Narrative writing marking guide

Narrative writing marking guide

National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy 2010 Writing Narrative Marking Guide 2 CONTENTS Criteria 6 Annotated exemplars 16...

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National Assessment Program – Literacy

and

Numeracy 2010

Writing Narrative Marking Guide

2

CONTENTS

Criteria

6



Annotated exemplars

16



Discussion scripts

72



Additional information

76



Glossary of grammatical items

78



Spelling reference list

83

3

Assessing Writing in the National Assessment Program The writing task The writing task for this test is a narrative. It is the same task for all students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. The administration of the writing tasks employs closely scripted scaffolding. The teacher reads the directions on the writing prompt aloud to all students. The prompt includes images which can support students in crafting their response. Students have 5 minutes to plan, 30 minutes to write and 5 minutes to edit.

Definition The following definition of the social purposes of the narrative has shaped the development of the criteria. It has also shaped the delineation of the essential structural components required for the task. A narrative is a time-ordered text that is used to narrate events and to create, entertain and emotionally move an audience. Other social purposes of narrative writing may be to inform, to persuade and to socialise. The main structural components of a narrative are the orientation, the complication and the resolution.

Criteria The ten criteria assessed in the writing task are: 1. Audience – The writer’s capacity to orient, engage and affect the reader 2. Text structure – The organisation of narrative features including orientation, complication and resolution into an appropriate and effective text structure 3. Ideas – The creation, selection and crafting of ideas for a narrative 4. Character and setting – Character: The portrayal and development of character Setting: The development of a sense of place, time and atmosphere 5. Vocabulary – The range and precision of language choices 6. Cohesion – The control of multiple threads and relationships over the whole text, achieved through the use of referring words, substitutions, word associations and text connectives 7. Paragraphing – The segmenting of text into paragraphs that assists the reader to negotiate the narrative 8. Sentence structure – The production of grammatically correct, structurally sound and meaningful sentences 9. Punctuation – The use of correct and appropriate punctuation to aid reading of the text 10. Spelling – The accuracy of spelling and the difficulty of the words used. The following table shows criteria and the range of score points for the writing task.

Audience

Text structure

Ideas

Character and setting

Vocab.

Cohesion

Paragraphing

Sentence structure

Punctuation

Spelling

0­–6

0–4

0–5

0–4

0–5

0–4

0–2

0–6

0–5

0–6

4

Using this marking guide The top of each page shows the criterion name and number. The skill focus defines the underlying skill being assessed. The category descriptor is a broad statement describing the particular skill level. This is an overall statement that should be used to make the judgement. Additional information is included to help shape the judgement. However, this information should not be read as an exhaustive list. Notes at the bottom of the page provide clarifying detail where necessary. Sample scripts which exemplify the standard for a particular score are listed. (The number in brackets is the page reference.) The script and annotations supporting the score are organised in the middle section of the marking guide. A glossary of terms used in the rubric is provided after the exemplars. A list of spelling words is included at the back of the guide. This list should be used in conjunction with the spelling criterion on page 15. The list is not exhaustive.

Before beginning the Writing test, all students are given a coloured Writing test stimulus sheet and are read the following instructions: Today you will do a Writing test. In this test you are going to write a narrative. Narratives are also called stories. You have to write a story about the topic. You can use the ideas from this stimulus sheet or you can use your own ideas about this. Look at the pictures and the words to help you with your ideas.

During marking in 2010, information will be collected on whether students have written on the assigned topic. This will be done by markers recording a 0 or 1 against the criterion. Comprehensive training on how to assess whether a student has written on topic or not will be provided to all markers in all Australian marking centres prior to the commencement of marking.

5

1

Audience Skill focus: The writer’s capacity to orient, engage and affect the reader.

Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

– s ymbols or drawings which have the intention of conveying meaning

Role-play writer (16)

1

–c  ontains some simple written content

Dungaun (17)

2

– s hows awareness of basic audience expectations through the use of simple narrative markers

Simple narrative markers may include: – simple titles – formulaic story opening: Long, long ago … Once a boy was walking when … – description of people or places

The casel (19) BMX (21) My Story (23) Living dead (25)

3

–a  n internally consistent story that attempts to support the reader by developing a shared understanding of context

–c  ontains sufficient information for the reader to follow the story fairly easily

Woodern box (27) One sunny morning (29) October 16, 1981 (33) Zip (35) The shade whispered (75)

4

– s upports reader understanding – attempts to engage the reader

Narrative devices may include: – fantasy, humour, suspense – sub-genre styles (e.g. satire, boys’ own, chick lit) – intertextual references

Space Tour (39) The haunted house (41) Gambat (45)­­

5

– s upports and engages the reader through deliberate choice of language and use of narrative devices

6

­– c  aters to the anticipated values and expectations of the reader – influences or affects the reader through precise and sustained choice of language and use of narrative devices

Language choices may: – control writer/reader relationship – reveal values and attitudes – establish narrator stance – subvert expectations – evoke an emotional response – encourage reflection – display irony

6

Tracy (47) Best friends (51) Lovely purple boots (55)

The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) Axe (67) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

2

Text structure

Skill focus: The organisation of narrative features including orientation, complication and resolution into an appropriate and effective text structure. Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

–n  o evidence of any structural components of a time-sequenced text

– symbols or drawings – inappropriate genre, eg a recipe

Role-play writer (16)

1

–m  inimal evidence of narrative structure, eg a story beginning only or a ‘middle’ with no orientation – a recount of events with no complication

–n  ote that not all recounts are factual

Dungaun (17) The casel (19) BMX (21) Zip (35) Space Tour (39)

2

–c  ontains a beginning and a complication – where a resolution is present it is weak, contrived or ‘tacked on’ (e.g. I woke up, I died, They lived happily ever after)

–A  complication presents a problem to be solved, introduces tension, and requires a response. It drives the story forward and leads to a series of events or responses. – Complications should always be read in context. – may also be a complete story where all parts of the story are weak or minimal (The story has a problem to be solved but it does not add to the tension or excitement.)

My Story (23) Living dead (25) Woodern box (27) One sunny morning (29) The shade whispered (75)

3

–c  ontains orientation, complication and resolution – detailed longer text may resolve one complication and lead into a new complication or layer a new complication onto an existing one rather than conclude

Sophisticated structures or plot devices include:

October 16, 1981 (33) The haunted house (41) Gambat (45) Tracy (47) Best friends (51) Lovely purple boots (55)

– foreshadowing/flashback

– red herring/cliffhanger

4

–c  oherent, controlled and complete narrative, employing effective plot devices in an appropriate structure, and including an effective ending

– coda/twist

– evaluation/reflection

– circular/parallel plots

7

The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) Axe (67) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

3

Ideas Skill focus: The creation, selection and crafting of ideas for a narrative.

Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

–n  o evidence or insufficient evidence

– symbols or drawings

Role-play writer (16)

1

– ideas are very few and very simple – ideas appear unrelated

Dungaun (17) The casel (19) BMX (21)

2

– ideas are few, not elaborated or very predictable

My Story (23) Living dead (25)

3

– ideas show some development or elaboration – all ideas relate coherently to a central storyline

4

– ideas are substantial and elaborated – ideas effectively contribute to a central storyline – the story contains a suggestion of an underlying theme

5

– ideas are generated, selected and crafted to explore a recognisable theme – ideas are skilfully used in the service of the storyline

– s ome ideas may contain unnecessary elaboration (waffle)

Woodern box (27) One sunny morning(29) October 16, 1981 (33) Zip (35) Space Tour (39) The haunted house (41) Tracy (47) The shade whispered (75)

Gambat (45) Best friends (51)

Ideas may include: – psychological subjects – unexpected topics – mature viewpoints – elements of popular culture – satirical perspectives – extended metaphor – traditional sub-genre subjects: heroic quest whodunnit good vs evil overcoming the odds

8

Lovely purple boots (55) The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) Axe (67) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

4

Character and setting Skill focus: Character: The portrayal and development of character. Setting: The development of a sense of place, time and atmosphere. Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

–n  o evidence or insufficient evidence

– symbols or drawings

Role-play writer (16)

1

–o  nly names characters or gives their roles (e.g. father, the teacher, my friend, dinosaur, we, Jim) AND/OR – only names the setting: (e.g. school, the place we were at) Setting is vague or confused

2

– s uggestion of characterisation through brief descriptions or speech or feelings, but lacks substance or continuity AND/OR – suggestion of setting through very brief and superficial descriptions of place and/or time

3

–c  haracterisation emerges through descriptions, actions, speech or the attribution of thoughts and feelings to a character AND/OR – setting emerges through description of place, time and atmosphere

4

–e  ffective characterisation. Details are selected to create distinct characters. AND/OR – maintains a sense of setting throughout. Details are selected to create a sense of place and atmosphere.

Dungaun (17) The casel (19) BMX (21)

–b  asic dialogue or a few adjectives to describe a character or a place

My Story (23) Living dead (25) One sunny morning (29) October 16, 1981 (33) Space Tour (39)

Woodern box (27) Zip (35) The haunted house (41) Gambat (45) Tracy (47) The shade whispered (75)

–c  onvincing dialogue, introspection and reactions to other characters

Best friends (51) Lovely purple boots (55) The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) Axe (67) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

NOTES Characterisation and setting are essential components of effective narrative writing. The inclusion of the AND/OR category is necessary as different types of stories may focus on only one aspect. Some stories may be character-driven (e.g. Pippi Longstocking by Astrid Lindgren) and the setting may be very sketchy or undeveloped. Other stories, which attempt to build atmosphere and suspense, may focus on setting the scene (e.g. the wild west genre) with little character detail. Many stories will have a balance of these two components.

