NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee

NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee

UPD 194 ' Whatever your sport choose Rawlings Athletic Equipment to help you play a better game. Remember! Use the best to play your best. THE O...

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Whatever your sport choose Rawlings Athletic Equipment to help you play a better game. Remember! Use the best to play your best.

THE OFFICIAL National Collegiate Athletic Association



~ditedby B. R.


A . S. B A R N E S A N D P ~ ~ B L ~ S H E R S




Permission to reprint material in The Official NCAA Wrestling Guide, either wholly or in part, in any form whatsoever, must be secured from the publishers, A. S. Barnes & Company, 67 West 44th Btreet, New York 18, N. Y.









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Contents PAGE



WRESTLING'S CONTRIBUTION TO A COLLEGE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM by Henry A.Stone .............................................. 8 WRESTLING vs BOXINGAS EFFECTIVE SELF DEFENSE - b yWesley Brown. J r ...................................... ...... 11

WATERWRESTLING by Charles McCaffree. J r ...................................... 16

...................................................'21 WRESTLINGHOLDS MEDICAL SUGGESTIONS by John A . Rockwell. M.D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 CARE OF THE EARS by Donald B. Sinclair. M.D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 WEIGHTLOSSAND WRESTLING by W W . Tuttle. Ph.D .......................................... 26


ETO CHAMPIONSHIPS by Lt . William E Cleghorn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31




b y C . P . K e e n ................................................ 34

EASTERN INTERCOLLEGIATE CHAMPIONSHIPS by E . F . Caraway ...............................................40 WESTERN CONFERENCE CHAMPIONSHIP by Glenn C Law ............................................... 44 ~NTERCOLLEGIATEWRESTLING I N THE ROCKY MOUNTAIT REGION by John Haneock ............,....................... . . . . . . . . . . 46


INTERCOLLEGIATE WRESTLING IN CALIFORNIA by Henry A.Stone .............................................. 47 COLLEGIATEMATNOTES ...............................................52 REVIEWS OF THE 1946 SCHOLASTIC SEASON ..............................................56 LONGISLANIIWRESTLING

..................................... 56 ILLINOIS HIGH SCHOOL WRESTLING 3



INDIANA HIGHSCHOOL WRESTLING .... :................................ ............................... INTERSCHOLASTIC WRESTLING IN KANSAS ................................. SCHOLASTIC WRESTLING IN NEBRASKA ..................... OKLAHOMA HIGHSCHOOL WRESTLING TOURNAMENT HIGH a SWRESTLING ~ IN ~SOUTHERN ~ CALIFORNIA ~ ~..................... 0

COACHES AND OFFICIALS SECTION REGISTRATION OF OFFICIALS by Bliss P.Sargeant.Jr ......................................... TIPS FOR OFFICIALS by Bliss P. Sargeant. Jr ......................................... THE COACH AND THE RULES by B.E.Mooney .............................................. WRESTLING COACHES ASSOCIATION by Raymond Swartz NCA;AWRESTLINGFILMS ................................................. ROSTEROFOFFICIALS

58 58 59 61 62

66 67 68

............................................ 69 ............................................. 69 70

OFFICIAL WRESTLING RULES. 1947 .................................. 77 NCAA WRESTLING RULESCOMMITTEE

Wrestling's Contribution to a College physical Education Program By HENRY A. STONE Wrestling Coach. Universify of California, Berkeley

Directors of college physical training programs are constantly beset by changing concepts which govern the choice of sports to be offered or to be urged upon the students. Athletic activities are promoted for a variety of reasons: physical needs of the students, character training, tradition, facilities, financial need, recreational needs of the present and of the future, abilities of teaching personnel and countless other factors may affect the selection of sports to be established or encouraged. I n , a given situation, all feasible activities should be examined by the administrator and his selection be influenced by their possible contributions to the physical training program. Application of the above procedure has recently resulted in the widespread introduction of wrestling instruction with military necessity being the criteria exerting the greatest influence. It is probably safe to say, that because of the war, more young men of college age have received wrestling instruction during the past three years than in any previous decade. With the war over it is possible that college physical training programs, belng re-evaluated, may swing from ' the present emphasis on vigorous sports to something less exacting in physical demands: In some quarters there is a tendency to 4ook upon war-time stress of vigorous combative sports as a matter of transitory national expediency, the desirability of which could vanish with the coming of peace. Anyone interested in the promotion of wrestling should, of course, combat tendencies toward retrogression and make every effort to preserve war-time gains. This cannot be accomplished by sitting Idly by and permitting events to gravitate into any convenient pattern, Thoughts and energies must be marshalled and opportunities seized, not only to continue the war-time stress on instruction to the great mass of college men, but also to endeavor to place intercollegiate competitive wrestling back in as good or better position than it enjoyed in 1941. In order to accomplish this it is necessary to convince administrators and the college public that wrestling should occupy as prominent a place in physical training programs in peace as it has in war. Recognition of the values of wrestling as contributing toward the aims of physical training programs is a logical and possibly an effective approach. Wrestling's contribution to the physical training of men in the armed forces appears to be universally established. We cannot, however, safely assume that because peace has come that this need no longer exists. The probability that other wars may follow is by no means remote. International organizations for the maintenance of peace are not new nor have they a history of complete success. I n spite of all their efforts to the contrary, wars follow each other with great regularity with each new conflict more terrible and devastating than its predecessor. The introduction of more deadly weapons or new strategy has a t no time in the past brought any assurance of permanent peace. Thex have supple-




mented but not changed the fundamental character of conflict with its demands for physical strength; combative skill and aggressive psychology. If wars are inevitable, no matter how much we may deplore their occurrence, we would be foolhardy to relax our vigilance, and then when strife again comes upon us, be unprepared and to again find it necessary to resort to hurried, inefficient and extravagant measures to insure our survival. Surely we each owe service to the nation and the tried and proven values of wrestling in physical training programs can in some measure equip us to render such service effectively when needed. Turning from the demands dictated by the necessities of potential wars to those more prosaic aims of physical educators in a peaceful world, consider the possibilities wrestling offers for their realization. The development of a rugged vigorous physique, although it may sound oldfashioned to many so-called progressive educators, still remains one of the major aims of the physical educator, if for no other reason than to provide an efficient tool which can be employed in making it possible for the individual to achieve those other desirable outcomes which can accrue from athletic participation. Probably no single sport surpasses wrestling in this phase of physical training. Wrestling's contribution to the development of muscular and organic strength as well as being an unequaled means of defense are alone sufficient to justify its inclusion in all college physical training programs. Many activities offering less, enjoy popular support. Wrestling's contribution is even greater recreation, the keystone of many modern programs, should not be overlooked. Many think of recreation in terms of participation in sports sufikiently light in character that fair performance is not dependent upon much skill or even very good physical condition. Recreatidn's span is far greater and extends from decidedly non-athletic activities to the most vigorous type of sport. The character of recreation depends upon the needs, interests and abilities of the individual. It is to be expected that boys and men of high school and college age can receive recreational values from wrestling. They are young, spirits are high, physical energy is boundless and the zest of vigorous sport offers true recreation. Recreational wrestling is not limited to youth. In almost any athletic club or YMCA in the country you will find men well into middle age who wrestle regularly. The only reason wrestling is not more widespread is lack of promotion and inadequate facilities. Continuance of wrestling from boyhood is easily possible and if continuous the physical demands are not sufficient to deter healthy men. More than one grey-haired participant performs with credit in the top competitive brackets. Louis Putrin of the New York Athletic Club and John Eareckson of the Baltimore YMCA are perennial examples of such performance. Dr. Allen Northrup of the San Francisco Olympic Club has won three consecutive National AAU titles in his late thirties. Philajamaki, the Mnn, won the 134 pound Olympic title a t Berlin in his early forties. Although past the age when desire to win dominates, these men, for the most part, wrestle almost daily to satisfy their recreational interests. Wrestling can be recreational, not only for college youth but for the subsequent twenty years. Wrestling can aid in fulfilling the aim of satisfying present and providing preparation for future recreational needs.



If we believe that a college education should endeavor to make the most of an individual's potentialities by the development of desirable personal traits, wrestling, in common with other highly competitive sports may make important contributions. What are the qualities which make a successful wrestler? Self-reliance, tenacity, aggressiveness, poise and ability to think and plan under physical stress. I f not present in the beginner, they soon develop under the stress of competition. Sportsmanship, the most desirable of all traits, finds no better medium for its development than college wrestling. The almost complete absence of unsportsmanlike conduct by college wrestlers is well nigh perfect testimonial to its effectiveness. Competitive situations are such that the poor sportsman does not survive the test. In so far as these personal traits which are adjudged desirable are developed by athletics and can be depended upon to form the personality of the individual, wrestling must be considered to he one of the keenest tools of the physical educator. Wrestling is unique in one respect. Few college men need be denied the opportunities offered. Only the diseased or certain handicapped individuals should be cautioned against participation. Weight classes prevent a monopoly of wrestling by the larger men. A proficient performer weighing 120 pounds can enjoy it just as much, can profit as much and be just as valuable to his team as is the heavyweight, an opportunity denied him in most of our most popular sports. Not all physical handicaps prohibit participation. Many men with poor eyesight or even the totally blind find wrestling the sole outlet for their athletic interest. Because they are able to compete on even terms with normal men, wrestling can be an invaluable tool for the rehabilitation of the totally blind. With all of these characteristics, many of which are not shared with other sports, we have no excuse for not urging the inclusion of wrestling in the physical training programs of high schools and colleges. I t is the responsibility of all of us .who are aware of this enviable position of wrestling to ,acquaint directors with its possibilities. We cannot expect the directors of college physical training programs to physically educate and train their students if they are unaware and are not provided with one of the best means for the achidvement of their aims.

Wrestling vs Boxing as Effective Self Defense By WESLEY BROWN, Jr. Coach. Norfhwesiern Untversily, Evansfon. 111.

