 118–119; M. Olivier (2011), Enhancing access to South African social security benefits by SADC citizens: The need to improve bilateral arrangements within a multilateral framework (Part I), SADC Law Journal, 1:123–127. See the migration data for SADC: Global Migrant Origin Database Version 4. Available from www.migrationdrc.org/research/typesofmigration/Global_Migrant_Origin_Database_Version_4.xls.

64

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

90 per cent of migrants in Southern Africa were from within the region.68 For example, in South Africa, the major migrant-receiving country within SADC,69 migrants from within SADC constitute 94 per cent of the total stock of African migrants70 and around 75 per cent of all (regular) migrants in the country.71 In addition, a recent study of migration within Southern Africa revealed that 86 per cent of the total number of migrants from Botswana, Lesotho, Southern Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe work in South Africa, confirming a clear trend, namely that most south–south migrants travel across contiguous borders.72 In particular, it has been said that the main destination for migrants from Lesotho, a landlocked country with limited employment opportunities, is South Africa; 99.8 per cent of Lesotho migrant workers are said to work in South Africa.73 Table 5: Regional migration statistics (Southern Africa), 2013 Country Angola Botswana Comores Democratic Republic of the Congo Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius

Total migrants

% of females/ males

Number of children

Largest age range (20–64) Total

Males

Females

Number of refugees (End 2012)

87,400

52% / 48%

24,647

59,170

30,591

28,579

23,400

146,500

45% / 55%

33,549

107,678

61,376

46,301

2,800

12,500

51% / 49%

2,863

9,113

4,465

4,647

-

446,900

52% / 48%

108,150

316,405

148,710

167,695

65,100

3,100

35% / 65%

1,104

1,934

1,263

671

-

34,300

45% / 26%

12,177

21,060

11,920

9,140

-

206,600

52% / 48%

50,617

132,406

63,423

68,984

6,500

45,000

61% / 39%

6,930

37,035

14,629

22,406

-

Mudungwe, 2012, p. 45. Political migration has largely been the result of instability in countries, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo and earlier, Angola and Mozambique. Economic migration, which appears to be the most important driver of migration worldwide, has resulted in the flow of migrants to countries with better economies and skills shortages within SADC, namely Botswana, Namibia and especially South Africa. See M. Olivier, Regional Overview of Social Protection for Non-Citizens in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0908 (World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2009). Available from http:// siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/SP-Discussion-papers/Labor-Market-DP/0908. pdf, p. 10 and the studies referred to there. 70 See J. Crush and V. Williams (2010), Labour Migration Trends and Policies in Southern Africa, Southern African Migration Project (SAMP) Policy Brief 23, p. 5. 71 Ibid., p. 7. 72 W. Pendleton et al. (2006), Migration, Remittances and Development in Southern Africa, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 44, pp. 2–3; R. Sabates-Wheeler and J. Koettl (2010), Social protection for migrants: The challenges of delivery in the context of changing migration flows, International Social Security Review, 63(3–4): 116. 73 J. Crush et al., Migration, Remittances and ‘Development’ in Lesotho (SAMP, Idasa, Cape Town and Southern African Research Centre, Queen’s University, Canada, 2010), p. 26. 68 69

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

29

Mozambique

218,800

39% / 61%

87,082

125,591

77,490

48,101

4,400

Namibia

51,400

47% / 53%

10,691

33,153

30,209

15,416

1,800

Seychelles

12,100

30% / 70%

1,222

10,515

7,571

2,944

-

2,399,200

42% / 58%

391,070

1,861,779

1,118,929

742,850

65,200

25,500

46% / 55%

4,514

191,251

107,100

84,150

500

South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Region

98,900

50% / 51%

25,417

67,450

34,399

33,050

25,600

361,000

43% / 57%

63,175

24,711

14,703

10,008

4,300

4,149,200

44% / 55%

823,208

2,999,251

1,726,778

1,284,942

199,600

Source: Adjusted from IOM, 2014a, p. 7 and based on UN DESA, Population Division, International Migration 2013 Wallchart (United Nations, New York, 2013). Available from www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/migration/ migration-wallchart2013.pdf

In fact, migration has been a long-standing feature of the labour market framework in Southern Africa, particularly as far as work on the mines and in agriculture is concerned.74 Apart from informal cross-border trade-related migration, work on the mines – again, particularly in South Africa – served as a magnet for both internal and external migrants.75 As a result, it could be argued that the industrial development of some countries in the region was made possible only by the use of labour from other countries. From a historical perspective, as supported by data on modern-day migration movements within SADC, it can be said that systems of labour migration in Southern Africa are deeply entrenched and have become part of the movements of people for generations, primarily in search of better living and working conditions.76 While many cross-border migrants in Southern Africa are circular migrants, migration patterns within SADC have largely been characterized by their permanent or ongoing nature.77 Once immigration linkages are established, they are very difficult to break, and migration flows are almost impossible to reverse.78 This is particularly true of the mining and agricultural industries in Southern Africa. Migration is essentially regarded as a career rather than as a passing Cf. C. Fenwick and E. Kalula (2005), Law and labour market regulation in East Asia and southern Africa: Comparative perspectives, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 21:193–226. 75 See generally J. Crush, V. Williams and S. Peberdy, Migration in Southern Africa (A paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration) (Global Commission on International Migration, 2005), pp. 15–16. 76 Ibid., pp. 5–6. 77 Circular or seasonal migrants, who in the case of SADC, include seasonal agricultural workers in border areas, construction workers, informal cross-border traders, move for short periods from their country of usual residence to one or more countries for purposes of employment or to conduct an economic activity (Mudungwe, 2012), p. 49. 78 M. Reitzes (2003), Regionalizing international migration: Lessons for SADC, SAMP Migration Policy Brief No. 11, p. 18. 74

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

phase in the working lives of migrants, despite the fact that they maintain strong links with the home country.79 This also flows from the fact that, according to a relatively recent study, more migrants from the countries concerned80 are older,81 married,82 and, in most cases, heads of households.83 In addition, the study indicates that many migrant-sending households have a migration “tradition” that is passed on from one generation to the next in that parents and even grandparents worked outside the home country.84 Furthermore, it is generally accepted that SADC-related migration is characterized by several dimensions, including contract labour migration,85 declining levels of legal migration to and within the region and an increase in clandestine and undocumented (irregular),86 as well as informal migration;87 and an increased feminization of cross-border migration.88

Pendleton et al., 2006, p. 4. That is, (migration from) Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zim­babwe (Pendleton et al., 2006, p. 1). 81 Only 7 per cent of the migrants covered in the survey were under the age of 25; in contrast, 41 per cent were over 40 (Pendleton, et al., 2006, p. 2). See also Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, pp. 21–23. 82 As many as 62 per cent of the migrants covered by the survey were married (Pendleton et al., 2006, p. 2). 83 Just over half the migrants were actually the head of the household rather than an ordinary member of it, although the pattern differed from country to country (Pendleton et al., 2006, pp. 2–3). 84 About 50 per cent of the migrants covered in the survey indicated that their parents had been cross-border migrants (Pendleton et al., 2006, p. 3). 85 See Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, p. 7 and Mudungwe, 2012, p. 48. 86 Irregular migration appears to be widespread and on the increase in Southern Africa, although the exact numbers of irregular migrants are a subject of constant debate and conflicting opinion. It has been reported that South Africa deported over 1.5 million irregular migrants to neighbouring countries between 1994 and 2010 (Mudungwe, 2012, pp. 49–50; see also Crush and Williams, 2010). 87 Mudungwe, 2012, p. 50. This applies in particular to informal cross-border traders: for example, it has been suggested that 30–50 per cent of border crossings into South Africa, except from Namibia and Botswana, are by small-scale traders (M. Olivier, Reflections on the feasibility of a multilateral SADC social security agreement involving South Africa and Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe (ILO, Geneva, 2010), par. 32–35). 88 Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, p. 14; IOM and SAMP, HIV/AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda (SAMP and IOM, 2005), p. 17; Mudungwe, 2012, p. 48. 79 80

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

31

There has also been an increase in human trafficking89 and internal and external refugee movements,90 while skills flight (“brain drain”) to and the growth of diaspora (particularly) in developed countries have been substantial.91 In fact, the very nature of migration within SADC is undergoing changes. It has, in particular, been reported that the change has been dramatic over the last 20 years as far as, for example, Lesotho is concerned; the focus has shifted from mainly male mineworkers to higher-income migrants, and also large numbers of female migrants.92 Box 6: The significance of remittances in Southern Africa The importance and role of migration in SADC countries is also demonstrated by the extent and significance of remittances to the survival of recipient households, as they are fundamental in enabling families to meet their everyday needs.93 For most migrant-sending households, migrant remittances comprise the main source of household income: a recent study undertaken in five SADC countries found that 85 per cent of migrant-sending households receive cash remittances.94 Lesotho is one of the most migrationdependent countries in the world. A recent study indicates that formal remittance transfers constitute 28.6 per cent of Lesotho’s GDP. In 2012, it was, in relative terms, the second leading recipient country in the world, after Tonga;95 remittance income in Lesotho surpasses other sources of external financial inflows.96 There is increasingly evidence of growing numbers of local smugglers and an expanding network of transnational criminal syndicates involved in a diverse range of human trafficking activities (Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, pp. 21–23, 25–26; Mudungwe, 2012, p. 50). See generally US Department of State, 2015. 90 IDPs in SADC – the result of, among others, political and military instability in some of the countries – make up 2.9 million of the approximately 13 million IDPs in Africa – more than half of the global total of IDPs and dwarfing the number of refugees (Brookings Institution – University of Bern Project on Internal Displacement, Regional Seminar on Internal Displacement in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region (Gaborone, Botswana, 24–26 August 2005), pp. 4–6); R. Black, Migration and Pro-Poor Policy in Africa, Working Paper C6 (Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, University of Sussex, 2004), p. 6. And yet the position is that a coordinated response to the challenge of internal and external refugee movements is lacking in SADC: “Individual countries are left to shoulder the burden as best they can with support from international agencies. All are signatories to the major refugee conventions but few have advanced or adequate systems of refugee determination in place. Regional burden sharing is a key concept that SADC could easily turn into a reality” (Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, pp. 13–14). 91 While there is significant intraregional brain drain, especially from countries, such as Angola, Mozambique and Zimbabwe to South Africa and Botswana in particular, this is counterbalanced by significant emigration of SADC professionals to countries outside SADC. The health sector in SADC is most severely impacted by the brain drain, with nearly 30 per cent of SADC-born physicians and 10 per cent of SADC-born nurses residing outside their countries of birth. Major destinations for SADC health-care professions include Australia, Canada, Portugal, United Kingdom and United States. See Crush and Williams, 2010, pp. 27–29 and the studies referred to there, as well as Mudungwe, 2012, pp. 46–47. ­92 L. Ntema et al., The levels of access to public services in the Free State by non-South Africans/non-Free State residents (Centre for Development Support, University of the Free State, 2011), p. 59. 93 B. Dodson et al., Gender, migration and remittances in Southern Africa (Idasa, Cape Town, 2008), pp. 8, 30. 94 Pendleton et al., 2006, p. 4. Remittances are sent on a regular basis and “easily outstrip agriculture in relative importance as a household income source” (Ibid., p. 5). In fact, the same study remarks that, “across the region as a whole, annual median income from wage employment and cash remittances is the same . . . When cash and commodities are combined, however, the value of remittances exceeds all other forms of income.” (Ibid.). 95 J.L. Nalane, A. Chikanda and J. Crush, The remittances framework in Lesotho: Assessment of policies and programmes promoting the multiplier effect (ACP Observatory on Migration and IOM, Brussels, Belgium, 2012), pp. xiii–xiv, 1, 7. 96 Ibid. 89

32

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Remittances also play a significant role in the economic development of SADC countries. As remarked in a recent study, and echoing the international experience in this regard:97 “[F]or national economies, crossborder remittances are a source of foreign exchange and taxes, contribute to the balance of payments, and provide capital for enterprises and valuable household incomes.”98 Therefore, SADC governments and even international organizations have started to integrate remittances as a tool for development in their poverty reduction strategies.99

SADC country and regional policy frameworks pertaining to migration and the position of migrants, particularly in the host country context, need to take these phenomena of intra-SADC migration into account. Incorrect and overly restrictive policy choices may have a devastating effect on household survival and poverty in the region.100

C.2.4. Migration from a Namibian perspective Historical context Box 7: Migration impact of political liberation Namibia won its independence from South Africa in 1990, and this political liberation heralded a new era of border control between Namibia and South Africa, which had remained porous for both Namibians and South Africans until that time. Tighter cross-border controls were accompanied by the total removal of internal influx controls. Independence therefore brought with it considerable changes in the internal migration patterns and population concentrations in the country. On the one hand, migratory labour to South Africa all but ceased; yet, on the other hand, internal migration and urbanisation grew rapidly. Source: B. Frayne and W. Pendleton (2002), Mobile Namibia: Migration Trends and Attitudes, Southern African Migration Project (SAMP) Migration Policy Series No. 27, p. 1.

As indicated by these authors, because Namibia only became independent in 1990,101 statistics were not kept for the former South West Africa, as the territory was considered part of South Africa, and administered as a fifth province: “Crossborder movement between Namibia and South Africa was therefore unrecorded until 1990, while formal cross-border movements between Namibia and its other neighbours were virtually non-existent, due to the war in the northern areas of C. Thouez, The impact of remittances on development. In: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals, Selected papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting, 11–12 May 2005, Marrakech, Morocco (UNFPA, New York, 2005). 98 Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, p. 18. 99 C. Ramírez, M. Domínguez and J Morais, Crossing Borders: Remittances, Gender and Development (Working paper) (Instraw and United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2005), p. 52. 100 See Reitzes, 2003, p. 18. 101 Independence followed on a liberation struggle against the Government of South Africa, and the involvement of the UN: the UN never recognized South African sovereignty over Namibia, as Namibia (then South West Africa) was regarded as a trust area, the administration of which was handed to South Africa by the predecessor of the UN, that is, the League of Nations. 97

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

33

the country, and the significant military presence and control of the borders.” There is therefore no substantial research available that addresses the complete range of internal and international migration dynamics, particularly since 1980 – the focus of migration research has been on internal and international migration to Windhoek, and to a far less lesser degree, to other towns in Namibia.102 Historically, the first major migrations of people within Namibia and across its borders in the last century commenced as a result of the German colonial occupation of Namibia from 1890 onwards. Some urban migration to towns in central Namibia, including Windhoek, took place. Conflict over land between the Germans and the Hereros and the Namas resulted in anti-colonial revolts during the 1903–1907 period. Large numbers of these two populations were killed, which caused some of them to exile into present-day Botswana. During the first World War, South Africa defeated the Germans and took control of the country, then known as South West Africa, and acquired an official League of Nations mandate over the territory. Due to extension of apartheid-era restrictions to the country, movement of non-white residents in and out of the country was limited. In addition, many South African whites moved to Namibia to participate in the commercial farming sector.103 In the course of the liberation struggle, the South African military forces moved large numbers of local inhabitants, often with devastating effects on the rural populations. Considerable investment was made in roads, airports and urban infrastructure, partly to facilitate the deployment of military power against the liberation movement. About 40,000 Namibians went into exile primarily in Angola and Zambia, as well as Europe, Cuba and North America. Most of them returned to Namibia after independence. Frayne and Pendleton (2002) remark that the cessation of the war, independence and a new sense of political social and economic freedom, have all influenced the substantial changes in internal and cross-border migration trends and patterns observed over the past decade in Namibia.104 Key dimensions of Namibian migration. IOM summarizes the key dimensions of Namibian migration in its Namibia Country Strategy 2013–2017 as follows:105 (a) High level of internal (rural–urban) migration: The rapid urbanization reveals a high level of internal (rural–urban) migration, which can be Ibid., pp. 1–2. Ibid., p. 5. 104 Ibid. 105 IOM Namibia, 2013, pp. 13–14, as adjusted. 102 103

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

explained by push and pull factors, such as political and economic stability, historical and family ties, effects of climate change, economic opportunities and potential employment, and better living conditions, and access to services. Cross-border movement for family reasons: Having close links and historic ties with its neighbouring countries, cross-border movement for family reasons is very common in Namibia, the majority of which is taking place across the Namibia/Angola borders in the north. This also has spin-off effects on cross-border trade and investments. To facilitate this regular migration across the border, the two countries are exploring the possibility of implementing a border resident card (BRC). Irregular migration, trafficking and smuggling: The vast land border areas of the country also pose challenges to the regulation of movement across borders, including risks of irregular migration, trafficking and smuggling. This is reflected in the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) reports from the US State Department where Namibia is ranked a Tier 2 Watch List country for four years in a row. Regulation of movement: Founded in the Immigration Control Act (Act no. 7 of 1993), where the migration mandate is derived from, Namibia is making efforts to regulate unlawful migration and facilitate the regular movement of people. Refugees and asylum-seekers: In addition, people forced to flee their home countries seek refuge in Namibia for its political stability, democracy and human rights. In 2012, the cessation clause for Angolan refugees took effect and large numbers of people were assisted with voluntary repatriation back to their home country. The vast majority of the refugee population in Namibia now ordinarily originates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (approximately 80%). Impact of rapid urbanization: Economic disparities and the quest for greener pastures are reflected in rapid urbanization (42%), primarily owing to rural–urban migration but also international migration. With limited capacity of the economy to absorb additional jobseekers, the effects of urbanization are felt in cities such as Windhoek (hosting approximately 40% of the country’s urban population) with constraints of urban planning, housing and social service delivery, as well as hazards and DRM in urban areas. Limited access to affordable housing and basic services, such as electricity, water and sanitation, and health services, is increasingly posing challenges to people’s well-being, particularly with expanding urban informal settlement. Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

35

(g) Spaces of health vulnerabilities: Informal settlements are thus examples of “spaces of vulnerability” – areas with health vulnerabilities owing to a mix of individual, environmental and structural factors, and the relationship dynamic among migrants and mobile populations on the one hand, and sedentary populations on the other. Other examples of spaces of vulnerability include land borders and border communities, ports, transport corridors and hotspots, construction sites, mines and commercial farms. HIV prevalence is reflected in areas with higher prevalence rates and confirms the increased vulnerability in the northern border areas. The vulnerability is apparent both at land borders and in ports of transit, particularly the ports of Walvis Bay and Lüderitz. (h) Migration and the HIV epidemic: Migration and population mobility is further defined in the National Strategic Framework 2010/2011– 2015/2016 as one of the key drivers of the HIV epidemic in Namibia. Aspects of migration and health are thus critical for the country’s development and well-being of people. (i) Strengthening the migration management system: Migration is however a dynamic issue and requires a multifaceted approach. The MHAI, as the leading ministry, as well as other line ministries and actors have initiated efforts to strengthen the migration management system. These efforts include the following: (i) capacitybuilding; (ii) migration policy development; (iii) skills gap analysis and mainstreaming of skills importation from foreign nationals; (iv) exploring possibilities of diaspora engagement; (v) new border crossing points and border management; and (vi) bilateral and regional agreements such as the BRC, as well as the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa-East Africa Community-Southern African Development Community (COMESA-EAC-SADC) Tripartite agreement on facilitation of movement of business persons within the regional free trade area.

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Summarized migration-related information. Summarized migrationrelated information on Namibia, contained in the World Bank’s publication on World Development Indicators: Movement of people across borders as well as information published by UN DESA, as at 2012 are as follows:106



(a) Net migration: -3,000107 (b) International migration stock: 54,787 (2013 figure), having constantly decreased from a figure of 123,801 in 1990108 (c) Emigration rate of tertiary educated to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries: 3,400 (d) Refugees: (i) By country of origin: 1,100 (ii) By country of asylum: 1,800 (e) Personal remittances: (i) Received: USD 15 million (ii) Paid: USD 45 million

Regarding the 54,787 international migrants to Namibia, the main countries of origin reflect the reality in most countries and parts of the world, namely that migration mostly occurs within the same region, particularly in countries sharing borders with the country of destination concerned. According to UN DESA, 17,493 migrants originate from Angola, 7,203 from South Africa, 7,718 from Zambia and 3,601 from Zimbabwe.109 See World Bank, World Development Indicators: Movement of people across borders (2014 Global Links: par 6.13) (2014). Available from http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/6.13 (accessed on 29 November 2014). “Migration stock” refers to absolute numbers of migrants and does not indicate migration flows. “Net migration” refers to the difference between the total number of those who migrated to and migrated from Ethiopia in 2012. “Refugees by country of origin” generally refers to the number of refugees, with reference to the nationality or country of citizenship of the refugee(s) concerned, while “refugees by country of asylum” refers to the number of refugees who have applied for asylum or refugee status of a particular country. The term “remittances” refers to personal transfers, that is, all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from non-resident households. “Personal remittances is the sum of personal transfers and compensation of employees. Personal transfers, a new item in the Balance of Payments Manual 6th Edition (BPM6), represents a broader definition of worker remittances. Personal transfers include all current transfers in cash or in kind between resident and nonresident individuals, independent of the source of income of the sender (and regardless of whether the sender receives income from labor, entrepreneurial or property income, social benefits, and any other types of transfers; or disposes assets) and the relationship between the households (regardless of whether they are related or unrelated individuals).” – see https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/114950-howdo-you-define-remittances 107 Net migration is the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants, including citizens and noncitizens, over a five-year period: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM (accessed on 3 March 2016). 108 See http://esa.un.org/unmigration/TIMSA2013/Data/subsheets/UN_MigrantStock_2013T1.xls (accessed on 29 May 2015) – indicating that the figure for males is 27,047 and for females 24,401. 109 Ibid. 106

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Namibia signed the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa of 2009 (Kampala Convention) on 23 October 2009, but has yet to ratify this Convention.110 One of the drivers of internal migration, reported on in the context of the application of the Kampala Convention, relates to the individuals displaced by rapid-onset disasters. For the 2008–2012 period, according to the Africa Union Commission, 126,400 persons have been affected in Namibia.111 The overall figures of immigrants to and migrants from Namibia, provided by UN DESA, reveal the following (the more comprehensive tables are indicated in the relevant sections of this Profile below): Table 6: Trends in international migrant stock, Namibia, 1990‒2013 Total international migrant stock at mid-year by sex, 1990–2013 International migrant stock at mid-year (total male; female) Total

1990

2000

2010

2013

123,801

79,276

54,787

51,448

Source: UN DESA, Population Division (2013), Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision. Available from at http://esa. un.org/unmigration/TIMSA2013/Data/subsheets/UN_MigrantStock_2013T3.xls

Table 7: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia ‒ Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin, World total, 1990‒2013 Major area, region, country or area of destination

Total male and female migrant stock, 1990

Total male and female migrant stock, 2000

Total male and female migrant stock, 2010

Total male and female migrant stock, 2013

World

80,249

48,158

117,635

137,498

Source: UN DESA, Population Division (2013), Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants by destination and origin. Available from http://esa.un.org/unmigration/TIMSO2013/data/subsheets/UN_MigrantStockByOriginAndDestination_2013T11.xls, Tables 1, 4, 7 and 10.

See www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/treaties/7796-sl-african_union_convention_for_the_protection_ and_assistance_of_internally_displaced_persons_in_africa_kampala_convention_11.pdf, accessed on 3 March 2016. 111 Africa Union Commission, The Kampala Convention One year on: Progress and prospects (African Union Commission and Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Switzerland, 2013), Annex, p. 29. 110

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

PART D: MIGRATION TRENDS AND CHARACTERISTICS D.1. ARRIVALS, DEPARTURES,TRAVEL AND TOURISM Arrivals and tourist statistics. Administrative data related to arrivals by foreign tourists and visitors are collected at Namibian border posts. MHAI made available the following information regarding international arrivals and departures for the following years (from April to March of the next year): 2010–2011, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014. Table 8: Total arrivals, 2010‒2011, 2012‒2013 and 2013‒2014 Visitors Namibians Permanent resident permit holders Temporary residence permit, Employment pass and Special permit holders Tourist/Holiday/Recreation Visit friends and relatives In transit/Stopover Business/Conference/Professional Diplomats Others Total arrivals

Total 2010/2011 432,394 17,463 49,095

Total 2012/2013 499,240 17,940 46,610

Total 2013/2014 489,600 21,116 51,793

360,557 383,251 45,616 120,905 5,011 244,223 1,658,515

349,947 298,556 48,089 132,849 3,575 307,008 1,703,814

408,161 409,940 54,245 143,208 4,681 659,657 2,242,401

Sources: MHAI, Directorate of Immigration and Border Control Report 2010–2011, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014.

Table 9: Total departures, 2010‒2011, 2012‒2013 and 2013‒2014 Visitors Namibians Permanent resident permit holders Temporary residence permit, Employment pass and Special permit holders Tourist/Holiday/Recreation Visit friends and relatives In trans/Stopover Business/Conference/Professional Diplomats Others Total arrivals

Total 2010/2011 491,613 15,830 49,759

Total 2012/2013 461,286 17,365 57,229

Total 2013/2014 537,721 19,497 56,059

350,077 366,660 36,131 109,773 4,604 232,228 1,656,675

342,640 282,020 41,655 123,787 3,692 271,644 1,601,318

435,207 370,257 59,159 138,975 7,455 611,769 2,236,099

Sources: MHAI, Directorate of Immigration and Border Control Report 2010–2011, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014.

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On the basis of a manual exercise undertaken by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, comparative figures are annually published. The 2012 and 2013 comparative figures were published in 2014,112 while the 2014 figures were recently published.113 Regular (monthly) updates containing limited tourism information appear on the NSA website. Table 10: Number of foreign arrivals by nationality, 2011–2014 Nationality AFRICA South Africa Angola Botswana Zambia Zimbabwe Other Africa EUROPE Germany United Kingdom Italy France Scandinavia Austria Holland/Netherlands Switzerland Spain Portugal Belgium Russian Federation Other Europe NORTH AMERICA United States Canada OTHER Australia Brazil China Other countries TOTAL % change per year

2011 950,384 313,767 403,487 34,956 127,645 49,453 21,076 212,96 85,977 24,856 11,819 14,432 11,181 6,264 13,093 11,910 6,651 10,775 6,360 2,785 6,860 25,241

2012 1,021,298 307,805 421,528 29,401 181,244 60,084 21,236 217,561 86,011 24,163 9,816 17,063 12,084 6,664 12,624 10,786 5,610 14,963 6,062 3,032 8,683 27,092

2013 1,087,784 317,563 477,828 36,556 167,044 62,778 26,014 213,507 84,121 25,351 9,206 16,837 9,163 6,163 10,782 12,321 6,195 15,574 7,935 2,452 7,435 29,532

2014 1,162,514 329,850 519,191 40,311 167,407 67,809 37,946 237,540 91,900 29,016 9,543 20,549 11,365 7,584 12,015 14,912 6,825 16,855 7,960 2,660 6,356 33,639

20,070 5,171 29,646 8,142 2,271 4,970 14,263 1,218,234 3.4%

21,087 6,005 34,488 8,625 2,554 6,441 16,868 1,300,439 6.7%

21,884 7,648 41,779 7,516 3,032 10,734 20,498 1,372,602 5.5%

25,291 8,348 43,900 8,186 3,154 11,681 20,878 1,477,593 7.6%

% change 2014/2013 6.9% 3.9% 8.7% 10.3% 0.2% 8.0% 45.9% 11.3% 9.2% 14.5% 3.7% 22.0% 24.0% 23.1% 11.4% 21.0% 10.2% 8.2% 0.3% 8.5% -14.5% 13.9% 15.6% 9.2% 5.1% 8.9% 4.0% 8.8% 1.9% 7.6%

Source: Ministry of Environment and Tourism, 2015, p. 26.

Ministry of Environment and Tourism, 2014. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Tourist Statistical Report 2014 (Directorate of Tourism and Gaming, August 2015).

112 113

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

The key findings of the 2014 Tourist Statistical Report in relation to statistics for 2014 are as follows (with some comparison with data for earlier years):114 (a) There were in total 1,477,593 foreign arrivals, including 1,320,062 tourists (89.3%). (b) Tourist arrivals have seen a constant and significant increase – 12.2 per cent from 2013 to 2014; 9 per cent from 2012 to 2013, and 5 per cent from 2011 to 2012; the 9 per cent increase registered from 2012 to 2013 caused Namibia to be voted the “fastest growing tourism destination in the world”.115 (c) In 2014, tourists from Europe increased with 11.1 per cent to 221,811, mostly from Germany and the United Kingdom. (d) The SADC figures are significant, emphasizing that most of the crossborder movement to and from Namibia is in fact of a regional nature, and that Angola and South Africa remain the two most important countries of origin for tourists to Namibia: there were 470,747 tourists from Angola, 312,153 from South Africa, 125,889 from Zambia and 61,187 from Zimbabwe. However, there were differences regarding the purpose of the visits; by far the majority of tourists from Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe visited friends or relatives, while in the case of South Africa, there were almost as many who came for holiday (35.5%) than those who visited friends or relatives (38.1%). A sizeable percentage of South African tourists (25.7%) came to Namibia for business purposes.116 (e) In 2014, most of the tourists were male (63%), between 30 and 39 years (26%). (f) The large-scale increase in tourist numbers did not translate in a more comprehensive uptake in tourist accommodation. Recent statistics from the NSA reveal that the room occupancy index declined to 84.7 basis points, which represents a decline of 31 per cent both on a month-to-month and a year-to-year basis, respectively.117

See the Tourist Statistical Report for both 2014 and 2012–2013 (Ministry of Environment and Tourism), as well as Afrika a la Carte Reisen, “Besucherbilanz 2014: Namibia verzeichnet starkes Besucherplus aus Europa” (Afrika a la Carte Reisen, 01 09 2015, available from www.afrikaalacarte.de/aktuelles/18.htm); “2014 Tourist arrivals increase; majority Angola” (Lela Mobile Online, 25 August 2015, available from www. lelamobile.com/content/54297/2014-tourist-arrivals-increase-majority-Angola/); and NSA, “Monthly Tourism Report” (Issue 018, 17 August 2015, available from http://cms.my.na/assets/documents/Monthly_ Tourism_Report3.pdf (accessed on 21 September 2015)). 115 According to the Minister of Environment and Tourism, Honourable Uahekua Herunga: see J.-M. Smith, “Namibia – Tourist arrivals skyrocket”, Travel News Namibia, 4 November 2014. Available from http:// travelnewsnamibia.com/news/namibia-tourist-arrival-soar/#.VWFe602Jipo (accessed on 20 April 2015). 116 Ministry of Environment and Tourism, 2015, p. 18. 117 NSA, 2015c. 114

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A report containing the outcomes of a 2012–2013 tourist exit survey was published by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism in 2013.118 As this was an exit survey, undertaken on the basis of responses of a representative sample of tourists (6,500 respondents) during selected survey periods and at selected exit points, the data so obtained differ in several respects from those obtained from the comprehensive collection of data on arrivals by foreign tourists and visitors.119 Longer-term tourism growth. The 2014 World Travel and Tourism Council Report on Namibia notes that the long-term tourism growth (2014–2024) figures place Namibia within the range of the top-ranking countries in the world. In particular, the 9.1 per cent growth over this period of the direct contribution of travel and tourism to GDP makes Namibia the top-performing country in the world; the corresponding figures in relation to travel and tourism’s direct and total contribution to employment respectively make Namibia the second topperforming country in the world.120 More recently, the 2015 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) placed Namibia fourth among the leading subSaharan African countries.121 Data shortcomings. Later in this Profile, more is said about the shortcomings in the data context of tourism and travel statistics. It has to be noted that MHAI does not produce any of the statistics indicated here; in fact, entry and exit data collected at border posts are not published by the Ministry. Also, not all the data are currently available in computerized format; however, the Ministry has been working on and developing a system aimed at digitalizing the data which, according to the Ministry, will for reasons of confidentiality not be shared. Value of reliable data. As also discussed in more detail later in the Profile, the value of reliable data on tourism needs to be understood from the perspective of the importance of this information for the development of Namibia.

Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Report on the Namibian Tourist Exit Survey 2012–2013 (April 2013), p. 4. 119 Ibid., p. 7. 120 World Travel and Tourism Council, Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2014 – Namibia (World Travel and Tourism Council, London, United Kingdom), p. 10. 121 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (2015), “Leading Sub-Saharan African countries in the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) in 2015”, Statistica Inc. Available from www.statista.com/ statistics/186691/ttci-scores-of-countries-from-sub-saharan-africa-2011/ (accessed on 21 September 2015). 118

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

D.2. IMMIGRATION NSA’s Migration Report defines international migration as the movement of people between Namibia and other countries.122

D.2.1. Limited data and lack of digitalization Limited information emanating from national sources is available concerning the nature and extent of migration to and, in particular, from Namibia. With the exception of entry and exit data, immigration data of an administrative nature are difficult to obtain. A particular challenge is the lack of digitalized information regarding the issuing of work permits. Apparently, the MHAI has been working on and developing two systems aimed at digitalizing certain data, while a third digitalized system is under way:123 (a) Border Control Management System: This covers entry and exit data – already installed in 2011; this now needs to be upgraded. (b) Aliens Control System: This concerns data concerning work permit and work visa applications – work on this commenced in 2014. It is important to note that the data so captured include the following: (i) name of applicant; (ii) gender; (iii) (Namibian) occupation concerned; (iv) duration of permit/visa concerned; (v) when application was submitted; (vi) when application was considered; and (vii) outcome of application; but apparently, not any data relating to the nationality/country of origin of the applicant. (c) Citizenship Automation System: A service provider tasked with migrating data (in respect of citizenship applications) to digitalized format has been identified – work on this will commence soon. It is important to note that, apparently, due to confidentiality arrangements contained in the memorandum of understanding (MOU) between MHAI and the service provider, the digitalized data in relation to the Aliens Control System and the Citizenship Automation System are not/will not be available to or accessible by any third party.

NSA, 2015b, p. 15. Consultation with Ms Elizabeth Negumbo, Head of Immigration Services, MHAI on 13 August 2015.

122 123

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

43

D.2.2. Border management Border management provides several challenges in the Namibian context. The sheer extent of border crossings between, for example, Namibia and Angola led to the conclusion of a bilateral agreement, already in 1996, between the Government of Namibia and the Government of Angola on the introduction of a BRC between the two countries, which would allow border residents to have access to a 60-km zone in the neighbouring country without a passport.124 Data to be captured on the border pass require preferably a digitalized system of record-keeping and registration. It has specifically been recommended (as far as Namibia is concerned) that the Population Registry database containing the birth certificate numbers should be interlinked with the passport and national ID databases, as well as the so-called ImmiPass. This is necessary to enable the immigration staff to check the authenticity of a birth certificate or a national ID prior to issuing a border pass.125 Also, further measures are needed to facilitate the registration of the border population. Finally, several information management measures have been recommended, requiring a high degree of cooperation between Namibia and Angola to design and implement a system that is interoperable with Namibia’s ImmiPass and Angola’s CAVIS.126 It is thus apparent that several measures of a data nature are required to give effect to the envisaged BRC system. These measures require a high degree of cross-border cooperation, the streamlining of information technology systems, as well as legislative changes, to the extent required. Finally, note should be taken of an envisaged IOM project to enhance the capacity of the Government of Namibia to strengthen national responses and promote regional responses to migration management in the Southern African region, currently under development.127 The overall objective of the proposed project would be to strengthen the capacity of the Government of Namibia to address border management and border control matters as they relate to Namibia and its neighbours, focusing on addressing the negative effect poor migration governance can have and to increase coordination between the L. Styp-Rekowska, Border Resident Card Assessment (African Capacity Building Centre, Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania and IOM, 2013), p. 12. Eligible would be a border resident who has been living within 30 km from the border the past five years. Travel without a passport is allowed for 10 days at a time. 125 Ibid., p. 23. 126 Ibid., p. 35. 127 IOM, Enhancing the Capacity of the Government of Republic of Namibia to Strengthen National and Promote Regional Responses to Migration Management in Southern African Region (2015). 124

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Government of Namibia and its neighbouring States with a focus on Integrated Border Management (IBM), identification, protection inclusive of assistance to vulnerable migrants, and victims of trafficking (VOTs).128

D.2.3. Population Census data Based on answers to questions in the 2011 Population and Housing Census in relation to immigrants and their country of citizenship, birth abroad and country of origin, the report notes the following (underlining added):129 (a) Regarding country of citizenship, the census enumerated almost 68,000 non-citizens: “About two-thirds of non-citizens (47,000) indicated their usual resident is abroad, the vast majority of whom were born in Africa (39,000). The other third of non-citizens (22,000) resided in Namibia.” (b) As far as the foreign born are concerned, more than 93,000 residents or about 4.5 per cent of the population in 2011 were born outside of Namibia. The top five countries of origin were Angola (38,076), South Africa (21,209), Zambia (10,299), Zimbabwe (5,770) and Germany (3,670): “These were also the top five countries of origin for non-citizens, although for citizens Botswana replaces Zimbabwe for the fourth spot. Aside from African countries and Germany the top country of origin of the foreign born was China (1,241), of whom 82 were reported to be citizens.” These figures clearly highlight the fact that most of the migrants in Namibia come from other African countries, particularly Southern African countries. Furthermore, compared to citizens, non-citizens are disproportionately male and concentrated at young and middle-age adults, with larger proportions of both the best and least educated.130

Ibid., p. 2. NSA, 2015b, pp. iii, 16. 130 Ibid., p. iii. 128 129

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45

Figure 3: Non-citizens by age and sex

Source: NSA, 2015b, p. 17 (Figure 4.1).

D.2.4. International sources The key international data source regarding immigration to Namibia is that of UN DESA. The following statistics are provided for the period 1990–2013: Table 11: Trends in international migrant stock, Namibia, 1990‒2013 Total international migrant stock at mid-year by sex, 1990–2013 International migrant stock at mid-year (total male; female) Total

1990

2000

2010

2013

123,801

79,276

54,787

51,448

1990

2000

2010

2013

66,073

41,938

28,844

27,047 2013

International migrant stock at mid-year (male) Male

International migrant stock at mid-year (female) Female

46

1990

2000

2010

57,728

37,338

25,943

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

24,401

International migrant stock as a percentage of the total population by sex, 1990–2013 International migrant stock as a percentage of the total population (total, male; female), per cent Total

1990

2000

2010

2013

8.7

4.2

2.5

2.2

International migrant stock as a percentage of the total population (male), per cent Male

1990

2000

2010

2013

9.6

4.5

2.7

2.4

International migrant stock as a percentage of the total population (female), per cent Female

1990

2000

2010

2013

8.0

3.9

2.3

2.1

Female migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock Per cent

1990

2000

2010

2013

46.6

47.1

47.4

47.4

Source: UN DESA, 2013b, Tables 1, 3 and 4.

The data so provided indicate a lower number of migrants in Namibia (51,448) in 2013 than the number provided in the 2011 Census (93,000). The corresponding percentage of migrants (as a percentage of the total population) is therefore also much lower than the Census figure: 2.2 per cent versus 4.5 per cent (male and female). The UN DESA data indicate a clear trend of reduced numbers of migrants since 1990 – the overall figure of 123,801 (8.7% of the population) in 1990 was reduced to 51,448 (2.2% of the population) in 2013. Finally, according to the UN DESA data, 47.4 per cent of all migrants in 2013 were female, indicating less of a gender imbalance than that portrayed by the Census figures.

D.2.5. Education and employment of non-citizens Concerning education, employment and occupation, based on an analysis of the Census results, NSA’s Migration Report finds the following:131 (a) Education attainment of non-citizens and citizens varies considerably. Non-citizens display higher proportions of both better and lesser educated people. (b) Non-citizens are more likely to be employed. (c) Non-citizens include higher proportions of managers, professionals and technicians. That said, the proportion of non-citizens working in elementary positions (16%) is the same as for citizens. Ibid., pp. 17–18 (Figures 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4).

131

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

47

Figure 4: Citizens and non-citizens – Proportion distribution by occupation

Source: NSA, 2015b, p. 18 (Figure 4.4).

As indicated above, data concerning work permits and work visas are available, but not accessible. It is therefore not possible to gain a picture, from the perspective of approved work permits and work visas, of the employment of non-citizens in Namibia. The recent occupational skills audit survey (undertaken by MLIREC) may help to shed some light on this matter; however, at the time of the compilation of this draft Profile, the survey results were not yet available.

D.2.6. Foreign students and staff Data provided by the Namibian National Council for Higher Education (NCHE) illustrate that the majority of foreign students originate from other African, and in particular Southern African countries.

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Table 12: Foreign and Namibian students, by gender – country of origin (extract: 10 students or more from a foreign country) Institution’s name

Total, All institutions

Country of citizenship

Male

Angola Botswana Burundi

Female

Not stated

Total

570

386

-

956

70

95



165

6

4



10

China

8

3



11

Congo

39

28



67

Democratic Republic of the Congo (ex-Zaire)

13

10



23

4

11



15

Germany India

7

9



16

Kenya

23

11



34

Lesotho

3

8



11

Namibia

15,267

27,548

8

42,823

Namibia Permanent Residence

16

11



27

Nigeria

29

29



58

291

446



737

8

4



12

19

40



59

5

6



11

United Republic of Tanzania

33

25



58

Uganda

16

14



30

Zambia

408

391



799

Zimbabwe

440

473



913

17,343

29,612

8

46,963

Not stated Rwanda South Africa Swaziland

Total Source: Data provided by the NCHE.

The total number of Namibian and non-Namibian students are as follows: Table 13: Total number of foreign and Namibian students Foreign and Namibian students, total  

Female

Male

Namibian

27,548 2,064 29,612

Non-Namibian Total

Not stated

Total

15,267

8

42,823

2,076

0

4,140

17,343

8

46,963

Source: Data provided by the NCHE and converted into the table by Ms Ester Mabunda, Migration Profile Assistant Consultant. See Appendix II for a more comprehensive table.

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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The total number of staff at higher education institutions, from Namibia and from other countries, is indicated below: Table 14: Namibian and foreign staff (from selected countries – at least five staff members per country concerned) Analysis of Namibian and foreign staff – Reflecting countries from where at least five staff members originate  

Total

Female

Male

Not stated

Total, all countries

2,921

1,244

1,664

13

Total

2,861

1,226

1,622

0

Angola

6

3

3

0

Australia

9

4

5

0

Botswana Britain

8

4

4

0

14

1

13

0

Burundi

7

 0

7

0

Cameroon

5

 0

5

0

China

7

3

4

0

Congo

12

1

11

0

Ethiopia

5

1

4

0

Germany

38

11

27

0

Ghana

17

 

17

0

India

32

12

20

0

Kenya

38

11

27

0

Malawi

25

5

20

0

1,952

995

957

0

90

11

79

0

Namibia Nigeria Rwanda

10

4

6

0

South Africa

92

46

46

0

United Republic of Tanzania

31

4

27

0

Uganda

21

7

14

0

United Kingdom United States Zambia

6

2

4

0

17

4

13

0

54

8

46

0

Zimbabwe

264

51

213

0

Not stated

101

38

50

13

Source: Data provided by the NCHE and converted into the table by Ms Ester Mabunda, Migration Profile Assistant Consultant. See Appendix II for a more comprehensive table. Data exclude information that could not be obtained from the following: (a) Headstart Montessori Teacher Training Co; (b) ILSA Independent College; (c) Institute of Open Learning (IOL) (d) Triumphant College; and (e) Namibia College of Open Learning (NAMCOL).

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

The number of staff at higher education institutions, disaggregated by country of origin and gender, provides the following picture: Table 15: Namibian and foreign staff, disaggregated by country of origin and gender Gender as per institution Institution

Female

University of Namibia Polytechnic

Namibian

*

Male

Not stated

Total

835

831

0

1,666

Non-Namibian

90

226

0

316

Non-Namibian

128

412

0

540

31

14

0

45

Lingua

Namibian Non-Namibian

7

18

0

25

Monitronics College

Namibian

3

5

0

8

Non-Namibian

2

8

0

10

Namibia Evangelical Theological Seminary

Namibian

7

8

0

15

Non-Namibian

2

10

0

12

Institute of Bankers

Namibian

7

8

0

15

Non-Namibian

0

2

0

2

Paulinium

Namibian

1

4

0

5

International University of Management

Namibian

Non-Namibian Non-Namibian

0

1

0

1

111

87

0

198

20

30

0

50

 

13

13

1,664

13

2,921

Not stated Total

 

1,244

Source: Data provided by the NCHE and converted into the table by Ms Ester Mabunda, Migration Profile Assistant Consultant. See Appendix II for a more comprehensive table. Data exclude information that could not be obtained from the following: (a) Headstart Montessori Teacher Training Co; (b) ILSA Independent College; (c) IOL; (d) Triumphant College; and (e) NAMCOL.

*Note that the Polytechnic of Namibia only provided data on foreign staff and none on Namibians.

The number of staff at higher education institutions, disaggregated by age cohort, is as follows: Table 16: Namibian and foreign staff, disaggregated by age cohort Age cohort <30 years 30–50 years >50 years Not stated  

Namibian

Non-Namibian

Not stated

Total

418

50

0

468

1,135

239

0

1,374

399

127

0

526

0

0

13

13

1,952

416

13

2,381

Source: Data provided by the NCHE and converted into the table by Ms Ester Mabunda, Migration Profile Assistant Consultant. See Appendix II for a more comprehensive table. Data exclude information that could not be obtained from the following: (a) Headstart Montessori Teacher Training Co; (b) ILSA Independent College; (c) IOL; (d) Triumphant College; and (e) NAMCOL.

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

51

D.2.7. Migration, health and well-being The Namibia Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019 lists the key shortcoming cross-border health issues not receiving adequate attention for border towns.132 Health-related data concerning internal and external migrants are hard to find. As indicated earlier in this report, none of the indicators investigated in the 2013 DHS, nor any of the questionnaire questions, refer to migrant or nationality status. Based on the data obtained through the DHS, it is therefore not possible to obtain a picture of the extent to which the data may apply to short- and longterm migrants, or to internal or external migrants. More indirectly, presumably Angolans utilizing Namibian health facilities may be affected by the general picture appearing from the DHS, namely that northern Namibia is chronically underperforming as regards health indicators. However, the extent to which this affects Angolans needs to be determined through an appropriate scoping study. It was intended to develop a Namibia Migration and Health Promotion Strategy133 – this, however, would need to be informed by appropriate data in relation to access to health services by internal and external migrants, under the IOM-initiated and -supported Southern and East African-based Partnership on Health and Mobility in East and Southern Africa (PHAMESA) II programme. This process was guided by the TWG on Migration and Health, under the lead of MOHSS. Discussions are still ongoing on this matter. WHO confirmed that it is in principle supporting the Government of Namibia with the strengthening of a Health Information System; however, the Government has yet to indicate what kind of system in this regard it would prefer.134 Note should be taken of the fact that the TWG also aimed at better integrating migration data into health monitoring systems, a process that will need time to develop. Permanent residents are entitled to benefit from low-cost State housing for the elderly poor.135 Further information related to, among others, access to health facilities by foreigners could not be obtained, although there is a perception that health services are more expensive for non-Namibians. The WHO confirmed that it has no such data available. It has also been noted that in Namibia, there is very limited reliable evidence on the geographical accessibility and quality of maternal and child health services in migration-affected communities in Namibia. An inventory has been conducted on 396 health services facilities by MOHSS in 2012, but the information, specifically on maternal and child health Republic of Namibia, National Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019, p. 7. IOM, Baseline assessment of Maternal and Child Health Service Availability in Namibian Border Oshikango, Omahenene, Katwitwo and Calai (Proposal, 2015), p. 6. 134 Consultation with the WHO Representative, Professor Monir Islam, on 11 August 2015. 135 MOHSS, Directorate of Social Welfare Services, Procedural guideline for the management of housing units provided by the government for independent low-income older people in Namibia (MOHSS and ICF International, 2010), p. 20. 132 133

52

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

services in migration-affected communities in Namibia, is not available and is reported to be outdated.136 There is a concentration of services in northern areas, but it has been suggested that such information is much needed to inform needs-tailored service delivery package in these areas.137 However, from a social service perspective, counselling and related services were made available to 17 human trafficking victims over the period April 2014 to March 2015 – as also indicated below.138 According to the Government of Namibia, all refugee children receive the same health services as Namibian children, including immunizations and access to antiretrovirals.139

D.2.8. Involuntary migration – Refugee protection The latest available United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) data on refugees and asylum-seekers indicate the following: Box 8: Overview – Refugees and asylum-seekers in Namibia • At the peak of the civil war in Angola, Namibia hosted about 20,000 refugees; 10,000–15,000 Angolan refugees were subsequently repatriated; 2,400 former Angolan refugees were approved by the Government of Namibia for purposes of local integration, and more than 684 refugees were resettled between 2010 and 2015. • By September 2015, Namibia was hosting 2,914 refugees and asylum-seekers; about 80 per cent of them are Congolese. Most of the others come from other African countries, particularly Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda and other countries from the Great Lakes region. The high-level breakdown is as follows: ₋₋ 1,808 refugees; and ₋₋ 1,106 asylum-seekers. • An additional number of 1,742 former refugees from Angola are awaiting local integration. • The aim is to reduce the number of refugees and asylum-seekers in Namibia through resettlement and local integration. • About 30 asylum-seekers arrive to Namibia every month. • With the secession clause on the Namibian refugees in Botswana, about 600 returnees are expected to return to Namibia. Sources: UNHCR, Call for Expression of Interest (CEoI): Implementation of 2016 UNHCR Basic Assistance Project in Namibia (CEoI – Ref. No: UNHCR/2015/001, 14 September 2015); L. Mbangson, Diplomatic Briefing UNHCR/GRN Refugee Programme in Namibia – Past-present-future (Presentation made on 9 June 2015).

MOHSS, Health Facility Census (HFC) (2009); Ministry of Work and Transport, Report on the Technical Appraisal of Medical Facilities in Namibia (2013). 137 IOM, 2015b, p. 5. 138 Information provided by Mrs Florence Ntombesibini Situmbeko, Senior Social worker, Directorate of Social Welfare Services, MOHSS. 139 Government of Namibia, State Party Report on the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 2004–2012 (Government of Namibia, 2004), pp. 81–82: see also articles 127, 213 and 214 of the Child Care and Protection Act. 136

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

53

Key international data on refugees in Namibia are also provided by UN DESA for the period 1990 to 2013: Table 17: Refugee stock in Namibia, 1990–2013 Estimated refugee stock at mid-year (both sexes) Total

1990

2000

2010

2013

0

27,263

7,254

6,049

Refugees as a percentage of the international migrant stock Per cent

1990

2000

2010

2013

0.0

34.4

13.2

11.8

Annual rate of change of the refugee stock Rate

1990–2000

2000–2010

2010–2013

0.0

-13.2

-6.1

Source: UN DESA, 2013b, Table 6.

Refugees are settled in Osire Refugee Camp, which also hosts a primary and secondary school, a health centre, a business centre and a youth centre. They have access to education, health-care and legal assistance. Refugees may be given permission to travel outside the camp and obtain a permit to undertake work after fulfilling employment criteria applicable to foreign nationals. With the support of multiple donors and through a partnership project with Africa Humanitarian Action, formal arrangements have been complemented with assistance in a variety of sectors, including shelter, food, water, sanitation, social and protection services, durable solutions and peaceful coexistence projects. Limited opportunities in livelihoods were also provided to refugees inside the settlement through vocational skills training and agriculture projects.140 It was intended to establish a refugee reception centre in Katima Mulilo, for the receiving and screening of asylum-seekers; this has not yet materialized. It has been noted that most asylum-seekers are entering Namibia through Zambezi region. When the building is completed, the ministry will be able to provide suitable services to asylum-seekers.141 The UNHCR indicated its intention to phase out from Namibia as of December 2015 as it has attained the objective of reaching its ultimate goal in Namibia, namely to find durable solutions for the refugees. An action plan See UNHCR, 2015. National Planning Commission (NPC), Development Programmes: Estimates of Expenditure – Medium-Term Expenditure Framework 2015/2016 to 2017/2018 (Office of the President, National Planning Commission, 2015/2016), p. 35. Of the estimated 30 new asylum-seeker arrivals recorded every month, most enter through Katima Mulilo (recently, 106 irregular migrants were detained).

140 141

54

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

was intended to be established for the Government of Namibia to take over the implementation of refugee programmes. The UN Country Team was requested by UNHCR to assist the government in all areas of refugee matters. The UNHCR exit strategy has not been finalized yet; the UNHCR recently issued a Call for Expression of Interest for an organization to continue particular services at Osire camp.142

D.2.9. Involuntary migration – Cross-border flows of internally displaced people Involuntary migration – Cross-border flows of IDPs. Cross-border flows of IDPs may have migration implications and need to be dealt with in coordinated fashion relying, among others, on the principles developed within the framework of the so-called Nansen Initiative. This initiative was launched in October 2012 and aims to build consensus among States about how best to address crossborder displacement in the context of sudden- and slow-onset disasters.143 It has been indicated that environmental-induced disasters have affected border areas as well, involving people across the Namibian, Angolan and Zambian borders. Cross-border movement of persons – enhanced by shared ethnic ties – have resulted from these disasters, although no statistics of people who have so moved could be obtained (footnotes omitted):144

“In 2013-2014, Southern Angola and Northern Namibia experienced a severe drought with rainfall 60 per cent below average. The Government of Angola established an emergency plan to assist 640,000 people, and an estimated 2.2 million people (including a third of Namibia’s population) were considered food insecure across the affected area. As a result, both Namibia and Angola set up displacement camps, including in border regions. Angolans are also known to have crossed the Kunene River into Namibia in search of food and medical care.” and “At the domestic level, States and local communities in the region have received disaster displaced persons. For example, the Malawian See UNHCR, 2015. W. Kälin (2012), From the Nansen Principles to the Nansen Initiative, Forced Migration Review 41. Available from www.fmreview.org/preventing/kalin. See also www.nanseninitiative.org/. 144 Nansen Initiative Secretariat Background Paper – Nansen Initiative Southern Africa consultation, in cooperation with the Development and Rule of Law Programme (DROP) at Stellenbosch University (Disasters, Climate Change and Human Mobility in Southern Africa: Consultation on the Draft Protection Agenda, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 4–5 June 2015). Available from http://drop.sun.ac.za/files/2015/05/08052015Nansen-Initiative-Southern-Africa-Background-Paper.pdf, pp. 9, 23 (accessed on 21 September 2015). 142 143

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

55

government received Mozambicans who crossed the border following the recent 2015 Cyclone Chedza. At the community and local level, despite some tension between tribal authorities along the Angola/Namibia border, shared ethnic heritage has seen pastoralists from Angola crossing over to Namibia to access pastures and water sources.”

D.3. EMIGRATION D.3.1. Data context Data on emigration of Namibians are insufficient, as far as both national and international sources are concerned. The NSA’s Migration Report acknowledges that available and reliable data on outmigration (migration outflows) is limited. However, according to the report, indirect evidence suggests that numerical outflows have been relatively comparable to inflows over the past decade. Thus, the report suggests, population growth due to net international migration over the past decades was likely fairly negligible.145 This, so it appears upon closer scrutiny, is based on assumptions made, and needs to be evaluated on the basis of appropriate data collection and analysis. In fact, it may well be that the assumptions are incorrect, in view of (the limited) data reflected in the statistics provided by UN DESA, especially if this is viewed from the perspective of several years, as indicated below. Data in connection with emigrants, although requested in the census form associated with the National Population and Housing Census, could not be sufficiently cleaned up due to the inadequacy of the responses. The relevant form (Form C of the Census questionnaire) asked for different types of information about the persons who left the particular household to other countries since 2001 and did not spend the census reference night in Namibia, in relation to the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

Their sex; Their age; Their highest grade/standard or level of completed education; Professional training/occupation; The reason for staying abroad; Any remittance sent to any household member; The country of current residence destination; and The year of departure.

NSA, 2015b, p. 23. See also NSA, Namibia Population Projections 2011–2041 (Namibia 2011 Census Projections 2011 to 2014) (NSA, 2014), pp. ii, 2.

145

56

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

The Electoral Commission of Namibia keeps some information relating to Namibians who registered and voted abroad. The registration information is gender- and age-disaggregated. In 2014, 3,662 Namibians (only Namibian citizens are entitled to vote in national elections) registered to participate in the recent presidential election; 2,570 of those registered voted. While the absolute numbers could barely be seen as a reflection of the actual number of (adult) Namibians abroad, these may help to reveal certain trends and tendencies. The data provided by the commission can be depicted as follows: Table 18: 2014 Presidential elections: Namibian gender-disaggregated registrants abroad by age group Description Before 1925

Female

Male

0

Total 0

0

5

13

18

Baby Boomers (1945–1964)

88

174

262

Generation X (1965–1981)

396

1,040

1,436

Generation Y (1982–Present)

842

1,104

1,946

1,331

2,331

3,662

Silent Generation (1925–1944)

Grand total Source: Electoral Commission of Namibia.

Figure 5: 2014 Presidential elections: Namibian gender-disaggregated registrants abroad by age group

Female

Male

Source: Electoral Commission of Namibia.

The overwhelming majority of those who registered fell within the below 32 and between 33 and 50 age groups respectively. In all age cohorts, more males than females registered. Overall, 2,331 males registered, while 1,331 females did so. Females in the age groups 33–50 and 50–70 in particular were far outnumbered by their male counterparts.

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

57

Table 19: 2014 Presidential election results: Constituency – Namibian Missions Abroad Polling Stations Country (Polling station) Angola (Luanda) Austria (Vienna) Belgium (Brussels) Botswana (Gaborone) Brazil (Brasilia) China (Beijing) Cuba (Havana) Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) Egypt (Cairo) Ethiopia (Addis Ababa) France (Paris) Germany (Berlin) India (New Delhi) Japan (Tokyo) Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur) Nigeria (Abuja) Russian Federation (Moscow) South Africa (Pretoria) South Africa (Cape Town) Sweden (Stockholm) Switzerland (Geneva) United Republic of Tanzania (Dar es Salaam) United Kingdom (London) United States (Washington, D.C.) United States (New York) Zambia (Lusaka) Zimbabwe (Harare) Angola (Ondjiva) Angola (Menongue) Total

Total 63 21 32 80 36 130 35 6 6 14 10 47 14 9 127 9 148 168 1,052 15 18 18 88 25 39 80 156 113 11 2,570

Source: Electoral Commission of Namibia.

While age- and gender-disaggregated data of those who indeed voted are not available, the following points could be raised, from the perspective of regions and countries where those who voted were present: (a) By far the majority of those who voted were present in African countries (1,776 of a total of 2,570), with four SADC countries registering among the highest number of voters: Angola, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It has to be noted that the total number of Namibian voters in South Africa (1,220) constituted almost 50 per cent of the total number of overseas voters. 58

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

(b) Other countries and their respective regions registering more than 80 voters are as follows: United Kingdom (88) and Russian Federation (148) in Europe; and China (130) and Malaysia (127) in Asia. The main international data source on trends in international migrant stock, as far as emigration is concerned, is that of UN DESA. Two data sets are depicted below; more detailed data sets are contained in Appendix III: (a) Migrants from Namibia – Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area and region, 2013 (gender-disaggregated) (see Table 20); and (b) Migrants from Namibia 1990–2013 – Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area and region, 1990–2013 (see Table 21). Table 20: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia – Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area and region, 2013 (gender-disaggregated) Major area, region, country or area of destination WORLD More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries

Total male and female migrant stock 137,498

Total male migrant stock

Total female migrant stock

66,454

71,044

4,647

2,261

2,386

132,851

64,193

68,658

1,528

805

723

Less developed regions excluding least developed countries

131,323

63,388

67,935

Sub-Saharan Africa

132,756

64,128

68,628

AFRICA

132,769

64,133

68,636

Eastern Africa

749

445

304

Middle Africa

828

388

440

Northern Africa

13

5

8

Southern Africa

131,179

63,295

67,884

0

0

0

Western Africa

11

9

2

Central Asia

ASIA

0

0

0

Eastern Asia

0

0

0

South-Eastern Asia

0

0

0

Southern Asia

0

0

0

Western Asia

11

9

2

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

59

EUROPE Eastern Europe

1,658

771

887

159

89

70 258

Northern Europe

455

197

Southern Europe

121

65

56

Western Europe

923

420

503 20

71

51

Caribbean

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

3

2

1

Central America

4

2

2

South America

64

47

17

NORTHERN AMERICA

1,441

751

690

OCEANIA

1,548

739

809

Australia and New Zealand

1,548

739

809

Melanesia

0

0

0

Micronesia

0

0

0

Polynesia

0

0

0

Source: UN DESA, 2013c, Tables 1, 4, 7 and 10.

Table 21: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia, 1990‒2013 – Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area and region, 1990‒2013 Major area, region, country or area of destination WORLD

Total male and female migrant stock, 1990

Total male and female migrant stock, 2000

Total male and female migrant stock, 2010

Total male and female migrant stock, 2013 137,498

80,249

48,158

117,635

More developed regions

1,789

2,683

4,294

4,647

Less developed regions

78,460

45,475

113,341

132,851

Least developed countries Less developed regions excluding least developed countries

3,055

1,087

1,415

1,528

75,405

44,388

111,926

131,323

Sub-Saharan Africa

78,030

45,442

113,249

132,756

AFRICA

78,434

45,449

113,261

132,769

Eastern Africa

2,772

693

742

749

Middle Africa

345

457

725

828

Northern Africa

404

7

12

13

Southern Africa

74,913

44,292

111,782

131,179

Western Africa

0

0

0

0

ASIA

8

8

11

11

Central Asia

0

0

0

0

Eastern Asia

0

0

0

0

South-Eastern Asia

0

0

0

0

Southern Asia

0

0

0

0

Western Asia

8

8

11

11

60

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

EUROPE Eastern Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Western Europe LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

710 116 135 58 401 18

1,009 99 217 171 522 18

1,478 160 402 104 812 69

1,658 159 455 121 923 71

Caribbean Central America South America NORTHERN AMERICA OCEANIA Australia and New Zealand Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia

7 2 9 690 389 389 0 0 0

3 3 12 1,001 673 673 0 0 0

3 4 62 1,389 1,427 1,427 0 0 0

3 4 64 1,441 1,548 1,548 0 0 0

Source: UN DESA, 2013c, Tables 1, 4, 7 and 10.