9

5

Vocabulary Skill focus: The range and precision of language choices.

Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

– symbols or drawings

1

– very short script

few content words

Dungaun (17) BMX (21)

2

–m  ostly simple verbs, adverbs, adjectives or nouns

– s ingle words: quick, big, run, look, red, cold, water, great, man, soft, need, really, very, beautiful, scream, grab, huge, think – simple groups: My big warm bed; It looked like a bright green lizard; A five headed, six armed monster – simple figurative language: as big as a house

The casel (19) My Story (23) Living dead (25) Woodern box (27) One sunny morning (29) October 16, 1981 (33)

– s ingle precise words: hissed, yanked, clutched, absolutely, disgusted, exhilarating, rewarded, eventually – effective simile: … into a porthole-like trap; Burning coal shot out like tiny bullets – metaphor: … lungs screamed for air – attitudinal: simpered – evaluative: devout, aggressive, hard-done by – technical: resuscitated – formal: To what do I owe this honour? – colloquial language for characters’ speech: Watcha doin? – alliteration: … completely captivating cat called Clarence – effective personification … the wind clutched at her hair

Zip (35) Space Tour (39) The haunted house (41) The shade whispered (75)

–m  ay include two or three precise words

3

–p  recise words or word groups (may be verbs, adverbs, adjectives or nouns)

4

– s ustained and consistent use of precise words and phrases that enhance the meaning or mood

5

–a  range of precise and effective words and phrases used in a natural and articulate manner Language choice is well matched to genre.

Role-play writer (16)

Gambat (45) Tracy (47) Best friends (51) Lovely purple boots (55) The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) Axe (67) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

NOTES Words are generally categorised into two classes: Content words (or lexical items) describe objects and concepts. This class of words consists of nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, noun groups, phrasal verbs and verb groups. Grammatical word classes (or structural words) consist of prepositions, articles, conjunctions, pronouns and interjections.

10

6

Cohesion

Skill focus: The control of multiple threads and relationships over the whole text, achieved through the use of referring words, substitutions, word associations and text connectives. Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

– symbols or drawings

Role-play writer (16)

1

– links are missing or incorrect – short script

Dungaun (17) The casel (19) BMX (21)

Often confusing for the reader.

2

– s ome correct links between sentences (do not penalise for poor punctuation) – most referring words are accurate Reader may occasionally need to re-read and provide their own links to clarify meaning.

– s mall selection of simple connectives and conjunctions used: then, soon, and, but, or, then, suddenly, so, and then, when, ordinal numbers, only temporal connectives – often marked by cumbersome repetition of nouns or unreferenced pronouns

My Story (23) Living dead (25) Woodern box (27) One sunny morning (29) October 16, 1981 (33) Zip (35)

3

–c  ohesive devices are used correctly to support reader understanding – accurate use of referring words Meaning is clear and text flows well in a sustained piece of writing.

–o  ther connectives used: later, meanwhile, instead, in the middle of, earlier, just as, usually, although, even though, such as, because, finally – word association to avoid repetition, eg synonyms, antonyms, word sets, control of narrative tense

Space Tour (39) The haunted house (41) Gambat (45) Tracy (47) Best friends (51) The shade whispered (75)

4

–a  range of cohesive devices is used correctly and deliberately to enhance reading An extended, highly cohesive piece of writing showing continuity of ideas and tightly linked sections of text.

–c  onsistent use of word associations and substitutions that enhance reading

Lovely purple boots (55) The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) Axe (67) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

11

7

Paragraphing Skill focus: The segmenting of text into paragraphs that assists the reader to negotiate the narrative.

Category descriptor

Additional information

0

no use of paragraphing

– – – –

1

writing is organised into paragraphs that are mainly focused on a single idea or set of like ideas that assist the reader to digest chunks of text

–p  aragraphs used to separate the introduction or conclusion from the body of the narrative (2 paragraphs) – paragraphs used to mark formulaic narrative structure (beginning, middle and end). – indicates broad changes in time and scene or time ordered structure

October 16, 1981 (33) Zip (35) Space Tour (39) The haunted house (41) Gambat (45) Tracy (47) The shade whispered (75)

2

all paragraphs are focused on one idea or set of like ideas and enhance the narrative

–d  eliberately structured to pace and direct the reader’s attention – single sentence may be used as a dramatic or final comment or for emphasis

Best friends (51) Lovely purple boots (55) The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) Axe (67) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

s cript is a block of text random breaks new line for every sentence new line for new speaker with no other paragraphing evident

Sample scripts Role-play writer (16) Dungaun (17) The casel (19) BMX (21) My Story (23) Living dead (25) Woodern box (27) One sunny morning (29)

NOTES For the purposes of the task, paragraphing can be indicated by any of the following conventions: • indentation of a new line • space between blocks of text • student annotations, eg P for paragraph, tram lines, square brackets, asterisk • available space on previous line left unused, followed by new line for paragraph beginning.

12

8

Sentence structure Skill focus: The production of grammatically correct, structurally sound and meaningful sentences.

Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

– no evidence of sentences

–d  rawings, symbols, a list of words, text fragments

Role-play writer (16)

1

– s ome correct formation of sentences Some meaning can be construed.

– in general, control is very limited

Dungaun (17) The casel (19) BMX (21)

2

–m  ost simple sentences are correct Meaning is predominantly clear.

–c  orrect sentences are predominantly simple

My Story (23) Living dead (25)

3

–m  ost simple and compound sentences correct – some complex sentences are correct Meaning is predominantly clear.

– experiments with complexity

Woodern box (27) One sunny morning (29) October 16, 1981 (33) The shade whispered (75)

4

– s imple and compound sentences are correct – most complex sentences are correct OR All sentences correct but do not demonstrate variety Meaning is clear.

–g  reater control of complex sentences but lacks variety – allow for an occasional ‘typo’ in simple or compound sentences

Zip (35) Space Tour (39) The haunted house (41) Gambat (45) Tracy (47) Lovely purple boots (55)

5

– s entences correct (allow for occasional typo, eg a missing word) – demonstrates variety in length, structure and beginnings Meaning is clear and sentences enhance meaning.

VARIETY – clause types and patterns (verbless, adjectival, adverbial, multiple dependencies, non-finite) – dependent clause position

Best friends (51) Axe (67)

6

– all sentences are correct Writing contains controlled and well-developed sentences that express precise meaning and are consistently effective.

– length and rhythm – lexical density: increased with elaborating and extending phrases, or reduced to the essential – stylistically appropriate choices

The Water Tower (59) In the distance (63) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

NOTES • Some students do not accurately identify their sentence boundaries with punctuation. In these cases it will be necessary to read the intended sentence. Run-on sentences should not be regarded as successful (overly repeated ‘and’, ‘so’ etc). • Verb control and preposition errors should be considered as sentence errors.

13

9

Punctuation Skill focus: The use of correct and appropriate punctuation to aid reading of the text. NOTE: ‘Splice’ commas used to join two sentences are INCORRECT. (E.g. The dog ate my homework, it was hungry.) Do not score these as correct sentence punctuation or comma use. Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

–n  o evidence of correct punctuation

Role-play writer (16) Dungaun (17) The casel (19)

1

– s ome correct use of capital letters to start sentences OR full stops to end sentences Punctuation is minimal and of little assistance to the reader.

Sentence punctuation includes: – capital letters to begin sentences – full stops to end sentences – question marks to end sentences – exclamation marks to end sentences

2

– s ome accurately punctuated sentences (beginning and end) – some noun capitalisation where applicable Provides some markers to assist reading.

3

– s ome correct punctuation across categories (sentences mostly correct with some other punctuation correct) OR – accurate sentence punctuation with no stray capitals, nothing else used Provides adequate markers to assist reading.

4

–a  ll sentence punctuation correct – mostly correct use of other punctuation Provides accurate markers to enable smooth and efficient reading.

5

writing contains accurate use of all applicable punctuation Provides precise markers to pace and control reading of the text.

Noun capitalisation includes: – first names and surnames – titles: Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms etc. – place names: Paris, Italy – institution names: Valley High – days of week, months of year – street names: Ord St – book and film titles – holidays: Easter, Ramadan – historic events: World War II Other punctuation includes: – apostrophes to mark contractions – commas in lists – commas to mark clauses/phrases – apostrophes to mark possession – correct hyphenation of compound words – quotation marks for direct speech – capital letters and commas used within quotation marks – new line for each speaker – quotation marks for text extracts and highlighted words – brackets and dashes – brackets to signal humorous asides – colons and semicolons – points of ellipsis – commas or semicolons to balance or create rhythm between clauses

BMX (21) My Story (23)

Living dead (25) Woodern box (27) One sunny morning (29) October 16, 1981 (33) Gambat (45) The shade whispered (75) Space Tour (39) The haunted house (41)

Zip (35) Tracy (47) Best friends (51) The Water Tower (59) Axe (67)

Lovely purple boots (55) In the distance (73) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

NOTES In first draft writing, allowances can be made for the very occasional omission of sentence punctuation at scores 4 and 5. ‘Mostly’ is approximately 80% but it is not intended that every use of punctuation is calculated rigorously.