Wrestling versus boxing as effective self-defense, is a highly controversial subject and one about which many things have and can be said. Proponents will point out the relative merits of each style generally from a biased point of view, which is natural under the circumstances. Both boxing and wrestling enthusiasts can cite example upon example where their particular style of combat won out. On the whole, however, these are infrequent and isolated cases from which no definite6conclusions can be reached. Many experiments have been tried down through the years yet still remains unsettled, the conclusions the experiments were expected to reach. A boxer trained in his art has some definite advantages, but so does a wrestler or the proponent of any particular combative style. Necessarily, in order to give full consideration to wrestling and boxing as self-defense, we cannot interpret these forms of combat shall take place in a wrestling or boxing ring. Our consideration will determine their relative merits in the walks of every day life where the need for self-defense arises when one least suspects that he may have to defend himself. We cannot consider therefore, the boxer to have his hands taped or gloved, for boxing's values as self-defense which are likely to arise would preclude the use of this precaution. A man well versed in a combination of all the tactics of various forms of combat would, without question, be a most versatile foe. Using hand to hand combat, disregarding all the rules of fair play, he could without much effort subjugate the best wrestler or boxer. We shall deal in this article with the relative merits of a man well versed in wrestling versus a man equally well trained in boxing and what the chances of each are in self -defense. Let us say a boxer unhampered by gloves is matched against a wrestler. To begin, how are we to judge the merits of each one against the other. The boxer's objective is to knock out his opponent, a wrestler's to pin his opponent's shoulders to the mat. Yet, some consideration must be given to non-knockout blows landed by the boxer and the holds applied by a wrestler. At the outset in such a bout, the boxer does have a momentary advantage for he is free to strike his opponent, the wrestler on the other hand must clinch with his man or otherwise grasp him before he can institute his science. When the wrestler can by a close guard prevent the boxer from striking a knockout blow, clinches with him, the boxer's advantage quickly vanishes and the bout is practically over. Thus, the boxer's only salvation often lies in striking a quick knockout blow which is not as easily accomplished as one is often led to suppose. I t need only be pointed out that many boxing bouts extend over the limit of allowable rounds, neither fighter striking a knockout blow. The same situation applies when a boxer must use his art in every 11




day life as a means of self-defense. When an opponent chooses to box, his chances of winning are 50-50. Suppose an opponent does not choose to box, but decides in his own best interests to wrestle, grapple, alley fight or use a style where anything goes. The boxer quickly Ands himself a t a disadvantage if his first blows fail to score a knockout or knockdawn. The boxer's arms are tied up, he cannot strike, he is thrown to the ground and himself struck, kicked, kneed and possibly bitten. Shortly he is in a helpless condition having been,severely beaten over his entire body. A supine or prone boxer finds his art which may have taken months or years to learn of no avail. Is a boxer always prepared for a blow below the belt; for a kick to the groin or shins; or when knocked down, a kick or knee to the ribs, face or back; or for blows when his back is turned? Rightly we can say "no," primarily because this is not his style. Because of these things boxing can rightly be called a poor method of self-defense. Although a wrestler may not expect all the aforementioned attacks of an assailant, he is more qualified and able to deal aptly with them. He will grapple with his opponent and be able to apply the knowledge he has gained, even though he has fallen or has been thrown to the ground. Once on the ground, his opponent atop or underneath, the wrestler is really only beginning. Leverage holds can be applied, illegal wrestling holds which any wrestler knows from experience will break or othprwise maim an opponent's arms, legs, or other vulnerable areas. A wrestler has the innate ability to ward off many of the alley fighting, rough and tumble tactics of his opponent by applying maneuvers of his own choosing. When an opponent chooses to box or spar, the wrestler clinches, warding off blows to vital areas more easily than a boxer because he doesn't leave openings by striking back. Once the clinch is achieved, the tactics remaining come easy and an assailant generally is shortly subdued or otherwise incapacitated. The author in no way herein wishes to deemphasize the value or discourage an athlete from participating in the sport of boxing, nor detract from its dace in the training of boys and young men to become better citizens. oxin in^ has many-merits- as a sport and every young man should know something of this art of defense. I t would be unfair, however, if it were not pointed out that of all sports, and all sports have ' taken proper precaut~onsand passed rules to eliminate injury, boxing is the only sport, the primary purpose and functlon of which is to hurt ,or knock out an opponent. In the final analysis, for a person to place all his faith in boxing alone as a means of self-defense under a host of varying circumsta&es is foolhardy. Wrestling as self-defense can easily incorporate a variety of maneuvers, better fitted for combat. All of us know when it becomes necessary to defend ourselves, especially to prevent bodily harm or death, the conflict will entail much more activity than the striking of blows with the fists. To be able to wrestle one's opponent, tie him up on the ground will go far to prevent further damage to one's self. Rendering a man unconscious with one qf many wrestling holds is surer and much simpler than trying to strike a bobbing, weaving person in a vital knockout area. There are wrestling holds once applied Which incapacitate an opponent or leave him unconscious in a matter of seconds.



The bare fist was never made to strike with, otherwise nature would have provided us with a padding over the knuckles as she did on the palm and the edge of the hand. Many boxers, and others, have experienced the realism of pain from broken knuckles and bone8 of the hand when the fist struck a bony portion of an opponent's anatomy. It bespeaks of the fact and net result that one partly or wholly incapacitates himself for further struggle. Whereas if the foe was grasped flrmly in one of many fundamental and well-based wrestling holds, the result would have been quite different with less or no injury to one's self. Several years ago a t the University of Illinois, the relative merits of both forms of combat were vigorously argued, and as a result H. E. Kenney, wrestling and boxing coach a t the University, conducted an interesting experiment. Bouts were arranged in eight weight classes, the young men participating were each outstanding in their respective weight classes. In this experiment the boxers wore gloves. The rules were as follows: When a boxer struck a well-placed blow to any vital area and it did not have to result in a knock down or knockout, the bout was declared won by the boxer, if in the judges' opinions it was a good blow. When a wrestler grasped his opponent and threw him to the mat, but no fall resulting, the bout was declared won by the wrestler, if in the opinion of the judges the hold used was a good legitimate wrestling hold. I n the eight mixed bouts only one boxer succeeded in landing a wellplaced blow. The final score, wrestlers ?, boxers 1. This experiment proved to those who "saw" the relative merits of each, but to others the controversy still ranges from one end of the country to the other. Naturally, wrestling and boxing are two utterly different and distinct forms of combat. To put one against the other in the ring many would say was unfair. I t is the author's purpose to show which type of combat would afford an individual the greatest protection as self-defense in a given critical situation. One cannot detract from the value of a quick blow of the fist to the "button" or solar plexis, which, if properly and exactly struck would eliminate an opponent immediately. We must consider, not one, but all the factors which evolve from a struggle demanding fullest self-defense. All of us have probably witnessed many forms of fighting outside the ring. Even in cases where individuals fought with bare fist, the battle shortly turned into a wrestling match, very amateurish, but wrestling nevertheleSs. Why? Because boxing is limited in its scope to do harm to an opponent, whereas the close contact of wrestling offers a vast variety of maneuvering and a definite chance to do greater injury to, and overpower an assailant. The techniques of wrestling teach a man to expect the "unexpected," to be on the alert, and it will certainly add to his pose and ability in self-defense. Wrestling greatly increases a man's proficiency in his own natural ability and thus he is better able to protect himself against the tactics of an assailant, because he knows what the assailant might attempt. to do. Authorities have agreed, of three forms of self-defense combat studied and analyzedAboxing, wrestling and rough and tumble (alley fighting) the boxer is the least capable of defending himself properly. B e c a w wrestling makes application of many self-defense principles, it provides




for a much greater chance of survival. Rough and tumble, because of its incorporation of everything violent, despicable and illegal, provides the best. A well-balanced knowledge of hand-to-hand combat tactics used in self-defense, which incorporates many of the basic fundamentals of wrestling, would be the ideal of all self-protection tactics.

OQWPOKES PRACTICE NIAUL: Oklahoma*~AbcM.'s Geor e Walker? N C A A runner-up at 165 pounds shows hur hr block ache? hot$ in pmctwe wttll teammati G o ~ d o n~ldsc%eras the gutnea ptg.

Wrestling vs Boxing By B. r



Edffor, Otficlal Wredling Guide

I n commenting on Brown's article in Wrestling vs. Boxing, there has been more talk than action as to which would determine the superiority boxer. W h y don't we settle this argument by staging more contests? I t has been my experience in matching a boxer against a wrestler of the same weight that the wrestler always wins. The boxer was permitted to hit at any time, standing or down, or defend himself within the rules of boxing and wrestling. We have permitted our wrestlers to use only NationaJ Collegiate Rules against the boxersthus eliminating danger to the boxers. In all of the bouts which we have had at Kansas , State College, only one boxer has won, and he was Captain of my wrestling team. Another instance, we took two wrestlers to. Port Riley to meet two boxers of the 93h Armored Division in a contest of wrestler vs. boxer. One of the boxers was a leading professional from Chicago, the other was a good middleweight. The weights of the contestants were approximately the same. The wrestlers beat the boxers three times apiece. They were never hit except on their back or shoulders. None of the contests were over three or four minutes in duration. The boxers were convinced after the first contest, although some of the spectators were not until we staged six contests. I n addition, the same two wrestlers met two Judo experts and beat them in four contests, leaving no doubt as to the superiority of wrestling over judo. Some people are going to differ with me. Let those who disagree stage a contest al'ld see for themselves. The only chance a boxer has of winning is while he is on his feet and able to deliver a knock-out punch, but in a fight for life I would unhesitatingly choose the wrestler, for no boxer can deliver a KO while on his back or stomach. This is not only true now, but in the ancient Olympic games the Greeks had a sport called Pancratium which was a mixture of boxing and wrestling and even then the wrestler held the advantage.

Water Wrestling


By CHARLES McCAFFREE, Jr. Editor, OWtlal Swimmhg Guide

Water wrestling from the standfioint of the wrestler may be characterized as employing all of the legal and illegal hold6 and breaks of intercollegiate wrestling and hand-to-hand combat. It has three characteristics which are not found in regular wrestling: most of the breaks, defensive and offensive techniques, are performed in the vertical position; the leverage enjoyed by the mat is not present,. the only substitute for this leverage being obtained by placing foot, knee or other leverage points on the ogponent's body as the hold is applied; the body is Usually submerged and demands breath eoPltroE -and closing the nostrils and mouth while applying holds and making breaks. I f played for keeps, water wrestling is mayhem, or even murder. There is no place a man is more uncomfortable and helpless than in the water unless he has mastered the fypdwnentals OFwatermanship and swimming. A strong, well-condcdoned wrestler is at such a disadvantage in the water, unless he is skilled in water work, that it is really tragic that our boys are not taught watermanship and swimming a t an early age. A man on the mat may suffer defeat or broken limbs, but in the water, he may lose his life. Water wrestling is the most advanced stage of training in the water beyond watermanship, swimming and diving, life saving and water safety. The unconventional, the unorthodox, the unexpected may happen to a man in the water, as his opponent is not governed by rules, but by that driving force to survive at all cost. A man about to drown does not consider his opponent in a rational way, but grabs hold and does everything within his power to keep himself afloat at the expense of his would-be rescuer or anyone else a t hand. Each and every man should be schooled in watermanship, swimming and diving, life saving, and water safety to be capable of warding off an opponent and taking care of himself in the water. Equipped with this knowledge and ability, water wrestling becomes second nature to him and except for the advanced defensive and offensive skills, he will most likely be capable of countkring almost any hold put on him. The same satisfaction of outmaneuvering a man and pinning him is enjoyed in this water activity. In time of war the key word in the water is survival-Take Care of Yourself First and then, if you have the ability, save your adversary. The whole water world has been schooled for years in life saving and water safety skills and it seems unjust now to throw overboard all of those techniques if in conjunction with survival they can be mastered. A two-fold purpose is our teaching goal: break free yourself from any water hold, and then, if possible and if you are capable, save your opponent. The fleld of water wrestling combines the techniques of water safety, life saving, judo and hand-to-hand combat. All of the techniques should be carefully taaght and skillfully applied in practice to avoid injury. The novice should not attempt to use these techniques before he has acquired



