Mobile Communications First Mobile Phone - EEE, HKU

Mobile Communications First Mobile Phone - EEE, HKU

Mobile Communications YEEE0004 Fall 2009 Hayden Kwok-Hay So Late 90s Early 80s First Mobile Phone Motorola DynaTAC Year: 1979 Weight: > 2 lbs Talk...

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Mobile Communications

YEEE0004 Fall 2009 Hayden Kwok-Hay So

Late 90s

Early 80s

First Mobile Phone Motorola DynaTAC Year: 1979 Weight: > 2 lbs Talk Time: 30 mins Charge Time: 10 hours Cost: ~US$4000

Around 2006 DynaTAC 8000x (1983)

1

A Brief Walk in Cell Phone History  

Pre-cellular systems

 

•  1970s  

Pre-Cellular Networks  

Analog Voice •  “1G” systems •  AMPS

 

Logically an extension to landline telephone service Early systems were designed so that one radio base station has enough power to cover a large geographical area •  Entire city •  Large rural area

Digital Voice (and Data) •  “2G” systems •  GSM system •  GPRS

 

PSTN

Digital Voice and Data •  “3G” systems •  EDGE •  UMTS

Pre-Cellular Networks  

Cellular Networks

Mobile phones must transmit with high power as well •  Larger battery is needed •  Large physical size •  Not convenient

 

The collision domain is large and so only limited users are allowed 10km

20m

 

Many low-power base stations cover the service area instead of one high-power base station

 

The region covered by each station is called cell

 

Individual cell sites are connected by conventional wired technology

 

Number of active users in each cell is still restricted, but the area is smaller

 

The first cellular telephone system (Bell Telephone System) began to deploy in 1979

7 3 1 4 6 4 5 5 2 7 3 2 1 7 6 1 4 5 6 5 2 7 3 7 1 6 4 6 5

7 6 3 4 2 1 5

2 1 5 7 6 3 4

3 4 2 1 5

2 7 3 1 6 4 5 3 2 7 3 4 1 6 4 2 5 7 3 1 6 4 5 Neighbor cells use different frequency channels to reduce interference

Need ways to support simultaneous users!

Tech Brief: Radio Frequency Wireless communications are based on electromagnetic (EM) waves   The empty space can be divided into different radio frequencies  

•  Frequency measured in Hz

Difference communication schemes use different “chunks” of the radio frequency space so they will not interfere with each other   Example frequency:  

Tech Brief:

RADIO FREQUENCY

•  •  •  • 

Commercial Radio (881 903): 88.1 MHz, 90.3 MHz 802.11g WiFi products: ~2.4 GHz Analog TV broadcast in HK: ~500 MHz Cell Phone: 900 MHz, 1800MHz, 2100 MHz

2

Frequency Allocation in HK Hong Kong Frequency Allocation Chart (!"#$%&'()

30kHz

19.95 20.05

14

9

3kHz

VLF 3kHz - 30kHz

300kHz

285

190

130

70

30kHz

LF 30kHz - 300kHz

3MHz

2850

2495 2505

2000

1800

1606.5

526.5

415

325

300kHz

MF 300kHz - 3MHz

Back to Cellular Network…

29.7 30MHz

21 21.45 21.85 21.924 22 22.855 23.2 23.35 24.89 24.99 25.01 25.07 25.21 25.55 25.67 26.1 26.175 26.957 27.283 27.5 28

19.68 19.8 19.99 20.01

16.36

17.41 17.55 17.9 18.03 18.068 18.168 18.78 18.9

11.4 11.65 12.05 12.23 13.2 13.36 13.553 13.567 13.6 13.8 14 14.35 14.99 15.01 15.1 15.6