14

10

Spelling Skill focus: The accuracy of spelling and the difficulty of the words used. Category descriptor

Additional information

Sample scripts

0

no conventional spelling

Role-play writer (16)

1

few examples of conventional spelling

2

correct spelling of – most simple words – some common words (errors evident in common words)

Simple words Short vowel single-syllable words (bad, fit, not) with: – consonant digraphs (shop, thin, much, chips) – consonant blends (drop, clap, grass, bring) – double final consonants (will, less) High frequency long vowel single-syllable words (name, park, good, school, feet, food)

3

correct spelling of – most simple words – most common words

4

correct spelling of – simple words – most common words – some difficult words (errors do not outnumber correct spellings)

5

correct spelling of – simple words – most common words – at least 10 difficult words (errors do not outnumber correct spellings)

6

correct spelling of – all words – at least 10 difficult words – some challenging words NOTE: As the work is first draft writing, allowances can be made for very occasional (1 or 2) minor errors, which should be disregarded when assigning this category.

Common words Single-syllable words with: – harder two consonant blends (crack, square) – three consonant blends (stretch, catch, strung) – common long vowels (face, sail, eight, mean, nice, fly, coke, use, close, again) Multisyllabic words with even stress patterns (middle, litter, plastic, between, hospital) Compound words (downstairs) Common homophones (there/their, write/right, hear/ here, brake/break) Suffixes that don’t change the base word (jumped, sadly, adults, happening) Common words with silent letters (know, wrong, comb) Single-syllable words ending in ould, ey, ough Most rule-driven words: drop e, double letter, change y to i (having, spitting, heavier) Difficult words Uneven stress patterns in multisyllabic words (chocolate, mineral) Uncommon vowel patterns (drought, hygiene) Difficult subject-specific content words (obese) Difficult homophones (practice/practise) Suffixes where base word changes (generate/ generation) Consonant alternation patterns (confident/confidence) Many three and four syllable words (invisible, organise, community) Multisyllabic words ending in tion, sion, ture, ible/able, ent/ant, ful Challenging words Unusual consonant patterns (guarantee) Longer words with unstressed syllables (responsibility) Vowel alteration patterns (brief to brevity, propose to proposition) Foreign words Suffixes to words ending in e, c or l (physically, changeable, mathematician)

15

Dungaun (17)

The casel (19) BMX (21) My Story (23) Woodern box (27)

Living dead (25) One sunny morning (29) The shade whispered (75) October 16, 1981 (33) Zip (35) The haunted house (41) Tracy (47) Lovely purple boots (55)

Space Tour (39) Gambat (45) Best friends (51) In the distance (63) Axe (67)

The Water Tower (59) The Deep Blue Nothing (71)

Role-play writer

Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

0

Writing consists of symbols or drawings with the intention of conveying meaning.

2. Text structure

0

Writing contains no evidence of any structural components of a time-sequenced text.

3. Ideas

0

Cannot be read.

4. Character/setting

0

Cannot be read.

5. Vocabulary

0

No discernible words.

6. Cohesion

0

Cannot be read.

7. Paragraphing

0

No paragraphing.

8. Sentence structure

0

Cannot be read.

9. Punctuation

0

No punctuation marks. Mostly capital letters.

10. Spelling

0

Uses letters but no conventional spelling can be discerned. Possibly a string of initial sounds, but decoding is not possible.

16

Dungaun

scardie bones suddenly i see a bone in the dungeon head bone. I got out the dungeon and I went home and i went fishing with my uncle to forster

Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

1

Writing conveys some simple written content.

2. Text structure

1

Very weak sense of narrative structure. I got out the dungaun gives some feeling of escape. Elements of recount: I went … I went …­

3. Ideas

1

Ideas are unrelated. The story begins with bones in a dungeon, followed by a tangential shift to fishing.

4. Character/setting

1

Character and setting only named: uncle, dungaun.

5. Vocabulary

1

Writing contains a limited number of simple and everyday content words: got, see, home, head, bone, fishing, dungeon, uncle.

6. Cohesion

1

Basic pronouns used correctly: I, my. Needs significant re-reading to make sense.

7. Paragraphing

0

A block of text with random spacing.

8. Sentence structure

1

Some meaning can be construed. Shows some evidence of basic sentence construction: I see a bone in the dungaun; as well as some incomplete sentences: I got out the dungaun.

9. Punctuation

0

No evidence. An ambiguous mark at the end.

10. Spelling

1

Few examples of mostly simple words: in, a, I, out, the, my, went, got, and, see. Errors: bone, dungeon, home, with, head Some words cannot be clearly interpreted: seeord, seidre.

17

The casel

18

The casel Criterion 1. Audience

Score 2

Annotations Shows an awareness of the audience by using simple story markers. Has a simple, formulaic story opening and recognisable story characters (queen, king, Rapunzel) and setting (castle). Uses a simple title.

2. Text structure

1

Story beginning followed by fairly confusing recount of events. No discernible complication.

3. Ideas

1

Main idea is that the sister has to be asked something. The audience do not find out what this is.

4. Character/setting

1

Characters and setting are named.

5. Vocabulary

2

No precise words but more than a few content words.

6. Cohesion

1

Often confusing for the reader. Requires significant re-reading.

7. Paragraphing

0

No paragraphs indicated.

8. Sentence structure

1

Some correct formation of sentences: Once upon a time there lived a king and queen who had a daughter and a son. I need to tell you something. I will get my sister for you. A king came and knocked on the door. Many errors, missing words and run-on sentences.

9. Punctuation

0

No punctuation evident.

10. Spelling

2

Simple: king, had, in, and, the, can, tell, get, go, you, she, on, sing, will Common: joke, time, your, said, sister, talk, live, after, door Errors: castle, queen, something, funny, who, son, came, lived, knocked

19

The casel – TRANSLATION

20

BMX

Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

2

Provides some simple content that is a section of a story only. No context is established for the audience, no explanation is given of who ‘we’ are.

2. Text structure

1

A very brief recount which does not have an orientation or complication.

3. Ideas

1

Only one idea expressed (buy bike and go to track).

4. Character/setting

1

Characters and setting only named: we, city, BMX track.

5. Vocabulary

1

Very short script with few content words.

6. Cohesion

1

Very short script – insufficient demonstration of cohesive links.

7. Paragraphing

0

No paragraphs indicated.

8. Sentence structure

1

Only one sentence.

9. Punctuation

1

Stray capital on city. Full stop at end of sentence, capital to begin.

10. Spelling

2

Simple: we, in, our, went, to, the, and, shop, our Common: bought, track, dollar, bike, when, were, city Errors: new Not enough common words demonstrated for a score of 3.

21

My Story

22

My Story Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

2

Demonstrates some awareness of audience by writing a simple narrative with a formulaic beginning. However, lapses in the development of context do not support a reader.

2. Text structure

2

A complete but weak narrative.

3. Ideas

2

Predictable ideas – island, pirates and treasure map, none of which are developed.

4. Character/setting

2

There is a hint of setting; it is a forbidden island. Characters are named: Crystal, Sugar and Water. The dialogue does not create a strong enough sense of character.

5. Vocabulary

2

Mainly uses simple content words: treasure, pirate ship and map. An attempt is made to use precise language with the use of forbidden.

6. Cohesion

2

Most referring words are accurate though there is confusion at the beginning with the number of girls. The lack of temporal connectives and the overuse of they/them (without the pronoun being redefined) makes re-reading necessary.

7. Paragraphing

0

No paragraphs are indicated.

8. Sentence structure

2

The meaning is predominantly clear through the use of correct simple and compound sentences. No correct complex sentences.

9. Punctuation

1

Limited understanding of punctuation. Most sentence boundaries are missing or incorrect. There are missing contractions and incorrect use of list commas and speech marks.

10. Spelling

2

Common: time, wanted, find, night, looking, boat, found, behind, know, said, what Errors: course, saw, pirate, worry, sure, we’ll, something, suddenly, popped, front, piece, believe, fooled, were Too many errors in common words to score a 3.

23

Living dead

24

Living dead Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

2

Shows limited awareness of audience by recounting a simple story with some description. Does not clearly establish a context. Describes some characters and places.

2. Text structure

2

Missing a usual story beginning. Has a complication with some development.

3. Ideas

2

Ideas are few – crash, stay in lodge, living dead attack the family.

4. Character/setting

2

Setting and characters are named: trees, lodge, we, family, Jim, living dead. Jim appears friendly: Hi everyone, what happened? Description of place: comes out of some trees

5. Vocabulary

2

A few precise examples used: ripped us limb from limb, surround, pushing out of their graves.

6. Cohesion

2

Minimal use of connectives. Text is stilted.

7. Paragraphing

0

Paragraph breaks are random. Like ideas are separated by a break but no break used to separate new idea.

8. Sentence structure

2

Most simple sentences are correct. Lack of verb control: they surround us and they ripped us … Blood was everywhere and they’re eating our bodies

9. Punctuation

2

Jim is correctly capitalised, but there is a stray capital on Person. Missing capitals and full stops in the last paragraph but many sentences are correctly punctuated. The full stop before Pushing is incorrect.

10. Spelling

3

Common: person, named, comes, some, everybody, smashed, wall, want, stay, thanks, later, night, noise, family, living, dead, pushing, graves, they, bodies, hear, blood, trees, won’t Errors: crashes, suddenly, barrier, engine, happened, too, whole, goes, they’re, ripped, limb, eating, their

25

Woodern box

26

Woodern box Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

3

Attempts to support the reader by providing sufficient information for the reader to follow the story easily. Sense of being trapped inside box conveyed clearly.