Several conclusions can be drawn from the data provided by UN DESA: (a) Feminization of Namibian migration: Viewed over the 1990–2013 period, the percentage of female migrants has steadily increased; since 2010, there are more female migrants than male migrants from Namibia. The overall figures for 2013 indicate that there were 71,044 Namibian female migrants worldwide, as opposed to 66,454 male migrants. The preponderance of female migrants applies to all regions of the world, except Latin America and Northern America. More research would be needed to investigate the reasons for this particular trend. (b) Significant increase in overall numbers of emigrants: While according to the UN DESA figures the number of Namibian emigrants reduced between 1990 and 2000, there was a sizeable increase in these numbers in 2010 and 2013 – from 48,158 in 2000 to 117,635 in 2010 and 137,498 in 2013. Namibians are indeed emigrating at a substantially increased rate. (c) African and Southern African countries as the priority destinations: According to the 2013 data, 132,769 of the 137,498 Namibian emigrants have moved to African countries – of this number, the vast majority are to be found in other SADC countries (131,179), with South Africa as the preferred destination (129,488).146 See Table 29 on Appendix III.

146

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

61

(d) Incomplete data: Despite the much higher number of Namibian emigrants indicated in the UN DESA data sets than the number suggested by the NSA Migration Report (see above), it is also clear that the UN DESA data are incomplete. As appears from Table 28 (see Appendix III), the UN DESA data contain no information on the number of Namibian emigrants in the United Kingdom and Germany. It could certainly not be the case that there are no Namibians residing in these countries – see in particular in this regard, the number of Namibians residing in the United Kingdom and Germany who voted in the 2014 presidential election (see Table 19).

D.3.2. Diaspora and remittances The lack of sufficient emigrant data is an area that evidently requires significant development. One method to be employed is to use Namibian diaspora associations in destination countries to help collect information. However, there is no legal, policy, institutional or operational framework for (Namibian) diaspora engagement existing officially in Namibia. More recently, however, the Government of Namibia has expressed its explicit support for the realization of comprehensive diaspora support in Namibia. The current president has repeatedly stressed the importance of diaspora involvement, in particular as regards the alleviation of poverty in Namibia through, for example, contributions towards setting up a food bank in Namibia.147 To the extent that could be determined, mapping of the Namibian diaspora has never been undertaken, although in principle, the Government of Namibia is reportedly supportive of such an initiative. There appears to be some Namibian diaspora associations operating in other parts of the world; however, the Government of Namibia has yet to develop a framework to formally include the diaspora.148 It has been suggested that some of the Namibian diaspora associations have been active in Namibia, in particular at the level of school education. Reference has been made to a United Kingdom-based diaspora association involved in co-teaching in Namibian schools; apparently, this association is interested in developing an accredited leadership programme through the University of Namibia for the education sector.149 M. Thomas, “Namibians in diaspora urged to raise funds for food bank”, The Namibian, 22 September 2015. Available from www.namibian.com.na/index.php?id=142157&page=archive-read, p. 5). 148 See The African Leadership and Progress Network, Diaspora Organizations. Available from http:// africanprogress.net/diaspora-organizations-2/ (accessed on 22 September 2015). 149 Information provided by Ms Elizabeth Ngololo, Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, Continuing Professional Development Unit, University of Namibia, on 15 April 2015. 147

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

There is no known available national data source on remittance inflows and outflows. According to the Bank of Namibia, the foreign exchange transaction framework does not distinguish between remittances and other transactions. Informal remittance transfers are also not captured. There is further no regulatory framework in place, which deals with the cost of remittance transfers. There is therefore no reflection on remittances in the most recent (2014) Annual Report of the Bank of Namibia.150 For these reasons, no work has been done on analysing the purpose(s) for which remittances are used, except for some reflection on this in the Household Income and Expenditure Survey, as mentioned below. However, some progress has been made at the SADC level to develop a SADC-wide framework for collecting remittance data as part of crossborder reporting systems.151 Box 9: Receipt and use of remittances by Namibian households Some data on the receipt of remittances are contained in the Namibian Household Income and Expenditure Survey report. The data are of some but limited value, in view thereof that the data are often lumped with income received via (social) grants. There is, therefore, need to disaggregate remittance and grant data, to obtain a true picture of the use of remittances by households in Namibia. The following information may nevertheless be relevant: (a) 4.6 per cent of household income overall is made up by remittances and grants; (b) Remittances and grants are in particular of great importance for women-headed households (8% of household income) and for the poorest income quintiles; and (c) For those for whom cash remittances are the main source of income, these are primarily consumed for purposes of household survival. Source: NSA, Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) 2009/2010 (2012), pp. 56, 138, 149.

Some remittance data are provided by World Bank, and depicted below: (a) A table indicating migrant remittance inflows from 2010 to 2014, and remittances as a share of GDP in 2013; (b) A figure illustrating (personal) remittance (received) inflows from 1990 to 20143; and (c) A figure detailing the share of (personal) remittance (received) as a percentage of GDP.

See Bank of Namibia, Annual Report 2014 (2014). The report notes that certain authorized dealers with limited authority operate money transfer services in partnership with international money remittance operators (at 33), and further notes that the World Bank carried out a remittances review at the Bank of Namibia in 2014 (at 54). 151 Information conveyed during a consultation with Mr Issy Thihoreko, Senior Officer: Exchange Controls and Financial Markets, Bank of Namibia and Ms Josephine Udjombala, Treasury Accountant, Bank of Namibia, on 15 April 2015. 150

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

63

From the information provided below, it is clear that both the total of formal remittances received and the share of GDP constituted by remittances are generally low and trending downwards. Much needs to be done to develop an official remittance framework for Namibia and raise the contribution this could be making to the economy and the development of the country. Table 22: Migrant remittance inflows (USD million) Migrant remittance inflows (USD million)

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014e

Remittances as a share of GDP in 2013 (%)

Namibia

15

15

13

11

11

0.1%

Source: World Bank, Remittance data inflows (April 2015). Available from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/ Resources/334934-1288990760745/RemittanceData_Inflows_Apr2015.xls Note:

World Bank staff calculation based on data from International Monetary Fund (IMF) balance of payments statistics database and data releases from Central Banks, national statistics agencies and World Bank country desks.

Figure 6: Personal remittances, received (USD million)

Source: World Bank, Personal remittances received (2014). Available from www.indexmundi.com/facts/namibia/workers’-remittancesand-compensation-of-employees Note:

64

World Bank staff estimates are based on IMF balance of payments data.

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Figure 7: Personal remittances, received (per cent of GDP)

Source: World Bank, 2014. Note: World Bank staff estimates are based on IMF balance of payments data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.

D.3.3. Labour exporting Currently, Namibia does not have a legal, policy, institutional or operational framework informing labour exporting, although introducing labour exporting as a medium- to long-term objective is being proposed and supported by MLIREC. Consequently, no data in this regard is presently available. Already in 2002, Frayne and Pendleton remarked that there is no data available for emigration, including legal outmigration from Namibia, and that research on either the scale or the possible consequences of skills emigration is not available.152 On the basis of an IOM Development Fund regional labour migration project on Regional Road Map to Facilitate South South Labor Migration Mobility in Southern Africa, support is foreseen to the Government of Namibia through MLIREC to develop and implement a labour migration policy within the context of existing regional frameworks.153 In order to achieve this aim, the Government of Namibia seeks to establish an interministerial coordination mechanism in which various relevant ministries, agencies and organizations are represented Frayne and Pendleton, 2002, pp. 15, 16. The project aims to bring together selected SADC Member States in order to facilitate south–south labour mobility arrangements with a view towards ensuring the protection of the fundamental human, labour and social rights of migrant workers, their families and associated communities of origin and destination (IOM Development Fund, Developing a National Labour Migration Policy for Namibia (project proposal) (2014), p. 1).

152 153

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

65

and gain a greater understanding of the current labour migration situation and needs within Namibia. It is envisaged that the interministerial coordination mechanism will also contribute to the development of skills to continue providing information on labour migration in order to build a comprehensive approach to policymaking. Two major outcomes are envisaged:154 (a) A comprehensive and finalized labour migration policy; and (b) A road map for the implementation of the policy. The labour migration policy will serve to support the Government of Namibia to set up legal guidelines that ensure effective, efficient and accountable regulation of labour migration. The policy will include guidance and direction that seek to support the following areas of critical concern to Namibia: (a) Development of a market-driven skills inventory; (b) Concerns of return and reintegration of Namibians who have been working abroad; (c) Increased efficiency for registration on labour migrants within Namibia; (d) Regulation and monitoring mechanisms of private employment agencies within Namibia; (e) Protection of rights of migrant workers and their dependants; (f) Portability of social security for migrant workers and their dependants; (g) Health concerns of migrant workers in the context of fitness to work and access to health services; (h) Establishment of mechanisms that can contribute to regional integration and international cooperation vis-à-vis labour migration; (i) Development of coordination mechanisms to regulate labour migration and combat human trafficking; (j) Establishment and maintenance of a comprehensive data management system; and (k) Development of an exportation of skills programme. It has also been remarked that the development of the policy will make a direct impact through envisaged capacity-building activities, which will include specific focus on addressing challenges associated with training and skills development. Therefore, IOM will organize trainings to enhance the capacity of officials and institutions involved in the management of labour migration.155

Ibid. Ibid., pp. 1–2.

154 155

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

D.4. IRREGULAR MIGRATION No official national or international statistics on irregular migration could be detected in the course of preparing the Migration Profile. MHAI made available annual information on irregular migrants arrested and deported or issued with a 48-hour notice, for the years April 2010 to March 2011, April 2011 to March 2012, and April 2013 to March 2014, for this Profile. Table 23: Irregular migrants arrested and deported or issues with a 48-hour notice Country Angola Botswana China

Total 2010/11

Total 2012/13

Total 2013/14

984

832

-

13

901 22

48

16

50

Democratic Republic of the Congo

34

37

14

Ethiopia

22

-

14

Germany

22

-

-

Guinea Conakry

10

-

-

Equatorial Guinea

30

-

-

Kenya

16

-

29

Somalia

40

42

48

Sierra Leone

-

10

-

South Africa

91

47

25

-

-

12

Mali Mozambique

21

-

-

Nigeria

28

28

-

-

13

628

United Republic of Tanzania Zambia

250

21

Zimbabwe

231

104

206

1,827

1,163

1,949

Subtotal Other Total

71

70

54

1,898

1,233

2,003

Sources: MHAI, Directorate of Immigration and Border Control Report 2010–2011, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014.

The rest of this part of the Profile will concentrate on the following three areas: (a) Human trafficking and smuggling; (b) Protection of migrant children in irregular situations; and (c) Other security concerns. Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

67

D.4.1. Human trafficking in Namibia Actual data on the extent of human trafficking and smuggling are difficult to obtain. A 2013 report commissioned by the Government of Namibia, which might help to shed light on actual figures, has not yet been released. Contextual information may be of some assistance to understand some of the nature and scope of the issues involved. Box 10: Human trafficking in Namibia Namibia is believed to a country of origin, transit and destination for foreign and Namibian people subjected to trafficking for forced labour and prostitution.156 In this area, the constitutional protection against slavery and forced labour, and of children under 16 years of age as regards hazardous work,157 is supported by provisions in several laws specifically addressing trafficking involving adults and children, as well as forced and exploitative child labour.158 However, these laws present a fragmented and incomplete picture that requires, from an integrated approach, to holistically address human trafficking and smuggling, hence the current effort to develop an overarching and comprehensive anti-trafficking law (see below). Further support in this area emanates from a range of regional and international agreements.

Human trafficking in or involving Namibia is a matter that has attracted considerable international concern. In the 2015 US Department of State’s TIP Report, Namibia is (again), for the fourth consecutive year, listed as a Tier 2 Watch List country,159 avoiding a downgrading to Tier 3.160 As noted in the 2012 report by the Government of Namibia in relation to Namibia’s compliance with the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against See Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare, National Plan of Action on Gender-Based Violence 2012– 2016 (2012), pp. 16–17, referring to Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare (in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry), A baseline assessment of human trafficking in Namibia: A nationally representative qualitative assessment (2009). 157 See article 18 of the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, 1990. 158 In particular, the Prevention of Organised Crime Act 29 of 2004; the recently adopted Child Care and Protection Act 3 of 2015; and the Labour Act 11 of 2007. 159 US Department of State, 2015, p. 255. According to the report, Tier 2 Watch List countries are (see p. 47 – emphasis in the original) countries whose governments “do not fully comply with the [Trafficking Victims Protection Act] TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards, and for which: a) the absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing; b) there is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year, including increased investigations, prosecution, and convictions of trafficking crimes, increased assistance to victims, and decreasing evidence of complicity in severe forms of trafficking by government officials; or c) the determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional steps over the next year.” 160 The 2015 TIP report notes (at p. 256): “Namibia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and it has committed to devoting sufficient resources to implement that plan.” 156

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Women (CEDAW), following earlier comments from the UN CEDAW committee, and in response to the US Department of State designating Namibia as a special case regarding trafficking in 2008, the government undertook the National Baseline Study on Human Trafficking in Namibia in 2009.161 The report noted that findings revealed a small number of possible cases had been reported but could not be confirmed: “There is a presumption that cases that were identified may be those of trafficking. In Namibia suspected cases of human trafficking most often appear to involve underage children to or from neighbouring countries for the purpose of manual labour or sex work.”162 In order to address concerns about human trafficking in and involving Namibia, consideration should be given to strengthen the data environment – as is reflected on in more detail later in the Profile. This includes obtaining data – via surveys and otherwise, in particular qualitative research – that should in the first place take note of and be aligned with the identified macro factors leading to trafficking (and for that matter also smuggling).163 Also, note should be taken of the concerns expressed in the 2015 US Department of State’s TIP Report. These essentially relate to the following:164 (a) The government failed to fully institute formal victim identification and referral processes, which led to the deportation of potential victims in 2014. Lack of effective interministerial coordination in the development and implementation of anti-trafficking programming remained a key concern. (b) The government maintained modest anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts during the year. (c) The government maintained modest efforts to protect trafficking victims during the year and remained without a process for screening vulnerable populations to identify victims or provide official designation of trafficking victim status. (d) The government made minimal efforts to prevent human trafficking during the reporting period. (e) The government appeared to make only limited progress towards implementing the National Plan of Action on Gender-Based Violence 2012–2016, including the anti-trafficking strategy portions of the plan. Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare (in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry), 2009. 162 Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare, 2012b, p. 33. 163 See Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare (in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, 2009, p. 66. 164 US Department of State, 2015, pp. 255–257. 161

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In its recent evaluation of Namibia’s country report on compliance with CEDAW, the relevant UN Committee entrusted with monitoring compliance with the Convention, noted the first criminal conviction in 2015 (under the Prevention of Organised Crime Act 29 of 2009 (POCA)) involving a case of human trafficking. However, the Committee expressed its concern that Namibia remained a source and destination country of trafficking in human beings, in particular women and girls, mainly for purposes of forced labour and sexual exploitation. Several recommendations were made by the Committee, including the following:165 (a) Adoption of a comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation; (b) Undertaking a comprehensive study to collect data on the extent and forms of trafficking in women and girls, which should be disaggregated by age, region and country of origin; (c) Intensification of efforts to address the root causes of trafficking and ensure the rehabilitation and social integration of victims; (d) Intensification of awareness-raising efforts aimed at promoting reporting of trafficking crimes and early detection of women and girls who are victims of trafficking, as well as their referral to appropriate services; (e) Intensification of efforts aimed at bilateral, regional and international cooperation to prevent trafficking, including by exchanging information and harmonizing legal procedures to prosecute traffickers, particularly with neighbouring States, such as Angola, Zambia, Botswana and South Africa and other relevant States in SADC; and (f) Allocating adequate resources for the effective running of shelters in Namibia. An in-depth study on human trafficking commenced in 2013.166 This study has apparently been finalized. However, the consultant was unable to obtain a copy of the study. Furthermore, there is a lack of elaborated trafficking standard operating procedures to deal with potential victims of trafficking – supporting all aspects of prevention, protection and prosecution in general, and victim identification, interview process and techniques as well as referral in particular.167 There have been several policy responses on the part of the Government of Namibia, as regards human trafficking and smuggling. These are reflected on UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Namibia (CEDAW/C/NAM/CO/4-5, 24 July 2015), paras. 24– 25. 166 Republic of Namibia, Namibia Country Report Beijing + 20 (1995–2015) (2014), p. 44. 167 IOM, Report: Migration Management Training of Trainers, 30 July–10 August 2012 (2012), p. 10. 165

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later in the Profile. Limited statistics are available. Table 24 below indicates the achievements of the Directorate of Social Welfare Services, MOHSS, in relation to the provision of social welfare services to victims of human trafficking. Table 24: Regional statistics, 2014/15 Ministry of Health and Social Services Total number of human trafficking reported cases attended to (in terms of the provision of social welfare services)

Regions implementing strategies on human trafficking and migration (implementing plan on human trafficking and migration)

Erongo

0

0

Hardap

0

2

Karas

0

0

Khomas

2

0

Kunene

8

1

Ohangwena

0

1

Omaheke

7

0

Omusati

0

0

Oshana

0

0

Otjozondjupa

0

0

Zambezi

0

0

Windhoek Central Hospital

0

0

Intermediate Hospital Katutura

0

0

0

0

17

4

Kavango

Oshikoto

Intermediate Hospital Rundu Intermediate Hospital Oshakati Total

Source: Information provided by the Directorate of Social Welfare Services, MOHSS.

Finally, mention should be made of a recently endorsed IOM-led project aimed at strengthening coordination to respond to trafficking in persons and ensure justice and protection for all victims of trafficking in Namibia. The project, to be implemented over a three-year period, has the following objectives:168 (a) To strengthen coordination of the trafficking response for more effective implementation of the national anti-trafficking response, by ensuring the following: (i) A fully functioning national coordinating body revitalized and meeting regularly to coordinate the multisectoral TIP response; and IOM, Namibia JTIP Proposal (2015).

168

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

71

(ii) Members of the national coordinating body and civil society groups have skills and knowledge to apply/implement provisions of POCA and/or anti-TIP law;

(b) To enhance the criminal justice system’s response to TIP through the establishment of a formal mechanism between law enforcement bodies to coordinate their respective activities (a formal protocol between police and prosecutors to collaborate on all phases of the investigation and prosecution is foreseen); (c) To improve identification, referral and protection services to actual and potential victims of human trafficking through networking and partnership among stakeholders, envisaging the following: (i) A national system for the identification, referral and protection of victims of human trafficking by government and community service organization service providers; (ii) Key shelter service providers have skills, knowledge, tools and facilities to offer protection services to victims of human trafficking that meet minimum requirements of protection; and (iii) At least 30 actual and potential victims of human trafficking have been provided with direct assistance;



(d) To increase reporting of potential TIP cases through raising awareness and envisaging that community and religious leaders, youth groups and students demonstrate increased awareness on TIP issues that leads to increased reporting of TIP cases.

D.4.2. Migrant children in irregular situations Of particular importance as regards the protection of children against human trafficking, smuggling and other forms of unlawful acts to which children are exposed is the need to have an effective birth registration system in place. It has been noted that Namibia’s birth registration has recently undergone strong improvements since the 2006 coverage rate of 67 per cent: “The recent progress mainly results from complementary reforms by MHAI – which is responsible for such registration – and MOHSS.169 Nevertheless, some groups of children remain vulnerable, without such documentation, including unaccompanied and refugee children in the northern parts of the country and in border areas, as well as In 2012, the Government of Namibia noted that it had launched a hospital-based registration system to promote birth registration. See Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare, 2012b, p. 13.

169

72

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

undocumented rural poor children in families moving to cities.”170 Note should in particular be taken of developments at the regional level and commitments made in this regard by the Government of Namibia. At the recent Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDSA), the following recommendations were adopted:171 (a) SADC Member States individually and collectively prioritize the sections of the Action Plan pertaining to the protection of unaccompanied migrant children and to begin the implementation of the proposed actions, as well as pursuing preliminary work on statelessness, alternatives to detention and return pending the formal adoption of the Action Plan by SADC; (b) SADC Member States individually and collectively develop and implement a regional policy framework and national policy frameworks, including the development of Identification and Referral guidelines and a Case Management System, and to engage in awareness-raising and training activities to respond to the challenges of providing protection to unaccompanied migrant children. These actions should be based on the “best interests of the child”, as provided for in the appropriate international and regional instruments; (c) The accompanying Action Plan, under the theme “Legislative and Policy Measures” (specifically: “Child Protection”) indicates the following measures:172 Review and modify national policies to ensure speedy best interest determinations after arrival, including family reunification; (d) Review practices on safe return of unaccompanied, separated and other vulnerable migrant children in the region and develop guidelines to provide for dignified return; (e) Conclude agreements with countries of return/origin to provide for dignified return for child migrants; (f) Facilitate children’s access to documentation to make their migration and stay as safe as possible; and (g) Develop regional guidance on how to carry out best interest determinations.

UNICEF, Towards a Namibia Fit for Children: Situational Analysis of the Status of Children's and Adolescents' Rights, 2010–2013 (Government of the Republic of Namibia and UNICEF, 2014), p. xvi. 171 See MIDSA, Report and Recommendations of the MIDSA Conference on Addressing Mixed and Irregular Migration in the SADC Region: Protection of the Unaccompanied Migrant Child (MIDSA, 2015). 172 MIDSA Action Plan – Consolidated Version (16/01/2015), items 1.29–1.33. 170

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73

As a capacity-building measure, the plan suggests conducting specialized training for social workers on case management of unaccompanied and separated minors, including on safe return.173 An in principle related matter concerns the situation of undocumented minors who face the risk of statelessness. As has been noted by the Government of Namibia, this was a major concern raised by the UN Committee on the Convention on the Rights of the Child at the Sixty-first Plenary Session in September 2012. The government acknowledges that this is an area in which special solutions have to be found urgently within the framework of international law.174 The Government of Namibia reported that it had conducted the National Child Activities Survey in 2005 to address the lack of updated socioeconomic data on the activities of Namibia’s child population.175 However, while the survey noted the widespread extent of child labour in Namibia,176 it contained only limited information about migrant children generally and non-Namibian children specifically. It indicated that about 0.5 per cent of all children (in 2005) were non-Namibian children and did not further deal with the plight of these and other (internal) migrant children.177

D.4.3. Other security dimensions As has been noted by the Government of Namibia, POCA explicitly criminalizes human trafficking, and the Child Care and Protection Act 3 of 2015 makes provision for the prohibition of trafficking, and for the protection and provision of services to victims of trafficking. Mention should be made of the fact that for the first time, Namibia has successfully prosecuted its first human trafficking case under POCA in June 2015, after more than a year of trial. According to a report by the Government on Namibia’s compliance with the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, labour inspectors started removing children from exploitative situations. In 2010, 10 children were removed from cattle herding and domestic work in Zambezi region.178 Ibid., item 2.2. MHAI and UNICEF, A Rapid Overview of Birth Registration Systems in Namibia: Taking Stock (MHAI and UNICEF Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia, 2012), p. 23. 175 Government of Namibia, 2004, p. 87. 176 The survey revealed that almost 180,000 (67%) of approximately 269,000 children aged 7 to 11 worked. See Republic of Namibia, 2014, p. 63. 177 Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (MOLSW), Namibia Child Activities Survey (NCAS 2005) (Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, Directorate of Labour Market Services, 2008), p. 87. 178 Ibid., p. 87. 173 174

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

According to the Financial Intelligence Centre, no data on foreigners who were successfully prosecuted are currently available.

D.5. INTERNAL MIGRATION D.5.1. Data context According to the NSA’s Migration Report, internal migration generally refers to movement within the boundaries of a given country179 and specifically to those moving from one region or constituency to another within Namibia.180 Importantly, in the Namibian context, the type of geographical boundary that has to be crossed is relevant. At the time of the 2011 Namibia Population and Housing census, Namibia had 13 regions and 107 constituencies. As noted by the NSA’s Migration Report, “[E]vidently one is more likely to cross a constituency boundary than a regional boundary and to reside at a different residence than one’s birthplace. The number of internal migrants recorded in Namibia in 2011 varies accordingly.”181 Furthermore, a distinction is drawn between short-term and long-term migration. Accordingly, the 2011 Census, in addition to usual residence in 2011, asked about birthplace and previous residence in 2010 respectively, which allows one to measure both lifetime migration and short-term migration patterns.182 The key findings concerning internal migration appearing in the Migration Report (with reference to the 2011 Census) can therefore be summarized as follows: (a) About 41,000 residents migrated to different regions between 2011 and 2010, whereas 707,000 residents migrated to different constituencies in 2011 compared to places of birth. Given a total population of 2.1 million, the share of those migrating therefore

NSA, 2015b, p. 6. NSA, 2015b, p. iii. 181 Ibid. 182 The 2011 census asked the following questions to capture the mobility of the population internally and internationally, which were able to depict a person who moved to an area other than that of his or her usual residence (see NSA, 2015b, p. 6): “i. ‘Place of birth’ refers to the place where the respondent’s mother was usually living when she gave birth (not the town or hospital where the respondent was born). ii. ‘Place of usual residence’ refers to the place where a person usually lives for the most part of any year (at least six month[s]) and should not be confused with home town or where a person originally came from. iii. ‘Place of previous residence’ i.e. usual residence since September 2010 refers to where the person was usually living from September 2010 to August 2011. iv. ‘Duration of residence’ refers to the number in completed years lived at the usual place of residence.” 179 180

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

75

varies widely – from 2 to 34 per cent.183 The Migration Report therefore concludes that internal migration appears to be common in Namibia, as elsewhere in Africa.184 (b) Namibia experiences a significant measure of short-term population mobility. About 15 per cent of the usual residents reported that they had lived at their usual residence for less than one year.185 (c) Furthermore, internal migration varies across regions, a phenomenon that relates partly to the urbanization drive indicated below. According to the Migration Report, over 40 per cent of those residing in Khomas and Erongo (comprising and adjacent to Windhoek) in 2011 were born outside those regions, which suggests net migration flows into those regions from elsewhere. In contrast, more than one in six people born in Ohangwena and Omusati now reside in other regions.186 (d) The Migration Report notes that the major demographic characteristics of migrants concerns their age – “… the propensity of lifetime migration is notably highest at ages 25-59, while the likelihood of short-term migration is highest at ages 20-34 […] the majority of migrants are young and middle aged adults.”187 The report notes that “the age selective for non-migrants is different when compared to the age pyramid for non-migrant – i.e. middle age population is more likely to migrate than younger and older groups.”188

Ibid., pp. iii, 3. NSA, 2015b, p. iii. 185 Ibid. 186 Ibid. The report notes that, within regions, there is further diversity – 11 regions had constituencies that included both net gainers and net losers of migrants: “In regard to lifetime migration, Oranjemund constituency in Karas region showed the largest net proportional inflow since birth (+360.7 percent), while Ohangwena constituency in Ohangwena region showed the largest outflow (-43.0 percent). As to shortterm migration Steinhausen in Omaheke region recorded the largest net inflow in 2011 compared to 2010 (+5.4%), while Kabbe in Zambezi region recorded the largest outflow (-25.1 percent). All of these outliers reflect unique circumstances. For instance, the massive outflow from Kabbe between 2010 and 2011 was likely due to a major flood in 2010.” 187 Ibid., pp. iv, 5. See also pp. 11–12, which notes that compared to Namibia's population overall, most lifetime migrants are at ages 15–39, at about 54 per cent, and most short-term migrants are at ages 15–34, at about 56 per cent. 188 Ibid., pp. iv, 5. 183 184

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Figure 8: Lifetime migrants by age and sex, 2011

Source: NSA, 2015b, p. 5 (Figure 1.1a).

(e) Migration is also somewhat more common among males. (f) “As to other social characteristics, short-term migration tends to be most prevalent among the never married and the better educated. Migration patterns are also related to employment and occupation. For instance, migrants tend to go where jobs are189 – moving from regions where unemployment rates are high to regions where it is low.”190 (g) The report also reflects on the likelihood of lifetime and short-term migration within each age and sex group. (h) The report further analyses education, occupation and employment indicators. It remarks and finds as follows (underlining added):191 ₋₋ “About 6 percent or more of those with at least a secondary education were short-term migrants, a higher share than for those with less education. Thus migrants with high educational status migrate more compared to those with no or less educational attainment. These findings might reflect the job opportunities See also, to similar effect, the discussion below in relation to rural–urban migration. NSA, 2015b, pp. iv, 11–14, 23. 191 Ibid., pp. 13–14. 189 190

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available for better educated workers, which may require them to move. Generally there are more male migrants than female migrants who have completed tertiary education. These findings are similar to what was found by other researchers – that more male migrants have higher level of education attainment than female migrants.” ₋₋ “The occupation composition of migrants provides information on the distribution of working migrants among different classifications of profession. As seen in Figure 3.4 occupational groups that include the better educated (such as legislators, professionals and technicians) do not exhibit higher migration. Occupations exhibiting the most short-term migration were armed forces, service workers and elementary occupations.” Box 11: Labour force participation of internal migrants and non-migrants “Generally it is expected that the labour force participation rate is higher for migrants than non-migrants due to main motives for migrating being work. Figure 3.4 shows that in Namibia migration varies by employment status and sex. In general there are more employed migrants than unemployed migrants. Among males migration seems most common among the employed, while for females migration seems most common among the unemployed. Other evidence suggests that employment opportunities attract migrants – in-migration is highest in regions where unemployment is lowest…. Further investigation into these patterns would be helpful.” Source: NSA, 2015b, p. 14.

(i) Urbanization is an important phenomenon in Namibia. According to the Migration Report, a large portion of migration involves that from rural to urban areas, with major implications in terms of access to land,192 and health and development challenges.193 This matter is discussed further later in the Profile.

D.5.2. Disaster risk data Limited information relating to people and geographical areas affected by disasters is available. This information primarily stems from international sources – among others, the Red Cross.194 However, the Migration Report of the NSA indicates that, from a short-term migration perspective, in the 2010–2011 year Ibid., p. 19. Ibid., pp. iv, 19. Regarding health and development challenges, see below. 194 See, among others, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) operation final report: Namibia Floods (31 January 2011) for data concerning people affected, relocated and deceases as a result of the 2010 floods. 192 193

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Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

comparison utilized by the Population and Housing census, Zambezi region lost a significant number of people (that is, 5.5%) to other regions, a situation that could be attributed to the major flood in 2010. In particular, Kabbe in Zambezi region recorded the largest outflow (-25.1%).195 Noting the effect of flooding in both the Zambezi region along the Zambezi River and the Cuvelai Basin in North-Central Namibia, the Government of Namibia reported that in 2008, approximately 2,800 people were unable to find their own shelter and were cared for by the government.196 The links between migration, disasters and disaster resilience are discussed in more detail later in this Profile.

D.5.3. Camp coordination and camp management (CCCM) and disaster risk management capacity-building programme It has been remarked that, in order to respond to the challenges of natural disasters, such as flood and drought, several efforts have been undertaken to strengthen the DRM system in both Namibia and certain other SADC countries in the past years, as well as enhance national resilience to disasters:197

In Namibia, these activities were developed within the framework of the Disaster Risk Management Act (Act No. 10 of 2012), focusing on prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. One such initiative is the IOM led Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) capacitybuilding programme, supported by the European Union, in 2011–2012 and the subsequent development of a regional capacity-building programme in 2013 supported by United States Agency for International Development (USAID), rolled out as a pilot as the first initiative of its kind, building on a partnership approach with national authorities and key non-governmental actors.