a measure ofhall around watermanship and swimming ability, otherwise .a tenseness of the muscles and mental fear is called forth, which is some-

times hard to overcome. I n this brief article the defensive techniques will receive the major emphasis. A list of the fundamentals or cautions involved will be most helpful. Listed below are the main points we teach in water wrestling: 1. Keep your weight and especially your head above that of your opponent. 2. Breathe deeply, naturally, as fully and frequently as possible. 3. Keep your body relaxed, both mentally and physically. 4. Ehove, push, thrust, kick your opponent off balance, keep him underwater as much as possible. 5. If grasped in a death grip, relax, do not use up your energy, SINK, THINK, ACT. 6. Keep your chin inklose to your chest to avoid strangle holds. 7. Go behind and ride. The safest place is on his back. 8. Maintain a horizontal position as much as possible. 9. Control your opponent's head, lreep it down, keep him off balance. 10. I n case of a death grip, strike a blow to the most vulnerable spot. 11. Make your movements quick and sure. 12. Keep your opponent away and out of position to apply a hold. 13. Keep pressure in nostrils and mouth closed under water. 14. The rougher your opponent becomes, the rougher you must be to counter successfully. The different defensive techniques for convenience and brevity may be summarized in four units. (Simple instructions, stated clearly and emphasized, should be used.) Unit I-Blocks, Kick Away, Parries, Pivots. 1. Block-Opponent swims, or is washed into you unexpectedly. A stiff arm is used. This is accomplished by a jab with the heel of the hand to the head, under nose, under chin, or to chest, holding arm stiff and $opponenta t arms length. To counter, parry opponent by swinging free arm up sharply using V of hand, the space between the thumb and first finger, striking opponent's arm above the elbow, turning him around, and going behind. Alternate for life saving. Use the hammer lock, level up with chin pull, cupping palm of hand in opponent's chin, forearm close to neck, press down on elbow, pull up on chin, go into cross body lock up with arms or a waist lock with arm in it. This is used for control and to rescue struggling victim. 2. Shoulder Block-Opponent swims or is washed into you. Maintain a horizontal position, block him with your shoulder to his shoulder or head, kicking vigorously and going by. To counter, fall back, roll under, turn and go behind. Follow alternate for life saving as in 1. 3. Kick Away-Opponent swims or is washed into you. Kick opponent away with thrust of foot to head chest or shoulder. If anticipaked, body should be in back horizontal position. If in vertical position, raise knee and kick away in same manner as above. To counter, follow 2.



4. Block and Parry-Opponent swims into you, or is washed toward

you unexpectedly. Same as 1with counter parry. 5. Pivot Parry-Opponent swims into you reaching to grab your head or shoulders. Duck, parry as in 1 and go behind following alternate for life saving. 6. Duck and PivoGOpponent swims into you and reaches for head or shoulders. Duck head, grab bogy a t hips, pivot him around, come up behind retaining contact with hands or ribs. Use alternate for life saving as in 1.

Unit ~ l - s i n ~ l e ,Both and Double Wrist Holds. 7. ,Single Wrist Hold-Opponent grabs your wrist. Break against thumb either up oradown,kick away and swim to safety. Alternate for life saving. Use free arm, cross over and shake hands with opponent's opposite wrist, break against thumb, retain hold with free arm, go into hammer lock, press up on hammer lock, use chin pull, go into cross body lock up with arm, drag opponent to safety. 8. Both Wrist Hold-Opponent grabs both of your wrists. Break as in 7, kick away and swim. Alternate for life saving. Break one wrist and follow alternate as in 7. 9. Double Wrist Hold-Opponent grabs one wrist with both hands. Use free arm, reach over between opponent's arms, either up or down, grab your own hand locking Angers together, break with reinforcement against thumbs. Kick away and swim. Alternate for life saving. Use free arm, reach over, shake hands with opponent's opposite wrist, use leverage of body to push him under or, if too heavy, sink, pull him under and you will come up,'use the same leg on same side as free arm, place, foot in crook of opponent's arm parallel to you, slip foot up to shoulder, thrust with leg straightening it out and pull with free arm on opposite wrist, swim, twist wrist palm up, use chin pull, go into cross body lock up with arm for control. Unit III-Front Double Strangle Hold, Same with Body Scissors, Front Bear Hug 10. Front Double Strangle Hold-Opponent grabs you in double strangle around neck. Jab, thrust, or poke heel of hand under nose, to chin. Lock fingers together, place palms of hands on opponent's face, press backward forcing opponent's face underwater. Knee to crotch or possible edge of hand blow to throat. Kick away and swim. Alternate for life saving. Place heel of hands on hip bones, duck chin, push opponent away, turn him over, come up behind, retain contact, follow procedure as in counter for 1. 11. Front Double StrangIe Hold with Body Scissors--Opponent grabs you with double strangle around neck and has body scissors added. Break as in 10. A short forcible blow to pit of stomach may be added if necessary. Knee to crotch very effective. Jab thumbs in arm pits, short ribs, just under ear lobes, or jugular vein. Follow alternate as in 1, 12. Front Body Lock Up with Arms and Body Scissors-Opponent has front body lock up and body scissors added.



Break as in 10 and 11 and follow up with alternate for life saving as in 1. 13. Front ~ e a kHug--Opponent grabs you, pinning arms to sides. Break by raising elbows, knee or hand to ctotch, kick away and swim. Alternate for life saving. Break as above, grab opponent, pivot him, come up behipd, retain contact, follow as in 1. (

Unit IV-Back Double Strangle Hold, Same w i t h Body Scissors, Japanese Strangle w i t h Body Scissors, Half and Full Nelson Holds. 14. Back Double Strangle Hold--Opponent grabs you in double strangle

around neck. Most effective of all difficult vicious holds is blow of distraction to crotch or groin. Break top arm, straighten it out perpendicular to your body, hynch shouldem, press down on forearm, bring opponent over your shoulder. Use flying mare, reach back interlacing fingers behind his neck, hunch shoulders, bring him over your shoulder. Lean back, kick away and swim. Alternate for life saving. Grab lower arm, twist wrist in3 retaining hold on wrist as you would shake hands with that wrist, place free hand on elbow, keep arm bent, press down on wrist and up on elbow, spin under opponent's arm into hammer lock, press up on hammer lock, follow procedure as in 1. 15. Back Double Strangle Hold with Body Scissors. Break as in 14. Single or double toe hold added. Follow alternate as

in 14.

16. Japanese Strangle Hold-Vicious strangle with excellent leverage of arm,. Break a s in 14. Blow to crotch effective. 17. Japanese Wrangle Hold with Body Scissors-Vicious strange, death m p . Break as in 14. Single or double toe hold added. Use blow to crotch, or possibly elbows to pit of stomach. If this hold is used with stretcher, ' it is very vicious. Follow alternate a s in 14. 18. Full Nelson-Opponent uses full nelson forcing your head underwater. To break, heave both arms down sharply, heave body or switch behind for control. Blow to crotch as optional start may be used. FolIow alternate as in 14. 19. Half Nelson and Hammer Lock-Opponent uses half n e i s k to keep head under and hammer lock for control. To break, turn body into half nelson, push, jab heel of hand into face and go behind. Follow alternate as in 10. These comprise, for the most part, the simpler and more vicious techniques used in water wrestling. It is foolish to permit an opponent to get a death grip on you if it is humanly possible to avoid. I n case a death grip is applied, the old adage SINK,THINK, ACT is good, as he is trying to avoid going underwater and will likely release and allow you to swim away. Many of the more dangerous holds, if applied,by a stronger man who out-weighs you fifty pounds, are very diacult .QI break. An experienced waterrnan may be able to overcome this disadvantage by sensing what his opponent is about and counter in such a way as to break without injury to himself. The water 'work s o ~ e t i m e sbecomes quite vicious and an ability to relax underwater is very'imgortant.




The best way we have of teaching these water wrestling skills is in rough house games of water polo played across the pool in deep water. We use 10 foot goals, a goal is scored by touch the ball between the markers, the ball may be advanced by any means and only three rules govern the competition. First, a man must stay in the water. Second, her can not hold an opponent underwater more than five minutes. Third, he can not break an opponent's arm below the elbow. The game proved very interesting and spirited in our army program, which has been activated for 17 mpnths. A total o'f better than 7,000 men have been taught swimming and watermanship in this program and they all have enthusiasfically played water polo with a gusto, zeal and, at times, a vicious spirit. The more vicious water wrestling and actual water difficulties become, the tougher you must be to come out the winner. This article has given a rough coverage of the field of activity. The main point to be made is that a wrestler may be skilled in wrestling, judo, and hand-to-hand combat, but if he does not have a complete knowledge and adequate ability in the water, his chance to survive is rather slim.

PRIVATE WHIPS THE LIEUTENANT: Pf c. Jim Beers USAFE the envy of all GI's, ~ u n i s h e sLt. Jack Cadmus, USFET,p'ejore slammh a vvidous bod3 chanc e w and half nelson to wm the ETO 154-fb. title.

The photographs on these two pages were posed by cadets a t the Georgia Pre-Flight School and demonstrate certain basic methods of attack and defense which are always good. They should be of special value to beginner wrestlers. All are Official U. S. Navy Photographs.

The beginning of a clever take-down by NO. 6.