2. Text structure

2

A complete narrative with a complication and weak conclusion: I woke up and it was just a dream.

3. Ideas

3

The inside of the box and efforts to escape are elaborated. All ideas relate to the story.

4. Character/setting

3

Clear description of place: little wooden box; so small I could move around a little bit but I couldn’t stand up; I looked around for a gap or a door but couldn’t find on; There was nails sticking out of the bottom so I had to be careful

5. Vocabulary

2

Mostly simple words. Claustrophobic is the only precise word.

6. Cohesion

2

The script generally flows well but is too brief to provide evidence for a score of 3. Repetition of then in the final sentences.

7. Paragraphing

0

No paragraphs indicated.

8. Sentence structure

3

Some correct complex sentences: It was so small I could move around a little bit … I ramed the side trying to get it open ... When I woke up, I was not in my bed any more. One incorrect complex sentence with subject verb agreement error: Their was nailes sticking out … and one tense error in a compound sentence: I stop for a while and notised something weird.

9. Punctuation

2

One correctly punctuated sentence. Mostly missing sentence punctuation. Some stray capitals (Just and It). Correct capitalisation for I. Correct use of apostrophes in couldn’t, didn’t and wasn’t but not enough sentences correct for a score of 3.

10. Spelling

2

Common words: night, down, asleep, woke, more, wasn’t, small, could, move, around, little, couldn’t, work, hurt, trying, sticking Errors: little, nails, careful, where, stepped, rammed, didn’t, dream, bottom, while, sick, something, there, wooden Too many errors in common words to score a 3.

27

One sunny morning

28

One sunny morning Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

3

A solid complete story that provides enough contextual information to follow easily. Does not attempt to engage.

2. Text structure

2

Complete narrative with very weak ending.

3. Ideas

3

All ideas relate coherently to a central storyline – finding box of gold, being robbed, the chase, jet packs, retrieving the box.

4. Character/setting

2

Some suggestion of character through interaction with the bully.

5. Vocabulary

2

Simple everyday words and word groups: Little red box, out of nowhere, jet packs, sunny morning

6. Cohesion

2

Basic linking of the ideas through the noun/pronoun referencing. Uses a restricted range of conjunctions so (so Hannah said… so Hannah opened …) , then (then my mum …, and then we …, then we caught … but then …).

7. Paragraphing

0

No paragraphs are indicated.

8. Sentence structure

3

Simple and compound sentences correct, though there is some over-use of ‘and’ towards the end. Enough correct use of complex sentences for category 3.

9. Punctuation

2

Some correct sentence punctuation. Speech marks, question mark and contractions applied correctly.

10. Spelling

3

Most common words are spelled correctly. Common errors: morning, heard, stopped.

29

October 16, 1981

30

31

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32

October 16, 1981 Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

3

Attempts to support the reader by establishing a clear context. Story is easy to follow.

2. Text structure

3

A complete story with some detail. Simple complication and resolution.

3. Ideas

3

Ideas show some elaboration (Zac drifting out to sea, detail in rescue, doctor visit and outcome). All ideas relate to the story.

4. Character/setting

2

Characters are named (Zac, life guards, doctor). Life guards’ actions are only very sketchy – no indication is given of emotional response. Simple setting is clear and referred to by date and simple words – beach, windy day, shore, huge wave.

5. Vocabulary

2

Mainly simple words used to describe – floating, fainted, tired, huge, windy, a day like this. A few precise words: fractured, revived, recovering

6. Cohesion

2

Repetition of surf, surfing, surfing on in first paragraph is clumsy. Later and wh­en are the main connectives used.

7. Paragraphing

1

Simple breaks to mark time changes and new ideas.

8. Sentence structure

3

Correct sentences are predominantly simple and compound. Attempts at complex sentences are mostly incorrect or clumsy: The wave drifted him out further and further till there was no one …; When they got to the doctor he had an X-ray on his head …; the results came up that …; but all was good.

9. Punctuation

2

Many missing full stops and associated capital letters. Noun capitalisation is correct. Some random capitals and comma use. Bracket use is incorrect.

10. Spelling

4

Common: named, beach, really, windy, could, there, water, surf, later, knocked, closed, board, wave, floating, fainted, asked, remember, happened, results, while, family, time, life, shore, drifted, huge, surfing, couldn’t Common errors: tired, recovering, now, back, off, where, too Difficult: further, injury, damage Difficult errors: guards, fractured

33

Zip

34

Zip Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

3

Attempts to support reader by clearly establishing context (school, Zip). Story has sufficient context to be easy to follow.

2. Text structure

1

Orientation introduces the character. No complication – recounts and describes events.

3. Ideas

3

Ideas are relevant to the central story. Most ideas are elaborated.

4. Character/setting

3

Character emerges through description: Zip is cool, unimpressed by human possessions, likes swimming and soccer, able to swim to incredible depths. Setting is named: school, home. Interior of spaceship is described in some detail.

5. Vocabulary

3

Precise language: when he surfaced, food system, ancient, wasn’t impressed, state of the art, PS2000A TV that’s about 50 times bigger than my one …

6. Cohesion

2

Uses after, so The repetition of so in second last paragraph is clumsy.

7. Paragraphing

1

Paragraphs are marked and logical.

8. Sentence structure

4

Meaning is clear. (The missing word, know, in the second last paragraph is a typo.) Variety and control not sufficient for a 5.

9. Punctuation

4

There are many examples of other correct punctuation: list commas, possessive apostrophe, contraction apostrophe, brackets, quotation marks and associated punctuation. Minor omissions at sentence level in second last paragraph keep this at a category 4.

10. Spelling

4

Common: new, spaceship, swimming, oval, invited, comes, huge, friends, say, house, smaller, state, dived, minutes, didn’t, bottom, recount Difficult: system, decided, ancient, impressed, surfaced, kilometres Difficult errors: accurate

35

Space Tour

36

37

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38

Space Tour Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

4

Context established. Attempts to engage the audience by trying to introduce some emotion.

2. Text structure

1

Recount with no complication. The black hole at first appears to be a problem but turns out to be only the method by which the bus travels.

3. Ideas

3

Ideas relate coherently to the storyline.

4. Character/setting

2

Characters are only named. Description of setting is minimal: Strange land, bright shining stars, dark thickness.

5. Vocabulary

3

Precise words: anxiously, massive RV, weird but wonderful, imagined the future to look like, whirled to an exotic place, telescopes, transporter Dark thickness is not very successful. The words do not sufficiently enhance the mood or meaning.

6. Cohesion

3

Meaning is clear. Cohesion is sufficiently sustained for a score of 3.

7. Paragraphing

1

Paragraphing is logical.

8. Sentence structure

4

Many sentences are correct and meaning is clear. Some errors are evident: … what type of bus would they be taking when then a massive RV … I and the rest of the class … All around us was large telescopes.

9. Punctuation

3

Sentence punctuation is correct. Not sufficient demonstration of other punctuation for a 4.

10. Spelling

5

Common: Wednesday, around, waiting, station, planned,

understanding, sudden, rumble, bright, swirled, sucked, space, robot, second, found, taking, corner, again, whipped, transporter Errors: massive, strange Difficult: telescopes, Saturn, wonderful, excursion, anxiously, imagined, nervous, exotic, experience, galaxy, excitedly, wondered

39

The haunted house

40

The haunted house Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

4

Supports reader understanding by providing sufficient information for the reader. Attempts at engagement made through humorous dialogue between characters and some attempted use of comment as a narrative device.

2. Text structure

3

Although resolution is not strong there is an attempt at reflection. Orientation and simple complication are present.

3. Ideas

3

Ideas coherent, although not necessarily convincing, with some elaboration.

4. Character/setting

3

Setting is adequate and defined in time and place: summer holiday, haunted house in England. Character emerges through description, action and speech: mad scientist wearing weird goggles; Gemma packing brush, mirror and lip gloss; Harry packing spy gear and walkie-talkies.

5. Vocabulary

3

Precise words and groups: mad scientist, pleasant smile, weird goggles, black belts in karate, shattered the skeleton’s bones, wonder if that’s the truth.

6. Cohesion

3

Most referring words are clear. Harry–he; lip gloss–that, however, repetition of uncle’s house interferes with flow of text. Some effective sentence links: The second …; As for the kids …; What happened to the uncle …

7. Paragraphing

1

Paragraphing reflects simple narrative structure.

8. Sentence structure

4

Simple, compound and complex sentences correct. There is not enough variety for a 5. The text contains many ‘When …’ dependent clauses in first position.

9. Punctuation

3

Correct use of capital letters and full stops in sentences, commas in lists, apostrophes for contractions, quotation marks for direct speech. Errors in: apostrophes for possession, capital letters (harry, game boy advance, Summer), apostrophe for contraction (lets), and some incorrect use of commas and full stops within speech.

10. Spelling

4

Common: summer, hair, because, haunted, mirror, heard, already, scared, brought, science, gear, anything, knocked, truth, brains, happily, quiet, shattered Difficult: mysterious, scientist, pleasant, weird, skeleton, captured, continued, angrily Challenging errors: unconscious

41

Gambat

42

43

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44

Gambat Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

4

Supports the reader by developing and subverting reader expectation of father–child relationship and happy ending.