Ibid., pp. iii, 7, 23. Government of Namibia, 2004, p. 82. 197 IOM, Summary of Disaster Risk Management Capacity-building activities (2011–2015) (2015), p. 1. 195 196

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According to IOM’s latest figures and feedback received from the Directorate of Disaster Risk Management (DDRM), currently under consideration, the key achievements of this programme can be listed as follows:198 (a) For the 2011–2013 period, there were 64 CCCM roll-out trainings delivered by the Government of Namibia trainers in communities, in 8 north/north-eastern regions and for the 2013–2015 period, 143 DRM trainings in 14 regions; (b) 1,633 persons were trained in CCCM and 6,936 on DRM; (c) 2,219 children were sensitized in Omusati region; (d) There are 37 trained CCCM trainers and 85 trained DRM trainers; 92 Government of Namibia staff and trainers were involved in refresher trainings, including health workers; and (e) 90 teachers were trained in all regions on Emergency Preparedness and Response contained in a school booklet. Also, several disaster risk tools have been developed together with the Government of Namibia, relating to the following areas: (a) CCCM/DRM package – Capacity-building programme/Flood response; (b) DRM training package used during the training of trainers; (c) Refresher training package used during the refresher trainings; and (d) DVD/video and awareness materials (disseminated in all regions). The approach outlined above is both relevant and low-cost, as in some regions training was delivered at a cost of less than 30 Namibian dollars (less than USD 3); Namibia continues to serve in the global forefront of camp management capacity-building models.199 The Namibian training programme expanded into a regional one:200

Although Namibia has a strong Disaster Risk Management legal frameworks, it was assessed in 2012 that the country continued to face challenges in areas of capacity-building, human resources and technical support. Consequently, IOM and the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), through the Directorate of Disaster Risk Management (DDRM) expanded

IOM Regional CCCM Lessons Learnt Workshop – Summary Report (Workshop, Johannesburg, South Africa – 13–15 July 2015), pp. 5–6. 199 IOM, 2012 Report – Multiplying capacity for national resilience – Camp coordination and camp management capacity-building programme: Namibia (IOM, 2013), p. 3. 200 IOM, 2015d, p. 2. 198

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their partnership from camp management level to strengthening the Disaster Risk Management system in terms of capacity-building training within all 14 regions, based on lessons learned and best practices from the first CCCM programme in Namibia.

This capacity-building strategy led Namibia to be a role model to other countries (Mozambique and Botswana) in terms of disaster risk management capacity-building for Namibian communities at national, regional and community level. The aim of the programme supported by USAID, Phase I, was to strengthen the national capacity of key disaster risk management stakeholders to effectively protect and assist displaced and at risk populations in Southern Africa. It targeted IDP, natural disaster prone communities, DRM institutions, partners and other key stakeholders involved in disaster risk management at national, regional, local and community level. The regional programme also provided an opportunity for inter-regional exchange between the three countries, promoting information and best practices exchange. Country-specific DRM package were developed and tailored to the specific needs of each country.

Given the successful achievements demonstrated during the first phase of the programme in Namibia, Botswana and Mozambique, the approach was expanded for a second phase in 2014–2015 to Malawi, Angola and Zambia. In Namibia, the focus of the regional capacity-building programme in 2014–2015 remained related to DRM, targeting the pool of DRM trainers within the country’s 14 regions. The programme activities included the conduction of refresher trainings of key disaster risk management actors on relevant topics tailored to the Namibian context and fitting their needs through a mentorship approach, the development of awareness campaigns, as well as the development of materials and modules targeting schools. It has been noted that DRM capacity-building activities in Namibia are conducted under the lead and at the request of the Government of Namibia through the DDRM/Office of the Prime Minister (OPM).201 Several agencies contribute to disaster risk activities of the government. These include the following:202 Ibid. As has been noted: “The basis of the regional programme found its ground after the 2011 flood disaster which affected the Northern, Northern East and Northern West regions and further affected more than 140,000 people. The Government of the Republic of Namibia declared a state of emergency on the 29 March 2011 and deployed an assessment team in all 14 regions for flood assessment, resulting in the implementation of an IOM led Camp Coordination & Camp Management (CCCM) action to respond to the needs of IDP and a subsequent capacity-building programme targeting DRM stakeholders.” 202 UN Resident Coordinator, Building disaster resilience of vulnerable populations in Namibia (Concept note, 2015). 201

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(a) UNDP and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) focus on environmental, food and personal security targeting locallevel communities, empowering women and youth to adapt to climate change, strengthen capacity for disaster preparedness, integration of DRM in development plans, policies and programmes; (b) United Nations World Food Programme technically assisted the Government of Namibia in developing a Food and Nutrition Security Monitoring System after the 2012/2013 drought to build local capacity within government structures to generate information products for early detection and warning of changes in food security conditions and inform timely decision-making and intervention; (c) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) worked together with IOM to mainstream DRM initiatives in the education system; UNICEF has also worked with Namibia Red Cross Society to develop household capacity to treat water supplies and practice hygiene and sanitation in drought/flood affected regions, as well as improve household identification, treatment and referral for malnutrition; (d) Through the Joint Gender Programme, UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and FAO contributed to gender equality and the empowerment of women, and poverty alleviation through economic empowerment of rural women – this programme contributed to improving the food security conditions of rural women and youth through the introduction of appropriate technology, provision of training and agricultural inputs; and (e) WHO and UNICEF (with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) are strengthening health security by supporting the scaling up of Health Extension Workers Programme to enhance linkages and referral between the communities and health facilities to increase health service coverage in rural communities. Currently, IOM is developing its DRM risk analysis and exit strategy with the government.203 The exit/handover strategy in itself is an ongoing process, and will involve consultations with the 14 regions and trainers, data analysis, development of an exit strategy and a possible signature of a MOU with the DDRM/OPM.

IOM, 2015d, p. 2.

203

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PART E: IMPACT OF MIGRATION E.1. POPULATION CHANGE204 Figure 9: Projected population for Namibia, urban and rural, 2015‒2040: Medium variant

Source: NSA, 2014b, p. ii.

Namibia’s population in 2041 is projected to be 3.44 million, growing from a base of 2.11 million, that is, a growth rate of 63 per cent. However, there is substantial variation in expected changes within Namibia, due in large measure to the assumptions that recent patterns of migration will continue into the figure. From 2011 to 2041, rural areas are expected to shrink gradually, while urban areas, largely due to in-migration from rural areas, are projected to increase sharply. The population of the Khomas region in particular is expected to increase from 341,000 to 828,000 (that is, far more than double).205 Key highlights and findings from a recent Namibia Population Projections 2011–2041 report are as follows:206 (a) The share of population living in urban areas is projected to increase from 43 per cent in 2011 to 67 per cent in 2041. Over this period, the urban population is expected to more than double while the rural population will gradually shrink. See Part C.1.1 and Part D.2.3 for essential data. NSA, 2014b, p. ii. 206 Ibid., pp. ii, 50. 204 205

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(b) The populations of Khomas and Erongo are projected to increase the most in both numerical and percentage terms. By 2041, over a third of Namibia’s population is projected to live in these two regions, up from under a quarter in 2011. (c) International net migration at a national level is presumed to be zero (inflows cancel outflows). However, it is noted that evidence for a net inflow or outflow of migration in recent years is ambiguous. Also, migration is far more unstable than fertility or mortality and can quickly reverse direction, given economic or social upheavals.

E.2. MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT: A PRINCIPLED FRAMEWORK E.2.1. United Nations In its groundbreaking and direction-setting 2009 Human Development Report, the UNDP commented comprehensively on the nexus between migration and development, and made specific recommendations on mainstreaming migration into national development planning.207 Box 12: The nexus between migration and development Regarding the former, that is, the migration-development nexus, the UNDP indicated that there is a range of evidence about the positive impacts of migration on human development (that is, putting people at the centre of development), through such avenues as increased household incomes and improved access to education and health services. The report indicates that there is further evidence that migration can empower traditionally disadvantaged groups, in particular women. However, at the same time, risks to human development are also present where migration is a reaction to threats and denial of choice, and where regular opportunities for movement are constrained. Generally, the movement of migrant workers is said to be caused by so-called push and pull factors. The “push” factors include a low standard of living and the lack of work opportunities, while the “pull” factors refer to (among others) the availability of relatively well-paid work in the receiving country.208 The labour migration process is further aided by everimproving systems of communication and transportation.

As regards the second issue, that is, locating the mainstreaming of migration, the report argues that large gains to human development can be achieved by lowering the barriers to movement and improving the treatment of movers: a bold vision to realize this is required. It suggests that the positive effects on human development can be enhanced by adopting a range of mutually UNDP, Human Development Report: Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development (UNDP, New York, 2009). 208 See also S. Sivakumaran (2004), The rights of migrant workers one year on: Transformation or consolidation? Georgetown Journal of International Law, 36:113. 207

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enforcing and supporting measures within the framework of six areas of principal (policy) reforms, which all have important and complementary contributions to make to human development, and includes mainstreaming migration into national development planning: (a) Opening up existing entry channels so that more workers can emigrate regularly; (b) Thereby ensuring basic rights for migrants; (c) Lowering the transaction costs of migration, including smuggling and trafficking services; (d) Finding solutions that benefit both destination communities and the migrants they receive; (e) Making it easier for people to move within their own countries; and (f) Mainstreaming migration into national development strategies.209 In its reflection on mobility and national development strategies, the report notes that to date, national development and poverty reduction strategies have tended not to recognize the potential of mobility, nor integrated its dynamics into planning and monitoring, which is partly due to the range of other pressing national priorities. However, some more recent National Human Development Reports display a greater sensitivity towards the mainstreaming of migration into national development planning. The same holds true for the role of migration in poverty reduction strategies. A follow-up UN High-level Dialogue on Migration and Development took place in October 2013; its purpose was to identify concrete measures to strengthen coherence and cooperation at all levels, with a view to enhancing the benefits of international migration for migrants and countries alike and its important links to development, while reducing its negative implications.210 Mainstreaming migration into development was one of the four themes of the 2013 Dialogue.

UNDP, 2009, pp. 3–4. See also UN, International Migration Report 2006: A Global Assessment (UN DESA, Population Division, New York, 2009). 210 See www.un.org/esa/population/meetings/HLD2013/mainhld2013.html. See also the Declaration of the High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development adopted by the UN General Assembly at this occasion: www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---migrant/documents/ meetingdocument/wcms_226556.pdf, as well as the summary of the proceedings, stressing among others the importance of ensuring that the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals Agenda (UN, Crucial Importance of Strengthening Link between Migrants, Post-2015 Development Agenda Stressed as General Assembly Adopts Declaration, Coverage of the Sixty-Eighth General Assembly, 3 October 2013. Available from www.un.org/press/en/2013/ga11434.doc.htm). 209

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E.2.2. African Union In 2006, the African Union adopted two overarching African Union frameworks on migration, which both concern the debate on mainstreaming migration for developmental purposes:211

The 2006 Migration Policy Framework for Africa (AUMPF),212 covering nine key areas of intervention, one being migration and development.213 Three issues are included within this area, namely collaboration with African diaspora, brain drain and remittance transfers. Some of the recommended actions in the policy imply or even suggest the adoption of national frameworks (including (labour) migration policies and legislative measures) to ensure that appropriate effect is given to the policy direction, for example, the recommendations to the following:



“Develop national plans of action aimed at comprehensive approaches to migration and development in order to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).”214 and “Include Migration, in the framework of development strategies and national and regional programming … with the purpose of supporting the economic and social development of the regions (rural and urban) from which migrants originate in order to address the root causes of migration and to reduce poverty.”215

See generally H. Klavert, African Union frameworks for migration: current issues and questions for the future, European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) Discussion paper no.108, June 2011 (ECDPM, The Netherlands). 212 African Union, The Migration Policy Framework for Africa, Executive Council, Ninth Ordinary Session, 25–29 June 2006, Banjul, The Gambia, Document EX.CL/276 (IX). 213 The other key areas are as follows: (a) labour migration; (b) border management; (c) irregular migration; (d) forced displacement; (e) the human rights of migrants; (f) internal migration; (g) migration data; (h) migration and development; and (i) interstate cooperation and partnerships; as well as a number of cross-cutting issues: poverty and conflict, health, environment, trade, gender, children adolescent and youth, and the elderly. 214 Par II 7.1. 215 Par II 9.1. 211

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The 2006 African Common Position on Migration and Development216 focuses on the several priorities, including migration and development.217 This document notes with concern that the emphasis on addressing illegal or irregular migration has been only on security considerations rather than broader development frameworks and mainstreaming migration in development strategies.218 It appeals for the adoption of a human rights approach as far as the treatment of irregular migrants is concerned.219 Mainstreaming migration into national development plans is indicated as a key intervention to be adopted at national level.220 In the accompanying Decision of the Executive Council of the African Union, Member States are urged to mainstream migration in development strategies and implementation especially in the area of human resource development.221

E.3. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT E.3.1. Remittances222 According to a recent World Bank Brief,223 the number of international migrants is expected to exceed 250 million in 2015, and their savings and remittances are expected to continue to grow. The officially recorded remittance flows to developing countries are estimated to have reached USD 436 billion in 2014 (the corresponding figure for Africa is USD 33 billion), an increase of 4.4 per cent over a year ago. This figure is expected to grow slightly, to reach USD 440 billion in 2015, an increase of 0.9 per cent over the previous year. Global remittances, including those to high income countries, are projected to grow by 0.4 per cent to USD 586 billion, up from USD 583 in 2014. This is more than double the Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) in the world.

African Union, African Common Position on Migration and Development, Executive Council, Ninth Ordinary Session, 25–29 June 2006, Banjul, The Gambia, Document EX.CL/277 (IX). 217 The other priorities include the following: (a) human resource and the brain drain; (b) labour migration; (c) remittances; (d) African diaspora; (e) migration and peace, security and stability; and (f) regional initiatives and various cross-cutting issues: human rights; gender, children and youth, health, environment, trade, and access to social services. 218 See the preamble. 219 Ibid., par. 3.7. 220 Ibid., par. 5.1. 221 Ibid., Annex 1, item 4. 222 See part D.3.2. for essential data. 223 World Bank, 2015a; see also World Bank, “Remittances growth to slow sharply in 2015, as Europe and Russia stay weak; pick up expected next year”, World Bank press release, 13 April 2015. Available from www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2015/04/13/remittances-growth-to-slow-sharply-in-2015as-europe-and-russia-stay-weak-pick-up-expected-next-year. 216

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Globally the evidence reveals that remittance income in developing countries provides a stable flow of income, is exceeded only by foreign direct investment, and exceeds donor and capital market flows.224 Data on the extent of remittance flows in SADC is not generally available.225 And yet, despite temporary fluctuations, remittances remain a primary source of household income in migrant-sending SADC countries.226 It is especially at the household level that remittance income constitutes a significant livelihood strategy for Southern Africans across all skill levels.227 A recent study undertaken in five SADC countries found that 85 per cent of migrant-sending households receive cash remittances;228 these are sent on a regular basis and “easily outstrip agriculture in relative importance as a household income source”.229 In fact, the same study remarks that, “[A]cross the region as a whole, annual median income from wage employment and cash remittances is the same … When cash and commodities are combined, however, the value of remittances exceeds all other forms of income.”230 Remittances are primarily used for consumption spending, in particular for household food security and other basic needs.231 Importantly, in addition to sending money to their families, international migrants hold significant savings in their destination countries. “Diaspora savings” attributed to migrants from developing countries were estimated at USD 497 billion in 2013, which is the latest data available. Future inflows of remittances can be used as collateral to facilitate international borrowings by national banks in developing countries. Remittances can also facilitate access to international capital markets by improving sovereign ratings and debt sustainability of recipient countries. A recent World Bank Brief notes that because remittances are large and more stable than many other types of capital flows, they can greatly enhance the recipient country’s sovereign credit rating, thus lowering borrowing costs and lengthening debt maturity. In fact, as indicated in the brief, in a recent development, rating agencies have started accounting for remittances in country credit ratings, but given data difficulties, there is still room for further improvement. The brief also points out that the joint World Bank-IMF low-income country Debt Sustainability Framework now includes remittances in evaluating the ability of the countries to repay external obligations and their ability to undertake non-concessional borrowing from other private creditors.232 Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, pp. 7–8; Ramírez, Domínguez and Morais, 2005, p. 52. Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, p. 11. 226 During the 1990s, remittances to many areas in SADC, especially Lesotho and Swaziland, fell (see ibid., pp. 7–8), presumably as a result of the comprehensive retrenchments which occurred on South African mines. 227 Ibid., 17. 228 Pendleton et al., 2006, p. 4. 229 Ibid., p. 5. 230 Ibid. 231 Ibid. pp. 6–7. 232 World Bank, 2015b. 224 225

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Box 13: Remittances and economic development Remittances also play a significant role in the economic development of SADC countries. As remarked in a recent study, and echoing the international experience in this regard,233 “[F]or national economies, crossborder remittances are a source of foreign exchange and taxes, contribute to the balance of payments, and provide capital for enterprises and valuable household incomes.”234 SADC governments and even international organizations have therefore started to integrate remittances as a tool for development in their poverty reduction strategies.235

Box 14: The value of remittances “Total remittances in 2014 reached $583 billion. This is more than double the ODA in the world. India received $70 billion, China $64 billion, the Philippines $28 billion. With new thinking these mega flows can be leveraged to finance development and infrastructure projects,” said Kaushik Basu, World Bank Chief Economist and Senior Vice President. He pointed out, “Israel and India have shown how macro liquidity crises can be managed by tapping into the wealth of diaspora communities. Mexican migrants have boosted the construction sector. Tajikistan manages to nearly double its consumption by using remittance money. Migrants and remittances are clearly major players in today’s global economy.”

Source: World Bank, 2015c.

Evidence from SADC suggests that remittances are predominantly spent on consumption, and that there is little reinvestment of income in savings.236 There is, therefore, a close correlation between migration and poverty alleviation in SADC. Remittances to SADC countries consequently have little developmental value, in the traditional sense of the word.237 More nuanced approaches, however, suggest that development should be defined in broader social terms. Using remittances to enhance human capital spending (improving nutrition, health and education) thus has a social development impact.238 It is suggested that migration and welfare policies in this regard have a role that goes beyond poverty alleviation, income transfer for consumption purposes and social development in the sense used here. For example, as noted above, available evidence indicates that migration has both a positive and negative impact on gender roles.239 Women who stay behind often carry an increased burden of care and support. They may also be constrained as far as the use of

See Thouez, 2005. Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, p. 18. 235 Ramírez, Dominguez and Morais, 2005, p. 52. 236 Pendleton et al., 2006, pp. 6–7. 237 Ibid., 7. 238 See Pendleton et al., 2006, p. 11. 239 See UN Economic and Social Council, Gender permeates causes, consequences of international migration, Commission on Status of Women Told, Fiftieth Session (WOM/1544), UN Economic and Social Council press release, 2 March 2006, p. 1. 233 234

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remittances is concerned.240 It is therefore necessary to develop evidence-based migration and welfare policies that are sensitive to the wider implications of migration and family remittances.241 Nevertheless, to the extent that remittances do fulfil a crucial sustenance and poverty alleviation role, it needs to be asked what role governments should play to facilitate and support this mode of income – and sometimes also goods – transfer. In Africa, it is clear that little has been done to improve and extend the banking system to assist with the flow of remittances,242 despite the fact that “[F]or some countries in the developing world, the fees for monetary transfers across international borders could be quite substantial – in many cases well above 10 per cent of the principal amount.”243 Within SADC, there is little evidence of comprehensive government policies to encourage remittance transfer.244 Consideration should also be given to develop a dedicated legislative provision and an appropriate operational framework be developed to allow and operationalize the use of remittances for purposes of social security contributions. Importantly, in addition to sending money to their families, international migrants hold significant savings in their destination countries. “Diaspora savings” attributed to migrants from developing countries were estimated at USD 497 billion in 2013, the latest data available. Future inflows of remittances can be used as collateral to facilitate international borrowings by national banks in developing countries. Remittances can also facilitate access to international capital markets by improving sovereign ratings and debt sustainability of recipient countries. The brief notes that because remittances are large and more stable than many other types of capital flows, they can greatly enhance the recipient country’s sovereign credit rating, thus lowering borrowing costs and lengthening debt maturity. In fact, as indicated in the brief, in a recent development, rating agencies have started accounting for remittances in country credit ratings, but given data difficulties, there is still room for further improvement. The brief also points out that the joint World Bank-IMF low-income country Debt Sustainability Framework now includes remittances in evaluating the ability of the countries See part D.3.3. See Ramírez, Domínguez and Morais, 2005, pp. 52–53: And yet, “studies on patterns of remittances, transfer channels, use of remittances and their potential for development have barely considered the gender perspective”. 242 Black, 2004, p. 14. 243 R. Holzmann, J. Koettl and T. Chernetsky, Portability Regimes of Pension and Health Care Benefits for International Migrants: An Analysis of Issues and Good Practices, Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0519 (Paper prepared for the Global Commission on International Migration) (Social Protection Unit, Human Development Network, World Bank 2005), p. 26. 244 Crush, Williams and Peberdy, 2005, p. 18. 240 241

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to repay external obligations and their ability to undertake non-concessional borrowing from other private creditors. Box 15: The cost of transferring remittances The brief further indicated that the global average cost of sending USD 200 held steady at 8 per cent of the value of the transaction, as of the last quarter of 2014. However, sub-Saharan Africa registered the highest average cost worldwide, that is, 12 per cent. Also, despite its potential to lower costs, the use of mobile technology in cross-border transactions remains limited due to the regulatory burden related to combating money laundering and terrorism financing, according to the brief. International remittances sent via mobile technology accounted for less than 2 per cent of remittance flows in 2013, according to the latest available data. In a special analysis on leveraging migration for financing development, the brief estimates that as much as USD 100 billion in migrant savings could be raised annually by developing countries by reducing remittance costs and migrant recruitment costs, as well as mobilizing diaspora savings and philanthropic contributions from migrants. Source: World Bank, 2015b.

E.3.2.The Namibian diaspora245 The value of the diaspora for the development and benefit of not only the country of destination, but also the country of origin, is increasingly appreciated. The value lies among others in the transfer of knowledge and skills, investments and the transfer of remittances. It is for this reason that governments, including governments in Africa, have gone to great lengths to establish legal, policy, institutional and operational frameworks to recognize, support, engage with and utilize diaspora for the development of the countries concerned. IOM, in particular, has over the years been supportive of this kind of initiative. In this regard, reference can be made to the recently completed Migration for Development in Africa (MIDA) project. MIDA has been described as a general strategy launched by the IOM in 2001 to facilitate the transfer of vital skills and resources of the African diaspora to their countries of origin. The overall objective of MIDA is to assist governments in Africa to achieve their development goals through the creation and strengthening of sustainable links between migrants and their countries of origin. It has been suggested that MIDA focuses on the circulation of competencies, expertise and experience of the diasporas, without jeopardizing their legal status in their host countries or newly adopted home countries.246

See part D.3.2. for essential data. IOM, Migration and Development in Africa MIDA: Ghana, Senegal (IOM Liaison Mission to Italy and Regional Coordination Office for the Mediterranean, 2014). Available from http://diaspora.iom.int/migrationdevelopment-africa-mida-ghana-senegal.

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One of the successful MIDA projects has been the MIDA Ghana Health Project. Its operation is depicted below: Figure 10: MIDA Ghana Health Project

»» Matching needs in Ghana with skills available in the diaspora »» Pre-departure arrangements »» Facilitation of travel and entry into Ghana »» Assignments in health institutions »» Monitoring and evaluation Source: J. Rispoli, The MIDA Ghana experience in engaging its medical diaspora, Presentation, Training Workshop on Labour Migration and Development, Luanda, Angola, 9–12 September 2014.

The health professionals so procured were involved in several types of assignments, including teaching, public health education, research and feasibility studies, clinical practice and health management and technical support. The achievements have been remarkable: since 2006, over 21,000 health workers and students in Ghana have directly benefited from capacity-building initiatives.247 In Rwanda, under the auspices of the MIDA Great Lakes project, more than 100 diaspora health professionals have been involved.248 More than 150 institutions benefited from capacity-building initiatives in over 400 temporary expert missions by the diaspora in the Great Lakes region. Similarly, partnerships forged for entrepreneurial and community co-development initiatives and networking between professors and researchers of the diaspora and local institutions have resulted in more than 150 project proposals from migrant entrepreneurs received and 12 co-development projects supported, including training for 40 beneficiaries. In this way, hundreds of permanent and temporary employment opportunities have been created for local populations in Ghana and Senegal.249 As far as SADC is concerned, Mudungwe reports as follows:250

Although they account for a relatively small proportion of the total migration stock in the region, the high profile nature of regional citizens in the diaspora begs for their inclusion in the migration and development

Ibid. Interview with Mr Gahamanyi Parfait, Director-General, Rwandan Community Abroad, MINAFFET (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation), Rwanda, 19 June 2014. 249 See www.migration4development.org/content/mida-migration-development-africa 250 Mudungwe, 2012, pp. 69–70. 247 248

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discourse in the region. Despite their potential in contributing to the development of their countries of origin and the region at large, not much is known about this group of migrants, save for the health professional category on which considerable research has been undertaken. [...] Besides their contribution in the form of remittances, which […] are substantial, regional citizens in the diaspora can contribute the development of the region through the transfer of skills to professionals in the region, direct investment, and short-term and virtual return programmes that could benefit sectors such as education and health. Mudungwe then indicates steps that some governments in SADC have taken to harness the role of diasporas for development: Box 16: Measures adopted by SADC governments to harness the role of diasporas for development Some countries in the region realize the role which their diasporas can play in socio-economic development, and have set out to engage their citizens abroad. For instance, Zambia has established an Office of Diaspora Affairs, formed a national technical working group on diaspora, and has developed a diaspora engagement framework. [...] Between 2008 and 2010 with the support of IOM, Zimbabwe implemented a short-term return programme for Zimbabwean university lecturers and nurse training tutors in the diaspora who returned to teach at state universities and nurse training schools on a short-term basis. The Zimbabwe experience demonstrated that working through and in collaboration with diaspora associations is critical to the success of diaspora engagement programmes ... United by a shared affinity, diaspora groups (or home associations) operate between continents and have the potential to use their structures for development initiatives back home, yet their capacity for fundraising, service delivery and project management is limited. [...] However, it appears there are no associations representing the SADC diaspora at regional level. Existing diaspora associations are organized along national lines, focusing on issues specific to their respective countries of origin, and are not geared towards engaging in regional development initiatives. Source: Mudungwe, 2012, pp. 69–70 (authorities omitted).

As indicated earlier, no legal, policy, institutional or operational framework exists in Namibia to include the diaspora in development in Namibia.

E.3.3.Tourism251 The value of tourism needs to be understood from the perspective of its importance for the development of Namibia, also in the policy domain.252 The tourism sector has been identified as the fastest growing industry in Namibia, considering its contribution towards GDP. It has also been identified as a strategic See Part D.1. for essential data. See Ministry of Environment and Tourism, National Policy on Tourism for Namibia (Directorate of Tourism, Windhoek, Namibia, 2008).

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sector in the National Development Plan 4 (NDP4) with promise for growth and job creation by the Government of Namibia. The 2014 World Travel and Tourism Council Report on Namibia contains comprehensive, rich and valuable comparative information on the economic impact of tourism, with particular reference to the value of travel and tourism to GDP, employment in Namibia, exports from and investment in Namibia.253 The report, while seemingly not relying directly on the Namibia Tourist Statistical Reports, is said to be aligned with the methodological framework of the UN Statistics Division-approved 2008 Tourism Satellite Account and benchmarked against the official, published Tourist Satellite Account.254 The report indicates the following, among others: (a) GDP contribution: Direct contribution of travel and tourism to Namibian GDP, rising from 3.0 per cent in 2013 with an average 9.2 per cent annually, from 2014 to 2024, to 5.3 per cent of total GDP in 2024;255 (b) Employment: In 2013, travel and tourism directly supported 24,000 jobs (4.5% of total employment), and is expected to rise to 53,000 jobs in 2014 (6.7% of total employment);256 (c) Visitor exports: Visitor exports, which generated 7.9 per cent of total exports in 2013, is expected to rise to 10.7 per cent of total exports in 2024;257 and (d) Investment: Travel and tourism investment constituted 11.5 per cent of total investment in 2013; this is forecast to rise to 13.3% per cent of total investment in 2014.258 In addition, the 2012/2013–2016/2017 Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Environment and Tourism indicates Community-Based Natural Resource Management as one of six objectives to be attained, emphasizing, among others, the role of tourism in the socioeconomic development of rural communities.259

World Travel and Tourism Council, 2014. Ibid., p. 16. 255 Ibid., p. 1, read with 15. 256 Ibid. 257 Ibid. 258 Ibid. 259 Afrika a la Carte Reisen, 2015. 253 254

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E.4. EMPLOYMENT, LABOUR MARKET AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT E.4.1. Skills development It is suggested that the potential role that migration, and therefore the availability of reliable data (including migration data) can play in contributing to skills development in Namibia appears from the following overview of labour market shortcomings contained in Namibia’s National Human Resources Plan 2010–2025 (NHRP):260

The NHRP is largely based on Namibia’s Occupational Demand and Supply Outlook Model (NODSOM)261 which allows forecasting of occupational gaps over time with the objective of providing an integrated accounting framework to analyse the status and evolution of the labour market. By quantifying occupational gaps, NODSOM can provide useful clues with regards to identifying and understanding major labour market trends and issues requiring policy attention within the planning process. NODSOM provides information for employers, employees, employment agencies and policymakers, thus facilitating a labour market balance while reducing adjustment costs and enhancing capacity for productivity and competitiveness. Additionally, it also helps create the path to ensure that workers are employed in occupations that correspond to their skill level. This is a key step in transitioning to an industrialized economy and ultimately reducing socioeconomic barriers to employment. On the public side of the spectrum, occupational forecasting informs social investment in education and social welfare.



The gap analysis figures generated from NODSOM indicate major shortages that are most critical in occupations requiring trade training and professions in the hard sciences. This is aggravated by the existing constraints in both the [Vocational and Education Training] VET system and the higher education system. The VET system is currently not adequately geared to meet current and future labour market demands for skills due to its limited access (with annual enrolment averages of 2,000 students), its focus on traditional trades, inefficient allocation of resources, the

NPC, Republic of Namibia, National Human Resources Plan 2010–2025 (Office of the President, NPC, 2012), pp. vii–viii. 261 NODSOM is a tool developed by the NPC in 2011 (Ibid., p. 31). 260

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under preparedness of students and the lack of experienced instructors to promote competence based learning.

The university sector also requires investment at all levels to bring education up to standard for the required economic growth. Overall investment should be targeted towards greater access, industry relevant curriculum review, upgrade in teaching methods, and, most of all, development of research capacity. This is consistent with the findings in the 2011 Global Competitiveness Report which ranked Namibia at 113th out of 142 countries in higher education and training. The ability of the country to perform applied research in critical areas such as agriculture, fisheries, geology, information technology and manufacturing is severely hampered by the lack of qualified graduates in engineering, biology, chemistry, mathematics and information technology.