Medical Suggestions By JOHN A. ROCKWELL, M.D. Chairman, General Research Committee. NCAA Rules Commlffee

THE ATHLETIC PROGRAMS in our colleges today are the culmination of evolutionary steps through years of transition from the individual effort to the group or team competition. They may be intramural or intercollegiate in nature. Our present aim is to foster such healthy and manly contests and to offer every advantage to the participant for his enjoyment of the game, as well as for improving his physical and moral upbuilding. In wrestling we meet with unusual demands which call for strength, intelligence, courage and fine sportsmanship. The National Collegiate Wrestling Rules Committee feels that the present rules offer the greatest opportunity possible for the individual's benefit, without deleting too severely that which is of interest to the sport-loving public. The wrestling game is a rugged sport and quite innocently and unintentionally injuries to bones, muscles, ligaments, fingers, ears and skin may result during practice or championship bouts, notwithstanding the present regulation of the sport. It therefore becomes the imperative and absolute duty of the coach and captain to protect their squad from any or all of these possible emergencies. The preventive measure of keeping clean the equipment, as well as the bodies and garments of contestants, is essential. Injuries should be anticipated when possible, and no candidate should be allowed to compete if structural damage is even suspected. Medical advice should be sought early in these cases. The following two articles on impetigo and the ears are detailed as guides to those in charge of candidates who may require special attention. The Rules Committee felt that this simple procedure might be of assistance to coaches and physicians in meeting any such complications. "Impetigo contagiosa is a contagious disease of the skin, characterized by vesicles, pustules and superficial crusts, usually occurring on exposed portions-the ears, neck, face and hands--devoid of subjective sensations, and terminating without FOX.) sequels." (TILBURY This disease is a pus infection. Abrasion of the skin surface from any cause is the entering wedge of this most contagious of the commoner skin diseases. The infection may be streptococci, staphylococci or combined. A large number of observers have examined the lesions bacteriologically and find the majority are of staphyIococci origin. The discreet, vesicular, pustular and crusted lesions of impetigo are readily distinguished from pustular eczema by the presence in the latter of infiltration, weeping, itching, and the occurrence of large patches. In impetigo proper the early lesion is a flat and erythematous (reddened) spot, which soon changes to a blister. This blister rapidly changes to a pustule which subsequently dries, forming a superficial crust.






i I

1 4 ,


These crusts are gummp-like, yellowish, very superficial, and appear as if stuck to the skin. They extend beyond the margin of the original area with their edges somewhat freed a t the border. This crust is easily removed and the underlying skin area, which is of superficial nature, with its distinct marginal outline, presents a weeping surface which, in turn, dries and is the base of another crust formation. These areas vary in size from a pin head to that of a dime, or even larger. Because of the non-irritating nature of this disease, it is frequently disregarded and considered merely as a so-called fever blister. Before the individual is aware of the true nature of his skin's condition, he may have transmitted the infection to others. I t therefore becomes the duty of any coach, manager or captain of a group of athletes, to note carefully any skin affliction appearing in his squad. Treatment: Absolute cleanliness precludes any chance of contagion. The preventive side, therefore, constitutes the initial treatment. Wrestling covers, clothing and the individual contestant should ail come under the observation and general inspection of the authorities in charge of the health program. Through carelessness, neglect and unintentional disregard of a skin lesion by the individual, whole squads have been known to become the victims of impetigo, with the resulting cancellation of intercollegiate contests. The scales, or crusts, should be carefully removed and burned or otherwise destroyed. The underlying reddened moist surface is then firmly wiped with cotton or gauze saturated with any antiseptic lotion (bichloride solution, 1:2000; saturated boric acid solution, a permanganate of potassium solution; hexylresorcinol, 1:1000; metaphen, 1 :2000, etc.) When the areas have been thoroughly washed, using firm pressure on the cotton applicator, the surfaces should be anointed with some mercurial ointment. Arnmoniated mercury ointment, 4 to 10 per cent, is the standard application. The procedure should be repeated once or twice daily until all signs of crusting and oozing of the various areas have subsided. Athletes inflicted with impetigo should not compete in contact sports while under treatment. There is no objection to the individuals exercising in the open air for conditioning purposes. Their linen and towels, brushes, combs and other toilet articles should be either destroyed or thoroughly soaked in any of the numerous antiseptic solutions and placed in the sunlight for drying.


Note: Whereas persistent, careful and thorough treatment of impetigo is essential, it is quite possible to apply an aggressiveness of treatment over and above the required measures necessary and create a n irritation of the skin, resulting in a n eczema, or some other complication. Whereas, in adults, impetigo is a purely local condition causing no constitutional symptoms, the general laws governing hygienic living should be rigorously adhered to, such as adequate nourishment, taking freely of fluids, good elimination, systematic exercise and regular hours of sleep. + * -



By DONALD B. SINCLAIR, M.D. THEEXTERNAL EAR is, to all practical pWpOSeS, Careof +he Ears a sandwich, with a single layer of cartilage between two layers of skin. These layers of skin are not very tightly attached to the cartilage. and any hard rubbing or rolling motion separates the skin from the cartilage, much as the skin of a peach can be rubbed off the fruit. The bleeding caused by this separation, though not visible on the surface, makes a pool of varying size between and cartilage, and, if not properly and promptly treated, the blood first clots and then changes into definite solid tissue, making that part of the ear hard and thick-the familiar cauliflower ear. The treatment of this condition divides itself naturally into two classes -prevention and cure. In the realm of prevention, there are several designs of helmets which can be used in practice, to avoid the development of a large number of injured ears. After the first injury, however, when the hematoma, or blood clot, has been formed, the need for cure appears, and it is here that most of the bad results that one sees have their start. The ideal treatment of the condition, from this point on, consists of two parts: (1) relief of the swelling already formed, and (2) avoidance of further injury, until the affected part has had a chance to return to normal. The swelling can best be relieved by the immediate removal of the blood under the skin. This is most satisfactorily accomplished by aspiration of the fluid blood with an ordinary hypodermic needle and syringe; but this must be done under strich aseptic precautions, and by a properly qualified doctor, for the danger of infection in freshly damaged tissue is very great. A pressure dressing is then applied, to prevent further seepage of blood or serum between the skin and cartilage. This dressing may be of a number of types: pads of gauze, held in place with tight adhesive strips, with or without the addition of sponge rubber pads for additional pressure; or a pad of cotton and collodion, applied to the whole ear, from the middle out to the surface, in thin layers laid on successively, each layer being allowed to harden before the next is applied. The latter type is probably more comfortable than the dressing of gauze with tight pressure, but in severe cases the heavier pressure may be found necessary, a t least for a time. I n mild cases this treatment alone-aspiration plus the collodion dressing-may be sufficient. I n severe cases it may be necessary to have the ear aspirated a number of times, to get rid of the serum that will collect, even after all active bleeding has ceased; the pressure bandage being replaced immediately after each aspiration. I n the meantime, until the ear has returned to normal, and all tendency to fill up again has disappeared, the wrestler must not risk any further injury, either refraining from wrestling altogether, or doing so only with adequate protection in the form of a headguard. An ear which has already reached the typical cauliflower stage-hard, deformed and hideous-can be repaired and brought back nearly, if not quite, to normal contours, through the services of a capable and experienced plastic surgeon.

Weight Loss and Wrestling By W. W. TUTTLE, Ph.D. Professor of Physiology, University of Iowa

T H E PRACTICE of voluntary weight loss by dehydration, and the withhold-

ing of food so as to make the weight fall in the desired class, raises the question as to the*effect of this procedure on performance. In order to throw some light on. this question, a laboratory exp'eriment involving weight loss and its effect on the responses which seem important in wrestling was carried out. The Responses Investigated. In selecting responses to be investigated two points were kept in mind, that is, are the responses important in wrestling, and can they be accurately measured by laboratory methods, so as to show any' effects which weight loss might have on them? The responses selected were as follows: 2. Cardio-vascular system 1. Neuro-muscular system a. systolic blood pressure a. Strength b. Diastolic blood pressure b. Steadiness of movement c. Resting heart rate c. Accuracy of movement d. Heart rate after exercise d. Reaction time e. Recovery time after exercise f. The electrocardiogram 4. Oxygen requirements a. Resting oxygen a. .Breath holding, expiration b. Oxygen debt b. Breath holding, inspiration c. Recovery time c. Vital capacity d. Resting tidal air e. Respiratory rate The Experimental Procedure. Thirteen wrestlers were selected as subjects. However, for various reasons only six completed the entire experiment. The size of the subjects is shown in Table 1. In order to get figures which were representative of what one might expect from the group, each subject came to the laboratory on five different occasions over a period of a month and the responses previously listed were measured. After this part of the experiment was completed, each subject submitted to the weight loss procedures, and returned to the laboratory immediately for a sixth repetition of the measurements. By comparing the responses of the wrestler before voluntary weight loss with those after, a means was available for determining any change in responses due to the voluntary weight loss. Weight Loss. The weight loss part of the problem was supervised by H. M. Howard, Varsity Wrestling Coach at the University of Iowa. His were the orthodox procedures practiced by wrestling coaches generally. Briefly it consisted of the withholding of food and water for a time previous to the last measurement. In addition, the wrestlers worked on the mat and finally sat in the sweat box, alternating with towels and a heat lamp.

3. Respiratory system



I t was our~intentionthat each wrestler should lose 5 per cent of his body weight. The exact weight loss and per cent of body weight lost is shown in Table 1. The weight losses attained varied from six to ten pounds, which represented from 3.6 to 4.9 per cent of the body weight. Although there was some fluctuation in body weight from day to day before the voluntary weight loss, it was never more than two pounds. The results of the experiment are discussed by items under each system investigated.

The Strength Index. The strength index was determined by taking the sum in pounds of the right grip, left grip, chest pull, chest push, back strength and leg strength. The strengths were measured by standard dynamometers. Each subject had three trials each time he came to the laboratory, the largest reading being recorded as the strength. The data show that the strength index is not altered by the weight loss. Accuracy of Movement. Accuracy of movement was measured by having the subject move a stylus between two brass plates which gradually converged so that a t the apex the stylus could barely pass .between them. The brass plates were set on a piece of glass which served as the runway for the stylus. The brass plates and stylus were in series with a battery and buzzer. When either plate was touched by the stylus the buzzer sounded thus indicating the distance that the stylus had been moved successfully. The data indicate that the weight loss has no detrimental effect on accuracy of movement. Steadiness of Movement. Steadiness of movement was measured by having the wrestler pierce holes of gradually decreasing diameters. The holes were numbered, beginning with the largest 1 , 2, 3, etc.). The smallest hole that the individual was able to pierce with a stylus, without touching the sides was recorded as the score. The plate containing the holes, and the stylus were in series with a battery and buzzer. An unsuccessful performance was indicated by the buzzer. Each time the subject came to the laboratory he performed fifty trials. The data show that in five cases, the steadiness score after the weight loss falls in the range before the weight loss. I n one case the "after" score mean is better than the mean range. The data justify the conclusion that the weight loss had no appreciable influence on the steadiness of movement. Reaction Time. I n this experiment, the time required for the wrestler to respond to a stimulus was measured. At the flash of a light the subject pressed a key as soon as possible. The time elapsing between the stimulus and the response was measured by a Dunlap chronoscope. The reaction time was measured in milliseconds. Each time the wrestler came to the laboratory 100 reaction-time readings were taken. The data show that in three cases the means after weight loss fall in the range before weight loss. I n two cases the mean reaction time is slower after weight loss and in one case it is faster. Although the data are inconsistent, in four cases, losing weight did not slow the reaction time.