2. Text structure

3

Complete story with adequate conclusion. Orientates the reader by drawing into the character’s thoughts. Brief episodes build to a climax.

3. Ideas

4

The discovery of the father’s true character is an interesting twist in what initially appears to be a fairly ordinary ‘quest’ story. Elaborated ideas contribute effectively to the story.

4. Character/setting

3

Father’s and child’s characters emerge through description.

5. Vocabulary

4

Many precise words and phrases: engulfed, it felt like forever, I stared in awe at the beauty, sitting by a crystal pond, slowly approached, no hesitation, the animals froze, reluctantly I accepted. error: utter most beauty

6. Cohesion

3

Meaning is clear and text flows well. Cohesive devices are used to support reader understanding. Good pronoun referencing and word associations: place/Gambat; wanted/ thought; decided/remembered/believed

7. Paragraphing

1

Paragraphing is indicated by forward slashes in text.

8. Sentence structure

4

Simple, compound and complex sentences are generally correct, with a single error in rised. I thinks in the last sentence is excused as a typo. Most sentences begin with a pronoun: I, He, It

9. Punctuation

2

Although there is evidence of quotation marks used correctly, most sentences are not punctuated correctly (missing full stops or commas used in place of full stops). The text is hard to read because of this.

10. Spelling

5

Common: travel, remember, thought, cloud, arrive, suddenly, bloomed, leader, closer, offered, would, stole, ticket, wanted, caught Common errors: now Difficult: wondering, awe, engulfed, decided, crystal, hesitation, majestic, beauty, accepted, approached, reluctantly

45

Tracy

46

Tracy Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

5

Chooses events and language to engage the reader. Develops emotional response.

2. Text structure

3

A complete story with an adequate conclusion.

3. Ideas

3

Ideas relate coherently to the central storyline.

4. Character/setting

3

Character emerges through description of emotional reaction, ‘double takes’ and action. Tracy is also developed through description and action: my little sister; shrieked in pleasure; up the path clumsily; she just turned two.

5. Vocabulary

4

Precise language: … hum of the engine serving as my lullaby, steep hill with a winding narrow path, my vision blurred, WHAT! Tracy’s gone?! Error: similar (means familiar)

6. Cohesion

3

Meaning is clear and text flows well.

7. Paragraphing

1

Paragraphing is indicated with brackets.

8. Sentence structure

4

Sentences are varied in length and type and correct sentences enhance meaning. There are two sentence errors: I asked them what was the matter I hugged her and kissed her so wept with her, and one ‘missing word’: and told me Tracy was gone – missing ‘they’. Without these errors the text would score 5.

9. Punctuation

4

Sentence punctuation is correct, as are possessive and contraction apostrophes, capitals for emphasis, and points of ellipsis. Exclamation marks are a bit overused.

10. Spelling

4

Common: torch, clearing, crying, faint, followed, dream, matter, gone, checked, cradle, death, drive, narrow, supposed, strange, carried, crawled Difficult: pleasure, clumsily, similar, aliens, kidnapped Difficult errors: lullaby, horrified More difficult words correct than incorrect.

47

Best friends

48

49

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50

Best friends Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

5

Successful drama/suspense style narrative. Deliberate choice of language engages the reader and suits the sub-genre. Narrator’s stance is maintained with a consistent view of the world through Dayna’s eyes.

2. Text structure

3

The story does not conclude but introduces a new and relevant complication.

3. Ideas

4

The ideas are well elaborated with contextual detail.

4. Character/setting

4

All characters developed, through actions and description, for effect: the friendship between the two girls; the stereotyped detective called Benny dipping his hat and mumbling; the description of the ‘kidnapper’. Setting sufficiently maintained: Leafy-Tree Wood, the day being cloudy, dark, rainy and horrid, the small wood shack with no light whatsoever.

5. Vocabulary

4

Precise: bawling; severe head injuries; skipped her favourite comics; several sharp knocks; quickened her pace; shriek of pain. Some errors: ran to the aid of her loving Mum, thoughts swallowed her mind …

6. Cohesion

3

Generally correct and deliberate time connectives: That morning; At that moment …; Over dinner …; That particular Sunday morning … Errors: before instead of earlier; was instead of had been; Now felt like for Now she felt like

7. Paragraphing

2

Appropriate paragraphing maintained throughout. Paragraphs assist the reader to negotiate the text.

8. Sentence structure

5

Generally varies sentence beginnings, although she is overused.

9. Punctuation

4

Correct use of capital letters and full stops in sentences, apostrophes for contractions, commas for phrasing, quotation marks for heading, apostrophes for possession, commas for a list, hyphen. The comma used in the last sentence is incorrect but the sentence does not need to have a full stop here. A semi-colon or dash would work effectively, so this is not a sentence level error.

10. Spelling

5

Many common words correct Common errors: quickened, which, thoughts, opened Difficult: practice, popular, decided, swallowed, particular, whatsoever, reliving, detective, shriek, kidnapped, shoulder Difficult errors: severe, injuries, bawling, detectives, labelled

51

Lovely purple boots

52

53

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54

Lovely purple boots Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

5

Text supports and engages the reader. Language choices are deliberate and the ending links neatly to the opening paragraph.

2. Text structure

3

Story does not conclude but introduces a new complication.

3. Ideas

5

An underlying theme of wanting to regain something that is lost (the Grandmother).

4. Character/setting

4

Characters emerge through specific dialogue (for old man) and clear indications of character response to the various situations.

5. Vocabulary

4

Speech is developed for different characters: So what’s this about me being in the land of the dead? Hear, listen closely. This is the land of the dead right? Other examples: they floated as if a wind was blowing them; He was fast, too fast; eventually; urgency; excitedly; hesitated

6. Cohesion

4

Sections of text are linked with no redundancy and text supports continuity of ideas.

7. Paragraphing

2

Breaks are deliberate and accurate.

8. Sentence structure

4

Sentences are mostly correct, clear and chosen to enhance meaning, although many of them begin with I or He. There is some clumsiness: ‘I’m Jack,’ and out came a little boy, hiding from a nearby rock … they floated, as if a wind was blowing them a direction which they wouldn’t stop facing.

9. Punctuation

5

Precise and accurate use of applicable punctuation.

10. Spelling

4

Many common words correct. Difficult: imagined, hesitated, eventually, wondered, excitedly Difficult errors: urgency

55

The Water Tower

56

57

58

The Water Tower Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

6

Successfully establishes context and engages the reader with language choices that reveal the writer’s inner thoughts. Narrator stance is established from the outset. Successfully develops some tension to engage the audience.

2. Text structure

4

Develops the complication of the climb effectively. Coherent and controlled including an effective reflection at the end which highlights the theme.

3. Ideas

5

Ideas are selected and crafted to explore a recognisable theme, as stated in the resolution: stepping outside my comfort zone, I could expand my horizons (ie facing your fears will set you free).

4. Character/setting

4

Character-driven piece. The character is quite believably developed through comment and introspection. There is a sense of how the central character is feeling at every point in the story.

5. Vocabulary

4

Sustained use of precise words and phrases: cautious, exclaimed, uttered, challenged, gripped, petrified, frantically, flung, peered, determined; careful is my middle name; trying desperately to think calm thoughts.

6. Cohesion

4

A highly cohesive and tightly linked text. Good use of connectives to link paragraphs and sentences and progress the story: Campbell went first; I was next; I gripped the first rung; At that moment; When I got near the top.

7. Paragraphing

2

Paragraphs, as indicated by available space on previous line left unused, are deliberately structured to pace the story and create tension.

8. Sentence structure

6

Controlled and effective sentences. A range of sentence lengths and structures are used to enhance the story.

9. Punctuation

4

A range of markers used to pace and control the reading of this text. Accurate use of commas for phrasing, apostrophes for contractions and possession, speech marks, and brackets. No new line for dialogue prevents a score of 5.

10. Spelling

6

Difficult: cautious, exclaimed, challenged, knuckled, continuing, bravery, determined, impossible, calm, horizons Challenging: petrified, frantically, desperately typo: an for and

59

In the distance

60

61

62

In the distance Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

6

Evokes the bleak tenor of a futuristic, sci-fi world. Attempts to build suspense and develops sense of threat.

2. Text structure

4

Orientates the reader well. Builds to a climax/cliffhanger complication. Coherent and complete with a clear ending.

3. Ideas

5

Ideas are sophisticated and well developed and are selected to develop a theme of marginalisation, loss of individuality and betrayal.

4. Character/setting

4

Setting is clearly established and details selected to create an atmosphere of despair and destruction. Characters are shown through actions, thoughts and dialogue.

5. Vocabulary

5

A range of precise and effective words and phrases selected and used articulately to enhance mood and meaning: behemoth, tattered, looms, surveyed, brainwashed, mindless, pledged, clenched, resolve, blurred, advancing; a halo of pollution, An unending queue of people …; pockets of his tattered jackets; spat bitterly; An ugly blemish

6. Cohesion

4

Uses related words to create multiple links between ideas. An extended, highly cohesive narrative.

7. Paragraphing

2

Paragraphs are apparent (available space on previous line left unused) and assist the reader to negotiate the story. Uses single sentence paragraphs for effect at the end of the story.

8. Sentence structure

6

Controlled use of sentence structure with a variety of lengths and beginnings. Experiments with using participial clauses and prepositional phrases to either extend (with the music … With the proper clothes …) or enhance (leaving the dead forests …) ideas. The use of sentence fragments for an effect is allowed.