Furthermore, since most of the demand for professionals appears to be in the public sector (health, education, social services, extraterritorial organizations), it is important to strengthen university links to the private sector either through internship programmes (co-op) or applied research, to induce demand for a qualified supply. In other words, as the private sector gains from university professionals, they are more likely to hire locally when it comes to higher-level positions. This is quite relevant when considering employers with multinational links where higher level positions are usually recruited from developed countries. The idea here is to slowly reverse that trend by improving the quality of local professionals. The NHRP proposes intervention strategies formulated for the short term (1–5 years), the medium term (6–10 years) and the long term (11–15 years), under the categories of:



1. Institutional and Policy development. 2. Data management and information dissemination. 3. Improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of the education and training system. 4. Prioritization of critical occupations for human resources planning. 5. Addressing unemployment and employability skills. However, only limited reference to/linking with migration is made in the NHRP. Cursory reference is made in the NHRP to internal migration, and the

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need to develop and implement a coordinated LMIS, which should provide the following information, including information relating to emigration:262 (a) Population and labour force (all variables by age, sex, region and urban/rural); (b) Employment and unemployment (all variables by age, sex, region and urban/rural); (c) Wages and earnings (all variables by industry, occupation, sex and region); (d) Labour demand and supply (NODSOM); (e) Labour internal mobility; (f) Emigration; (g) Industrial relations (trade unions by industry, disputes, collective bargaining and others); (h) Employment in the informal sector, including wages and earnings (all variables by type of business activity, industry and occupation); and (i) Training and education programmes (competencies) and employment prospects. As indicated later in this profile, the key importance of job creation, also as a measure to address rural–urban migration, already appears from two of Namibia’s foundational documents, namely Vision 2030 and NDP4. Namibia’s priority areas for employment creation between 2013 and 2017 are outlined in the Namibian National Employment Policy (NEP) document.263 The NEP is linked to both NDP4 and Namibia’s industrial policy, and has five entry points:264 (a) Institutional environment: Promote a sustainable environment for formal small and medium enterprise (SME) development and capacity-building for social dialogue; Ibid., pp. 58–59. The NHRP (ibid.) indicates that an optimal Labour Market Information System (LMIS) should provide the following information and data: • Core labour force statistics; • Demand data (skill requirements for specific occupations, jobs in high demand, occupations with good job prospects, trends in employment demand, industry and economic forecasts of job openings and others); • Supply data (occupational supply); • Occupational characteristics (profiles of major occupations in the economy providing information on main duties, education/training and skill requirements, employment prospects and special skills/ abilities of each occupation); • Cross-walks and links that connect different data sets, such as occupational education and training requirements, training programme information, industry human resource demands, employment prospects, nationally and regionally and websites for obtaining more relevant information. 263 NEP, 2013–2017. 264 Ibid. 262

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(b) Education and skills: Increase youth employability through a relevant and effective VET system accessible in all regions; (c) Reduce extreme poverty: Introduce appropriate cash transfer programmes and increase access to employment for vulnerable groups; (d) Public infrastructure: Increase the labour intensity of public investment with a special focus on rural areas; and (e) Implement appropriate fiscal and financial policies facilitating productive investment and job creation and develop rural and agricultural development programmes. Box 17: Structural unemployment, skills development and job creation Large-scale structural unemployment in Namibia necessitates serious investment in skills development and job creation. Regarding the former, the Government of Namibia has invested heavily in among others vocational training, supported by the compulsory imposition of a skills levy. However, it appears, as also acknowledged by the Government of Namibia, that this needs to be accompanied by a diversification of economic activity focus, away from a reliance primarily on agriculture and mineral extraction to manufacturing and the service sector. In this way, there would be less need to rely on migration as a way to secure an income.

Several activation policies have been introduced by Namibia to bring jobless people from unemployment or inactivity into work, or at the very least, to influence the employment prospects of the unemployed positively – through activities such as training, including on-the-job training, private sector incentive programmes, including wage subsidies and job-search efficiency services that provide job-search assistance, vocational guidance and placement services.265 The activation policies in place are already in various stages of implementation: • Vocational training centres (under the auspices of the National Training Authority (NTA)); • Education and Training Improvement Plan, reforming the education and training sector; • Establishment of a VET / Training Levy; • Establishment of an Employment Creation Commission (by the MLIREC); • Piloting of the Namibia Integrated Employment Information System, also known as the [email protected] programme, and the registration of job-

A. Govindjee, M. Olivier and O. Dupper (2011), Activation in the context of the unemployment insurance system in South Africa, Stellenbosch Law Review (SLR), 22(1):205–227. For further support for the key role of active labour market policies in containing the risk of rising structural unemployment, see OECD, Preventing unemployment and underemployment from becoming structural, Report prepared for the G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial Meeting, Melbourne, Australia, 10–11 September 2014, p. 14.

265

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seekers and related job-search functions by the Employment Services Division of the MLIREC, briefly reflected below; • Functions performed by the Development Fund of the Social Security Commission (SSC), including conducting training and employment schemes; • The Ministry of Gender offers an income-generating activity grant to eligible persons who cannot access regular bank loans but who have economically viable employment creation project proposals; and • Targeted Intervention Programme for Employment and Economic Growth, aimed to address the high unemployment rate while supporting strategic high-growth sectors. Mention should also be made of the newly established Employment Services Division of the MLIREC, focused on job-seekers’ registration, aiming to get people placed in jobs and boasting a computerized Integrated Employment Information System for purposes of registration. The ministry then canvasses with employers in an attempt to solicit employment for job-seekers, supported by the Employment Service Act 2011.266 In terms of this law, every designated employer267 must notify the Employment Services Bureau of any vacancy or new position in its employment establishment.268 In response, the bureau must ascertain whether suitably qualified job-seekers are registered with the integrated employment information system and are available for work and refer the particulars of such job-seekers to the designated employer (or prospective employer) within a prescribed period.269 No designated employer or prospective employer may fill a vacancy or a new position without good faith consideration of any suitably qualified job-seeker referred to him or her by the bureau.270 The system is apparently also able to include information from training institutions, such as short courses being offered.271 While over 50,000 people have been registered in this manner, under 2,000 people were placed during 2014/15.272 Act 8 of 2011 (the Employment Service Act (ESA)). The ESA establishes a National Employment Service to provide professional labour market services for the purpose of achieving full, productive and decent employment in Namibia, and consists of the Employment Services Board and the Employment Services Bureau: S 2 of the ESA. 267 Designated employers are now those employing 25 workers: minutes of meeting with MOLSW (February 2015). 268 S 16. If a designated employer or prospective employer intends to fill any vacant or new position or advertises for applications, it must notify the bureau. 269 S 16(4) of the ESA. 270 S 16(5). When a job-seeker is referred, the employer must report to the bureau whether it employed the job-seeker or not (S 16(7)). Failure to comply with this section amounts to an offence in terms of the Act. 271 Minutes of meeting with MOLSW (February 2015). Training institutions are expected to report enrolment, qualifications offered and number of people graduating so that the gap between available skills and vacant jobs may close. The 2014 Skills Assessment Survey should assist in this regard. 272 Ibid. 266

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These figures suggest severe limitations with the repository-focused system, no doubt compounded by a general lack of available work opportunities. In particular, by focusing on registration of work seekers, job vacancies and skills development opportunities, the system apparently attempts to play matchmaker without actively working to create job opportunities.

E.5. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT E.5.1. Urbanization273 Namibia has managed to couple steady economic growth with meaningful socioeconomic development, resulting in a general decline of poverty in the country. Some regions of the country, however, continue to battle difficult living conditions, and unemployment and inequality remains a pressing problem. The data suggests that there is a high rate of rural-to-urban migration prevalent in the country, as people move to the cities in search of education, jobs and a better (urban) life, including improved services and facilities. Consideration of the age demographic of migrants in Namibia (with lifetime migrations being most likely for people between ages 25–59 and short-term migration likelihood highest at ages 20–34) supports the view that employment and occupation are key drivers of what is occurring. It should be understood that finding a job is often an arduous process. This is particularly significant in the context of a country beset by unemployment commonly considered to be of a structural nature (resulting from a long-term mismatch between the demand for labour and its supply). It must also be noted that people in Namibia living in rural areas, or in female-headed households or households headed by persons without formal education or reliant on pensions or subsistence farming are more likely to be living in poverty. Poverty rates are especially high in households headed by the elderly, highlighting the importance of income generation during the working years, as well as the need for better ways in which to ensure income retention. It has been noted that the ability of Namibians to escape poverty could depend on their ability to obtain wages and salaries from employment. Persons who are unable to be achieve this objective are likely to return to rural areas in the event that their support structures and families are located there, possibly resulting in the aggravation of difficult conditions experienced by family members and compounding poverty challenges in rural areas. See Part D.5.1. for essential data.

273

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It is assumed that, within the context of urbanization, urban living is associated with higher levels of education, better health infrastructures, greater access to social services and opportunity of employment. However, NSA’s Migration Report notes that in Namibia, little is known whether this influx of migration to urban areas is helping to boost economic growth or is contributing to poverty: “In some instances high urban migration does not result in employment opportunities or reduction in poverty. Nevertheless, one has to note for example that unplanned and rapid urban growth may threaten urban development when the necessary infrastructure or mechanisms (policies and strategies) are not put in place and properly implemented to the benefit of everyone.”274 The Migration Report concludes that Namibia will transit from being a mostly rural society to a mostly urban one due to migration: “In future censuses and surveys further consideration of which migration questions should be included, how they should be phrased and how they should be ordered would be very helpful.”275 It is therefore clear that urbanization is an important phenomenon in Namibia. According to the Migration Report, a large portion of migration involves that from rural to urban areas, with major implications in terms of access to land,276 and health and development challenges.277 • In fact, recently undertaken studies relying on qualitative and quantitative data sources reflect on the causes and consequences of rural–urban migration. These sources indicate that migrants to cities and towns in Namibia come from rural areas in search of employment opportunities278 and to have a better urban life, for education, as a result of climatic conditions such as floods, and improved services and facilities.279 While migrants mostly viewed urbanization as a positive experience, only few succeed to make a living. Other key challenges include settling in informal NSA, 2015b, p. 1. NSA, 2015b, p. 23. 276 Ibid., p. 19. 277 Ibid., pp. iv, 19. Regarding health and development challenges, see below. 278 In fact, the Migration Report (at 20) notes that the population pyramid for urban areas in 2011 is bulky in the middle and has a relative narrow apex, indicating the urban areas have a large proportion of working age population: “This is an indication that young adults are more prevalent in urban areas due to ruralurban migration, which tends to peak at these ages.” 279 A. Niikondo, Migrants to cities and towns in Namibia: What their interests are? (Polytechnic of Namibia Ounongo Repository, 2010). Available from http://ir.polytechnic.edu.na/bitstream/handle/10628/249/ Niikondo.%20Migrants%20to%20cities%20and%20towns%20in%20Namibia.pdf?sequence=1); N. Indongo, S. Angombe and N. Nickanor, Urbanisation in Namibia: Views from semi-formal and informal settlements (University of Namibia, 2013). Available from www.unam.edu.na/wp-content/ uploads/2014/09/Urbanisation-in-Namibia.pdf, pp. i–iii. 274 275

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settlements, relying on income from informal sectors, increased demand of services, poor sanitation, and significant associated health risks, aggravated by overcrowded housing.280 Most of the migrant households are poor and food insecure.281 Also, Namibia’s population density has been noted as a complicating factor in respect of service delivery, also in the context of social benefit provisioning.282 This is also an important factor to consider when contemplating the literature and interventions available in neighbouring countries. According to the latest census data, the population density (that is, the number of people per square kilometre) of Namibia has grown from 1.7 in 1991 to 2.6 in 2011. In comparison, South Africa’s population density is 43.283 As the ILO has indicated, the country’s low population density will continue to make the goal of delivering benefits and services in an equitable and cost-efficient way a challenging proposition.284

E.5.2. Migration, health and well-being285 The NSA’s Migration Report indicates that the WHO (2014), in its African Health Observatory, noted that while urbanization brings along development and other good opportunities, it is also associated with health challenges, such as overcrowding, pollution, poor sanitation and unhealthy lifestyles, and all these factors contribute to poor health for citizens of a country. These harsh conditions are reflected in the Namibia urbanization environment and likely to have more impact on the economic and social development of shack dwellers in the informal settlements. According to the 2001 census, Moses || Garoëb constituencies in the Khomas region, for example, where the shack dwellers occurrence has been continuing, 50.6 per cent of the households in these constituencies had no toilet facilities, and this situation improved slightly to 48.6 per cent in 2011 (2001 census, National Planning Commission-Central Bureau of Statistics and 2011 census, NSA). City of Windhoek (1995) findings shows that 85 per cent of the inhabitants in the informal settlements came from the northern regions. They have a lower level of education, are unemployed and younger, with lower income, hence only able to afford paying very little towards meeting their housing needs. The findings in this report indicate that 63 per cent Indongo, Angombe and Nickanor, 2013, pp. ii–iii. W. Pendleton, J. Crush and N. Nickanor (2014), Migrant Windhoek: Rural–Urban Migration and Food Security in Namibia, Urban Forum 25(2): 191–205 (Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht). Available from www.academia.edu/7869052/Migrant_Windhoek_Rural-Urban_Migration_and_Food_Security_in_ Namibia 282 Ibid. 283 Ibid. 284 ILO, 2014, p. 20. 285 See Part C.1.5. for essential data. 280 281

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of the respondents cited unemployment as the main reason for migrating to urban areas.286 Box 18: Health vulnerabilities of migrants and mobile populations Two recent studies on the health vulnerabilities of migrants and mobile populations – in three informal settlements in Windhoek and in Walvis Bay – have confirmed the vulnerable health context of certain migrant communities. The Windhoek study indicated conditions experienced in overcrowded contexts, including sanitation challenges, limited access to basic health services, (possible) overcharging of crossborder migrants, and risky sexual behaviour: there is indeed need to extend health services in these contexts.287 The Walvis Bay study reports that the majority of informants were very knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS, expressed few prejudices, and use professional medical services when necessary: “In this instance, there is an abundance of public and NGO services in the town. Walvis Bay represents a classical port in terms of concurrent, commercial and transactional sexual relationships in the port environs. There is a high risk of HIV and STI transmission in this context.”288

Migration variables are considered by the MOHSS in its programming for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Yet it has been noted that there is the need to improve data on health and migration, mobilize increased research studies on migrant’s health and migration-related issues, as well as increased advocacy. Also, support should be mobilized to strengthen the sustainability of sector-based workplace health programmes that are migrant inclusive, covering all spaces of vulnerability. These are matters also to be considered within the framework of the PHAMESA II programme, namely the programme that focuses on four spaces of vulnerability: transport corridors, mixed migration routes, urban settings and the extractive industry. As has been noted, by following the spaces of vulnerability approach, IOM focuses on geographical areas, where, as a result of migration and mobility general communities regardless, face increased health vulnerability. In particular, as mentioned before, in Namibia, the PHAMESA II programme responds to and informs the development of the Namibia Health and Migration Promotion Strategy.289 The state of health and social well-being in Namibia is a matter of national importance.290 The Government of Namibia aims at the attainment of a level of health and social well-being by all Namibians, so that economically and socially productive lives may be led. The approach adopted in Namibia is based on promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services in collaboration NSA, 2015b, p. iv. IOM, Study of health vulnerabilities of migrants and mobile populations in three informal settlements in Windhoek, Namibia (IOM Namibia, 2015) (on hand). 288 Sustainable Development Africa cc. Study on health vulnerabilities of mobile populations and affected communities in selected ports of Southern Africa – Walvis Bay, Namibia (IOM Namibia, 2014) (on hand). 289 IOM, National Migration and Health Promotion Strategy (Baseline assessment) (Draft report, 2015). 290 See, for example, MOHSS, Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry, Report to the President (MOHSS, Windhoek, Namibia, 2013), p. ii. 286 287

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with other sectors, communities, individuals and partners.291 Despite the stated focus, a range of shortcomings in respect of health delivery in the country have been identified in among others the Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry (2013), including the following:292 (a) Shortage of health professionals, including allied health professionals, partly caused by inadequate levels of training and lack of incentives;293 (b) The quality of patient care in public health facilities in Namibia is below par; (c) Quality of training; (d) Quality of public health facilities, with many facilities, such as hospitals, clinics and health centres being dilapidated and in decay; and (e) Status of available medical equipment and infrastructure. In addition, given the country’s low population density, outreach of all public services such as health care is of critical concern.294 Real expenditure on public health has shown a significant increase from 2008 onwards. The most 2014/15 budget statement, for example, allocated 6.01 billion Namibian dollars, with the resources aimed at the following: (a) development and upgrade of health facilities across the country; (b) acquisition of health equipment and supplies; and (c) recruitment and training of medical staff.295 Despite this, the Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry suggests that funding to this ministry should progress towards achieving the Abuja Declaration target of 15 per cent of the government budget for health. Ibid. MOHSS, 2013, pp. iii–vi. According to the ILO, the perceived quality issues associated with the public system have resulted in the growth of a private, more expensive health-care sector, and with it the establishment of medical insurance funds and schemes (ILO, 2014, p. 86). 293 See ILO, 2014, p. 87, confirming that skills shortages persist throughout the public system, and that the higher paying private sector offers a natural alternative. For example, while there were 8.8 health workers per 1,000 population in the private sector, the figure was only 2.0 in the public sector. Significantly, failure on the part of the Social Security Commission Employee Compensation Fund to raise the tariffs payable to medical service providers and related service providers have resulted in refusal to accept ECF cases in the past. This results in such instances being treated as if they were private cases, for which either the member has to pay out of one’s pocket or use their medical aid for an injury on duty. 294 ILO, 2014, p. 85. The public health-care system, including mission facilities subsidized by the government, includes 30 public district hospitals, 44 health centres and 265 clinics. The district hospitals are supported by three intermediate hospitals, as well as one national referral hospital. The more remote parts of the country are serviced by a network of mobile clinic services at 1,150 outreach points throughout the country (ILO, 2014, p. 86). 295 ILO, 2014, p. 86. 291 292

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In addition, Namibia should, according to this report, take special and extreme measures to upgrade the health facilities of the country, such as the possible imposition of a special levy on all health services provided by private hospitals, pharmacies and companies.296

E.6. ENVIRONMENT297 Floods, desertification and droughts also have to be appreciated within the context of the climate change debate. In a 2011 study, Namibia was classified as the seventh most at-risk country globally in terms of agricultural production losses due to climate change.298 It has been noted that this ranking is motivated by the already arid conditions prevailing in Namibia, naturally providing difficult climatic conditions for agriculture, which are further exacerbated by ongoing and future land degradation: “These further worsen the country’s vulnerability to direct climate risk to agriculture, and consequently food security, health, household economics and other livelihood relevant aspects. This is particularly true for rural households and small-scale farmers who depend on subsistence farming and even more for marginalized groups of society, such as women, women-led households, and children.”299 It has been remarked that Namibia is a regional leader in climate change planning and has a comprehensive National Policy on Climate Change (NPCC) with an associated implementation strategy and action plan. The NPCC notes, inter alia, that climate change poses a serious threat to the achievement of Namibia’s long-term development objectives and the MDGs. For this and other reasons, the Government of Namibia places great emphasis on addressing climate change and its effects and is committed to adopting a low carbon development pathway.300 Namibia has been actively involved in the global climate change debate, and committed itself to adopting appropriate measures. In 1997, Namibia ratified the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), an almost universally endorsed instrument with 195 Parties. It has already submitted its Intended MOHSS, 2013, p. xi. See Part D.2.9 and Part D.5.2 for essential data. 298 D. Wheeler, Quantifying Vulnerability to Climate Change: Implications for Adaptation Assistance, Working Paper 240 (Centre for Global Development, Washington, D.C., 2011). Available from www.cgdev.org/ files/1424759_file_Wheeler_Quantifying_Vulnerability_FINAL.pdf. 299 UN Resident Coordinator, 2015. 300 United Nations Country Team – Namibia, 2013, p. 36. 296 297

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Nationally Determined Contribution301 with a view to its participation in the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, known as Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21) – where a new binding global climate agreement is expected to be reached.302 Other measures that Namibia has taken include the following:303 (a) Namibia established a multisectoral National Climate Change Committee, which was formed in 2001 to provide overall oversight and advise the government on climate change issues; (b) It also adopted the National Climate Change Policy in 2011 and a National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (2013–2020) under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, which was approved by Cabinet in 2014; (c) Namibia was the first developing country to submit its first Biennial Update Report in 2014; the second report is due in 2016; (d) It has provided community-based green soft loans and grants from the Environmental Investment Fund of Namibia to sensitize the community on climate change, and has reportedly taken steps to reduce its dependency on non-natural energy sources, among others through emphasizing use of green energy; and (e) Kindly note that OPM/DDRM is currently developing a complementary draft Climate Change and DRM Strategy to mainstream DRM and climate change adaptation into development plans.

See UN Climate Change Newsroom, “Namibia Submits its Climate Action Plan Ahead of 2015 Paris Agreement”, 29 September 2015. Available from http://newsroom.unfccc.int/unfccc-newsroom/namibiasubmits-its-climate-action-plan-ahead-of-2015-paris-agreement/ 302 See generally IOM, Contributions to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) (IOM, Geneva, 2015). Available from https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/mecc_unccd_infosheet. pdf; pp. 1, 5. 303 See, among others, Franco-Namibian Cultural Centre, Park Talk-COP 21, Tuesday, 23 June 2015. Available from www.fncc.org.na/news/park-talk-cop21 301

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PART F: MIGRATION GOVERNANCE F.1. POLICY FRAMEWORK F.1.1.Vision 2030 and NDP4 In 2004, Namibia adopted Vision 2030, a document that clearly spells out the country’s development programmes and strategies to achieve its national objectives.304 Vision 2030 focuses on eight themes in order to achieve its objectives, such as the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Inequality and social welfare; Human resources development and institutional capacity-building; Macroeconomic issues; Population, health and development; and Knowledge, information and technology.

Vision 2030 is also designed to promote the creation of a diversified, open-market economy, with a resource-based industrial sector and commercial agriculture, placing particular emphasis on skills development.305 In particular, the main objectives of Vision 2030 include accelerating the process of job creation by increasing support for small- and medium-scale enterprises, including the creation of thousands of jobs. To achieve its vision, a series of seven five-year NDPs is envisaged, focusing particularly on reviving and sustaining economic growth, reducing inequality, creating employment, eradicating poverty, promoting gender equality and equity, reducing regional inequalities, ensuring environmental sustainability and combating HIV/AIDS.306 While Vision 2030 foresaw the reduction of the unemployment rate to under 5 per cent, NDP4, discussed below, bemoans the fact that the unemployment rate has actually increased to date.307

ILO, Namibia Decent Work Country Programme (DWCP) 2010–2014 (ILO Country Programme for Namibia, 2010). Available from www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/namibia.pdf. pp. 8–9. The objectives of Vision 2030 have direct regard to the MDGs and the ILO Decent Work Agenda for Africa. 305 Ibid. 306 ILO, 2010b, p. 29. 307 Government of Namibia, Namibia’s Fourth National Development Plan (NDP4) 2012/13 to 2016/17 (Government of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia, 2012). Available from www.npc.gov.na/?wpfb_dl=37, p. 26. 304

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NDP4 is a high-level plan, leaving the detailed programmes on how to achieve the various NDP4 goals and targets to the various offices, ministries and agencies responsible, whose plans will be scrutinized by the National Planning Commission (NPC).308 This plan, having reviewed economic and social performance in Namibia, depicts the mixed performance of the country in tackling key challenges. For example, while strong institutions, good governance, the rule of law and the protection of property rights have been identified as strengths, the growth trajectory has been criticized as being below par.309 It has to be noted that NDP4 emphasizes employment creation, among others, as a measure to mitigate rural–urban migration.310 NDP has adopted three overarching goals: (a) High and sustained economic growth; (b) Increased income equality; and (c) Employment creation. To reach these goals, the NDP has identified key areas of focus that will create the necessary momentum for higher economic growth. These sectors are as follows: (a) logistics; (b) tourism; (c) manufacturing; and (d) agriculture. It needs to be pointed out that the UNPAF for Namibia was developed in close coordination with the Government of Namibia, and essentially matches the objectives of the NDP4.311 The development of NDP5 will commence in 2016; the UNPAF will also be revised.

F.1.2. Other policies Other policies relevant to the migration context include the following: • • • • • • •

Education Sector Policy for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (2008) Language Policy for Schools (2008) Minerals Policy of Namibia (2003) Namibia Students Financial Assistance fund (NSFAF) Policy (2006) Namibia’s Foreign Policy and Diplomacy Management (2004) Namibian National Employment Policy (2013) National Resettlement Policy (2001)

Ibid., p. vi. The National Planning Commission Act has been established, in terms of art. 129 of the Namibian Constitution, as an office in the Presidency. Its task is to plan the priorities and direction of national development. 309 Government of Namibia, 2014, p. xii. 310 Ibid., pp. 62, 85. 311 United Nations Country Team Namibia, 2014. 308

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• Refugees: Draft Policy Framework for the Local Integration of Angolan Refugees in Namibia (2011) • Vocational Education and Training Policy (2005) • Workplace HIV and AIDS Policy for the Education Sector (2003)

F.2. LEGAL FRAMEWORK Laws that affect the migration context are, among others: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Child Care and Protection Act, 2015 (Act no. 3 of 2015) Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, 1990 Citizenship Act, 1990 (Act no. 14 of 1990) Decentralisation Enabling Act, 2000 (Act no. 33 of 2000) Departure from Namibia Regulation, 1993 (Act no. 4 of 1993) Education Act, 2001 (Act no. 16 of 2001) Employment Services, 2011 (Act no. 8 of 2011) Financial Intelligence Act, 2008 (Act no. 3 of 2008) Higher Education Act, 2003 (Act no. 26 of 2003) Immigration Control Act, 1993 (Act no. 7 of 1993) Labour Act, 2007 (Act no. 11 of 2007) Labour Amendment Act, 2012 (Act no. 2 of 2012) Local Authorities Act, 1992 (Act no. 23 of 1992) Marriage Act, 1961 (Act no. 25 of 1961) Married Persons Equality Act, 1996 (Act no. 1 of 1996) Namibia Refugees (Recognition and Control) Act, 1999 (Act no. 2 of 1999) National Planning Commission Act, 2013 (Act no. 2 of 2013) National Health Act, 2015 (Act no. 2 of 2015) Vocational Education and Training Act, 2008 (Act no. 1 of 2008) Higher Education Act, 2003 (Act no. 26 of 2003) Prevention of Organised Crime Act (POCA), 2004 (Act no. 29 of 2004) Public Service Act, 1995 (Act no. 13 of 1995) Public Service Commission Act, 1990 (Act no. 2 of 1990) Public and Environment Health Act, 2015 (Act no. 2 of 2015) Regional Councils Act, 1992 (Act no. 22 of 1992)  State Finance Act, 1991 (Act no. 31 of 1991) Statistics Act, 2011 (Act no. 9 of 2011) Trust Fund for Regional Development and Equity Provisions Act, 2000 (Act no. 22 of 2000) 

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F.3. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS As noted in Namibia’s National Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019,312 it is essential that Namibia embark on a structured approach for achieving compliance to different international and regional human rights instruments that it ratified.313 Although Namibia has submitted country reports to various treaty bodies under prioritized conventions, it still lags behind in terms of reports that are overdue, some even for over 10 years.314 Such a structured approach will entail an education and awareness campaign on the relevant conventions, a formal review or assessment of the human rights landscape in terms of country obligations spelled out in the relevant conventions and a complementary interventions schedule that will be informed by a consultative process that engages all relevant stakeholders. This must eventually result in Namibia meeting its reporting commitments to UN treaty bodies. From the list below, it appears that Namibia has indeed ratified a large number of international and regional instruments relevant to the migration area. However, note should, in particular, be taken of certain important instruments not yet ratified by Namibia, such as the following: (a) ILO and UN Conventions in relation to migration – in particular, ILO Convention 143 of 1975 and the UN Migrant Workers Convention of 1990; and (b) The two UN Conventions on statelessness – 1960 and 1975.

Republic of Namibia, 2015, p. 42. Namibia ratified 13 of the 18 core international human rights instruments inclusive of core and optional protocols (International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), CEDAW, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (OP-CRC-AC), Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (OP-CRC-SC), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). 314 Namibia has six reports overdue, namely four initial reports (under ICESCR, OP-CRC-AC, CRC-OP-SC, CRPD), and two periodic reports (under ICCPR and ICERD). 312 313

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Table 25: Ratified international and regional human rights instruments governing migration issues Ratified/ acceded

Key international and regional legal instruments UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000)

(2002)

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2004)

(2002)

UN Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000)

(2002)

ILO Convention No. 29 concerning forced or compulsory labour, 1946 as Modified by the Final Articles Revision (1946)

(2000)

ILO Convention No 105 concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour (1956)

(2000)

ILO Convention No. 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (1999)

(2000)

ILO Convention No. 138 concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973)

(2000)

ILO Convention No. 97 concerning Migration for Employment (1949)

x

ILO Convention No. 143 Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention (1975)

x

ILO Convention No. 181 concerning Private Employment Agencies (1997)

x

ILO Convention No. 81 concerning Labour Inspection in Industry and Commerce (1947)

x

UN Slavery Convention of 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953

x

UN Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949)

x

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery (1956)

x

UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1979)

(1992)

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (OP-CEDAW)

(2002)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (1989)

(1990)

UN Optional Protocol on the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (OP-CRC-AC)

(2002)

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

(2002)

UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (2006)

(2007)

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (OP-CRPD)

(2007)

UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (1966)

(1994)

UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (1966)

(1994)

UN Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR-OP1)

(1994)

UNHCR Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (2000)

(2000)

UNHCR Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2000)

(1990)

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UN International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, Articles (1990)

x

Convention on the Status of Stateless Persons (1960)

x

Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1975)

x

UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (1951)

(1995)

UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) (1984)

(1994)

UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) (1963)

(1994)

UN Convention to Combat Desertification (1994)

(1997)

Constitutive Act of the African Union (2000)

(2000)

African Union Convention Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (1969)

x

African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1981)

(1992)

Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1998)

(1998)

Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (2003)

(2004)

African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention) (2009)

x (but signed in 2009)

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC) (1990)

(2004)

United Nations Convention against Corruption

(2003)

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR)

(1994)

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

(1995)

Source: Compiled on the basis of United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Ratification status by country or by treaty: Namibia, available from http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=59&Lang=en; UNHCR, States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol, available from www. unhcr.org/3b73b0d63.pdf; African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Legal instruments: Namibia ratifications, available from www.achpr.org/states/namibia/ratifications/. See also http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/ status_of_ratification/items/2631.php

F.4. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION – AFRICAN UNION AND SADC CONTEXT Certain regional contexts in relation to migration have already been dealt with in this profile – including reflections on DRM camp management and camp coordination training. At the African Union level, core interventions in the areas of human trafficking and remittances have been established – including the Africa Institute for Remittances referred to earlier. Also, in other areas, such as health and DRM, collaborative instruments, institutions and strategies have been developed, such as SADC Disaster Risk Reduction Strategic Plan and Platform.