Systolic Blood Pressure. Resting systolic blood pressure was recorded according to clinical procedure. The data show that in four cases after weight loss, the mean systolic blood pressure falls within the range recorded before weight loss. I n two cases, it is two mm. Hg. lower than the lowest reading before weight loss. The weight loss had no appreciable effect on systolic blood pressure. Diastolic Blood Pressure. Diastolic blood pressure was recorded at the same time systolic blood pressure was taken. I n five cases the diastolic blood pressure after the weight loss falls within the range of readings taken before the weight was lost. I n one case it is slightly higher. Obviously, weight loss had no appreciable effect on diastolic blood pressure. Resting Heart Rate. In three cases the resting heart rate after the weight loss falls within the range of the five.counts before. The three remaining cases had a slightly higher resting rate than any reading taken before the weight loss. When compared with the means before, the heart rate after the weight loss has a tendency to be higher in every case. Heart Rate After Exercise. The exercise employed was stepping, a stool " 13 in. high a t the rate of thirty-five times per minute for one minute. The heart rate after exercise as recorded here was found by counting the pulse for one-half minute immediately after the exercise, and doubling this rate. Therefore, the rates were recorded per minute. The data show that the heart rate after exercise performed after weight loss falls within the range of the rates before the weight was lost. It is concluded that the loss of weight did not affect the heart rate after exercise. Recovery Time. The recovery time is expressed as the number of seconds required for the heart to reach its resting level, after the performance of thirty-five stool steps for one minute. The rate was counted for consecutive 30-sccond intervals immediately after exercise. The recovery time represents the number of seconds from the beginning of the count up to, and including the 30-second interval, when it reached the resting level. I n all cases except one, the recovery time after weight loss fell within the range of that before weight loss. Subject 2 required 330 seconds to recover after exercise, after losing weight. We offer no explanation far this exceptional result. With the exception of subject 2, the loss of weight caused no deviation from normal recovery. Electrocardiogram. Electrocardiograms were made for each subject both before and after weight loss. They were all normal in both series. One case had premature beats before the weight loss, but these were not present afterwards. Breath Holding in Expiration. After normal respiration the breath was held in expiration. The procedure was to have the subject hold a stopwatch, face in the palm of the hand so that he could not see it. When the subject was ready, he started the watch a t the end of normal expiration. When he had held ,his breath as long as possible, he stopped the watch. Each wrestler was given three trials a t each experimental period. The longest breath holding time was recorded as the score. I n all cases except one the breath holding ability of the subjects after the weight loss fell within the range of performance before weight was



lost. S U ~ 3J was ~ Cable ~ to hold his breath longer after weight loss. In general, the loss of weight did not affect the breath holding ability of wrestlers. Breath Holding in Inspiration. The procedure was like th&t described for expiration, except the breath was held in inspiration. A summary of the data shows that the breath holding time of two subjects after weight loss fell within the normal range. Three subjects were able to hold their breath longer than normal. One subject could not hold his breath quite as long as normal. The data indicate, a t least, that weight loss did not decrease ability to hold the breath in inspiration. Vital Capacity. Vital capacity was measured by having the wrestler expire into a calibrated spirometer with the greatest possible expiration after the most forceful inspiration. Three trials were performed during each experimental period. The most forceful expiration of the three trials was recorded as the vital capacity. The vital capacity was less than normal after the weight loss in four cases, greater in one, and the same in one. The data indicate that the weight loss has a tendency to reduce vital capacity. Resting Tidal Air. Resting tidal air was measured by means of a Benedict-Roth spirometer. After 30 minutes or more of bed rest, the resting tidal air was measured each time the wrestler came to the laboratory. A record was made over a period of from six to eight minutes. The tidal air was recorded as the average number of c.c. required per minute. The data show that in two cases the resting tidal air was less after weight loss than before, in two cases it was greater and in two cases it was the same. The data fail to show a trend in any one direction, relative to the effect of weight loss on tidal air. Respiratory Rate. The resting respiratory rate was determined from the records made in the measurement of tidal air. The data justify the conclusion that the weight loss did not alter the resting respiratory rate.

Resting Oxygen Consumption. Here also, the Benedict-Roth spirometer was employed. Resting oxygen used was calculated from the same record employed to determine resting tidal air. The wrestler breathed pure oxygen for from six to eight minutes. 'The amount of oxygen used per minute was calculated and corrected to standard conditions. The data show that the weight loss had no effect on the resting oxygen requirement. Oxygen Debt. Oxygen debt is defined as the difference between the resting oxygen requirement and the oxygen used during the recovery period. Each subject did thirty-five stool steps each time he came to the laboratory. Immediately following the work, he assumed the resting position, and his oxygen requirement was measured until it reached the resting state. The amount of oxygen used, above the resting requirement, due to the exercise, is expressed as oxygen debt. The data show that the weight loss had no effect on the oxygen debt. Recovery Time. The recovery time is defined as the time expressed in minutes required to gay the oxygen debt acquired due to thirty-five stool steps. The recovery time was unaffected by the weight loss.




The effect of losing weight by withholding food, and dehydration on the responses of wrestlers was studied experimentally. Eighteen responses involving the neuro-muscular, cardio-vascular, and respiratory systems, and oxygen requirements were involved in the study. In order to determine the range and the mean response, six wrestlers performed each experiment five times on different days over a period of a month. At the end of this time, weight loss was lost by the orthodox method employed by wrestling coaches when they desire to have a .man make a lower weight class. Each experiment was repeated immediately after the weight %as lost. This study indicates that a wrestler may safely lose weight up to 5 per cent of his body weight without suffering any deleterious effects. TABLE 1

This table shows the age, height, weight, surface area, and weight loss of the subiects. Per cent Weight Surface area Weight loss d weight Height Sub. Age sqm. lbs. loss lbs. ins. yrs. no. 145 1.79 -7 4.8 ' 69 1 20 2 3 4 5


19 18 18 19 23

71 71 71 72 70

162 164 203 217 204

1.91 1.90 2.12 2.20 2.08

8 6 10 10 9

4.9 3.6 4.9 4.6 4.4

SOLDIER CRAMPIONS: The ETO wrestlers who captured the Army champion(Calif.) 123 lbs Beers ships in Wiesbaden Germany Left to ri ht-Yamell (Pa.) 13.1 ib?,, ~ r c d e r( ~ n d i a k hU.) 145 l&., Crabtree (Penn State) f58 lbs., Humphre~vzlle,174 Ibs., Lindos (Md.) 191 lbs., Brandt (Kan.) heavyweight:

ETO Championships By Lt. WILLIAM E. CLEGHORN Sweeping to four first places out of seven, T S E T dominated the finals of the 1946 ETO wrestling cha;mpionship in the American Red Cross Eagle Club at Wiesbaden, Germany. Before a capacity crowd of more than 1,100 spectators, TSFET piled up 35 points, seven more than runner-up USmT's 28. Berlin District collected 10 for third place and UXAFE came in fourth with seven. Seventh Army with six points and Third Army with two finished fifth and sixth respectively. T w o unheralded matmen, Pfc. Jim Beers and Lt. Jack Cadmus, stole the show from the outstanding array of wrestlers that had earned their way to the finals. Beers, USAFE, who was the Pennsylvania high school champion in 1943, was far ahead on points, .when he found the opening to slam a vicious body chancery and half 'nelson on Cadmus for a fall. '



Pfc. Erwin Yamell, TSFET, and Pfc. John Lego, USFET, started t h e finals bouts off in rough and tumble fashion. Yarnell copped the 123-lb. crown by applying a full body scissors and half nelson tp Lego after 5 :24 seconds had elapsed. Lt. Allen Crabtree, TSFET, former Penn State sLar,and runner-up in the 1942 Eastern Intercollegiate championship, highlighted the two-day tourney as he put on a wonderful mat demonstrati~nin decisioning Pfc. Ed. Wisniewski, Berlin District, 10-0, to take the 158-lb. laurels. The summary r FINALS

123-lb. class-Pfc. Erwin Yarnell, TSFET, pinned Pfc. John Lego, USFET, in 5:24 see. 134-lb. class-Pfc. James Beers, USAFE, pinned Lt. John Cadmus, USFET,in 6: 43 sec. 145-lb. class-T/5 John Archer, TSFET, decisioned Pvt. Lindley Gamme1 Berlin District, 9-4. 188-lb. class-Lt. Allen Crabtree, TSFET, decisioned Pfc. Ed. ~ i s n i e w ski, Berlin District, 10-0. 174-lb. class-Cpl. Eugene Humphreyville, 7th Army, decisioned Pfc, Earl Long, UISFET, 10-3. 191-lb. class-T/4 Chris Lindos, TSFET, pinned Pfc. Bill Menner, USFET,in-5:55 sec. Heavywaght-T/Sgt. Walter Brandt, USFET, decisioned T/5 Samuel Neville, TSFET, 4-3. Officials: Capt. Buel "Pat" Patterson, Kansas State, and Major Clifford Gallagher, Laf ayette College.

LIEUTENANT COLLECTS SPOILS*Lt. Allan Crabtree captain of the trium-

phant TSFET wrestling team receives trophy from brigadier General Mc6ormick of USAFE.


NCAA GRAPPLING C H A W S : The 1946 Oklahoma A&M wrestling squad which won the NCAA championshi at Stzllwater Okla 1946 Left to mght row-Dorsch, Thompson, Arndt, &k9; second ; o w d r i f i t i z (coach), W & g f St. Clazr, Arms.


NCAA championships By




Acting Chairman, Rules CommHfee 1

The 16th National Collegiate Wrestling Tournament was held at Oklahoma A&M College, Stillwater, Okla., on March 22 and 23. This tournament marked a resumption of this event after three years discontinuance on account of the war. This was also the first time that Oklahoma A&M College has sponsored the National Collegiate Wrestling Tournament. Oklahoma A&M set a new high in the efficient management, thoughtful preparation, and hospitable treatment which was accorded to its



guests. This is all the more remarkable and praiseworthy in view of the fact that our host had only six weeks to prepare for this tournament. A11 contestants and visiting coaches were provided with free lodging and meals throughout their stay in stillw water and transportation to and from the fieId-house. A special training table was set up for the contestants and excelknt meals provided. The members of the Rules Committee were provided with separate quarters at a beautifully furnished Iodge some nine miles outside the city, a t Lake Blackwell.' On Thursday evening preceding the tournament, the Quarterbacks' CIub of StiIlwater gave a banquet at which the members of the Rules Committee and all visiting coaches were the guests of honor. Over one thousand peopIe were in attendance. The cordiality, friendliness and hospitality of the local citizens, and the great interest they manifested in wrestling, made a fine impression on all of their guests. The number of institutions which participated and the number of individual contestants which competed were less than normal, but the caliber of wrestling was just as high as we have had in preceding tournaments. There were only a few entries from Eastern institutions, largely on account of the early war-time schedules which were still in operation

NCAA RUMmRS-UP' The Iowa State Teachers who nailed down second place in the N C A A tournky with three individual hhampionshi s and one second. Left to right-John Boll 1 5 5 . 33~11Koll 145. Russell Bush 1%. Gerald Leeman, 128; ~ e c M&t, h 121; D: H . 'Mc~luskey(chachj.



in that section. The Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association Championships were held on February 8 and 9; hence it could not be reasonably expected that contestants from this section would remain in condition for another six "weeks after their wrestling season was over. It was very gratifying, however, that all of the eight Big Ten Conference Champions participated in this National Tournament. The publici for the tournament was excellent and very ably handled by Mr. Otis &e, Publicity Director for the Athletic Association a t Oklahoma A&M College. M'r. A1 Paddock, Tournament Manager, and Mr. Clay Potts, in charge of entertainment, housing, feeding, etc., are also to be highly commended for their efficient work. We are also profoundly grateful to Mr. Henry Iba, Director of Athletics a t Oklahoma A&M for setting up such a splendid organization to manage and conduct this tournament and also for volunteering to sponsor this meet on such short notice. Oklahoma A&M again won the championship, but it was only by the narrowest of margins. The five-man team from Iowa State Teachers College was beaten out by one paint. Team Scores: Oklahoma A&M 25; Iowa State Teachers College 24; Illinois 17; Indiana 13; Michigan 8; Ohio State 6; Iowa ,State 6; Michigan State 5; Colorado State 2; Nebraska 2; Penn State 2; Kent State 1, The following institutions participated but scored no points: Davidson, Minnesota, North Carolina University, Oklahoma and Wyoming. INDIVIDUAL PLACE WINNERS