9. Punctuation

5

Correct use of commas for phrasing, speech marks, quotation marks for emphasis, apostrophes for contractions and possession, and ellipsis.

10. Spelling

5

Difficult: pollution, horizon, centuries, structures, disgusting, hypnotising, actually, advancing, surveyed, queue, pledged, accent, blemish, metropolitan Errors: existence Challenging: behemoth

63

Axe

64

65

66

Axe Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

6

Carefully establishes context and engages the reader. Narrative devices and language choices are used to evoke an emotional response.

2. Text structure

4

Coherent, controlled and complete story.

3. Ideas

5

All ideas contribute effectively to the ‘heroic quest’ storyline. The ‘twist’ at the end is effective.

4. Character/setting

4

Effective characterisation and setting. Details are used to create sense of place and atmosphere: dry barren landscape; The remains of my house were still burning, the thick smell of ash and burnt wood lingered in my senses.

5. Vocabulary

5

Language choice well matched to fantasy genre. Wide range of precise words: assailant, vengeance, remnants, instinctively, mourning, urge, severe, crouching, wrenched, Repent, looming Descriptive phrases: faint silhouette streaking across the horizon; aura of devastating revenge; glancing at its jewel embedded blade; trudged away from the burning haze reminiscing about the thoughts of my family; jagged rocks and seemingly endless fall

6. Cohesion

4

Correct and deliberate use of connectives.

7. Paragraphing

2

Paragraphs are deliberately structured to pace and direct the reader’s attention.

8. Sentence structure

5

Text shows good use of complex sentences. There is too much similarity in the structuring of sentences with multiple dependent clauses and insufficient variety (overuse of non-finite clauses) in sentence lengths to be awarded a 6.

9. Punctuation

4

In some places commas have been used where other punctuation is needed. Many accurate examples of commas for phrasing; with some overuse. Some closing quotation marks are incorrectly placed. Correct use of speech marks, ellipsis and apostrophes for contractions.

10. Spelling

5

Difficult: responsible, aura, instinctively, embedded, vendetta, mourning, deceased, urge, severe, crouching, wrenched, elude, continually, journey, injured, persevered, noticed, particular Challenging: devastating, assailant, vengeance Errors: arduous (hardous), farewell, sever, remnants, reminiscing, silhouette, angrily, wielded Too many words incorrect to score 6.

67

The Deep Blue Nothing

68

69

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70

The Deep Blue Nothing Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

6

Use of drama successfully engages the reader. Extremely wellcontrolled context supports the dramatic events.

2. Text structure

4

Coherent, complete, little redundancy. Good progression through seminal events to an appropriate resolution.

3. Ideas

5

Coherent ideas relating to a central event are crafted to create the effect of suspense and tension.

4. Character/setting

4

Setting evocatively described. Atmosphere achieved with control of pace. Character’s experiences and feelings conveyed through well-selected detail.

5. Vocabulary

5

Evocative imagery: flicks of silver fish tails. Effective figurative language: lust for oxygen, lungs screamed for air, clawed for the surface.

6. Cohesion

4

Accurate links at sentence and paragraph level and strong word associations: flicks of silver fish tails/school; struggled/ screamed/burned/clawed. Some examples of subtle referencing: How simple it all was.

7. Paragraphing

2

Well-linked paragraphs, which successfully lead the reader on. Construction of each paragraph is tight and unified.

8. Sentence structure

6

Sentences are varied in structure and length, creating pace and atmosphere: My insides burning, my skin freezing, my arms and legs exhausted, I relaxed. All pain had disappeared, as had the water … Subtle shifts between continuous and perfect past tenses for clarity, and some use of present continuous for effect. There is a high standard of sentence structure throughout the text with one or two minor errors.

9. Punctuation

5

Controlled, appropriate punctuation including ellipsis, commas, dashes, quotation marks and accompanying punctuation. One error: it’s

10. Spelling

6

Difficult: disappointed, oxygen, invisible, weightless, agony, exhausted, interesting, particularly, dissolved, surface, paradise, propelled Challenging: imaginable, miniscule, definitely Errors: desperate Single error is overlooked.

71

Discussion scripts The following scripts have been included to exemplify particular types of writing that markers may encounter.

Literary description While Fier brething dragen is a description, which is a feature of narrative writing, this text does not include the organisational narrative features of orientation, complication and resolution. For this reason, for the category of Text Structure it is Score 1.

Fier brething dragen The storm was like a fier brething dragen. The rain fell like big chanks of hay all coming down very fast peoples umbreles were flying in the wing the wind was faroshes the lighting lit the dark sky. The wind was hawling in the night sky it was sow dark it was like being in a cave it was like being in the wood but even darker than the cave or the woods it was sow cold. I coldent fill my legs it was colder then being in the blue Montains I had goose bumps all other me it was the coldest day ever I had to put on 5 jackets two pants and six sox 3 binis

Audience

Text structure

Ideas

Character and setting

Vocab.

Cohesion

Paragraphing

Sentence structure

Punctuation

Spelling

2

1

2

3

3

2

0

2

1

2

Derivative texts If a marker recognises the source of a text, the student’s work must be marked on its merits as an original script. It is unlikely that a marker will always recognise the content of derivative texts but, even if a source is recognised, the student’s work must be marked on it merits as an original text. If a marker suspects that a text has been copied verbatim from a source, then this requires further follow-up. The text should be brought to the attention of the marking centre leader who will determine if this is the case. The shade whispered is heavily derivative, in both its content and style, of a published science fiction text but it is not a direct copy. It must be marked on its own merits. The student is clearly very familiar with the text and has written a version of events from memory.

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The shade whispered

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The shade whispered Criterion

Score

Annotations

1. Audience

3

The story can be followed fairly easily. There are two parallel stories.

2. Text structure

2

Both sections of the story have a beginning and a complication.

3. Ideas

3

Ideas show some development and are relevant to the story. Based very closely on Eragon, but is not penalised for this.

4. Character/setting

3

Characters are developed through action and dialogue: • Mack is a hunter, he curses, he is probably hungry, he is a poor farm boy and has been hunting in the ‘spine’ – a forbidden area • The shade is malevolent and magical

5. Vocabulary

3

Precise words: angrily, sapphire, surrounded, vanished, bolted, trade, poach, nocked (means to fit an arrow into a bowstring – this is the correct spelling)

6. Cohesion

3

Meaning is clear and the text flows well. The combination of speech and description is effective.

7. Paragraphing

1

Minimal but appropriate breaks.

8. Sentence structure

3

Verb error: pick it up for picked it up The text consists mainly of simple and compound sentences. The second section has 3 correct complex sentences.

9. Punctuation

2

Sentence punctuation is mostly missing but other punctuation is correct (quotation marks, question mark, exclamation marks for emphasis, noun capitals). Missing possessive apostrophes in woman’s, shade’s

10. Spelling

3

Common: pouch, shrugged, footprint, arrow, fired, woman, shouted, happens, ground, deer Difficult: angrily, whispered, answered Errors: guards, elves, steak, sapphire

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Additional information for markers • No attempt at all: Score NA in all categories. • If writing has been attempted but erased or all work is crossed out: Score 0 in all categories. • If title has been written but there is no story: Score 1 for Audience, score spelling as appropriate and score 0 in all other categories. • If the stimulus material has been copied: Score 1 for Audience, score 0 for all other categories. • If the student has written a name on the page and/or has drawn only a picture on the page: Score 0 in all categories. • If the student writes only a list of spelling words: Score spelling as appropriate and score 0 for all other categories.

Topic adherence Focus: Reference to or association with the topic in the body of the text.

Score 0 – The story is not on topic if: • there is no reference to the topic anywhere in the text or title • it is a finished story where the only reference to the topic is in the heading or title • any single word that refers to the topic is included but has no relevance to the rest of the text • a topic reference is an obviously irrelevant event in the story • one sentence that refers to the topic has been tacked on to the story.

Score 1 – The story is clearly on topic if: • there is a clear connection between the title or heading and the body of the text where the title includes a reference to the topic • there is only a drawing of a picture of the topic • the topic is used as a metaphor or the story relates to an intangible or unusual aspect of the topic • the writing uses a related meaning of the topic word or topic image • the story leads towards the topic • an incomplete story has reference to the topic in the title.

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GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS Section 1: Vocabulary Adjective Adjectives are words that give additional information about the noun. They can be used before a noun, eg Stubborn teenagers will not heed sensible advice, or after a verb, eg Teenagers can be stubborn.

Adverb Adverbs give additional information about verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. They tell how, when and where, something happens, eg he walked slowly; the dog ran away; I’ll see you tomorrow; he arrived extremely late.

Figurative language Figurative language refers to the techniques of language which help construct associated images in the mind of the reader. Examples of figurative language are similes and metaphors.

Metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that likens one thing to another. Metaphors say that one thing is another; they do not use like or as. The work done by volunteers is the glue that holds a community together. My fingers are ice.

Noun Nouns are words that name people (James Blunt), places (New York), things (chair, family, sunshine) and concepts (hope, frustration, liberty).

Preposition Prepositions are positional words such as: below , for, down, above, to, near, under, since, between, with, before, after, into, from, beside, without, out, during, past, over, until, through, off, on, across, by, in, around, onto. Prepositional phrases, eg …with tears in her eyes, can be used as a device to enhance description.

