FIG Young Surveyors North American Meeting
Donald Buhler Lands, Realty and Cadastral Survey Bureau of Land Management Washington DC
Topics and Activities 1. 2. 3. 4.
Cadastral - Public Land Survey System Federal Geographic Data Committee BLM Cadastral Related Activities Land Buy-Back Program for Tribal Nations 5. Other activities
U.S. Rectangular Survey System
Federal Geographic Data Committee Cadastral Subcommittee
FGDC Public Land Survey System • Cadastral Subcommittee and BLMs role for PLSS – BLM is the authoritative source for the PLSS data – Subcommittee/BLM facilitation and coordination – PLSS data publication through nationalcad.org – Other documents – Maintenance and updates
Public Land Survey System • GIS Version including both rectangular and non-rectangular survey data – rectangular survey data are a reference system for land tenure based upon meridian, township/range, section, section subdivision and government lots – non-rectangular survey data represent surveys that were largely performed to protect and/or convey title on specific parcels of land such as minerals surveys and tracts
• Standardized PLSS data for the 30 Public Domain states. represent about 40 million parcels that provide the basis for parcel mapping, land governance decisions, and navigation of cadastral data in Public Domain states – http://nationalcad.org/download/PLSS-CadNSDI-Data-SetAvailability.pdf
FGDC Cadastral Subcommittee Activities • Updates nationalcad.org – Outreach site redesigned for responsive viewing (mobile viewing) – Updated documents including adding a permanent link for documents. – Added documentation of standard domains of values for PLSS CadNSDI data sets. – Updated project reports.
Cadastral/BLM recent Activities PLSS Data Sets • Adopted Esri’s Parcel Fabric for the PLSS data set maintenance platform – In area’s of BLM authority – migrating to parcel fabric and establishing stewardship partnership Partners are importing to the Fabric • Maintenance within parcel fabric
– Developed web based training – You Tube CadNSDI Channel • https://www.youtube.com/channel/UChbhzk0rupEms6zH JehdFyg • Consistent procedures for updates
PLSS data Maintenance tutorials
Compiling Mineral Surveys
• BLM General Land Office Records – Genealogy – Natural Resource baseline data
• United States Land Patents, 1788-2012 – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uo0UPWhGYG0&a uthuser=0
Land Buy-back Program for Tribal Nations
• Cobell Settlement – Implements the land consolidation – Provided $1.9 billion to purchase fractional interests from willing sellers at fair market value – Consolidated interests for uses benefiting the reservation community and tribal members – Approximately 245,000 owners of nearly three million fractional interests are eligible to participate in the Buy-Back Program.
BLM Cadastral Related Activities Land Buy-Back Program for Tribal Nations
• Completing records analysis, boundary updates and reports – There are over 300 land based Indian reservations – In FY 2015 over 80 buy back reservations will be mapped for records improvement, land descriptions, location and appraisals. – BY FY 2016 over 153 buy back reservations will be completed. – Purchase of 1.48 million acres for $725 million (11/27/2015)
Land Buy-back Program for Tribal Nations
Requirements/Goals • ….to meet the specialized needs of federal government appraisers to accurately position assets and resources relative to parcel boundaries to determine valuations. • ….using data or information contained in federal databases or other systems and which are derived from official records. • ….data/information from an authoritative sources. (TAAMS and the CadNSDI) • ….to derive the Indian tract/parcel boundaries, enabling the mapping of both the surface and mineral estate, and register them to real world coordinates using the CadNSDI/PLSS framework • ….to achieve a “one to one” geospatially, congruent match between the “Ownership” of TAAMS data and the “Possessory” or CadNSDI data for all parcels.
Expectations! Achieve congruency between authoritative data sets in order to gain positional confidence in boundary location relative to title data and resources/assets information.
Deliverables • Reservation-wide Parcel Geodatabases • Improved PLSS corner positioning • Improved records management of authoritative source databases • Specialized GIS and records training for Tribal Reps. • Full Documentation of the “Mapping Process.” • Land characteristics data bases, web viewer, and map services for appraisal purposes
Value added features! • Provided a uniform mapping product for all reservations; a standard…what a concept! • BIA has adopted the process and methodology • All data is made available to the individual tribes – Instant GIS for those who have none! • A success story in collaboration, coordination, and cooperation between disparate federal agencies – Secretary of the Interior, Office of Appraisal Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Special Trustee for American Indians, Bureau of Land Management, and Indian Tribes
Sample of mapping achievements 29 reservations (blue is good!)
Statistics/Information • Mapping Team (led by the BLM) includes BIA, OST, OAS, DME, and OS • Over 80 reservations serviced (mapped and remapped); target is 153 • All reservations will have been mapped at least once by September 30, 2016. • Program in year three; expected to end in 2022 • Over 4000 townships containing over 500,000 parcels serviced to date and 46 million acres;)
CADASTRAL A ERIAL AND TERRESTRIAL MAPPING PROJECTS
Geometric calculation and georeferencing using Structure from Motion (SfM) technology Created by: Seth Kiester, Field Surveyor, BLM
STRUCTURE FROM MOTION TECHNOLOGY Structure from Motion is the term used to describe a recently developed photogrammetric processing method which has many benefits and uses for geoscience applications. The technology is user-friendly, cost effective, and delivers high-accuracy (inches) results comparable to airborne LIDAR. SfM is based on the same basic principles as stereo-pair photogrammetry, requiring a series of overlapping images and some form of precise control to create georeferenced (related to real world coordinates) products. Unlike traditional stereo pair photogrammetry, SfM does not require an extensive network of ground control points or a large expensive photogrammetric mapping camera. Using texture matching and a highly redundant bundle adjustment, this technology is able to solve for lens distortion parameters, camera positions, and ground object positions simultaneously and automatically. Real world coordinates can be determined with aerial GPS and a consumer grade D-SLR camera can be used to collect images. Cadastral has been working with and advancing this mapping technique in Alaska for the past 4 years.
Structure from Motion (SfM) • Photogrammetric processing method for geoscience applications • Cost effective, and delivers high-accuracy results comparable to airborne LIDAR • Basic principles as stereo-pair photogrammetry, requiring a series of overlapping images • Using texture matching and a highly redundant bundle adjustment • Real world coordinates can be determined with aerial GPS and a consumer grade D-SLR camera can be used to collect images • Advancing this mapping technique in Alaska for the past 4 years Many application
WIDE ARRAY OF PLATFORMS AND CAMERA SYSTEMS ALLOWS MISSION FLEXIBILITY
JOHNSON RIVER IMAGE COLLECTION FLIGHT USER CONTROLS CAMERA VARIABLES IN REAL TIME VIA WIRELESS LINK TO I-PAD
FIELD SURVEYS C OST R EDUCTION 2014 • SfM method • Collected meander (water boundary) data for water segregation • Four state and native corporation selections • Over 500 miles of riverbank and coastline • 42 flight hours Traditional method uses a GPS receiver mounted on a helicopter to meander lakes, rivers, and coastline. SfM allows the use of a small fixed wing which is significantly more time and cost effective. • Estimated cost reduction for 2014: $200,000
AREA AND VOLUME C ALCULATION
Haul Road BLM gravel pits near Pump Station 4. Images collected at varying heights to calculate gravel pit area and volume for usage assessment.
DENSE P OINT C LOUD E DITING AND C LASSIFICATION
Galbraith Lake State Gravel Pit, AK. Dense point cloud with true color.
Dense point cloud classified by ground points/non-ground points.
HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY SHOWN IN GOOGLE E ARTH
Information • www.blm.gov/cadastral • www.glorecord.blm.gov • www.cfeds.org