Division Champion Second Third 121 lb. ........ C. Mott M. Rolak B. Tomaras (Iowa St.) (Indiana) (Illinois) 128 lb. ........ G.Leeman L. IQchiroubas S. Harry (Iowa St.) (Illinois) (Penn. St.) 136 lb. ........ D.Arndt R. Bush E. George (Qkla. A&M) (Illinois Statel (Indiana) 145 lb. ........ W. Koll E. Welch G. Mikles (Iowa St.) (Okla. A&M) (Mich. St.) R. Dztsworth 155 lb. ........ W. Courtright J. St. Clair (Okla. A&M) (Illinois State) (Mich.) H. Boker 165 lb. ........ D. 8hapiro G. Walker * (Illinois) (Okla. A&M) (Nebraska) 175 lb. ........ G.Dorsch N. Antounsen S. Golonka (Okla. A&M) (Illinois) (Indiana) G. Brand M. Chittwood Heavyweight . . G. Bollas (Indiana) (Illinois State) (Ohio State) The Wrestling Coaches Association trophy for the outstanding wrestler in the meet was awarded to Gerald Leeman of Iowa State Teachers College. The annual business meeting of the Wrestling Coachesy Association was held in connection with the tournament, with President Fendley Collins of Michigan Btate College presiding. The three principal topics of discussion were: proposed changes in the rules, transfer of the wrestling films and the future handling of all Alms to the central oBce of the NCAA, and of ways and means of permitting and encouraging high school wrestling coaches to participate and take a more active part in the National Wrestling Coaches' Association.

OUTSTANDING WRESTLER OF THE YEAR: Iowa State's Gerry Leeman proudly displays trophy awarded him as the NCAA's outstanding wrestler. Leeman nailect down the 128-lb. title. f

The consensus of opinion showed no desire to make any drastic changes in the present rules; however, it was considered desirable that certain ;3rovisions should be reworded and clarified. A recommdndation was also made that clinics for referees should be held in all districts in which demonstrations, interpretations, and discussion of rules should oe made.



There was an unanimous vote of the Association to transfer all wrestling films of past NCAA wrestling tournaments and to turn over to the central office of the NCAA the management, handling, distribut h n and routing of all future films taken of NCAA wrestling tournaments. A recommendation was also made that a suggestion be made h the NCAA that an "educational film" in sound be made under the direction of the NCAA in which fundamental wrestling holds, and maneuvers would be demonstrated and explained. Making of such an educational film was deemed to be highly important at this time for the reason that high school wrestling is growing in a phenomenal man-ner, but there is a deficiency of high school coaches who have an adequate knowledge of wrestling techniques. A majority vote indicated that the association desires a more active participation by high school coaches in the organization and more conweration shown by the NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee for the problems and rules pertaining to high school wrestling. Arthur Grifiith of Oklahoma A&M was elected President, Hugo Otomlik of Iowa State College was elected Vice President, and Raymond %wart2 of the U. S. Naval Academy was reelected as Secretary and Treasurer to serve for the forthcoming year. All of the members of the NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee were present with the exception of B. R. Patterson who was still in service. The committee met six times officially, with almost continuous discus&on being interspersed a t all available moments, in regard to matters pertaining to the conduct of the tournament, proposed changes of rules, promotion and ways and means of bettering the sport. The committee decided that no drastic changes should be made in the rules but several provisions in the rules were noted for re-wording wd clarification. It was decided that Chairman Patterson, or the one selected by him,should be given the responsibility of editing the 1941 edition of the Rule Book. The Coaches' Association again had films made of the finals of the m e t and also shots were made of parts of many bouts which were klleved to be of general interest. The members of the NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee unanimously adopted the following resolution as a manifestation of their estee&, appreciation, and in recognition of the great contribution made by Dr. EL G. Clapp to amateur wrestling : "The present members of the National Wrestling Rules Committee aare fully cognizant of the tireless, capable, and unparalleled service performed by Dr. R. G . Clapp'as a longstanding member and as Chairman of the National Wrestling Rules Committee. . "Therefore, it is resolved, that this committee express its grateful appreciation for the long and outstanding service performed by Dr. R. a. ClapP: "It is further resolved that Dr. R. 0. Clapp b_e selected as the honorary chairman of this committee. "It is furtder resolved that any advice, help, or suggestions pertaining to the welfare of westling will be welcomed from our highly esteemed friend, Dr. R. G . Clapp.

EASTERN C H A M P S : , Navy wrestlers who S u ~ ~ e S s f u ldefended ly their Eastern Intercollegiate crow Left to right, first row-R Swartz [coach) DeLong Gibson, Settle, s m i t e Comdr. Dawes (oficer T?.) second row- it' (assistani coach), Chandler, Bonnell, Tay or (manager).



Intercollegiate Championships By

E. F. CARAWAY Lehigh University I

The EasTern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association conducted its 42nd Annual Tournament a t Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa., on February 8 and 9, 1946. This was the third successive tournament conducted a t Lehigh University because of war time restrictions. The tournament next year will be held a t the usual time in March one week before the NCAA tournament a t a site yet.undeter&;d but will probably go back on the rotation basis that was in effect before the war. Unlike other tournaments in the past, this year's tournament was conducted on an entirely different basis. The plan was changed because the Athletic Directors felt that under the old method when a boy was required to wrestle challenge bouts, he would sometimes have to wrestle three times within an hour with a chance of injury because of overexertion. I t was decided to do away with this method and adopt a plan whereby no boy would have to wrestle more than once in any one ses-

sion. Tile other thought in mind was: to make the ;t;ournamsnt as interesting as possible from a spctator's angle. The plan that was finally is as follows: 1. That all contestants were seeded.

2. That there was a committee of five coaches who did the seeding. 3, That it was strictly a n elimination tournament except the boys

who were defeated in the semi-finals had a chance to wrestle for third place. 4. That the defeated finalists shall automatically be given second place.

It was thought that with this method fewer points would be scored than in former Years since there would be fewer bouts wrestled, but in the 1946 tournament there were 108 points scored with the same number of teams as to 102 points scored in the 1945 tournament. You will note the following table will give you a rough estimate as to the number that participated in the tournament:

RUNNER-UP FOR EASTERN CRCWN. Army matmen left to right first rowFuller Stidham Raab'e 'Robertson ~ a c k second rob- ree en, ~ G ~ r i dMce, in neb Land ?am e r o i ~ t o c k d a d~ r a c i.third . row-Captain Weiler Asst. odreor in cha&e), ~ i n l e b ~ronlchi&, , ~ h e h n e t ?3urner, , Stewart, Koeh {manager), Maj. Jacunski (Oficer zn charge).



EIWA Table Individual Competitors ............................ 69 Number of Schools represented .................... 9 Number of Sessions ............................... 4 Number of Bouts .................................. 67 Number of Falls .................................. 28 Number of Defaults ............................... 3 Number of Points scored .......................... 108 Method used in determining bouts.. ........... .Seeding Number of officials used ........................... 4 Number of men (coaches) doing seeding.. ......... 5 '

Losers in semi-finals wrestled for third place. Three places were given-1st place, 5 points; 2nd place, three, and 3rd place, one. Each fall counted one point toward team score. The United States Naval Academy successfully defended its championship by scoring 21 points with the Army finishing a close second with 20 points. Cornell made a great bid for the championship also, as the score indicates a close third with 19 points. Navy did not cinch its championship until the heavyweight class when Brown of Cornell defeated Green of Army for first place. All in all it was one of the most exciting closely contested tournaments tihat has been held in a great number of years. Team Scores: Navy 21; Army 20; Cornell 19; Penn State 14; Penn 10; Lehigh 9; Princeton 7; Coast Guard 4; Columbia 25.

CORNELL MAULERS: Left to dght fir$ row-Kuhl, LaRock, Ramandanes, Miller Huntington Kenemon ~ u r n e ; Fzley (asststant coach). second rowWare '(manager) covell (asst: manag&) Farrzs OSConnell (coich) Almq?Ast, Dr. Brttten (team pdysician), Fauntain ?trainer). Campbell, ~ y e k s Brown, ,




....... .................... .............. .......

C hamvion

121 lb.. .Rabbe Army 128 lb.. . .Harry ' Penn State . ~ r e e n kNavy 136 lb.. 145 lb.. .Miller kornell 155 lb.. .I3ixonyPenn State 165 Ib.. .~iewehhous,Lehigh 175 lb.. .Land, Army Heavyweight. .Brown, Cornell


DeLong, Navy Huntington, Cornell Asch, Penn Fletcher, Navy Hathway Navy Kassak, henn Blake, Princeton Green, Army


Odell Princeton ~ersdkoff,C'st Guard Steel Penn Stat9 ~ o c dA m y ~ e l l i A gPenn ~ t o c k d d eArmy Jackson, Lehigh Smith, Navy

New England Wrestling Wrestling in New England came back strong during the latter part, of the war. With many of their veterans returning from all -over the globe, many schools returned to a t least a part-time schedule, with hopes of getting back to the pre-war programs in 1947. It was felt that it would not be wise to hold the New England tournament in 1946 because of overlapping of examination periods in schools still remaining on the war-time semester plan. Several new schools are expected to engage in wrestling in the future. The University of Connecticut and Trinity College experimented with war-time wrestling and may run teams in 1947. Coast Guard Academy sponsored a team in 1946 and will in all probability continue to do so. With the entrance of new schools into our tournament, we are looking forward to a successful post-war era. LITTLE THREE WRESTLING

Wrestling in the "Little Three" was resumed in 1946 and was won by s strong Williams team. Williams defeated both Amherst and Wesleyan in dual competition, winning the coveted Little Three crown. All three squads, however, are looking forward to the return of many veterans who will definitely bolster their teams for 1947. It is hoped that next year the Little Three tournament may again be held. The last tournament, held in 1943, was won by Wesleyan.