Pronoun A pronoun stands in place of a noun or noun group. A pronoun refers to something that has been named and has already been written about. For example: The harbour is a popular place. It is mostly used by fishermen. Pronouns work only if they are not ambiguous (that is, there is a clear line of reference) and are not used too repetitively. Examples of common pronouns are: she, he, you, mine, hers, yours, himself, yourself this, that, these, those each, any, some, all who, which, what, whose, whom

You can’t keep all the apples yourself! These are mine. Some will be given to Peter. Who is visiting tomorrow?

Simile A simile is a figure of speech which compares one thing with another, usually beginning with like or as, eg ‘Without the business that teenagers bring, the shopping centre would be like a wasteland. The two things being compared must be different, eg in the example ‘The distant building looked like a castle’ would not be a simile if the building was in fact a castle.

Verb Verbs are the basis of any message communicated. They are the engine of the sentence or clause and provide movement or action, or a sense of what is happening. Different types of verbs are used, depending on the purpose of the text. The writing could feature: action verbs (the traditional ‘doing words’): The children swam every day.

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saying verbs: The crowd was cheering. thinking verbs: He is hoping to visit tomorrow. relational verbs: Mary was a kind girl. Extended verb groups indicate many sentence features, such as tense and modality, eg I have been working on this for a long time. (tense) I might be finished by tea time. (modality)

Section 2: Cohesion Cohesion is about linking ideas or concepts and controlling threads and relationships over the whole text. Cohesion in a text is achieved through use of various devices.

Connectives (or signal words or discourse markers) Connectives link paragraphs and sentences in logical relationships of time, cause and effect, comparison or addition. Connectives relate ideas to one another and help to show the logic of the information. The logical relationships can be grouped as follows: Temporal (to indicate time or sequence ideas) first, second, next, meanwhile, till, while, then, later, previously, finally, to conclude Causal (to show cause and effect) because, for, so, consequently, due to, hence, since, accordingly Additive (to add information) also, moreover, above all, equally, besides, furthermore, as well as, or, nor, additionally Comparative rather, elsewhere, instead, alternatively, on the other hand Conditional/concessive (to make conditions or concessions) yet, still, although, unless, however, otherwise, still, despite, nevertheless Clarifying in fact, for example, in support of this, to refute

Ellipsis Omission of words that repeat what has gone before; these items are simply understood. The project will be innovative. To be involved will be exciting. Ellipsed in the second sentence: in the project.

Referring words Referring words maintain continuity and avoid repetition. Noun-pronoun chains: John was in a race. He won. His team cheered. Articles: a, the. He bought a car. He got into the car. Demonstratives: this, that, there, these. John had owned mice before but this mouse was different.

Substitution Words that replace noun groups or verb groups: do, so, such, one: There was a lot of swearing and abuse. Such language is simply not acceptable in a church.

Word associations (or lexical cohesion) Repetition: The caterpillar ate through the apple. He ate through the cake. He ate through the pie. Synonyms: The weather had been hot. It was another boiling day. Antonyms: Petra liked school but Sarah hated it. Word sets: class and sub-class, or whole and part clusters of words. services/army; marsupial/possum Collocation: words which typically go together, making text flow well. river, bank, water

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Section 3: Sentence structure 3.1 Sentences A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. It is marked in writing by beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark. There are four functions for sentences: Making statements: The girl shot a goal. Asking questions: Did the girl shoot a goal? Uttering commands: Shoot the goal! Voicing exclamations: What a great goal!

Simple sentence A simple sentence is one that contains a single clause. We went to the movies.

Compound sentence In compound sentences there are two or more clauses which are coordinated or linked in such a way as to give each equal status as a statement. We went to the movies and bought an ice-cream. Clauses in compound sentences are usually joined by conjunctions such as, and, but, or, and so and then.

Complex sentence A complex sentence contains embedded and/or subordinate clauses. The feature of embedded clauses is that the clause is part of the structure of another clause and therefore does not have a coordinating relationship with the main clause. We went to the movies and bought an ice-cream with the money (that) we had earned. Feeling relieved the day was over, they went out for dinner. Whether it rains or not, the picnic is on. The majority agreed that it was worth a trial, after listening to all of the speakers. Despite the objections of some, the community agreed that the plan deserved a chance.

3.2 Clauses Adjectival clause A clause that gives additional information about a noun or noun group is known as an adjectival or relative clause. It is said to be ‘embedded’ if the information it provides is embedded or located within the subject or object of another clause. An adjectival clause generally (but not always) begins with a relative pronoun such as who, which or that. The play equipment that children love is not necessarily the safest equipment in the playground. Children love playing with equipment which allows them to use their imagination.

Subject Object

Adverbial clause An adverbial clause is a subordinate or dependent clause that provides optional information about time, place, condition, concession, reason, purpose or result. After studying so hard during the week, all students want to do on the weekend is relax.

Time

Children may still get hurt, even if the climbing equipment is removed.

Concession

The hat, which was soaking wet and dirty, had been abandoned.

Condition

The ban should be lifted because it discriminates against teenagers.

Reason

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Noun clause A noun clause is a clause that acts as the subject or object of another clause. What he had been ordered to do weighed heavily on his mind. Some studies show that crimes committed by teenagers are rising.

Verbless clause A verbless clause is a clause where the subject and verb are ellipsed, ie understood, or nominalised. Even if not successful immediately, the plan to involve children in community service will bear fruit in the future. Subject/verb (it was) ellipsed. Despite opposition from the student council, the school will install video cameras in the canteen. Subject/verb nominalised. A verbless clause is different from an adverbial phrase. An adverbial phrase provides some information to do with the time, place or manner in which something happens within an existing clause, as with in the canteen in the above sentence, which tells us where the video cameras will be installed. A verbless clause, on the other hand, provides a separate piece of information outside of an existing clause, as with Despite opposition from the student council.

3.3 Run-on sentences The term ‘run-on sentences’ is used to refer to long and rambling sentences which would benefit from being broken up into smaller units. These sentences are often characterised by the repeated use of ‘and’ and ‘but’, eg Jack went on a path and then the path disappeared and he went further and then he saw a haunted house. In the sentence ‘Jack went on a path, the path disappeared.’ the error is in the use of a comma (sometimes called a ‘splice comma’) rather than a full stop. This is counted as a punctuation error and is not captured as an error in sentence construction.

3.4 Verb control Agreement A verb has to agree with its subject in number. If the subject is singular, the verb must be singular too. If the subject is plural then the verb too must be plural. I (or you, we or they) love playing on monkey bars. She (or he or it) loves playing on monkey bars. His friends (or they) love playing on monkey bars. In verb groups, it is the first element that must agree with the subject. (When the first element is the auxiliary verb to be, the auxiliary changes for first, second and third person singular and plural forms.) For example: I am volunteering for community service. She is volunteering for community service. They are volunteering for community service. In some cases care must be taken when judging agreement. Note the following examples: Maths is my favourite subject. The wealthy are not always happy. My mother and father are no longer alive. Your bread and butter is on the table.

Correct form of the verb Some students have difficulty in choosing the correct form of the verb, especially the past tense of a verb does not follow the regular – ed pattern.

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The boy catched the ball instead of caught the ball. I seen the boy yesterday instead of saw the boy. Other problems include the use of of instead of have as in: She should of caught it.

Tense Tense refers to the capacity of verbs to express time. Many students will write a narrative using only one tense – eg past or present. Other students will move successfully between past and present (and even future tense) depending on the stage of the text. Errors in tense shift are clear and will frequently occur in the one sentence as in: He picked up his bag and goes out the door.

Section 4: Punctuation Punctuation is used to aid the smooth reading of a text.

Brackets Brackets or parentheses enclose additional information or a comment within an otherwise complete sentence.

Colons Colons are normally used to signal the following: a list: The children do the same things every afternoon: they climb the monkey bars, play on the swings and build sandcastles. an example (or examples): Many sports cause injuries: football, rugby, even horseback riding. an explanation: One consequence is inevitable: people will get hurt. a subtitle: School Safety: Can Cameras Combat Crime?

Commas Commas are used within sentences to separate information into readable units and guide the reader as to the relationship between phrases, clauses and items in a series (serious, premeditated and cold-blooded action). Commas act like markers to help the reader voice the meaning of long sentences. For example, when a sentence begins with a subordinate clause or phrase, the comma indicates to the reader where the main clause begins.

Hyphen The hyphen is a small dash that links two words to form a single word eg one-way. Hyphens should be used when creating adjectives formed from two separate words, eg button-like nose.

Points of ellipsis Points of ellipsis (…) indicate that something has been omitted in a line of text. It can also indicate suspense in the story, eg: I was engulfed in darkness …

Quotation marks Quotation marks (or inverted commas) identify words that are spoken by a character or written words belonging to people other than the writer. There is an increasing trend for single quotation marks (‘…’) to be used in place of double quotation marks (“…”) although this is mainly a matter of style.

Semicolons Semicolons are used within sentences to separate different though related pieces of information: The use of a semicolon strengthens the link between the ideas, eg The installation of closed circuit television cameras will make teachers and students more self-conscious; schools will no longer be a comfortable place. This could be written as two separate sentences. The use of a comma in this example would make the sentence incorrect. Semicolons are also used to separate complex items in a list, eg In the event of a fire all students must: leave the building immediately; not attempt to take any materials with them; assemble in the main quadrangle; and assemble with their roll class.