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Most importantly, jointly with the regional economic communities (RECs) and with three international organizations, namely the ILO, IOM and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African Union developed a programme that is intended to operationalize the AUMPF and strengthen the effective governance and regulation of labour migration and mobility in Africa, under the rule of law, at the RECs and national levels. Known as the AUC-ILO-IOMUNECA-RECs Labour Migration Governance for Developmen​t and Integration in Africa: A bold new initiative (also known as the AUC-ILO-IOM-UNECA-RECs Joint Labour Migration Programme (JLMP) (AUC/ILO/IOM/UNECA/RECs, 2015a), this initial four-year programme with a ten-year vision was adopted by the 24th Summit of the African Union in January 2015. The programme will contribute to obtaining the development potential of labour and skills mobility in Africa by supporting effective governance of labour migration and protection of migrants (African Union Commission, 2015b). The programme guide notes that a regional consultation on 16 December 2013 in Addis Ababa identified priority challenges and set the direction for Africa-wide cooperation on governance of labour migration. The consultation agreed on seven main findings common across all RECs (African Union, 2014): (a) Paucity of data on characteristics and conditions of labour migrants, data required for economic, labour, enterprise development, investment, education and social protection policies; (b) Lack of implementation of free circulation regimes and generalized absence of coherent national labour migration policy; (c) Growing gaps between skills needs versus numbers and types produced in Africa; (d) Absence of social protection and social security for many migrants; (e) Prevalence for migrants of substandard, abusive employment relations and conditions of work; (f) Absence of capacity, coordination and policy involvement on migration by labour institutions; and (g) Lack of dialogue and coordination on labour migration among labour actors and institutions.

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The programme is organized in two major complementary parts: Component 1 on Labour Migration Governance and Component 2 on Operational Implementation of law and policy. Activity areas include the following: Component 1: Strengthened governance and regulation of labour migration and mobility in Africa 1.1 Increased ratification and domestication of international standards 1.2 Implementation of free circulation regimes in RECs and adoption of national policy 1.3 Expanded engagement of labour institutions in labour migration governance 1.4 Tripartite Policy Dialogue and coordination at national, REC and continental level Component 2: Operational implementation of law and policy 2.1 Decent work for migrants with effective application of labour standards 2.2 Extension of Social Security coverage to migrants 2.3 Resolution of skills shortages and increased recognition of qualifications 2.4 Obtaining relevant and comparable labour migration and labour market data From the SADC perspective, note should be taken of Namibia’s involvement in both the SADC migration-related structures and the government-led MIDSA process, supported by IOM, UNHCR, UNICEF and UNODC. Regarding SADC, the development of a migration policy, labour migration policy and possibly also a migration and development policy for Namibia would fit in with the adoption of SADC of a labour migration policy framework and labour migration action plan.

F.5. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK A TWG on migration drawn from the Interministerial Coordinating Committee was recently established and held its initial meeting in early 2015. Chaired by the MHAI, the TWG is, among others, tasked with adopting and implementing this Migration Profile with the assistance of other line ministries, other Namibian stakeholders and involved UN institutions. The TWG met in June 2015 to consider the data assessment report prepared as a step feeding into

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the development of the Migration Profile, and is entrusted with validating the Profile. Its composition reflects the multisectoral nature of the development and implementation of the Profile: • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

MHAI MLIREC Ministry of Environment and Tourism NSA MOHSS Ministry of Industrialization, Trade and SME Development Ministry of International Relations and Cooperation Namibian Police Force OPM – Director: Emergency Management Unit Office of the Prosecutor General Bank of Namibia UNHCR UNDP IOM

Nevertheless, when it comes to implementation of the profile, it is evident that there are also other crucial roleplayers that need to be involved. Primary among these is the National Planning Commission (NPC), situated within the Office of the President. The NPC is charged with planning and spearheading the course of national development. It has the responsibility of planning national priorities and directing the course of national development; the NPC has been coordinating the implementation of the NDPs as part of the implementation process of Vision 2013.315 A separate multi-stakeholder TWG on health has been established, which deals with health-related issues, among others, in connection with migrants. The key Namibian institutions involved in broad area of migration include the following: • MHAI, which is responsible for managing the national population register and facilitating lawful migration. The ministry is, among others, also responsible for the issuing of work visas and work permits and plays a leading role in the several migration-related areas such as border management. www.npc.gov.na/. The NPC Mandate is derived from Article 129 of the Constitution of Namibia and the National Planning Commission Act 2013 (Act 2 of 2013).

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• MLIREC: Two of its core divisions for migration purposes are Labour Market Services (tasked with promoting employment creation and optimizing the utilization of the entire labour force to achieve greater economic growth) and Industrial Relations and Advice (tasked with coordinating and strengthening International Relations and cooperation, as well as coordinating and administering the Labour Advisory Council). • Ministry of International Relations and Cooperation, generally responsible for promoting Namibia’s national interest in the international level in order to advance sustainable and equitable socioeconomic development, international cooperation, peace and security. • Ministry of Finance – Customs and Excise is responsible for collecting duties at ports of entry and screening luggage for possible contraband items. • Ministry of Justice • Ministry of Gender and Child Welfare, which has the mandate to ensure gender equality and equitable socioeconomic development of women and men and the well-being of children. • MOHSS: The mandate of the MOHSS is derived from the Namibian Constitution Article 95 where the State is required to maintain the welfare of the people by putting in place legislation that seek to provide health care of the people and also ensure social welfare for the people including the weak and vulnerable members of the society. • Ministry of Safety and Security • Ministry of Environment and Tourism • Ministry of Industrialization, Trade and SME Development • Ministry of Urban and Rural Development • Ministry of Education • Bank of Namibia • Financial Intelligence Centre • NPC (Office of the President) • DDRM (OPM) • NSA • National Training Authority • National Council for Higher Education • Electoral Commission of Namibia

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PART G: KEY FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS G.1. MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT, INTERNAL AND INVOLUNTARY MIGRATION G.1.1. Remittances316 As indicated earlier in this profile, a legal, policy, institutional and operational basis for the transfer and use of remittances is lacking in Namibia. National data concerning the receipt of remittances are conspicuous by their absence, while limited and incomplete data on the use of remittances (mainly for household purposes) are available. And yet, as indicated in this profile, the evidence in favour of the positive economic and social impact of remittance is overwhelming. Given the positive experience in this regard from countries around the globe, for example, in the Philippines, more could be done to enhance the use of remittances for developmental purposes.317 A good practice is the initiative by the Ethiopian Investment Commission, which provides investment incentives to the diaspora on the same basis as for Ethiopians within the country. Matching programmes, such as partial financing through government funds or on the basis of public–private partnerships, could be promoted. Lessons could be drawn from the Mexican 4x1 programme, whereby the Government matches collective remittances sent home by migrant workers abroad. Measures are therefore needed to address these shortcomings and ensure that remittances are adequately integrated in Namibia’s economic, social and migration frameworks. However, generally speaking, the cost of remitting cash transfers within Africa has historically been prohibitively high. Recent regional and national initiatives could assist with achieving the objective of reducing remittance transfer costs. A 2014 World Bank report noted that the establishment of two regional payment systems, the COMESA Regional Payment and Settlement System and the East African Cross Border System, is expected to facilitate cross See Part D.3.2. and Part E.3.1. above. It has been reported that remittance spending in the Philippines is “what keeps the big service industries such as retail, education, real estate…growing despite the sluggish performance of domestic industry and agriculture. The Philippines has become a service-led economy without going through an industrial revolution” (Ofreneo and Sale, 2014, p. 167).

316 317

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border payments within these two RECs (World Bank, 2014). Steps to address high remittance costs could include the following: (a) promoting competition among financial institutions, such as money transfer operators; (b) capping charges on the Namibian side; and (c) promoting cheaper avenues (such as those developed in Uganda, including the Ugandan Postbank, which has reportedly developed a dedicated diaspora account product that can be managed from anywhere in the world) and mobile money transfers. The regional initiatives and regulations reported earlier should assist significantly to lower transaction costs. Also, it is recommended that remittance stakeholders in Namibia should liaise closely with and make use of the variety of transfer knowledge services provided by the African Union’s African Institute for Remittances, headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.318 Key recommendation 1: Develop an appropriate regulatory and policy framework (in particular, a diaspora policy), supported by a suitable institutional framework and operational measures, to harness remittances for socioeconomic development in Namibia and address high remittance transfer costs. Steps are needed to include remittances as a separate component of analysis by the Bank of Namibia, to enhance research into the use made of remittances, and improve the data collection and sharing environment, with particular reference to surveys/censuses undertaken by the NSA. It is therefore recommended that a dedicated legislative provision and an appropriate operational framework be developed to allow and operationalize the use of remittances for purposes of social security contributions.

G.1.2. Diaspora319 No legal, policy, institutional and operational basis for engaging with and involving Namibian diaspora in the development of the country exists – despite the apparently fairly sizeable numbers of Namibians who live outside the country. No mapping of Namibian diaspora has yet been undertaken, even though it is evident that organizations of the diaspora do exist. The evidence regarding the value of the diaspora for the development and benefit of not only the country of destination, but also the country of origin, is increasingly available. As indicated before, the value lies, among others, in the transfer of knowledge and skills, investments, and the transfer of remittances. As indicated, it is for this reason that governments, including governments in Africa, have gone to great lengths to establish legal, policy, institutional and operational frameworks to recognize, See the African Institute for Remittances (AIR) Project webpage at http://pages.au.int/remittance/about for more information. 319 See Part D.3.2. and Part E.3.2. 318

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support, engage with and utilize diaspora for the development of the countries concerned. Key recommendation 2: • Research on, and profile the diaspora through evidence-based and analytical research and the inclusion of the enumeration of the diaspora in national censuses and intercensal surveys. This would facilitate the formulation of national policies on the movement of professionals within and out of Namibia to enable Namibia to maximize the utilization of migrant human resources.320 This would also establish the basis for return migration and other programmes targeting the diaspora, and negotiations with major destination countries/regions of such professionals on codes of practice on the recruitment and treatment of professionals from Namibia. • Create an appropriate, well-endowed and sufficiently capacitated institutional, legal and policy framework for the engagement of the diaspora in the development of Namibia. This should ideally be situated with the Ministry of International Relations and Cooperation, as liaison with the diaspora largely occurs via diplomatic missions. • Support the creation of and liaise with Namibian diaspora associations with whom the Government of Namibia and other stakeholders can collaborate. • Strengthen public information on the government website for the benefit of the diaspora and provide a platform for Namibians abroad to participate in governance issues. • Create a conducive environment for the diaspora to contribute to the eradication of poverty in Namibia and to (i) remit payments; (ii) invest; (iii) be otherwise involved in the development of Namibia via short- to medium-term engagement and skills/knowledge transfers and matching/ exchange programmes; and (iv) return. • Incentivize the diaspora to transfer skills to Namibia through short-/ medium-term work assignments, mentoring and consultancies, as well as through matching/exchange programmes and the arrangement of fellowships for local professionals. • Provide information to the diaspora on investment opportunities in Namibia or in the destination country for the benefit of Namibia; encourage the establishment of other development initiatives, such as diaspora banks and cooperatives; and create avenues for investment, such as partial financing for businesses and projects financed by the diaspora community. Mudungwe, 2012, pp. 69–70.

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• Publish public information on the government website for the benefit of the diaspora and provide a platform for Namibians abroad to participate in governance issues, such as voting during national elections. • Use the goodwill of prominent Namibians in key positions abroad to promote Namibia and its developmental needs.

G.1.3. Migration, health and well-being321 Migration and health is an area that requires critical intervention, given the vulnerable context of migrants and migrant communities. Spaces of vulnerability in this regard were indicated earlier in this profile – for both internal and external migrants. The WHO recently confirmed that despite progress made over several years, there is an upsurge of malaria infection affecting border communities. Also, Angolans who came to Namibia for tuberculosis treatment need to be followed up once they return home.322 There is need to ensure the availability of services, including social services, for migrants at key border areas. Also, both the policy and institutional domains are in need of streamlining. This implies prioritizing the adoption of a Health and Migration Strategy, and the better synchronizing of services and operations. For example, health care for adult migrants falls under the responsibility of the MOHSS, while health care for migrant children is the responsibility of the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare. Also, the recommendations made in the Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry, mentioned above, aimed at improving the public healthcare domain in Namibia, need to be seriously considered, as they affect migrants and non-migrants alike. Key recommendation 3: • Promote the health of internal migrants, as well as migrants to Namibia, their partners and dependants through the adoption of a Migration and Health Strategy, supported by a Migration Health Policy framework, comprising context- and category-/group-sensitive health interventions, including the rolling out of preventive, educative, treatment, care and support services. • Support the coordinated and prioritized improvement of service delivery in Namibia and bordering countries through enhanced cross-border collaboration. • Roll-out to those affected or potentially affected (migrant workers, their partners and dependants) preventive, educative, treatment, care and support interventions, to be aligned with and building on an appropriate See Part C.1.5. and Part E.5.2. above. Interview with the WHO representative, Monir Islam on 11 August 2015.

321 322

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• •

• •

policy and strategic framework, bearing in mind the need to provide for differentiated approaches and responses. Target high-risk areas (that is, areas of vulnerability) with a view to operationalizing preventive and educative interventions, such as border post areas and sex workers, as well as informal cross-border traders. Provide indiscriminate access to health care and health information to migrants from, to and within Namibia, who are infected or affected by HIV and AIDS and communicable diseases, in accordance with the SADC Protocol on Health and develop harmonized cross-border approaches to manage same. Strengthen family reunification as a core value and operational intervention in combating key health risks associated with the spread of HIV and AIDS and communicable diseases. Consider undertaking an assessment of services available at the border and across Namibia in order to understand how the migration flows impact on service delivery and what improvements can be made to ensure quality services.

G.1.4. Skills development and training323 Cognizance has been taken of the fact that there is an emerging framework in Namibia in relation to skills training, involving, for example, the NTA and Development Fund. Gaps, fragmentation and overlap in the present system are naturally existent. For example, there is apparently no linkage between the NTA and the public employment services that are being developed. Similarly, while the SSC (via the Development Fund) is already facilitating training to unemployed Namibians and delivering this through registered training providers, the MLIREC reported that no training was being provided for by this division (barring limited coaching on interview skills and business proposal writing).324 Job-seekers were, at the time of interview with this division, not being referred to additional training opportunities and an idea to retrain retrenched workers and those who had been in the labour market for a long period of time was not achieved due to limited finances.325 Mention was earlier made of the various initiatives to provide for job creation. Here, mention could also be made of the role of vocational education and training in this regard.326 The Vocational Education and Training Act, 2008 See Part E.4.1. Meeting with SSC (16 February 2015). 325 Meeting with MLIREC: Employment Services Division (March 2015). 326 Act 1 of 2008 (“the VET Act”). 323 324

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(VET Act) 1 of 2008 establishes the NTA and the National Training Fund in order to regulate the provision of vocational education and training in Namibia. It provides for the funding of vocational education and training by way of the imposition of the VET levy. The objects of the act include the following:327 (a) Achieving an effective and sustainable system of skills formation that is aligned with the labour market; (b) Providing the skills required for accelerated development; (c) Developing the competencies needed by young people for productive work; and (d) Achieving increased standards of living and promoting access, equity and quality in vocational education and training. The NTA may develop occupational standards, curriculum standards and qualifications in order to achieve its objectives, subject to policies and procedures determined by the Namibia Qualifications Authority.328 Significantly, it may, for the purpose of promoting vocational education and training, provide financial and technical assistance to employers, vocational education and training providers, employees, learners and other persons or bodies, as well as fund vocational education and training programmes and projects.329 Several considerations reflect negatively on the development and retention of skills in Namibia. Skills training is evidently underdeveloped in Namibia; there is clearly a mismatch between available and needed skills; and the reality of the labour market in Namibia and opportunities abroad make it difficult to retain skills in professions and (geographical) areas where these are required. It is therefore important to consider how migration could serve the development and retention of skills in areas such as diaspora engagement and the integration of skilled returned migrants – as discussed above. In addition, there is a need to create and utilize unique migration opportunities for excess labour/skills and develop skills specifically with a view to exporting same for the sake of development in Namibia. A suitably supportive framework for migrant workers also needs to be developed. Development in Namibia will furthermore be served by the retention and dedicated employment of core skills provided by skilled immigrants.

S 3 of the VET Act. S 5(3)(a) of the VET Act. 329 S 5(4) of the VET Act. 327 328

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Key recommendation 4: (a) Enhance and use LMIS to document and monitor the extent and impact of skills emigration, based on host/sending country censuses and surveys. The data thus collected would be the basis upon which national skills development, retention, replacement and attraction strategies would be crafted, and could feed into regional initiatives.330 (b) Undertake a comprehensive skills audit (which goes beyond the skills audit survey of MLIREC or the sector-based surveys undertaken by the NTA) to determine available and required skills (supply and demand) in Namibia, in order to develop a priority skills retention/ acquisition strategy. (c) As part of the above skills audit, determine to what extent Namibians and non-Namibians respectively are meeting the current skills demands, how training and recruitment would be affected to meet the needs of the Namibian labour market, and what would be required to enable Namibians in the future to meet the skills demands. (d) Link training and (other) service providers with existing databases of available/unemployed workers. (e) Create and utilize unique opportunities for excess/surplus labour/ skills both within and outside Namibia. In addition, skills could be specifically developed and exported on the basis of requests by or arrangements made with governments of countries of destination. Arrangements for the development and deployment of Namibian migrant skills should be informed by appropriate bilateral agreements (also including regional agreements) that provide the necessary safeguards, also in relation to protection under the host country’s labour, social security/protection and economic/trade laws. These agreements need to be underpinned by a range of dedicated services provided by Namibia when migrant workers exit Namibia, reside and work in the host country, and return home. The agreements should further contain and be supported by suitable remittance arrangements. (f) Improve the Namibian skills development and retention framework, also through development partner support, by engaging the Namibian diaspora and attracting and utilizing skilled immigrants to help build the skills base, especially in areas of critical skills needs. This should be undergirded by an appropriate policy and legal framework, the strengthening of the institutional framework and capacity, and programme development and offering.

Mudungwe, 2012, p. 69, referring to J. Crush, S. Peberdy and V. Williams (2006), International Migration and Good Governance in the Southern African Region, SAMP Migration Policy Brief No. 17.

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G.1.5.Tourism331 Namibia attracts vast numbers of visitors every year, particularly tourists. The significant impact this has had on economic performance and job creation is evident. Namibia has indeed taken its place as a leading country in this regard. Nevertheless, the Tourist Statistical Report 2012 and 2013 makes important recommendations in terms of tourism infrastructure and tourism markets, and the improvement of the supporting data framework.332 In relation to the latter area, it remarks that there have been delays in producing and publishing annual tourist arrival statistics reports over time. It recommends that, given the importance of producing timely tourist arrivals statistics for policy formulation and planning Namibia’s development, it is crucial that a quarterly bulletin and annual report on tourist arrivals be published within three months after the end of the reporting period. It then suggests that in order to maintain the timely publication of tourist arrivals statistics, “[a]ll stakeholders should work hand in hand to ensure that: • A sustainable institutional arrangement is in place to facilitate the entire process of the compilation of and reporting on tourist arrivals, from the collection of forms through to sampling, data entry, data cleaning and report writing. Three institutions need to be most involved in this process, namely the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration and the Namibia Statistics Agency. • The data from different sources of tourism statistics should be triangulated and summarized in a single annual document indicating key indicators to easily inform decision-making. Some examples of potential sources are the Namibia Tourist Exit Survey, Tourist Satellite Account, Hotel Statistics, World Tourism Barometer, First National Bank Tourism Index, and Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index. • The arrival/departure form should be revised to facilitate incorporation of needed tourism variables in the computerised system of Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration. With time, data captured from this computerised system will be used to produce needed tourist arrivals statistics and the sampling approach will be abandoned. Verification of arrival/departure forms during the sorting, sampling and data entry process revealed that there are some questions included in the arrival/departure form which are not filled in by travellers and one should assess whether these should remain on the form and be better enforced or be removed from the form. See Part D.1. and Part E.3.3. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, 2014, pp. 27–28.

331 332

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Examples of these are: (11) Number of accompanying children under the age of 16; (17) Visitors to Namibia, kindly state the amount of money you intend to spend during your visit (excluding fare to and from Namibia).” Difficulties are posed by the limited computerized framework to support the incorporation of needed tourism variables. The report notes that, according to the MHAI, (only) 16 of 32 border posts are computerized.333 As is evident from other parts of this profile, the lack of computerized data in various migration contexts serves as a serious constraint in the compilation, analysis of, access to and availability of migration-related data. Key recommendation 5: (a) Utilize tourism data for the improvement of tourist services and facilities with a view to enhancing economic and labour market development in Namibia. (b) Find means to deal appropriately with the fact that different time frameworks impact on tourism. (c) Establish a duly capacitated inter-agency institutional framework to facilitate the entire process of the compilation of and reporting on tourist arrivals, to capture data from various sources into a single annual document, indicating key indicators to easily inform decisionmaking, and to facilitate revision of the arrival/departure form with a view to incorporate needed tourism variables in the computerized system of MHAI. (d) Support the availability of integrated tourism data and the full computerization of arrival/departure information gathered through all Namibian border posts – a recommendation now also endorsed by the 2014 Tourist Statistical Report.334

G.1.6. Labour migration335 The lack of reliable migration data is clearly associated with the problems experienced with appreciating the scope and nature of migration to and from Namibia. Also, improved streamlining of the issuing of work permits and visas appears to be called for. The specific contexts of (increased) skilled migration to and from Namibia require dedicated responses.

Ibid., p. 27, note 2. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, 2015, p. 24. 335 See Part C.2.3. and Part E.3.1. 333 334

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It is important to understand the regional dimension of migration – which is, as indicated, a key characteristic of migration to and from Namibia. Also, apart from the general push and pull factors influencing cross-border migration streams, the need for regional (intra-SADC) migration to support regional integration and the implementation of various SADC protocols and other private sector investment arrangements is self-evident.336 This affects Namibia as a migrant-sending and migrant-receiving country, and other SADC countries. Bilateral arrangements to facilitate and streamline the cross-border flow of migrants between Namibia and other countries, in particular SADC countries, are therefore important. As indicated by Mudungwe, to a certain extent, the rationalization of human resources in the region is already taking place, albeit at a slow pace. He cites the example of the 2004 bilateral agreement between the governments of South Africa and Zimbabwe (The Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of Zimbabwe and the Government of the Republic of South Africa on Cooperation in the Fields of Employment and Labour), which seeks to facilitate the safe migration of Zimbabweans to work on commercial farms in the Limpopo Province of South Africa and regularize the conditions of employment of the migrant workers.337 Simultaneously, in as much international data sources indicate that migration outflows seemingly exceed migration to the country, Namibia should also be promoted as a country of destination for migrant workers. Box 19: Sourcing/exploring dedicated work opportunities for surplus labour in other countries Exploring unique opportunities for skilled Namibian migrants may be called for. Despite the emphasis on creating job opportunities in Namibia, it might well be that given the high unemployment rate, many skilled Namibians would still not be able to find work in Namibia. Reference should be made to the fact that some countries faced with similar problems have gone the route of sourcing/exploring dedicated work opportunities for their surplus labour in other countries. This is given effect through appropriate bilateral arrangements with the host country concerned. It could also be effective via a regional agreement by participating countries. It is recommended that this option be actively explored in the case of Namibia, as this will create employment for surplus labour and ensure remittances as a contribution to household survival and economic development. Of course, in addition to a dedicated institutional framework, this will also require the strengthening of skills development in Namibia, especially if the bilateral/regional arrangement implies that persons with specific skills are required as migrant workers.

Mauritius provides a good example in the SADC context of a country that has embarked on this route, on the basis of circular migration programmes. As part of its reform programme and human resource development strategy, Mauritius has been active in promoting circular migration. Since 2006, Mauritius has embarked on Circular Migration Programmes and some 300 workers have Mudungwe, 2012, p. 67. Ibid.

336 337

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taken employment in Canada. In April 2010, a bilateral agreement with France was ratified. Finally, given the reality of circular migration within the SADC region, there is a need to appropriately provide for the portability of social security benefits, such as pension and workers’ compensation payments, and the reintegration of migrants who return to Namibia. There may in fact be a need to establish a centralized institution that could provide support to Namibian migrants at predeparture, destination and upon return. This may serve several purposes and will, among others, strengthen the link with the Namibia diaspora and provide services and support to the extent necessary. Extensive precedent exists worldwide. Some migrant-sending countries in Asia and elsewhere in the developing world have taken stock of the vulnerable social and economic position of their citizens living and working in other countries. As a result, they have sought to extend some form of protection, particularly in terms of social security, to their citizens employed as migrant workers and also created a supportive framework for the employment of these workers in destination countries. These migrant-sending countries (that is, home countries/countries of origin) seek to protect the rights and interests of migrant workers abroad through specific interventions. The interventions are guided either by the countries’ constitutions, or a statutory framework providing for such protection. The extension of protection of migrant workers abroad via unilateral arrangements has, among others, been achieved through the following:338 (a) The adoption of constitutional guarantees and statutory frameworks facilitating the protection of migrant workers abroad – such as the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines and the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995; see also the wide-ranging provisions of the Constitution of Ecuador; (b) Provisions in bilateral agreements providing for continued coverage of certain categories of migrant workers in the social security system of the labour-exporting country – such as the India–Belgium agreement of 2006; (c) Establishment of Special Overseas Workers Welfare Funds by national and even (in the case of India) State governments, extending protection to workers and at times also their families – such as India, Philippines and Sri Lanka; Ibid.; A. Hall, Migrant Workers' Rights to Social Protection in ASEAN: Case Studies of Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand (Migrant Forum in Asia/Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Office for Regional Cooperation in Asia, 2011).

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(d) Voluntary affiliation in national social insurance schemes – such as Albania, Jordan, Mexico, Mozambique, Philippines and South Korea; (e) Measures and schemes aimed at supporting the flow of remittances and social insurance contributions to the sending country; and (f) Exportability of social security benefits and provision of related services (such as medical care) abroad. These extension mechanisms are often supported by a range of complementary measures introduced and supporting institutions set up by governments of sending countries, such as the following: (a) Establishment of a dedicated migration ministry and/or specialized statutory bodies to protect the interests of their citizens/residents in the diaspora (such as Bangladesh, Ecuador, India and Philippines); (b) Information on recruitment contracts and consular support; (c) Generally providing support services to migrant workers at three stages: pre-departure, at destination (that is, in the host country) and upon return (such as via return settlement programmes); and (d) Lobbying for the protection of migrant workers. The unilateral measures are of relatively recent origin, but seem to be growing in extent and popularity. They cover sizeable numbers of migrant workers – 8 million migrants in the case of the Philippines, and 2 million migrants in the case of Sri Lanka. International standards instruments do not regulate this particular phenomenon; yet, it is of interest to note that reference to this is increasingly being made in what can be regarded as soft law and explanatory/ implementing instruments – for example, in the 2008 UN General Comment No. 19 on the right to social security (in relation to the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) and the 2007 ASEAN Declaration on Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers. Such an institutional framework could help alleviate the range of problems potentially experienced by Namibian migrants abroad, and when they return home; in addition, suitable reintegration programmes could be developed.

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Key recommendation 6: (a) Develop a labour migration policy that deals with all aspects of migrant workers to, in and from Namibia. (b) Support migrant workers from Namibia through dedicated predeparture and return interventions, and support services while they work and reside in destination countries. (c) Align and streamline the migration policy, legal and institutional framework through compliance/alignment with international and regional standards, removal of discriminatory provisions and practices, and negotiation of labour agreements with destination countries, so as to facilitate cross-border movement, the collection and sharing of data, protection and equal treatment with citizens of the host countries, and access to benefits. (d) Utilize the envisaged standardized template for in- and outmigration through the LMIS to obtain reliable data (see the discussion in this regard at the end of this profile). (e) Create a conducive environment to attract skilled migrants to Namibia on a short-term basis and for this purpose, develop a streamlined visa/work permit system with appropriate system interfacing and institutional collaboration. (f) Harness skilled migration for development in Namibia by incorporating in visa/work permit stipulations/conditions that require immigrant professionals to provide training and imparting of skills, so as to improve the skills base and employability of Namibian workers. (g) Introduce suitable measures to manage surplus human capacity. These measures go beyond job creation, and could include identifying and/or creating, per bilateral arrangements with governments and institutions in migrant-seeking countries, suitable cross-border employment opportunities, as well as possibly creating one or more cross-border industrial, cooperative and market zones as a measure to provide employment opportunities for Namibian workers and enhance cross-border economic activity. (h) Align the Namibia migration legal, policy and implementation framework with international and regional obligations and standards even if other countries do not reciprocate or have not yet adopted these obligations and standards. Enter into bilateral agreements, which are mindful of local employment needs and the implications of migration from and to Namibia for Namibia’s development, with other countries. (i) Coordinate migration law, policy and practice in Namibia with the (SADC) regional integration agenda and support common approaches towards the treatment of intra-SADC migrants, appearing among others from the SADC Labour Migration Action Plan, the SADC Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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Labour Migration Policy Framework, and the provisions of the SADC Protocol on Employment and Labour. Address migration challenges in the SADC region affecting Namibia migrants through consultation and negotiations and by identifying regional solutions and bilateral and multilateral agreements. (j) Prepare labour in Namibia for migration through a range of interventions: (i) Provide information on bilateral labour arrangements/ agreements with destination countries; (ii) Provide appropriate documentation (such as passports and police clearance) to would-be migrant workers; (iii) Educate would-be migrants on matters such as the following: ₋₋ The cultural/social context and living, labour market, work, social security and economic environment, as well as the education system of destination countries; ₋₋ Formal channels to remit money back home; and ₋₋ Services provided by the home country (that is, Namibia); (iv) Provide would-be Namibia migrant workers with information on/advice about skills needed and employment opportunities, as well as relevant laws of destination countries; (v) Provide them with legal protection against exploitation, fraud, trafficking, human smuggling and other malpractices; and (vi) In the interests of safeguarding the rights of migrant workers abroad, consider posting labour attachés to Namibian diplomatic missions to promote and safeguard the rights and welfare of Namibian migrants.

(k) Support returning migrants and provide reintegration services through the following: (i) Coordinate with host country governments and foreign employers about the profiles of returning migrants; (ii) Disseminate information about the reintegration services available in Namibia; (iii) Provide skills training for returning migrants; (iv) Monitor and evaluate the reintegration of returning migrants; and (v) Assist returning migrants with claiming and accessing social security benefits.



(l) Investigate whether the legal and institutional framework for the regulation of private employment agencies is sufficient to appropriately capture the recruitment of Namibians for work abroad.

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G.1.7. Internal migration339 The prevalence, extent and impact of internal migration, particularly in the sense of rural–urban migration, have been highlighted in this profile. There have been several governmental responses to this phenomenon, also as regard extended service delivery. Health-related recommendations were made above. Key recommendation 7: • Ensure the inclusion of internal migration issues in a migration policy to be developed, in order to support a strategic framework of intersectoral interventions to manage rural–urban migration and its effects on individuals and households, and on social cohesion and economic and spatial development, including decentralization and poverty reduction. This strategic framework should, among others, provide for employment creation in rural areas and integration of those who do not return to rural areas in urban planning. • The framework should also provide for the following:340 ₋₋ “Strengthen efforts to address causes of internal migration including poverty, environmental degradation, natural disasters, and conflict, especially as they relate to the process of urbanization. ₋₋ Take steps to ensure that persons migrating internally have adequate access to basic services, housing, land, property and employment especially in urban centers with rapidly growing populations of migrants from rural areas. ₋₋ Strengthen data gathering and research on factors, trends and characteristics of internal migration and geographical distribution of population and formulate more effective policies relating to population distribution and migration.”