Western Conference Championship By GLENN C. LAW Coach, University of flllnois

Wreslting competition on a pre-war level returned to the Western Conference in 1946. In some cases, teams were not bolstered by returning veterans until the second semester, but by the time of the Big Ten championships in Champaign March 8-9, rosters of competing teams were of topnotch calibre in talent, age and experience. Illinois, with three individual championships, two third and two fourth places, won the meet and scored the greatest total points in history, 31. Second was Indiana with two firsts, a runnerup and a fourth place for a 25-point total. Michigan scored 18 points, Ohio State 17, and Iowa 12. Only two previous champions retained titles. George Bollas, Ohio State, defeated Morris Chitwood of Indiana for the heavyweight crown, while Norman Anthonisen, Ilbinois, 165-pound winner in 1942, came

BIG TEN TITLE-HOLDERS; blinds' w r d @ ~ m ; ~tdl4ed * h ~ .the greatest numb=?of points in Westem Conference h%storg..?E2ftto Yigiltt first row-Tomaras P e t ~ y , Gasda, Kachiroubas second row-Glenn. C. L&U (coach), shapiro:

~ d s o nAnthonzsen, , Marlan. 44



back from service to dethrone Mike Rajcevich, Purdue, defending champion a t 175. Among high-ranking wrestlers of previous years who competed but did not w h titles were: Sig Golonka, Indiana, third a t 165 in 1943; William Ivy, Northwestern, heavyweight champion in 1943; Robert Wilson, Illinois, heavyweight champion in 1944 while in marine training a t Purdue; Rometo Macias, Iowa, 128-pound champion in both 1944 and 1945; and Ben Mottelson, Purdue, runner-up a t 136 in 1945. Outstanding competitors in the 1946 championships were Bill Courtright, Michigan, who pinned every one of his opponents a t 155; Dave Shapiro, Illinois, undefeated during the season a t 165; and Lou Kachiroubas, Illinois, who decisioned Iowa's Macias. !Spectator interest in the championships, which were returned to the pre-war two days of competition, was high indicating a fine season for the outstanding crop of grapplers who will be eligible for 1947. Team Scores: Illinois 31, Indiana 25, Michigan 18, Ohio State 17, Iowa 12, Minnesota 9, Northwestern 6, Purdue 4, Chicago 3, Wisconsin 1. INDIVIDUAL CHAMPIONS AND PLACE WINNERS


121 lb. class. 128 lb. class. 136 lb. class. 145 lb. class. 155 lb. class. 165 1b. class. 175 Ib. class. . Heavyweight. . .

... ......... ..


Rolak, Indiana Kachiroubas, Illinois Smith, Michigan George, Indlana Courtright Michigan Sha iro 1dinois ~ n t g o d s e n Illinois , Bollns, Ohio State


Kekelring, Ohio Statc: Macias Iowa ~ u c h a b Indiana , Stora Ohio State ~ r a d e r Minnesota , Gray Iowa ~ a j e & i c h ,Purdue Chitwood, Indiana


Tomaras, Illinois Palmer, Chicago Barker Iowa ~atke,'~orthweskm Marlin, Illinoia Baker, Minnesota Golonka, Indiana Ivy, Northwestern

BIG TEN CHAMPlONS: Wayne Smith University of Michigan ( r i g h t ) claimed the 136 Ib, class and Norman ~ n t h o n i s e n( l e f t ) , University of ~llino&,175 Ib.


ROCKY MOUNTAIN MATMEN: Colorado State's wrestling team which went undefeated in state competition.

~ntercolle~iate Wrestling in the Rocky Mountain Region By JOHN HANCOCK Coach, C~lotadoS b ) e College d Greeley, Cde.

Intercdlegiate wrestling, dormant in the Rockies during the war, was nerjnned in 1946 by both the Rocky Mountain Conference and the Mom-

tain States Conference. The colleges resuming wrestling were W y e g University, winner of the Eastern Division of the Mountain States Conf e n c e ; Denver University, coached for the first time by Dan Sbvely; Gdarado A&M,and Colorado &ate of the Rocky Mountain Conference. Colorado State was undefeated in Colorado and had dual meets with t h e University of Nebraska and Iowa ,State College. Wyoming University was represented a t the NCAA by Henry Mangus in the 128-pound weight class, and Cowrado was represented by Qordm Fleiger, 136, Tony Yamasaki, 145, and Joe Klune, 175. Denver University had a very good wrestler in Leo Ford, 175 pounds. Strong teams in the Rocky Mountain area are to be expected in 1947, and Golo~adoMines and Colorado University will field teams for the first time since the war. Everett Lantz, wrestling coach a t the University af Wyoming has returned from the Navy, along with John Mason, mestling coach a t Colorado Mines. The University of Utah, Brigham Yamg and Utah Aggies had wrestling teams in 1946 but did not have a complete schedule, The Utah Colleges and [email protected], along 'with BRt-5State a t W e m a n , Mont., were building f&r.. strong teams in ..'1947.

Wrestling in District Seven is decidedly increasing in popularity and in class of wrestling. 46

~ n t e r c d e ~ i aWrestling te in California By HENRY A. STONE Coach,

University of California.


Collegiate wrestling on the West Coast was partially revived during the 1945-46 season, however there is every'indication that in 1947 compefition will be back to its pre-war level. I n the Southern Division, Pacific Coast Conference, Stanford University, UCLA and the University of california all supported teams and engaged in competition among themselves and with service teams. Because it had been able to continue competition throughout the war by engaging nearby club and service teams, the University of California was able to retain the dominant position it held in this area prior to the opening of hostilities. Btanford and UCLA were less fortunate, being forced t o start from scratch because both universities had discontinued wrestling competition for the duration. Stanford, under Coach Ted Mumby, was able to divide its series with California, a feat which the Indians have not accomplished since 1917. UCLA was less successful due to the fact that Lt. Col. Hunt, Bruin coach, did not return from the Army until after the season was well under way. Although the UCLA squad showed rapid development after his return, sufEcient time did not elapse before the end of the season for the team to reach its maximum potentialities.

CLASS OF T H E COAST: IheCversZtu of Cattfmta's wrestlers stilF hold t h e b title spot in the Pdcific Coast Conference's Southern Division. Left to right, first

9'0w-Ch~zsten~enTaylor Harutunzun NewelZ Arthur Popkin Rogers' second 'TOW-Lekas ~ i x e h t e i nkarneal ~ r e k n l es~h i v a n i,ovette'~tanijo;d (ca bin), J O ~ W ~ T O W third' . 10-H.' A: Stone' (coach), ' d l k n , Rkhards, ~ a y r a R t&oglu, Dondero, Lzvzngston, Mumby, Thacker.




INDIANS MAKE A COMEBACK: After war-time suspension of wrestling Stanford came back to split a series with Cali ornia for the first time since 1917. Left to right, first row7Ted E . W. Mumby {coach), Mumby, W . , Wzn.sto?& Bevter, Jones, Walker, Henznger Kurfess- second row-Wallace Mosher, Buvznghauser, ~ h o m p i o n(capthin), Napper, cullison: Wing,

Individual champions and runners-up for the Pacific Coast Conference CSouthern Division) were as follows: DIVISION CHAMPION 121 lb. Leland Christensen, California 128 lb. Evan Oayaka, UCLA 136 lb. Vern Jones, Stanford 145 lb. Melvin Johndrow, California 155 lb. Dan Winston, Stanford 165 lb. Oscar Thompson, Stanford 175 lb. Hugh Mumby, California


Wayne Richards, California


Stanton Wong, UCLA Wayne Arthur, California Harry Rogers, California David Urton, UCLA Chester Dunsmore, UCLA James Livingston, California Winston Mumby, Stanford James McConnoughy, UCLA

The California Collegiate Conference failed to renew wrestling competition this year. I t is expected that contests will be resumed in 1946-47. This season's failure was due to the late return of coaches from the armed services and other administrative difficulties. Nearly all of the lState (Collegesin California can expect the return of many former contestants next fall and should support strong teams. $an Jose State College has a very strong squad in prospect and should be a leader in Coast wrestling circles for the 1946-47 season.

1946 ~ u aMeet l Records Auburn Auburn, Ala. Arnold W. Umbach 8 Georgia Tech. .24 24 Appalachian Thr. 8 8 Georgia Tech. .24 12 Appalachian Thr.23



Amherst Col. Amherst, Mass. Charles Soleau 20 Wesleyan 16 Wesleyan 11 Williams

.......16 .20 ...... ...... .21


$t ser,


Army (U. S. Mll. Ac.) West Pomt, N. Y. Lloyd Appleton 33 Columbia 3 19 Cornell .ll 11 Yale .21 11 Pennsylvania .17 21 Penn State.. .ll 34 Muhlenberg 0 20 Coast Guard.. 8

....... ........

........... ... ... ..... ...

Brooklyn Col. Brooklyn, N. Y. Nathan Doscher 0 Kines Point. .30 3 Lehigh .29 27 Brooklyn Poly.. 3 26 Brooklyn Poly.. 5 6 20 NW

... ......... . ............


p" ;A


the 'f




California, U. of Berkeley, Calif. Henry Stone 31 UCLA 15 Stanford 23 Stanford 17 Alameda NAS.. 17 Olympic Club. 30 UCLA 31 Olympic Club.

.......... 5 ........11 .21 ....... .37

...336 .......... ...13

C'licago, U. of Chicago. Ill. S. K. Vorres 13 Northwestern 21 Illinois Tech.. 11 Wisconsin 18 Illinois Tech. 13 Wheaton 11 Northwestern 10 Wheaton 3 Iowa



... .21 ...ll ..... .25 ....21 .16 ....... ....25 ....... .28 .......... .31



Columbia U. New York. N. Y. Gus Peterson 19 Brooklyn Poly. ..1; 25 NPU 13 6 ~orneli ...30 6 Yale 30 8 Princeton .30 3 Army .33 8 Pennsylvania .26 3 Navy .31

........ ': ... .; ............

...... .......... ... ..........

Cornell U. Ithaca, N. Y. Walter C. O'Connell 30 Columbia 6 30 Pennsylvania .12 .13 17 Lehigh 11 Army ..I9 .21 11 Penn State..

....... ...

......... ......... ...

...... .... ........... ... ..... ..........

C. G. (U. S.) Acad.

New London, Conn. Cmdr. Ivan J. Geiger 30 Brooklyn Poly.. 0 10 Yale .23 23 3 Penn State. 31 Conn. Wesleyan.. 5 20 Lehigh 8 31 Tufts 3 3 Navy .29 .20 8 Army


..... ......... ........... .......... - ..........136 (4-4-0) 111 :olorado A&M Col. Sort Collins, Colo. lulius F. Wagner !5 Denver .15 .20 16 Wyoming .5 Denver 21 6 Wyoming .18

........ ...... ......... ......

Denver, U. of Denver, Colo. Dan Stavely 21 Colorado A8rM.. 8 Colorado Thr. 17 Wyoming 15 Colorado A&M. 13 Colorado Thr.. 10 Wyoming

.I5 .24 13 .25 .23 .19



.......108 ......... ...... .I3 ...... .16 ....25 .........13




flarvard kl. Cambridge. Mass. Clarence E. Boston 19 Tufts 0 Yale 9 Andover 2 Providence HS. 21 Wesleyan

...........13 .......... .30 .........23 .19 ...... .15




lllinois St. Normal U. Normal, Ill. Eugene L. Hill 13 DeKalb .I9 Thr. 6 22 North. 1 11 Wheaton .I9


.. ....... .. ......-


Duke U.