9.9 9.995 10.005 10.1 10.15 11.175

7 7.2 7.3

9.5

8.815 9.04

6.765 6.795

8.195

6.525

6.2

5.95

5.73

5.48

4.65 4.75

4.995 5.005

4.438

3.2

3.9 3.95 4 4.063

3.4 3.5

3MHz

HF 3MHz - 30MHz

300MHz

215

174

197.5

156 158 160.6 163

149.9 150.05

137 138

143.6 144 146

117.975

108

84 87

74.8 75.2 76.7

70 71.5

50

51.5

52.85

47

48

45.5

33 335.4

36.5 37

31.7 322 328.6

40.66 40.7

30MHz 300MHz

VHF 30MHz - 300MHz

2900

3GHz

2655 2690 2700

2500

2400

2290

2170 2200

2483.5

1980 2010

1675 1710

1530 1559 1610 1660.5 1668 1668.4

1300

1400 1427 1429 1518

1350

1215

1164

960

806

470

430 440

399.9 400.05 400.15 401 403 406 406.1

UHF 300MHz - 3GHz

24.45 24.65 24.75 25.25 27 28.35 29.1 29.25 30GHz

19.7

21.2 21.4 22 23.6 24 24.05 24.25 231.5

17.3 17.7

200 209

15.35 15.4 15.7

13.25 13.4 13.75 14 14.4 14.5

11.7 12.2 12.5

10.68 10.7

10.45 10.5

10.3

9.8 10.15

7.75

8.025 8.4 8.5 8.75 8.85 9 9.2 9.3

7.075

5.85

5.725

5.875

5.47

5.35

5.25

4.2 4.4

3.7

4.94 4.99 5 5.03 5.15

3GHz

3.4

SHF 3GHz - 30GHz

300GHz

244 246 250 252

226

190 191.8

148.5 151.5 164 167 182 185

122 123

92

100 102 109.5 111.8 114.25 116

86

81

76 77.5

61 61.5

54.25

50.2 50.4 51.15 52.6

47 47.2

37

39.5

35.2

33 33.4

31 31.3 31.5

30GHz

EHF 30GHz - 300GHz

QR

]^

UV3WX

[\QR

ZMUV3YZ

`abc

hfijklmn(ISM)

op#$qrN4s (SFT)

DEFGHI:3JKL

Mobile

Satellite

Radiolocation

Maritime Mobile

Aeronautical Radionavigation

Meteorological Aids

Industrial, Scientific & Medical (ISM)

Standard Frequency and Time Signal (SFT)

All emissions are prohibited

ST

_W

UV3YZ

[\UV3YZ

ZMQR

L3de

fg

MNOP

tuvw

ABC=

Broadcasting

Fixed

Radionavigation

Maritime Radionavigation

Aeronautical Mobile

Radio Astronomy

Amateur

Space Research

Earth Exploration

To be planned

Note : The frequency chart is not drawn to scale. Details can be found in Hong Kong Table of Frequency Allocations which can be obtained from OFTA website (http://www.ofta.gov.hk). ! : "#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<#$=>[email protected] (http://www.ofta.gov.hk).

 

Cellular Networks Components  

Three basic components: •  Mobile station (MS) •  Base station (BS) •  Mobile switching center (MSC)

 

Mobile station (e.g. a cell phone) connects to a base station through a wireless link

 

Base station connects to an MSC

 

MSC connects to the PSTN

Analog Voice Cellular System  

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) •  •  •  •  •  •  • 

 

2006

Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA)

“1G” system One of the first commercial mobile phone system First available in 1984 Only system in US until 1997 Uses 800 MHz frequency band 824–849 MHz and 869–894 MHz 30kHz Channels

Analog system •  The wireless link between a MS and a BS uses analog communication •  Easy to eavesdrop •  Noise, static… •  Use FDMA to allow multiple users within a cell

Handoff (Handover)  

When a cell phone in conversation moves between the coverage of a cell, call must be “handed off” to other cell

 

When the signal becomes weak in the active site, central control unit will find another site

 

Different cell phone systems have different handoff protocols

When a handoff is not successful, the call is dropped

Digital Voice Cellular Systems  

Less prone to error/noise

 

After digitization, all data can be transmitted in the same way •  E.g., we can use the Internet to transmit voice •  Very useful in 3G systems

 

Can be encrypted to provide security •  Prevent eavesdropping

 

Almost all modern cell phone system are digital

3

2G System: GSM

TDMA

Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile)   The most widely deployed “2G” system worldwide

 

 

 

•  Over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories    

Time Division Multiple Access Different user communicates with the BS at different pre-assigned time slots

A digital communication system Wireless frequency band: •  900 MHz and 1800 MHz band -- Hong Kong, most of the rest of the world •  850 MHz and 1900 MHz -- USA & Canada •  Roaming only possible when a cell phone is capable of communication in different frequency bands

 

Use Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to allow multiple concurrent users.

Beyond Voice Calls

3G Networks

 

Basic GSM Data Service

 

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

 

•  Short Message Service (SMS) •  •  •  •  •  •  •   

 

Extension to original GSM standard “2.5G” system Packet-switched technology < 10 kbit/s, best effort performance Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access General Internet access

•  Video calls •  Data communications  

V

V

V

D

V

V

V

D

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) •  •  •  •  • 

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) •  Enhanced version of GPRS •  “2.75” system (defined in a 3G specification) •  As high as 236.8 kbit/s

Voice and Data Cellular Systems Provides much higher communication

 

Most deployed 3G network worldwide A successor to the GSM standard Sometimes called 3GSM Reuses the GSM infrastructure Uses a W-CDMA wireless technology

Frequency bands •  Hong Kong and most country in Asia, Europe and Oceania uses 2100 MHz band •  North/South America: 850/1900 MHz band

Beyond 3G…  

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) •  Enhanced version of the UMTS standard •  Sometimes called “3.5G” •  Up to 14 Mbit/s downlink (in theory)

 

High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) •  Enhance the uplink transfer speed

 

Both HSDPA and HSUPA are steps to move UMTS standard towards 4G •  100 Mbit/s downlink •  50 Mbit/s uplink

4