G.1.8. Disaster risk management and climate change adaptation341 In view of close collaboration between the Government of Namibia, IOM and other stakeholders, swift action has been taken in recent years to intervene and assist in the wake of disasters and internal displacement of populations. Systems and processes have been introduced, widespread training took place, and the success of the DRM and CCCM programme caused it to be See Part D.5.1. African Union, 2006a, pp. 28–29 (par. 4). 341 See Part D.5.1.–5.2. and Part E.6. 339 340

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extended to certain other countries in the SADC region. According to IOM, the latest information for Namibia and feedback from the DDRM, currently under consideration, reveal the following:342 (a) After all the trainings, manuals, training of trainers trained, Namibia has improved its sectoral collaboration; (b) IOM has brought together and amalgamated its CCCM and DRM materials; (c) The Government has helped develop the legal framework and community involvement in short-term displacement has improved; and (d) Structures that were already in place have been “revived” and the linkage between the national, regional and constituent coordination levels have been strengthened. The IOM is currently preparing an exit strategy from its CCCM/DRM capacity-building programme, and handover to the Government of Namibia. According to the IOM, the following strategic plan priorities, currently under consideration, have been indicated: Box 20: DDRM/CCCM Strategic Plan priorities343 System:

Support the facilitation of awareness and dissemination of legal frameworks to all sectors at national, regional and local levels and support the development and review of the national and district levels contingency planning.

Organization:

Review the DRM structures at national, regional and constituency level. Advocate for budgetary provision from national level to regional. Support the Government to review contingency plans. Introduce monitoring and evaluation, particularly qualitative assessments of the impact of the programme.

Individuals:

Conduct CCCM/DRM training for policymakers and conduct training of different stakeholders on Emergency Operations Centre Roll-out trainings to local communities. Conduct CCCM/DRM refresher training. Conduct regional roll-out for CCCM/DRM training. Mainstream protection and gender-based violence in CCCM.

Government handover:

Conduct an achievements workshop. Handover activities report.

Source: IOM, 2015e.

IOM, 2015e, pp. 5–6. Ibid., p. 12.

342 343

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It is foreseen that an assessment will be undertaken involving trainers on the one hand, and on the other hand, those who have been trained and who institutionally benefit from the training (such as the regional and local government structures) to have a sense of the impact of the training, the challenges involved and the benefits derived. This will help to inform further policymaking and strategic planning in this important area for Namibia. Such a survey should build on but also go beyond the consultations that were held in the past with trainers, and which rendered valuable results regarding challenges and opportunities.344 The survey should ideally involve the DDRM-OPM, IOM and the Namibian Red Cross Society, who are key role-players in this area, as well as key stakeholders involved in this programme. Also, according to the National Gender Plan of Action 2010–2010, there is a need to ensure gender mainstreaming in disaster management, as well as develop an engendered Emergency and Management Unit (to enhance gender awareness in disaster management).345 Finally, there is a need to recognize the link between migration and climate change. The United National Framework Convention on Climate Change is a legally binding international agreement linking development and environment, recognizing that land degradation is a driver of forced migration. With 195 parties, it is the world’s most ratified environmental treaty. Namibia does not have a commitment under this convention, but has made several efforts to develop strategies, recognizing that climate change is a threat to the economic development and well-being of Namibians. Key recommendation 8: • Continue with the transition of the CCCM/DRM capacity-building programme targeting affected areas to the Government of Namibia, based on the Strategic Plan priorities and the exit strategy road map. • Undertake impact assessment with both the trainers and the beneficiary communities/individual beneficiaries for all capacity-building programmes in Namibia. • Appreciate the multi-source nature of internal displacement within and across borders and in particular, that internal migration could arise not only from disasters, but also from environmental changes – and take all needed measures to address displacement caused by climate change.

IOM, 2015d. Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare, National Gender Plan of Action 2010–2020 (2010), pp. 72, 74.

344 345

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• Place an appropriate focus on protection and prevention – in line with the OPM/DDRM approach in this regard. • Consider undertaking an assessment on the impact of climate change on human mobility to define appropriate evidence-based and appropriate measures and policies by taking into account the specific context of environmental migration. • Consider the ratification of the African Union Kampala Convention – Namibia signed this instrument on 23 October 2009, but has yet to officially adopt this. This convention effectively endorses a human rights approach to dealing with situations of and people exposed to internal displacement.

G.1.9. Refugees346 As indicated in this profile, significant achievements have been reached as far as refugees and asylum-seekers are concerned. Their numbers have been substantially reduced, as durable solutions have in agreement with the Government of Namibia been found. It is for this reason that the UNHCR has decided to exit Namibia. Key recommendation 9: • Ensure the maintenance of a CCCM structure for Osire camp under the lead of the Government of Namibia, the implementation of the UNHCR exit strategy and bring on board suitable implementing partners to support the Government of Namibia.347 • Consider the development of medium- to longer-term solutions – such as voluntary return (where appropriate) and bilateral agreements – for the return of refugees to countries where a situation conducive to refugee departure from Namibia exists. • Consider better utilization of significant skills sets of refugees in coordinated fashion, with a plan and strategy.

G.1.10. Human trafficking348 While some progress has been made to deal with human trafficking in its many contexts in Namibia, substantial work remains. Despite the current legislative and policy shortcomings, the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare has implemented a range of human trafficking programmes focusing on prevention (awareness raising), progress with work on comprehensive See Part D.2.8. L. Mbangson, UNHCR Exit Strategy 2014/2015 (29 April 2014). 348 See Part D.4.1. 346 347

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legislation, and training of front-line professionals and officials. In response to the recommendations made by external institutions, the Namibian Gender Policy mentions that while information has been scarce on human trafficking, emerging research and documentation in the region indicate that this is a growing problem exacerbated by high poverty levels, gender inequality, unemployment and limited opportunity for the poor. Therefore, to address this problem, it is important to put in place a comprehensive and multisectoral approach addressing prevention, advocacy and awareness-raising, rehabilitation, integration and repatriation, as well as instituting comprehensive legislation that criminalizes human trafficking for ease of prosecuting offenders.349 The National Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019 indicates important interventions to be introduced in the domain of human trafficking:350 (a) Review of the curriculum for police training to include how to deal with anti-human trafficking (the Ministry of Justice being the lead ministry); (b) Allocation of the resources necessary for the implementation of the “Zero Tolerance Campaign against Gender Based Violence” and human trafficking (the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare being the lead ministry); and (c) Finalization of the Trafficking in Persons Bill (the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare being the lead ministry and the Ministry of Justice the supporting ministry).351 Additionally, the review and implementation of a comprehensive witness support programme is indicated as the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice as the lead ministry, with support to be given by the Prosecutor General.352

Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare, National Gender Policy (2010–2020) (2010), p. 29. The policy lists strategies for addressing human trafficking, including the following: (a) development of a comprehensive law that regulates different aspects of human trafficking in Namibia and review of existing legal frameworks with a view to their harmonization with this overarching law; (b) development of a childfriendly, gender-sensitive and service delivery-oriented national policy to guide a multisectoral approach to the prevention of human trafficking; and (c) a comprehensive referral network, assistance to victims, preventive activities, training activities and capacity-building activities (ibid., p. 31). 350 Republic of Namibia, 2015, pp. 33–34. 351 See also Republic of Namibia, 2014, p. 44. Namibia ratified the mainline UN Convention and the accompanying Protocol (that is, the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and the Additional Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Humans, Especially Women and Children), the Prevention of Organised Crime Act 29 of 2004 (which entered into force in 2009), does not address human trafficking and the smuggling of person comprehensively in line with the Convention and Protocol (ibid., p. 43). 352 Republic of Namibia, 2015, p. 33. 349

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Key recommendation 10: • Implement the intervention made in the Namibian Gender Policy and develop a comprehensive and multisectoral approach addressing prevention, advocacy and awareness-raising, rehabilitation, integration and repatriation. • Give serious consideration to important interventions suggested by the National Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019:353 ₋₋ Review of the curriculum for police training to include how to deal with anti-human trafficking (the Ministry of Justice being the lead ministry); ₋₋ Allocation of the resources necessary for the implementation of the “Zero Tolerance Campaign against Gender Based Violence,” and human trafficking (the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare being the lead ministry); and ₋₋ Finalization of the Trafficking in Persons Bill (the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare being the lead ministry and the Ministry of Justice the supporting ministry) that criminalizes human trafficking for ease of prosecuting offenders.354 • Consider and give effect to the following recommendations made in the 2015 Trafficking in Persons report:355 ₋₋ “Finalize and enact comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation; increase efforts to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses, and convict and punish trafficking offenders under existing law; develop and implement systematic procedures for the proactive identification of victims and their subsequent referral to care; train officials on relevant legislation and identification and referral procedures; train judicial officials to promote consistent use of a broad definition of human trafficking that does not rely on evidence of movement, but focuses on exploitation, consistent with the 2000 UN TIP Protocol; allocate resources and develop a plan to fully operationalize renovated safe houses; appoint a formal government lead for anti-trafficking efforts; proactively investigate and criminally prosecute employers accused of forced labor violations in Chinese retail, construction, and Republic of Namibia, 2015, pp. 33–34. See also Republic of Namibia, 2014, p. 44. Namibia ratified the mainline UN Convention and the accompanying Protocol (that is, the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and the Additional Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Humans, Especially Women and Children), the Prevention of Organised Crime Act 29 of 2004 (which entered into force in 2009), does not address human trafficking and the smuggling of person comprehensively in line with the Convention and Protocol (ibid., p. 43). 355 Ibid., p. 256. 353 354

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fishing operations; strengthen coordination among government ministries, at both the minister and the working level; and institute a unified system for collecting trafficking case data for use by all stakeholders.” • In order to address concerns about human trafficking in and involving Namibia, consideration should be given to strengthen the data environment. This includes obtaining data – via surveys and otherwise, in particular qualitative research – which should, in the first place, take note of and be aligned with the identified macro factors leading to trafficking (and for that matter also smuggling), including the following:356 ₋₋ Patriarchy; ₋₋ Poverty; ₋₋ HIV/AIDS; ₋₋ Organized crime networks that, according to respondents, link drug trafficking to that of humans; ₋₋ Norms that support the use of violence against women, children and the marginalized; ₋₋ Cultural practices that are harmful or disempowering to women and children; ₋₋ Sex tourism, described as occurring when an individual travels from one jurisdiction to another (either domestically or internationally) to engage in sexual abuse or exploitation of adults or children at the destination site; ₋₋ Infrastructure issues such as the following: (a) lack of public transport resulting in trucks being the main form of transport; (b) control and security at borders and ports; (c) lack of technology, including computers, screening equipment for cargo and phones; and (d) a shortage of trained personnel to deal with trafficking cases; and ₋₋ Regional issues, such as Zimbabwe’s deteriorating political situation and socioeconomic differences between specific countries in the SADC region. From an overall perspective, all of the above contexts have important data implications. It is important to note that the National Plan of Action on Gender-Based Violence 2012–2016 provides, under the strategy to implement special measures to combat trafficking in persons, for the development and maintenance of a database on trafficking, as well as the establishment of a 356

See Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare (in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry), 2009, p. 66.

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comprehensive directory of services that can be utilized to assist trafficking victims. It also emphasizes the importance of supporting SADC interventions to combat trafficking, and the strengthening of links with international role players such as Interpol and the IOM.357

G.2. MIGRATION MANAGEMENT G.2.1. Border management358 The problem of irregular migration across the borders of Namibia is exacerbated by the fact that the borders between Namibia and its neighbours are porous. Due to, among others, only a partly automated border system, there is weak management of migration across Namibian borders. An automated system may not, as such, be able to prevent persons from crossing over irregularly; however, it could ensure that there is proper recording of lawful crossings, which could be shared with authorities of neighbouring countries. In addition, it would free up personnel who could assist with border control/protection. In short, there is a need for a dedicated and cross-border management system involving officials from both neighbouring countries and Namibia, especially in view of increased movement across the northern borders in particular – evidenced by the fact that the 2015–2018 Medium-term Expenditure Framework provided for the construction of three new border posts.359 There is evidently a need to enhance the capacity of the Government of Namibia to strengthen national and promote regional responses to migration management in the Southern African region.360 This is also the subject of an IOM-proposed project, aimed at strengthening the capacity of the Government of Namibia to address border management and border control matters as they relate to Namibia and her neighbours focusing on addressing the negative effects that poor migration governance can have and to increase coordination between the Government of Namibia and its neighbouring States with a focus on IBM, identification, protection inclusive of assistance to vulnerable migrants and VOTs.361

See Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare, 2012a, pp. 50–51. See Part D.2.2. and Part D.4. 359 National Planning Commission Development Programmes: Estimates of Expenditure – Medium-Term Expenditure Framework 2015/2016 to 2017/2018 (2015), pp. 23–24, 37. 360 IOM, 2015a. 361 Ibid., p. 2. 357 358

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Key recommendation 11: • Increase the capacity of several stakeholders in Namibia involved in border management, including different line ministries, and install the Border Management Information System, supported by dedicated training. • Strengthen the capacity of line ministries and other actors to adopt integrated and coordinated approaches of border management through multifaceted training and capacity-building. • Consider the conclusion of bilateral agreements to ensure that the return of irregular migrants happens in dignified fashion, supported by appropriate reintegration measures. For this purpose, it is recommended that MHAI should include a framework and activities for voluntary return in the 2016 MHAI budget. • Finalize visa harmonization, in view of the need to revise visa procedures in Namibia. • Strengthen the data environment applicable to border management and share such data on a cross-border basis with agencies of the neighbouring countries, to ensure coordinated responses and actions. • Give effect and implement recommendations made in previous studies to streamline and enhance border management, with specific reference to:362 ₋₋ Replacing the border passes currently in use at the Namibia– Angola border with the Border Resident Card system; ₋₋ Digitalize systems at those border posts where use is still made of manual capturing of data; ₋₋ Address outdated provisions in citizenship legislation and develop overarching policy goals and priorities for border management; ₋₋ Revise the current work and residential permit law and policy framework to ensure that it responds to economic and political needs; ₋₋ Address gaps that exist in border security; ₋₋ Consider more streamlined decision-making concerning permit applications, in view of criticism expressed at the current process; and ₋₋ Make relevant border data in principle accessible to relevant stakeholders and researchers. • Jointly address the issue of statelessness and undocumented migrants in coordination with the Ministry of Poverty and Social Welfare. • Address poverty challenges and the development of skills on both sides of the border to ensure a positive impact on cross-border movements of populations. See, among others, IOM, Namibia Border Control and Migration Management Assessment (IOM, Geneva, 2008).

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G.2.2. Migration policy, legal and institutional framework363 The case for policy development focused on harnessing migration for development is well-grounded in international and regional instruments and comparative experience. The legal framework comprises both international and regional instruments and standards, as well as the domestic legal context. The range of international and regional standards (and supporting guidelines) raises critical questions concerning ratification and compliance (by Namibia), as well as alignment with these standards and guidelines in the policy and legislative domain. Bearing in mind the comments received from, in particular, UN supervisory bodies, it is clear that the existing policy and legal framework is not sufficiently aligned with these standards and guidelines, and this prompts the need to review and revise the main legal and policy instruments. In the institutional sphere, it is necessary to designate a governmental institution, which should drive the implementation of key components of migration management, as well as strengthened and expanded consultative structures. This could be in the form of a sufficiently capacitated Migration Department within the lead ministry, that is, the MHAI. This could serve as the key government coordinating body in the area of migration. Key recommendation 12: • Develop concrete policies to give effect to core elements of the Migration Profile, with specific reference to a Migration Policy for Namibia, a Labour Migration Policy, and possibly a Migration and Development Policy. • Consider establishing a dedicated, well-endowed and capacitated governmental body to deal with migration and migration management, in view of the importance of migration in Namibia’s socioeconomic landscape. This body could be a multisectoral body and could function under the lead of the MHAI. • Consider the ratification and implementation of major migration standardsetting instruments of the ILO and the UN, as well as other relevant standard-setting instruments to guide migration policy and practice in Namibia. • Align the migration policy, legal and implementation, as well as institutional framework in Namibia with both ratified international (that is, UN and ILO), African Union and SADC instruments and with key non-ratified and non-binding migration instruments of considerable value, such as the ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration (2006); the African Union See Part F.1. and F.2.

363

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Migration Policy Framework (2006); the African Common Position on Migration and Development (endorsed by the African Union Executive Council (2006); the Joint Africa-European Union Declaration on Migration and Development (2006); relevant SADC Protocols, including the Protocol on the Facilitation on Movement of Persons (2005) and the Protocol on Gender and Development (2008); the SADC Charter of Fundamental Social Rights (2003); the SADC Protocol on Employment and Labour (2014); and the Code on Social Security in SADC (2007). Consideration should also be given to comments received by Namibia emanating from international and regional treaty supervisory organs, with a view to reforming the current legal, policy and institutional frameworks impacting on migration and development. • Build capacity of government institutions and officials involved in migration (and development) policy development, implementation and enforcement, as well as other migration and development stakeholders, including the private sector, social partners, civil society (in particular migration associations and non-governmental organizations), research institutions and the judiciary. This should ideally focus on understanding and implementing the migration and development policy framework and creating sensitivity to the international and regional standards context, as well as the domestic legal and institutional environment. • Expand the composition of the Migration TWG under the lead of the MHAI to include other relevant migration stakeholders, such as the NPC, and strengthen its role as the primary consultative multi-stakeholder body for deliberating and advising on migration, and coordinating engagement of all relevant stakeholders. The TWG should be formally constituted in enabling legislation and legal effect be given to its role and obligations. • Mainstream the components of the Migration Profile in national and sectoral policies, strategies and plans of action.

G.3. MIGRATION DATA364 G.3.1. Data shortcomings Overall, the picture regarding migration data in Namibia is one that emphasizes the need for intervention to extend and improve the spread and scope, as well as the collection, analysis, application, sharing and mainstreaming of migration data. All of this, one would believe, has to be informed by the See Part B.1. and B.2.

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identification and development of policy objectives to be achieved and purposes to be served by Namibian migration data, the translation of these into migration variables/indicators and the incorporation thereof in census and data survey frameworks. However, it would appear that the very policy and planning framework in relation to migration is underdeveloped in Namibia. To a large extent, this is reflected in the limited expression and understanding of data needs and the use of data concerning migration on the part of stakeholders, including policy and development planners. This applies particularly to international migration, and less so to internal migration. It is believed that this is mainly the result of the absence of an appropriate migration policy framework in Namibia, with specific reference to in-, out- and transit-migration. Problems with current national data sets include the following: (a) NHIES: As noted above, these surveys have been carried out every five years since 1994. It is important to note that the questionnaire for the next survey, the 2015/2016 NHIES, effectively scheduled (this time) as an intercensal survey, has been designed to obtain data on a range of internal, in-migration and outmigration related indicators. These indicators evidently assist with gaining an incomeand expenditure-related picture of household members who could be internal migrants or foreign migrants living and/or working in Namibia. However, more pertinent questions could be asked in relation to the immigrant and occupational status of foreign migrants, as well as the occupational status of internal migrants, also in view of the inadequate provision made in the LFS in relation to foreign migrants. Furthermore, as indicated, the current format of the census questions leaves little room to explore details of emigrant status, to the extent that household members in Namibia may be privy to such information. Finally, while some questions are asked regarding the receipt of remittances, one or more further questions could be posed to obtain a picture of how/for what purpose(s) use is being made of remittances. (b) DHS: It should be noted that none of the indicators investigated in the DHS, nor any of the questionnaire questions, refer to migrant or nationality status. Based on the data obtained via the DHS, it is therefore not possible to obtain a picture of the extent to which the data may apply to short- and long-term migrants, or to internal or external migrants.

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(c) LFS: Labour migration variables have not been included, except for the incorporation of citizenship as a variable in the chapter providing information on demographic characteristics of the population.365 The NSA acknowledges that there is a need, on the basis of a SADC requirement to this effect, to include appropriate labour migration variables in the next LFS. Apparently, the ILO is assisting the NSA in this regard.366

G.3.2. Regional context Certain regional contexts in relation to migration have already been dealt with in this report – including reflections on DRM/CCCM training. It needs to be emphasized that the AUC-ILO-IOM-UNECA-RECS Joint Labour Migration Programme (JLMP) initiative stresses the importance of appropriate (labour) migration data. As mentioned earlier, a draft Labour Migration Questionnaire has been developed, to be used for collecting data for the labour migration database in Africa, and inform the concrete steps to be taken under the JLMP. Certain labour migration indicators are included in the questionnaire. The background for the emphasis on labour migration data has been described in the JLMP project document in the following terms:367



“Efforts across Africa to develop evidence-based labour migration and free movement policies are hampered by the absence of reliable and comparable data describing labour migration and outcomes to shape effective policy and to reinforce labour institution roles. Relevant data is usually collected by several different institutions within countries, but data obtained is not often reliable or comparable within and among countries, nor is it adequately shared inside countries, let alone among countries. Even when relevant data is obtained, it is not effectively applied in policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Evidently, many countries lack the capacity, technical competences and equipment for collection of relevant, reliable and comparable data. The implementation of standardized approaches to collect, process and utilize labour migration-relevant data is therefore a priority of this project. In that regard, the project will support the respective REC Commissions to promote harmonized methodologies for labour migration data, including

See NSA, The Namibia Labour Force Survey Report 2013 (2014), p. 39. Information shared with the consultant by the NSA. 367 AUC/ILO/IOM/UNECA/RECs, Labour Migration Governance for Development and Integration in Africa: A bold new initiative (JLMP) (2015), p. 41. 365 366

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supporting the appropriation and use by member states of international standards, methodologies and compatible operating procedures for migration data collection and analysis. On the basis of improving national data sets the project also foresees the compilation of regional data sets providing overviews of labour migration and employment data and trends in the respective REC sub-regions. Use of several forms of data sets is anticipated to strengthen data collection on labour migration. These include: field studies using multi-site areas, special studies, administration record systems, national census Population Surveys, and longitudinal surveys.” The JLMP stresses the enhancement of collecting gender and age disaggregated data on migrants’ economic activity, employment, skills, education, working conditions and social protection situations as one of its policy goals.368 The following expected results are foreseen:369 (a) Strengthened capacities on migration data collection and analysis of relevant national institutions and RECs; (b) Increased utilization of international statistical standards and labour migration indicators, extended use of common indicators, and expanded exchange of data in and among RECs; and (c) Data sharing and coordination among national institutions and RECs; data interfaced among labour market and labour migration databases, with topical research studies on specific aspects of and interaction among labour migration, free circulation, regional integration, and development. It further reflects on the implementation of labour migration standards and policy in the area of labour migration data by indicating the following steps:370 (a) Undertake baseline assessment of existing data collection activities and content, actors, extent of interfacing, and capacity-building needs; (b) Obtain agreement on utilization and phased implementation of international labour migration database indicators; (c) Establish data sharing and coordination among national institutions concerned, and encourage application of international statistical standards to obtaining data on labour migration; Ibid., p. 18 (par. 2.4). Ibid., p. 5. 370 Ibid., p. 22. See pp. 41–45 for further details of the activity components. 368 369

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(d) Interface data with relevant international labour market and labour migration databases; and (e) Support provision of competencies, training and appropriate hardware and software. SADC initiatives in this regard are also developing in the SADC context and need to be taken note of for purposes of further developing the labour migration data system in Namibia. At a high level, the recently adopted SADC Protocol on Employment and Labour (2014) implores State parties to endeavour promoting labour migration data collection, analysis and exchange at regional and national levels.371 The draft SADC labour migration policy summarizes the challenges in this regard in the following terms:372

“… [a]ll SADC Member States are confronted with labour migration, whether as sending, receiving or transit countries. Yet, there is currently no SADC repository of data on labour migration and while there are several national and sub-regional resources, these are scattered and at times difficult to access. A prerequisite to improved labour migration is a better understanding of underlying socio-economic trends and the systematic collection of evidence.” It therefore foresees the following strategy:373 (a) Supporting the adoption of common norms and standards across Member States’ statistical agencies and using existing SADC structures to ensure the setting of targets and monitoring of progress, as well as accessibility of collected data. (b) A focus on initial priority areas: (i) Migration stocks and flows: Standardization of data collection mechanisms across Member States from census and border control data sets; (ii) Labour market data: Standardization of migration modules within labour market surveys; in the absence of LMS, support for insertion of migration module in first LMS; and (iii) Creation of regular data collection mechanism and accessible platform within one existing Member State statistics agency.

SADC Protocol on Employment Labour (2014) article 19(k). SADC, Draft Labour Migration Policy. Policy Area 4: Data (2013). 373 Ibid. 371 372

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Section 5.3 of the SADC Labour Migration Policy Framework, which deals with migration data, foresees the creation of national labour migration databanks and a regional database on regional labour migration. It suggests the following:374 (a) All Member States should mainstream labour migration into the LFS modules and other relevant surveys in order to create national labour migration databanks that are regularly updated. Such information shall be shared between and among SADC Member States and with SADC Secretariat using the agreed SADC template on Labour Market Information; and (b) SADC Secretariat is to maintain a regional database on intraregional labour migration that is updated on a regular basis. Finally, the SADC Labour Migration Action Plan 2013–2015 foresees the availability of data and statistics on migration among Member States as one of its goals. In this regard, it lists the following output with associated activities:375 LMIS inclusive of migration indicators established the following: (i) Identify labour migration indicators to be included in the LMIS; (ii) Develop a standardized template for data collection pertaining to labour migration; and (iii) Biennial reports to be submitted to SADC Secretariat.

G.3.3. Recommendations G.3.3.1. Strengthening the NSA and the migration statistical environment (Recommendation 13) It is evident that despite important developments in the expansion of the breadth and depth of its activities, much needs to be done to enhance the NSA’s capacity in rendering a more comprehensive and emphatic service in the broad area of migration domain – to help inform evidence-based policymaking in this largely neglected area in Namibia. This is also specifically acknowledged in the NSA Strategic Plan 2012/2013 to 2016/2017.

SADC, Labour Migration Policy Framework (2014), par. 5.3.1. SADC, Labour Migration Action Plan 2013–2015 (2013).

374 375

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The need for capacity-building, consolidation and strategic direction was emphasized by the NSA in the course of interviews that the consultant had with the NSA. The NSA indicated that it would want to be in a position with a migration database. Thematically, much needs to be done to ensure that the NSA sufficiently cover migration areas that are relevant to Namibian stakeholders and the neglected Namibian migration data context, but which are currently not appropriately addressed – particularly in the areas of immigration, irregular migration, migration from Namibia, human trafficking, diaspora involvement and remittances, DRM, migration and health, and migration and skills (development). The NSA’s involvement in the recent occupational skills audit survey, the envisaged LMIS, the more regular launching of LFS and the publication of a Migration Report indicate the NSA’s commitment in this regard. Institutionally, while the NSA is already collaborating with various ministries to help provide data on particular migration-related themes, cooperation with other ministries could support the migration statistical environment in Namibia. In this regard, consideration should be given to strengthen the links between the NSA and the MHAI to ensure collation, analysis and accessibility of currently unavailable immigration-related data (as discussed later in this report). Operationally, the NSA should integrate migration into data management practice and to support the reinforcement of systems, this could be done with technical assistance from the European Union. The above interventions, and those indicated below, will give expression to the leading role that the NSA is supposed to play. Another key mandate of the NSA is to coordinate the National Statistics System (NSS). The NSS comprises statistics producers, respondents, users of statistics, research institutions, and training institutions and their interrelations, inter alia, in compilation, dissemination and use of statistics, research and development of statistical methods and techniques, and the training of statisticians.376 In 2012, the NSA Strategic Plan already identified, among others, the following weaknesses that need to be addressed; from the discussion in the rest of this assessment, it is clear that these deficiencies are also experienced in some other statistical environments:377 • There is capacity weakness in that there is a shortage of some categories of trained statistical staff; Ibid., p. 12. Ibid., p. 9.

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• There is high turnover of statistical staff, especially among those with professional and technical qualifications and skills; • There is shortage of senior staff with management skills and expertise; • There is shortage of staff with the analytical skills required for preparing analyses for dissemination; • There is as yet not much of a culture of quality among NSS producer organizations in general, and within the NSA in particular; • The current organizational culture is not strongly geared towards delivery, quality and a user focus, and it may take time to change this; • The process of coordinating the statistical system is not well developed, and there is little experience to build on; • Coordination efforts, starting anew, may take some time to become effective; • The operational costs to produce statistics are high, given the size of the country and the dispersion of people and economic activities; • There are many capacity weaknesses in the NSA, and the situation in most other statistics producers in the country is similar or worse; • Until very recently, there has been little or no consultation or feedback between producers and users, so user needs are not well known; • There has as yet been no systematic effort to document and archive past data processes, with the result that there is a major backlog; and • Significant amounts of collected data have not been processed and published, and are not stored in digitized form. G.3.3.2. Key indicators for labour migration (Recommendation 14) Note has to be taken of recent steps to develop a standardized framework regarding key indicators for labour migration. No agreed framework exists for statistics on migrant workers – the UN employs a definition, which has demographic counting of the population as its main objective, focusing on immigration/emigration and population change. The ILO, in turn, uses working definitions, with the main objective of characterizing labour market dynamics and impact, and informing employment and labour migration policies. There is, therefore, the need to use coherent concepts, definitions and methods. For this purpose, it might be appropriate to employ the definition of a migrant worker used in article 2(1) of the 1990 UN International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, namely that a migrant worker refers to a “person who is to be engaged, is engaged, or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national” (Diallo, 2015).

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A draft Labour Migration Questionnaire has been developed, to be used for collecting data for the labour migration database in Africa, and to inform the concrete steps to be taken under the new African Union JLMP, discussed elsewhere in this report. This was initially developed for and applied in ASEAN countries, and is being applied in nine Arab countries. The following are indicated as labour migration indicators included in the questionnaire (Diallo, 2015): International Migrant Stocks 1. Resident population by sex and by labour force status/ labour force participation – (total and migrants) 2. Working age population by sex and by level of qualification (total and migrants) 3. Migrants by country of origin, reason for moving 4. Employed migrants by country of origin 5. Employed persons (total and migrants) by sex and by industry, occupation, and status in employment 6. Employed persons by sex and by average monthly wages (total and migrants) 7. Labour force participation rates (migrants and non-migrants) by sex, age and others 8. Employment-to-population ratios (migrants and non-migrants) by sex, age and others 9. Unemployment rates (migrants and non-migrants) by sex, age and others International Migrant Flows 10. Inflows of migrants by sex and by country of origin, levels of qualification 11. Inflows of employed migrants by sex and by industry, occupation, status in employment Emigration 12. Nationals abroad by sex and by country of residence 13. Outflow of nationals by sex and by country of destination

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G.3.3.3. Other data-related recommendations (Recommendation 15) In order to enhance the collection, analysis, management and use of data (also with reference to the availability of suitable data sources), the following recommendations are made: (a) Enhance migration-related data in census and household surveys. Emphasis should be placed on the inclusion of standardized migrationrelated questions/indicators in relevant census and household surveys, including labour force and sectoral surveys. There should be a focus on publishing cross-tabulations of migration-related data so obtained between age, sex and educational attainment, exploiting administrative data sources. (b) Align the migration data collection framework. Alignment with international and regional approaches is important, in connection with, among others, definitions, methodologies and standards. See in this regard the immigrant and emigrant data variables recommended by the United Nations Statistics Commission. Again, to the extent required, regard may be had to the Statistics Division of the UN DESA, Eurostat, the ILO Database of Labour Statistics, the OECD’s International Migration Outlook and World Bank remittance data to compare approaches and collected data. This will supplement current approaches in this regard. (c) Expedite LMIS development. It has been noted that the development of efficient, comprehensive and integrated LMISs comprising labour migration information is a prerequisite for efficient employment and migration policies, as well in the implementation of bilateral migration agreements.378 (d) Improve inter-institutional collaboration. It is important to note that in certain critical areas of data surveys and collection, the lack of inter-institutional collaboration is apparent. (e) Mainstream migration data. Flowing from the previous point, there is a need to mainstream migration data in national (including sectoral) and regional migration management and development planning. (f) Collect labour market data from major destination countries – to support possible labour-exporting initiatives. (g) Share and disseminate data. The collected and analysed labour migration data needs to be shared with relevant public and private sector role-players and presented in a user-friendly format, in order Martin, 2011, p. 5.