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Spelling reference list simple

common

difficult

A

a add ago all am an and are as at ate away

able aboard about above actions actor adventure after again against air almost along also although

always animal another any anybody anyone anywhere appear aren’t around arrive asleep attach

abandoned absolutely access acknowledge actually adjusted advantage affect agencies agreeable alien allergic amuse annual answer

B

bad bark bee bell best big bin bird blow book box bring but by

baby backyard bare beach beaks because before behave behind being belly below between bigger

bike birthday bleed blend blind block bodies bottom bought

barely beauty bounty beautiful behaviours benefit beware bough boulder boundary breathless brethren brief burglar business

C

can car cheek clap cow crab crash cup

cake carries catch chain chalk change chase chest child city class claw clean climb clock close colour/color

contain cough could couple cracked crime crowd

calm carriage category celebration certain character cheques chocolate circuit college community competition complaining complete concerned confidence consider

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area assess attachment attempt attention attractive auction author autograph awesome

challenging accelerating accidentally accommodation accumulate acquainted acquire adrenaline aisle annihilate annoyance appearance appreciated appropriate archaeology awkwardly baulk beige belligerence benefited benevolent blasé brevity brilliance brusque buoy

considerate continued contraptions convince coordinator corpses creature crevice criminal crystal curious

camouflage carcasses changeable climatic colloquial colossal column competence complementary complimentary conscience conscious consequently correspond courageous cylinder

simple

common

D

day deep did dog doll dot drag dress drip drop drum

dark dead destroy detail didn’t different disarm discuss distance does doesn’t don’t

E

eat egg end even ever

earth enemy enjoy enough every everybody everyone everywhere evil example explain eyes

F

fat feel feet fell fill fit five food for four from fun

face fair family fear feather feelings fighting finally fine first flapping flies flight floor flower fly followed

G

get go going good got grass

game garden gardening getting goes golden

door downstairs dragon draw dream dry during

difficult

challenging

damage dangerous decided decision decorate defence delicious demolished demonstrate depot depression deprived

deserts dessert designed detective digest disappear disappointed discover drawer drought dye

debris decomposed deficient definitely dependency desiccate desperate desperation dominant draught dungeon

easiest echoed edible educational eerie effect effective emerged endangered energy engage engine enjoyable

enormous ensure episode especially esteem except exciting exclaimed exert expensive experience explosion extremely

effervescent efficient embarrassed environment euphoric exaggerate exhilarating explanatory

footsteps forest found friend fright fruit funny

famous favourite features February fellowship fete fibre fiction field fierce formal formation fractures fragile frenzied frightened furniture

further

facilities fascinating fluorescent fuchsia furnace futile

goodness globe great green ground group

galaxy generation gesture gigantic glacier global gnawed

goblet government graphics grumble guess

gauge ghoul grandeur guaranteed guillotine gynaecology

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simple

common

H

hand hard has hat have he help her him hot how

habit hair happen happiest happy hardly hatch heaps hear/here heard hearing heavier

I

I if in into is it

ice idea important insects inside invite islands

J K

just keep kid

jacket joke juice jump

L

land lay left leg lets lick like long look lot

ladies lake large laugh laying leaf learn leaves leaving length lesson letter

holidays home hope hoping hospital house however huge humans hundred hunted

difficult

challenging

hammock haphazard haste haul healthy heir herd hesitated hilarious history hoarse honest

hopefully horrified hostel humorous hurriedly hygiene

haemoglobin hallucinate helium hesitance humanitarian

illegal imagination imaginative implicate impressed improvement including inexpert information informative injury insane insolent instinct insurance intelligent intention

interest/ing interrupt invisible irrational issue

imaginable incandescent incompetent inconsequential inconsolable incorporate indecipherable insanity interrogate intrigue intriguing iridescent irrelevant irresponsible

key kitten knee knows

jeopardy jettison journey kidnapped jewels

jewellery kilometres kiosk knowledge

judicial kaleidoscope kayaking

lifelike light limb little live living local loose lose loud love

language lasers league library lightning litany literacy lullaby lunar lyrebird

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lacerate leisure lieutenant liquefy litigious longevity luminescent

simple

common

difficult

challenging

M

may me meet men milk much my

magazine mainly many mascot match meat medals medium menu merit messy metals

might migrate modern Monday moonlight moral more mother move movie muffled music

magic majestic malt martial massive matted mayor measured medicine medieval minerals molecule molten

N

name new no not nut

native naughty nearest necklace nectar nephew nice

night noise noisy numb

natural negligent neighbour neither nervous niece normality nutrition notice

O

of old one our out

obtain ocean octopus off older once onion oozing ordinary other outback outdoors outside

over own

oblige observe obviously occur ogre omit opportunity opposition optical optimist option

organise origami orphan orphanage oxygen

obedience obnoxious obscure observation obsessed obsessive occasionally occasions occurrence opaque oscillate

P

park pay pen play plot pull put

pair panic parents patter paw people perfect phone picture pirate place planet plastic platform police poor potatoes

power pretty princess problem purpose

parallel particular pedestal personalities pincer plait pleasure prankster pray precious predators presence prey principal principle probably professor pumpkin punctual pure

purest purist pursuit

peculiar personally persuade persuasive pessimistic phosphorescent physically plateau population precise prevalence privileged proposition psychiatrist psychic psychology

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moult mountain mucous mucus muscle muscular museum mysterious mystery mystic myth

magnificent malaria mandible manoeuvre mathematician mediaeval mesmerised miniature minions mischievous misconstrue misogyny naivety narcissist necessary nonchalant noticeable notoriety nuisance

simple

Q

common

difficult

challenging

quality queen question quick

quickened quickly quiet quite

quaint quay quench query

queue

quiescent

R

ran red rest roof room rot run

rain rainbow rainforest readers realise really recover reflect region remember report reptile rescued results

return revenge riot ripple roar robot rodent rude rumble running

radial ravine razor realistic receive recent recognise recommend rectangular relationships relevant reliving reluctant remnant

remorse replenish require resources responsible rhyme ridiculous rogue

racquet rancour realistically recognisable redemption reign rein reminiscent responsibility resurrect resuscitate rhythm ricochet rigorous

S

sad saw say see seed seem set she shed shop shut sing sit six slow so spot stand sleep

safety said saving says scare scatter school science scorch scrape scream second secret several shaking shape sharp shiny shock should shout show sign sitting

sixth size sky small someone sorts sound speak speech sprawl station steal stepped stopped strange strip strong structure strung such suddenly surprise swimming

sapphire saxophone scavenger scene sceptical schnitzel scientific scissors seize sewage sewerage shoulder shrieked signal skeleton slaughter society sought spectacular stammered stomach submarine subsided

success suitable summoned supervision surrounded survive system

sabotage scimitar scintillate separate silhouette skulduggery sovereign stationary stationery sufficient

T

teeth tell/s ten that the then thing this to today top

table tail tall teacher team their/there they they’re though thought title

together tomorrow too/two touched tower train travel treat trick tries trouble

taffeta talons tarantula taught technique temperature tension tentacles terrace terrible terribly

terrified territory thermonuclear transfixed travelled treasure

telekinesis temperamental temporary therapeutic thoroughly tournament tsunami

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simple

common

difficult

U V

undo up vat vet

ugly uncle underneath understand until use used useful using usually vanish very view vomit

W

was we well went will wish with

wait walks wall want war warn watch water wear webbed welcome were what when where which white who whole

whose window wings winning witch without wizard woke woman world worried would wouldn’t write writing wrong

wary wealthy weary wearisome weighed weight weird whisper wholly witchery women wonder wonderful wrapped wrinkle written

X Y Z

yell yes you zoo

x-ray yelled yellow yoke your

yourself zapped

yacht yearn yield youngster youthful

unbelievable uncomfortable unexpectedly unfortunately unique unnatural upholsterer urban urgency useless valuable

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vegetation verdant vessel victory villages violence vision voyage vortex vultures

challenging ubiquitous unconscious unnecessary vertebrates vicious voila vulnerable

waive wilful wondrous wraith wrought

zany zenith zodiac zoology

zephyr

Today you are going to write a narrative or story. The idea for your story is ‘DISCOVERY’.

Some people say you learn something new every day. We can make all sorts of discoveries. We might discover a new idea, an interesting object or a secret. We might even discover a new land or planet. Some discoveries can help people. Others are important personal discoveries that tell us something about ourselves.

bout: a k n i h T and aracters

© 2007

h re the c • Who a ? are they n or where plicatio m o c e is th ? • What e solved b o t m e probl ry end? o t s e h t ill en • How w be chos Remem y a m y tor s r ber to: u o Y hed. s i l b • u P p l a n your s to be tory bef • Write ore you in sente start. n c e • Pay at s. tention to the w you ch ords oose, yo ur spell and pu ing nctuatio n. • Check and edi t your w when riting you hav e finish State of New South Wales, State of Western Australia, Government of South Australia, State of ed. Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory Government, Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, Queensland Studies Authority, Curriculum Corporation on behalf of MCEETYA

Compass: Sanja Gjenero / stock.xchng; Globe: Vjeran Lisjak / stock.xchng; Map: BSK / stock.xchng; Elephant: Volker Schumann / stock.xchng; Treasure chest: Ahmed Al-Shukaili / stock.xchng; Rubiks cube: Kalyana Sundaram / stock.xchng; Fingerprint:Davide Guglielmo / stock.xchng

Discovery