378

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(h)

(i) (j)

(k)

(l) (m)

to inform decision-taking and direction. Public awareness of available data should also be ensured. In this regard, there is a need to ensure that data is sufficiently disaggregated to support functions such as skills matching. Develop impact indicators. The NSA could develop impact indicators at the micro, meso and macrolevels to measure the impacts of migration initiatives, for example, the short-term return of diaspora professionals and other migrant workers. Enhance the technical capacity of the NSA. Enhance the capacity of line ministries. The NSA should assist line ministries to move from a paper-based system based on individual files to a digitalized and standardized system of data collection, and provide appropriate data templates for use by the statistics sections of relevant data-collecting line ministries. These ministries should ensure that the migration data supplied by, for example, recruitment agencies, is in the appropriate format for analysis. Enhance interaction of Namibian foreign missions with the diaspora. With assistance from the NSA, foreign missions can undertake surveys of the diaspora in key host countries, identifying skills, entrepreneurial activities, impediments to home country contributions and key incentives for removing obstacles. Invest in training. Make data available to researchers and interested parties. Ensure that data that has been gathered are accessible to researchers and other interested stakeholders, to inform policy development, strategic direction and operational activity.

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APPENDICES Appendix I: Sources consulted General African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights n.d. Legal instruments: Namibia ratifications. Available from www.achpr. org/states/namibia/ratifications/ African Development Bank 2014 Namibia Country Strategy Paper for 2014-2018. Available from www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-andOperations/2014-2018_-_Namibia_Country_Strategy_Paper.pdf African Union 2006a The Migration Policy Framework for Africa, Executive Council, Ninth Ordinary Session, 25–29 June 2006, Banjul, The Gambia, Document EX.CL/276 (IX). 2006b African Common Position on Migration and Development, Executive Council, Ninth Ordinary Session, 25–29 June 2006, Banjul, The Gambia, Document EX.CL/277 (IX). 2014 A joint new bold initiative - Labour Migration Governance for Development and Integration in Africa (Programme brief). African Union Commission-International Labour Organization-International Organization for Migration-United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in cooperation with Africa’s Regional Economic Communities (AUC/ILO/IOM/ UNECA/RECs) 2015a Labour Migration Governance for Development and Integration in Africa: A bold new initiative (JLMP). 2015b AUC/ILO/IOM/UNECA Joint Labour Migration Programme – Labour Migration Governance for Development and Integration in Africa: A bold new initiative, PowerPoint presentation. Afrika a la Carte Reisen 2015 “Besucherbilanz 2014: Namibia verzeichnet starkes Besucherplus aus Europa”, Afrika a la Carte Reisen, 01 09 2015. Available from www.afrikaalacarte.de/aktuelles/18.htm on 21 September 2015.

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Bank of Namibia 2014 Bank of Namibia Annual Report 2014. Black, R. 2004

Migration and Pro-Poor Policy in Africa (Working Paper C6). Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, University of Sussex.

Brookings Institution – University of Bern Project on Internal Displacement 2005 Regional Seminar on Internal Displacement in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region. Gaborone, Botswana, 24– 26 August 2005. Crush, J. et al. 2010 Migration, Remittances and ‘Development’ in Lesotho. South African Migration Programme (SAMP), Idasa, Cape Town and Southern Research Centre, Queen’s University, Canada. Crush, J. and V. Williams 2010 Labour Migration Trends and Policies in Southern Africa. SAMP Policy Brief 23, March 2010. Crush, J., V. Williams and S. Peberdy 2005 Migration in Southern Africa (A paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration). Global Commission on International Migration. Diallo, Y. 2015

Key indicators of labour migration. In: 2015 Labour Migration Statistics in Africa Report. ILO, Addis Ababa.

Dodson, B. et al. 2008 Gender, migration and remittances in Southern Africa. Idasa, Cape Town. Fenwick, C. and E. Kalula 2005 Law and labour market regulation in East Asia and southern Africa: Comparative perspectives. International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 21:193–226. Franco-Namibian Cultural Centre 2015 Park Talk-COP 21 Tuesday, 23 June 2015. Available from www.fncc. org.na/news/park-talk-cop21 154

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Frayne, B. and W. Pendleton 2002 Mobile Namibia: Migration Trends and Attitudes, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 27. Government of Namibia 2004 State Party Report on the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 2004–2012. 2012 Namibia’s Fourth National Development Plan (NDP) 2012/2013 to 2016/2017. Government of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia. Available from www.npc.gov.na/?wpfb_dl=37 2015 Keynote address by His Excellency Hage G. Geingob, President of the Republic of Namibia, National Conference on Wealth Redistribution and Poverty Eradication. 26 October 2015, Safari Hotel Conference Centre, Windhoek. Available from www.gov.na/ documents/10181/22710/KEY+NOTE+ADDRESS+BY+HIS+EXCELLE NCY+HAGE+G+GEINGOB%2C+PRESIDENT+OF+THE+REPUBLIC+OF+ NAMIBIA+NATIONAL+CONFERENCE+ON+WEALTH+REDISTRIBUTIO N+AND+POVERTY+ERADICATION+%282015+10+26%29/62643192abcc-40b5-97d3-6114b0dfcf1a Govindjee, A., M. Olivier and O. Dupper 2011 Activation in the context of the unemployment insurance system in South Africa, Stellenbosch Law Review (SLR), 22(1):205–227. Indongo, N., S. Angombe and N. Nickanor 2013 Urbanisation in Namibia: Views from semi-formal and informal settlements. University of Namibia. Available from www.unam.edu. na/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Urbanisation-in-Namibia.pdf International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2011 Disaster Relief Emergency Fund operation final report: Namibia Floods, 31 January 2011. International Labour Organization (ILO) 2010a International labour migration: A rights-based approach. ILO, Geneva. 2010b Namibia Decent Work Country Programme (DWCP) 2010–2014. ILO Country Programme for Namibia. Available from www.ilo.org/ public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/namibia.pdf 2014 Namibia Social Protection Floor Assessment. ILO, Decent Work Team for Eastern and Southern Africa and ILO Country Office for South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland.

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International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2011 Migration Profiles: Making the Most of the Process. IOM, Geneva. Available from http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/migrati onprofileguide2012_1oct2012.pdf 2012 Report: Migration Management Training of Trainers, 30 July–10 August 2012. 2013a Training of trainers report – Capacity building as a disaster preparedness measure, reducing risks of population displacement in Southern Africa. 2013b Namibia Country Strategy 2013–2017. 2013c Report – Multiplying capacity for national resilience – Camp coordination and camp management capacity building programme: Namibia. 2014a Regional Strategy for Southern Africa 2014–2016. IOM Regional Office Pretoria, South Africa. Available from www.iom.int/sites/ default/files/country/docs/AUP00579-RO-Pretoria-RegionalStrategy.pdf 2014b IOM Development Fund: Developing a National Labour Migration Policy for Namibia (Project proposal). 2014c Migration and Development in Africa MIDA: Ghana, Senegal. IOM Liaison Mission to Italy and Regional Coordination Office for the Mediterranean. Available from http://diaspora.iom.int/migrationdevelopment-africa-mida-ghana-senegal 2014d Disaster risk management – Refresher training manual. 2015a Enhancing the Capacity of the Government of Republic of Namibia to Strengthen National and Promote Regional Responses to Migration Management in Southern African Region (Proposal). 2015b Baseline assessment of Maternal and Child Health Service Availability in Namibian Border Oshikango, Omahenene, Katwitwo and Calai (Proposal). 2015c Namibia JTIP Proposal. 2015d Summary of Disaster Risk Management Capacity-building activities (2011–2015). 2015e Regional CCCM Lessons Learnt Workshop – Summary Report. Workshop, Johannesburg, South Africa, 13–15 July 2015. 2015f Contributions to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). IOM, Geneva. Available from https:// publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/mecc_unccd_infosheet.pdf

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Investopedia n.d. Gross National Income. Available from www.investopedia.com/ terms/g/gross-national-income-gni.asp IOM Namibia 2014 Study of health vulnerabilities of migrants and mobile populations in three informal settlements in Windhoek, Namibia (on hand). 2015 Study on health vulnerabilities of mobile populations and affected communities in selected ports of Southern Africa – Walvis Bay, Namibia (IOM Namibia, 2014) (on hand). Kälin, W. 2012 From the Nansen Principles to the Nansen Initiative. Forced Migration Review 41. Available from www.fmreview.org/preventing/kalin Klavert, H. 2011 African Union frameworks for migration: current issues and questions for the future. European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) Discussion paper no. 108. ECDPM, The Netherlands. Lela Mobile Online 2015 2014 Tourist arrivals increase; majority Angola. 25 August. Available from www.lelamobile.com/content/54297/2014-tourist-arrivalsincrease-majority-Angola/ Martin, I. 2011

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Mbangson, L. 2014 UNHCR Exit Strategy 2014/2015, 29 April 2014. 2015 Diplomatic briefing UNHCR/GRN Refugee Programme in Namibia – Past-present-future. Presentation made on 9 June 2015. Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDSA) 2015 Report and Recommendations of the MIDSA Conference on Addressing Mixed and Irregular Migration in the SADC Region: Protection of the Unaccompanied Migrant Child Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, 7–9 July 2015.

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Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture n.d. Annual Education Census. Ministry of Environment and Tourism 2008 National Policy on Tourism for Namibia. Directorate of Tourism, Windhoek, Namibia. 2013 Report on the Namibian Tourist Exit Survey 2012–2013. 2014 Tourist Statistical Report 2012 and 2013. Directorate of Tourism and Gaming, October 2014. 2015 Tourist Statistical Report 2014. Directorate of Tourism and Gaming, August 2015. Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare (in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry) 2009 A baseline assessment of human trafficking in Namibia: A nationally representative qualitative assessment. Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare 2010a National Gender Plan of Action 2010–2020. 2010b National Gender Policy 2010–2020. 2012a National Plan of Action on Gender-Based Violence 2012–2016. 2012b Republic of Namibia: Fourth and Fifth Country Report – Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) 2009 Health Facility Census (HFC). 2013 Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry, Report to the President. MOHSS, Windhoek, Namibia. 2014a Mid-Term Review Report of the National Strategic Framework for HIV and AIDS 2010/11– 2016/17 (Dec 2014). 2014b National Coordination Framework for the Multi-sectoral HIV and AIDS Response in Namibia 2013–2017. Ministry of Health and Social Services and ICF International 2010 Procedural guideline for the management of housing units provided by the government for independent low-income older people in Namibia. 2014 The Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2013. MOHSS and ICF International, Windhoek, Namibia, and Rockville, Maryland, United States.

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Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration 2011 Directorate of Immigration and Border Control Report 2010–2011. 2013 Directorate of Immigration and Border Control Report 2012–2013. 2014 Directorate of Immigration and Border Control Report 2013–2014. Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration (MHAI) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2012 A Rapid Overview of Birth Registration Systems in Namibia: Taking Stock. MHAI and UNICEF Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia. Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare 2008 Namibia Child Activities Survey (NCAS 2005). Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, Directorate of Labour Market Services, Windhoek, Namibia. Ministry of Work and Transport 2013 Report on the Technical Appraisal of Medical Facilities in Namibia. Mudungwe, P. 2012 Migration and Development in the Southern Africa Development Community: The Case for a Coherent Approach. Intra-ACP Migration Facility. Nalane, L.J., A. Chikanda and J. Crush 2012 The remittances framework in Lesotho: Assessment of policies and programmes promoting the multiplier effect. ACP Observatory on Migration and IOM, Brussels, Belgium. Namibia Statistics Agency (NSA) 2012a Poverty Dynamics in Namibia. 2012b Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) 2009/2010. 2012c Strategic Plan 2012/2013 to 2016/2017. 2014a The Namibia Labour Force Survey 2013 Report. 2014b Namibia Population Projections 2011–2041 (Namibia 2011 Census Projections 2011 to 2014). 2015a The Namibia Labour Force Survey 2014 Report. 2015b Namibia 2011 Census Migration Report. 2015c Monthly Tourism Report (Issue 018, 17 August 2015). Available from http://cms.my.na/assets/documents/Monthly_Tourism_Report3. pdf

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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2014 Preventing unemployment and underemployment from becoming structural. Report prepared for the G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial Meeting, Melbourne, Australia, 10–11 September 2014. Ofreneo, R. and J. Sale 2014 Social security and migrant workers in the Philippines: Social Protection for the Country’s Economic Protectors. In: Social Security and Migrant Workers: Selected studies of cross-border social security mechanisms (R. Blanpain, P. Ortiz, G. Vonk and M. Olivier, eds.). Kluwer. Olivier, M. 2009 Regional Overview of Social Protection for Non-Citizens in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 0908. World Bank, Washington, D.C. Available from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/ Resources/SP-Discussion-papers/Labor-Market-DP/0908.pdf 2010 Reflections on the feasibility of a multilateral SADC social security agreement involving South Africa and Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. ILO, Geneva. 2011a Political and regulatory dimensions of access, portability and exclusion: Social security for migrants, with an emphasis on migrants in Southern Africa. In: Migration and Social Protection: Claiming social rights beyond borders (R. Sabates-Wheeler and R. Feldman, eds.). Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. 2011b Enhancing access to South African social security benefits by SADC citizens: The need to improve bilateral arrangements within a multilateral framework (Part I). SADC Law Journal, 1:123–127. 2014 Social security developments in the SADC Region and future prospects for coordination. In: Social Security and Migrant Workers: Selected studies of cross-border social security mechanisms (R. Blanpain, P. Ortiz, G. Vonk and M. Olivier). Kluwer, pp. 81–115. Pendleton, W., J. Crush and N. Nickanor 2014 Migrant Windhoek: Rural–Urban Migration and Food Security in Namibia, Urban Forum, 25(2):191–205, Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht (published online on 18 Jan 2014). Available from www.academia.edu/7869052/Migrant_Windhoek_Rural-Urban_ Migration_and_Food_Security_in_Namibia

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Pendleton, W. et al. 2006 Migration, Remittances and Development in Southern Africa. SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 44. Perruchoud, R. and J. Redpath-Cross (eds.) 2011 Glossary on Migration 2nd edition. IOM, Geneva. Phiri, M. and O. Odhiambo 2015 African Economic Outlook: Namibia 2015. African Development Bank, OECD and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Available from www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/fileadmin/ uploads/aeo/2015/CN_data/CN_Long_EN/Namibia_GB_2015.pdf Quota Project: Global Database of Quotas for Women 2015 Namibia. Available from www.quotaproject.org/uid/countryview. cfm?country=160 Ramírez, C., M. Domínguez and J. Morais 2005 Crossing Borders: Remittances, Gender and Development (Working paper). Instraw and United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Republic of Namibia 2014 Namibia Country Report Beijing + 20 (1995–2015). 2015 National Human Rights Action Plan 2015–2019. Reitzes, M. 2003 Regionalizing international migration: Lessons for SADC, SAMP Migration Policy Brief No. 11. Rispoli, J. 2014 The MIDA Ghana experience in engaging its medical diaspora. Presentation, Training Workshop on Labour Migration and Development, Luanda, Angola, 9–12 September 2014. Sabates-Wheeler, R. and J. Koettl 2010 Social protection for migrants: The challenges of delivery in the context of changing migration flows. International Social Security Review, 63(3–4):116.

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Sivakumaran, S. 2004 The rights of migrant workers one year on: Transformation or consolidation?. Georgetown Journal of International Law, 36:113. Southern African Development Community (SADC) 2013a Draft Labour Migration Policy. 2013b Labour Migration Action Plan 2013–2015. 2014 Labour Migration Policy Framework. Smith, J.-M. 2014 Namibia – Tourist arrivals skyrocket. Travel News Namibia, 4 November. Available from http://travelnewsnamibia.com/news/ namibia-tourist-arrival-soar/#.VWFe602Jipo SAMP and IOM 2005 HIV/AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. SAMP and IOM. Styp-Rekowska, L. 2013 Border Resident Card Assessment. African Capacity Building Centre, Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania and IOM. The African Leadership and Progress Network n.d. Diaspora Organizations. Available from http://africanprogress.net/ diaspora-organizations-2/ Thomas, M. 2015 Namibians in diaspora urged to raise funds for food bank. The Namibian, 22 September. Available from www.namibian.com.na/ print.php?id=142157&type=2 Thouez, C. 2005 The impact of remittances on development. In: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals, Selected papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting, 11–12 May 2005, Marrakech, Morocco. UNFPA, New York. Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index 2015 Leading Sub-Saharan African countries in the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) in 2015. Statistica Inc. Available from www.statista.com/statistics/186691/ttci-scores-of-countries-fromsub-saharan-africa-2011/ Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

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United Nations 2013a Declaration of the High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development adopted by the UN General Assembly. Available from www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/--protrav/---migrant/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_226556. pdf 2013b Crucial Importance of Strengthening Link between Migrants, Post2015 Development Agenda Stressed as General Assembly Adopts Declaration, Coverage of the General Assembly, 3 October 2013. Available from www.un.org/press/en/2013/ga11434.doc.htm 2014 The road to dignity by 2030: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet. Synthesis report of the SecretaryGeneral on the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, 4 December 2014. Available from www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc. asp?symbol=A/69/700&Lang=E 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Available from https:// sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics n.d. Global Migrant Origin Database Version 4. Available from www. migrationdrc.org/research/typesofmigration/Global_Migrant_ Origin_Database_Version_4.xls UNICEF 2014

Towards a Namibia Fit for Children: Situational Analysis of the Status of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, 2010–2013. Government of the Republic of Namibia and UNICEF.

UN Climate Change Newsroom 2015 Namibia Submits its Climate Action Plan Ahead of 2015 Paris Agreement. 29 September. Available from http://newsroom.unfccc. int/unfccc-newsroom/namibia-submits-its-climate-action-planahead-of-2015-paris-agreement/ United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women 2015 Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Namibia, CEDAW/C/NAM/CO/4-5, 24 July 2015. United Nations Country Team – Namibia 2013 United Nations Partnership Framework (UNPAF) (Namibia) (20142018): A Partnership for Growth, Job Creation and Equity. United Nations Country Team, Namibia, Windhoek.

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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) (Population Division) 2009 International Migration Report 2006: A Global Assessment. 2013a International Migration 2013 Wallchart. Available from www.un.org/ en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/migration/ migration-wallchart2013.pdf 2013b Trends in international migrant stock: The 2013 Revision. Available from http://esa.un.org/unmigration/TIMSA2013/Data/subsheets/ UN_MigrantStock_2013T3.xls 2013c Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants by destination and origin. Available from http://esa.un.org/unmigration/TIMSO2013/ data/subsheets/UN_MigrantStockByOriginAndDestination_201 3T11.xls 2015 Key trends in international migration. Expert Group Meeting on the Post-2015 Era: Implications for the Global Research Agenda on Population and Development. Available from www.un.org/en/ development/desa/population/events/pdf/expert/22/2015-EGM_ Migration.pdf United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2009 Human Development Report: Overcoming Barriers: Human mobility and development. UNDP, New York. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 2015 Call for Expression of Interest (CEoI): Implementation of 2016 UNHCR Basic Assistance Project in Namibia (CEoI – Ref. No: UNHCR/2015/001, 14 September 2015. n.d. States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol. Available from www.unhcr. org/3b73b0d63.pdf United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2012 Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012. UNODC, Vienna. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCR) 2013 Global Trends 2012. Displacement, the New 21st Century Development Challenge. UNHCR, Geneva. n.d. Ratification status by country or by treaty: Namibia. Available from http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty. aspx?CountryID=59&Lang=en

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UN Resident Coordinator 2015 Building disaster resilience of vulnerable populations in Namibia. Concept note. US Department of State 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report. July 2015. Wheeler, D. 2011 Quantifying Vulnerability to Climate Change: Implication for Adaptation Assistance. Working Paper 240. Centre for Global Development, Washington, D.C. Available from www.cgdev.org/ files/1424759_file_Wheeler_Quantifying_Vulnerability_FINAL.pdf World Bank 2014 Personal remittances received (2014). Available from www. indexmundi.com/facts/namibia/workers’-remittances-andcompensation-of-employees 2015a Migration and Remittances: Recent Developments and Outlook; Special Topic: Financing for Development, Migration and Development Brief 24. Available from http://siteresources.worldbank. org /INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934-1288990760745/ MigrationandDevelopmentBrief24.pdf 2015b Remittance data inflows (April 2015). Available from htt p : / /s i te re s o u rc e s .wo r l d b a n k . o rg / I N T P RO S P EC TS / Resources/334934-1288990760745/RemittanceData_Inflows_ Apr2015.xls 2015c Remittances growth to slow sharply in 2015, as Europe and Russia stay weak; pick up expected next year. World Bank press release, 13 April. Available from www.worldbank.org/en/news/pressrelease/2015/04/13/remittances-growth-to-slow-sharply-in-2015as-europe-and-russia-stay-weak-pick-up-expected-next-year World Health Organization (WHO) 2014 World Malaria Report 2014. WHO, Switzerland. 2015 Namibia: WHO statistical profile. Available from www.who.int/gho/ countries/nam.pdf?ua=1 World Travel and Tourism Council 2014 Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2014 – Namibia. World Travel and Tourism Council, London, United Kingdom.

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International agreements and instruments African Union 2003 Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa 2013 The Kampala Convention One year on: Progress and prospects (2013) Southern African Development Community (SADC) 2014 Protocol on Employment and Labour 2006 Protocol on Gender and Development United Nations (UN) Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others Convention on the Rights of the Child Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Namibian laws and case law Child Care and Protection Act, 2015 Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, 1990 Detmold and Another v Minister of Health and Social Services and Others 2004 NR 174 (HC) Labour Act 11 of 2007 National Planning Commission Act 2 of 2013 Prevention of Organised Crime Act (POCA) 29 of 2004 Statistics Act 9 of 2011

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Appendix II: Namibian higher education institutions: Foreign students by nationality Table 26: Foreign students by nationality Institution’s name Country/territory of citizenship Afghanistan Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Argentina Botswana Brazil Britain Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon China Taiwan Congo United Republic of Tanzania Democratic Republic of the Congo Egypt Ethiopia Finland Germany Ghana Guinea-Bissau India Indonesia Italy Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Malaysia Mali Mozambique Namibia Namibia Permanent Residents Netherlands Nigeria Not stated

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Male 1       570 4 70   4   6 4 8 1 39 2 13 1 1   4 4 2 7   1 23 3 2 32   1 2 15,267 16 1 29 291

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

Total, all institutions Female Not stated     1   1   1   386   3   95   1   4   1   4   1   3       28   4   10           1   11   2       9   2       11   8       32   1           27,548 8 11       29   446  

Total 1 1 1 1 956 7 165 1 8 1 10 5 11 1 67 6 23 1 1 1 15 6 2 16 2 1 34 11 2 64 1 1 2 42,823 27 1 58 737

Philippines Republic of Korea Rwanda Sierra Leone South Africa Swaziland United Republic of Tanzania Tunisia Uganda Ukraine United States Western Sahara Zambia Zimbabwe Total

    8 2 19 5 33 1 16   2   408 440 17,343

1 1 4 1 40 6 25   14 1   1 391 473 29,612

                            8

1 1 12 3 59 11 58 1 30 1 2 1 799 913 46,963

Source: Namibian National Council for Higher Education (NCHE).

Appendix III: Trends in international migrant stock Table 27: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia, 2013 Major area, region, country or area of destination WORLD More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Less developed regions excluding least developed countries Sub-Saharan Africa AFRICA Eastern Africa Kenya Seychelles United Republic of Tanzania Zambia Middle Africa Angola Northern Africa Egypt Southern Africa Botswana Lesotho South Africa Western Africa

Total male and female migrant stock 137,498 4,647 132,851 1,528 131,323

Total male migrant stock 66,454 2,261 64,193 805 63,388

Total female migrant stock 71,044 2,386 68,658 723 67,935

132,756 132,769 749 55 3 633 58 828 828 13 13 131,179 1,682 9 129,488 0

64,128 64,133 445 26 3 386 30 388 388 5 5 63,295 854 1 62,440 0

68,628 68,636 304 29 0 247 28 440 440 8 8 67,884 828 8 67,048 0

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ASIA Central Asia Eastern Asia South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia Cyprus Jordan Turkey EUROPE Eastern Europe Bulgaria Czech Republic Hungary Poland Russian Federation Slovakia Northern Europe Denmark Finland Iceland Ireland Lithuania Norway Sweden United Kingdom Southern Europe Greece Italy Malta Portugal Slovenia Western Europe Austria France Germany Netherlands Switzerland LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Caribbean Cuba Central America Mexico Panama

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11 0 0 0 0 11 5 2 4 1,658 159 3 24 9 6 116 1 455 62 81 34 66 3 94 115   121 11 85 4 19 2 923 164 171

9 0 0 0 0 9 5 1 3 771 89 2 12 6 0 68 1 197 23 33 15 26 2 39 59   65 9 41 4 10 1 420 63 77

2 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 887 70 1 12 3 6 48 0 258 39 48 19 40 1 55 56

261 327 71 3 3 4 1 3

112 168 51 2 2 2 0 2

149 159 20 1 1 2 1 1

56 2 44 0 9 1 503 101 94

South America Argentina Brazil Chile Ecuador Peru NORTHERN AMERICA Canada United States OCEANIA Australia and New Zealand Australia New Zealand Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia

64 3 49 8 3 1 1,441 517 924 1,548 1,548 1,178 370 0 0 0

47 3 40 4 0 0 751 247 504 739 739 584 155 0 0 0

17 0 9 4 3 1 690 270 420 809 809 594 215 0 0 0

Source: UN DESA, 2013c, Tables 1, 4, 7 and 10.

Table 28: Trends in international migrant stock: Migrants from Namibia, 1990‒2013 per country, Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area, region, country or area of destination, 1990‒2013  Major area, region, country or area of destination WORLD More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Less developed regions excluding least developed countries Sub-Saharan Africa AFRICA Eastern Africa Kenya Seychelles United Republic of Tanzania Zambia Middle Africa Angola Northern Africa Egypt Southern Africa Botswana Lesotho South Africa Western Africa

Total male and female migrant stock, 1990 80,249 1,789 78,460 3,055 75,405

Total male and female migrant stock, 2000 48,158 2,683 45,475 1,087 44,388

Total male and female migrant stock, 2010 117,635 4,294 113,341 1,415 111,926

Total male and female migrant stock, 2013 137,498 4,647 132,851 1,528 131,323

78,030 78,434 2,772 65 2 370 2,335 345 345 404 404 74,913 286 5 74,622 0

45,442 45,449 693 66 1 526 100 457 457 7 7 44,292 673 4 43,615 0

113,249 113,261 742 59 3 613 67 725 725 12 12 111,782 1,389 10 110,383 0

132,756 132,769 749 55 3 633 58 828 828 13 13 131,179 1,682 9 129,488 0

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ASIA Central Asia Eastern Asia South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia Cyprus Jordan Turkey EUROPE Eastern Europe Bulgaria Czech Republic Hungary Poland Russian Federation Slovakia Northern Europe Denmark Finland Iceland Ireland Lithuania Norway Sweden United Kingdom Southern Europe Greece Italy Malta Portugal Slovenia Western Europe Austria France Germany Netherlands Switzerland LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Caribbean Cuba Central America Mexico Panama

172

8 0 0 0 0 8 1 4 3 710 116 1 2 0 7 106 0 135 10 51 10 7 1 19 37 0  58 5 13 1 39 0 401 101 104 0 69 127 18

8 0 0 0 0 8 2 3 3 1,009 99 2 3 5 5 83 1 217 37 24 19 48 1 40 48 0  171 5 35 2 128 1 522 127 111 0 140 144 18

11 0 0 0 0 11 4 3 4 1,478 160 3 24 8 6 118 1 402 59 74 37 54 4 84 90 0  104 11 70 3 18 2 812 157 165 0 239 251 69

11 0 0 0 0 11 5 2 4 1,658 159 3 24 9 6 116 1 455 62 81 34 66 3 94 115 0  121 11 85 4 19 2 923 164 171 0 261 327 71

7 7 2 2 0

3 3 3 2 1

3 3 4 1 3

3 3 4 1 3

Migration in Namibia: A Country Profile 2015

South America Argentina Brazil Chile Ecuador Peru NORTHERN AMERICA Canada United States OCEANIA Australia and New Zealand Australia New Zealand Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia

9 4 0 2 1 2 690 174 516 389 389 278 111 0 0 0

12 4 0 6 1 1 1,001 305 696 673 673 447 226 0 0 0

62 3 48 7 3 1 1,389 497 892 1,427 1,427 1,092 335 0 0 0

64 3 49 8 3 1 1,441 517 924 1,548 1,548 1,178 370 0 0 0

Source: UN DESA, 2013c, Tables 1, 4, 7 and 10.

Appendix IV: List of institutions consulted • Office of the President, National Planning Commission • Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate Disaster Risk Management • Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation (previously the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare) • Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration • Ministry of International Relations and Cooperation (previously the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) • Ministry of Safety and Security • Ministry of Industrialization, Trade and SME Development (previously the Ministry of Trade and Industry) • Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare • Ministry of Health and Social Services (Directorate: Social Welfare Services) • Ministry of Defence • Ministry of Education • Ministry of Justice and Attorney-General (previously the Ministry of Justice) • Prosecutor-General of Namibia and Prosecutor, Ohanguena • Namibia Statistics Agency • National Training Authority • Social Security Commission of Namibia • Border officials, Oshikango Border Post • Border officials, Santa Clara Border Post (Angola)

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• Financial Intelligence Centre (regulator for remittance services), also in its capacity as acting chair of the Technical Committee on Implementation of the Anti-Terrorism Law • Electoral Commission of Namibia • Bank of Namibia (specific division, focusing on international migration service) • University of Namibia • Polytechnic of Namibia • Trade Union Congress of Namibia • National Employers’ Federation • UNDP • UNICEF • UNHCR • IOM • WHO • UNESCO • Elite Employment (Private Employment Agency) • Chamber of Mines

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International Organization for Migration (IOM) 17 route des Morillons, P.O. Box 17, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland Tel.: +41 22 717 9111 • Fax: +41 22 798 6150 E-mail: [email protected] • Website: www.iom.int