Durham, N. C. Harvey L. Potter 12 Georgia Tech. .14 14 Virginia .14 20 Georgia Tech. 8 19 North Carolina. .ll 28 Appalachian 0 12 North Carolina.. .14


....... ...

LO5 :olorado State Ireeley, Colo. r. W. Hancock % Wyoming 14 Denver I1 Wyoming 8 Nebraska 4 Iowa State.. 13 Denver



.......... .......... ......... .........




Brooklyn Poly Brooklyn, N. Y. Harry Barr 15 Columbia .19 30 0 Coast Guard. 6 NYU 24 3 Brooklyn Col. 27 0 Merchant Marfne.32 8 Swarthmore .26 5 Brooklyn Col.. .26 3 NYU .27

Georgia Tach Atlanta, Ga. Lloyd A. Moll 14 Duke .12 .20 8 Duke 8 24 Auburn 26 Appalachian Thr. 8 8 24 Auburn 14 North Carolina.. 16


!Ilinois. U. of .hampaign-Urbana, Ill. Xenn C. Law 19 Wheaton ..I3 6 Purdue .20 11 Michigan State. .15 Iowa State Thr. .l7 jl 9 9 Michiga~ .3 Indiana .17 !4 Purdue .12 9 19 Ohio State..

...... ........ .





........ ........ ..... -




Gallaudet Col. Washington, D. C. 11 Johns Hookins.. 10 Virginia 15 Loyola (Md.) ~3 Johns Hopkins.


.19 .28 .15 .21

....... ....

ndiana U . 31oornington, Ind. :barley McDaniel 8 Michigan 13 Northwestern 14 Nebraska 7 Illinois 5 Purdue 10 Ohio State.


....... ... 836 ....... ........ .13 ........ .I1 ...... -8





lowa State Thr. Cedar Falls, Ia. David H. McCuske~ 5 29 Minnesota 17 Illinois .ll 25 Nebraska 5 20 Iowa State. .10 12 Michigan State. ..12 24 Wheaton 8 ,

...... ........ ....... .....


Merchant Marine Acad. Kings Point, N. Y. Carlos Henriquez, Jr. 30 Brooklyn Col. 0 3 2 m 0 18 Y+e .10 2 25 Pnnceton 32 Brooklyn Poly 0 6 Navy 26 22 Swarthmore 6


rowa State Col. Ames. Ia. 21 Nebraska 25 Colorado St.. 10 Iowa Thr.. 6 Nebraska 14 Minnesota


....... ....2049 ..... ...... .22 ......14



......159 ....... ....139 ..... ......... 3

Johns Hopkins U. Baltimore, Md. Fred Whalen 3 Virginia 19 Gallaudet 26 Loyola 21 Gallaudet

.... ........... .......... ....... ... ........... ..... - 174



Michigan State Cot. E. Lansing, Mich. Fendley Collins 33 Wheaton 3 15 Illinois .ll 11 Purdue ..I9 28 Northwestern 0 23 Minnesota 8 17 Ohio. State.. .ll 9 Michigan .15 12 Iowa State Thr. .12


lowa, U. of Iowa City. Ia. H. M. Howard 13 Wisconsin 19 Nebraska 17 Northwestern 15 Minnesota 31 Chicago

....... ........ .......... ...... ... ...... . -



Michigan, U. of Ann Arbor, Mich. Clifford Keen .18 8 Indiana .11 17 Purdue 19 Wisconsin .ll 9 Illinois .19 11 Ohio State.. .....15 15 Michigan State. 9 23 Northwestern 3

....... ........ ..... ........ .....

....... .35 ......ll ......... .......138

Lehigh U. Bethlehem. Pa. William Sheridan .ll 25 Swarthmore 36 Muhlenberg 0 3 29 Brooklyn Col.. 13 .Cornell .l7 9 17 Pennsylvania 24 Princeton 8 18 Penn State......l5 8 Coast Guard.. .20

.... .....

.. ........ ... .......







.... ....... ... -




Nebraska State U. Lincoln, Nebr. Jerry Adams 0 Minnesota .28 10 Wisconsin .20 9 Iowa State......21 6 Indiana .24 5 Iowa Thr.. ......25 9 Iowa .19 22 Iowa State.. .... 6 16 Colorado Thr .18


..... ..... ....... .......... ...-



New York U. New York, N. Y. Jerry Hughes 6 Brooklyn Co1.. .20 24 Brooklyn Pol?. .. 6 0 Merchant Marine. 32 27 Brooklyp POW.. . 3 13 Columha .25 21 Rutgers .ll 11 Rutgers .21


...... ........ ........

Minnesota, U. of Minneapolis, Minn. Dave Bartelma Iowa State Thr. .29 0 Nebraska Purdue .12 Edichigan State. .23 Wisconsin 3 Iowa .15 Iowa State.. .14

N.C. (AppalachianIThr. Boone, N. C. 8 Georgia Tech. .24. 8 ~ub&-n .2 4 8 North Carolina. .24 0 Duke .28 23 Auburn .12

Muhlenberg Cot. Allentown, Pa. FloydB. Schwartzwalder .36 0 Lehigh .33 3 Swarthmore 0 Princeton .38 0 Navy .36 13 Naval Hosp. .20 34 0 Army

North Carolina. U. of. Chapel Hill. N. C. P. H. Quinlan 24 Ap~alaehianThr 8 22 Virginia 8 11 Duke ..I9 24 Virginia 8 14 Duke .12 16 Georgia Tech .14

....... ........ ...... .......... ...


~oithwestern U. Evanston, 111. Wes Brown 21 Chicago 3 Indiana 3 Purdue 3 Wisconsin 9 Iowa 25 Chicago 3 Michigan 0 Miehigan State.

.. ........ ...........


........13 ....... .23 ........ .25 ...... .23 .......... .17 ........ .ll ........28 .23 -



Ohio State U. Columbus, 0. Bernard Mooney .20 8 Indiana 11 Michigan State. .17 15 Michigan .ll 16 Purdue .10 9 Illinois .19


........ ...... .,...... ........ -



Oklahoma A&M Col. Stillwater, Okla. Art 3 27 SW Tech 0 24 SW Tech.



....... -



Penn State Col. State College, Pa. Charlie Speidel 13 Navy 23 Coast Guard. 15 Lehigh 21 Cornell 21 Army


.......... .....23 3 ......... .18 ........ .ll ...........ll


Loyola Cot. Baltimore, Md Emil G. Reitz, Jr. 15 Gallaudet .25 8 Johns Hopkins. .26


Navy (U.. S. Nav. Ac.) Annapolis, Md. Raymond Swartz 29 Pennsylvania 3 23 Penn State......l3 36 Muhlenberg 0 26 Merchant Marine. 6 31 Columbia 3 3 29 Coast Guard..

- 51


........ .... ...... .......... .... ...........



......... ......... ........ ..........


Pa. State Thr. Col.

Lock Haven, Pa. Hubert H. Jack 13 Penn State.. .21 13 Clearfield YMCA.30



5 Navy .29 20 Clearfield YMCA.23

DUAL MEET RECORDS Pennsylvania, U., of Philadelphia, Pa. John E. Brennan 14 Yale .14 12 Cornell .20 3 Navy 29 9 Lehigh .17 26 Columbia 8 23 Princeton 5 1 7 Army .ll


.......... ........ ........... ........ ....... ....... .......... -


..... ....... .....

......... ... .......... -




Swarthmore Col. 3warthmore. Pa. Richard DiBatists, I1 Lehigh .25 15 Princeton .20 3 33 Muhlenberg 28 Naval How. 6 32 Naval Hosp 0 I6 Brooklyn Poly. 8 6 Merchant Marine. 22

........ ...... ..... .... ..... ...



.......... ......


...... ........

.... ....... ........

3 S. West. inst. of Tach Weatherford, Okla Ross Flood 0 Okla. A&M. .21 3 Okla. A H . .2i


... ....3 33 ....11 I ss




XCk 30 ..... .29 pbCA.23

103 -



............14 .22 :. ......10 . 3 .24

.... .... -


iNisconsin. U. of' Ldadison, Wis. feorge Martin 15 Chioago !O Nebraska 11 Miobigan 15 Iowa Z3 Northwestern 3 Mmnesota 19 Wheaton


Tufts Col. Medford. Mass. Purdue U. Lafayette, Ind. George - Myerson, 13 Harvard .19 Claude Reeck 0 Yale .34 20 Illinqis 6 .18 19 Mich?gan State.. 11 16 Williams 11 'M[lchigan .17 11 Phillips Exeter. .l7 3 Coast Guard.. ...31 12 Minnesota .12 25 Northwestern 3 10 Ohio State.. .16 11 Indiana .I5 12 Illinois .14


Virginia, U. of Charlottes~ille, Va. Frank Finger 14 Duke 8 [email protected] Carolina. 28 Gallaudet 35 Johns Hophns. 8 North Carolina.


Princeton U. Princeton, N. J. James J. Reed 20 Swarthmore .15 80 Columbia 8 38 Muhlenberg 0 2 Merchant Marine. 25 8 Lehigh .24 5 Pennsylvania .23 0 Yale .26


Stanford U. Stanford U., Calif. 3. W. Mumbs .1 California .23 .3 Alameda NAS. .24 I 1 Mer. Mar. Cadets.24 !1 California .15

UCLA Los Angeles, Calif. Briggs Hunt 6 Alameda NAS 5 California 8 Alamoda NAS. 0 St. Mary's P-F 6 California

... .30 .......41

...... .319



-141 .3C

Wesleyan U. Middletown, Conn. J. F. Martin 20 Amherst .20 5 Coa$ Guard. ... .31 10 Wilhams .24 16 Amherst .16 15 Harvard .21

........ .ll ...... .......10 .1B .......... .13 ... 3 ......I5 .23 ......



....... .......

....... .......

Wheaton Col. Wheaton, Ill. George Olson 13 Illinois .19 28 Chicago CYO.. 6 3 Mkhigan State. . .33 38 DeKalb Thr. 0 21 Chicago ....... .13 25 DeKalb Thr.. 11 15 Wisconsin .19 28 Chicago ........I 0 8 Iowa Thr.. .24 19 Illinois Normal U. 11


........ .. .... ... ...... ..... -



Wi4liams Col. Williamstown, Mass. J. E. Bullock 18 Tufts 16 24 Wesleyan .10 21 amherst .11

........... ...... .......

Wyoming, U. of Laramie, Wso. Everett Lantz 20 Colorado A&M.. .16 10 Colorado State. .28 13 Denver .17 18 Colorado A&M. .16 13 Colorado 8tate. .21 19 Denver .10



Yale U. New Haven, Conn. John R. O'Donnell 1 4 Pennsylvania .14 30 Columbia 6 10 Merchant Marine. 18 23 Coast Guard. .10 34 Tufts 0 21 Army .ll 28 Princeton 0 30 Harvard 0

.. ....... ... ........... .......... ....... ........ -


CoIIegiaie Mat Notes Auburn: This was Auburn's first wrestling team and not a member of the squad had ever wrestled om seen a match before. The outstanding men were James Pate, undefeated heavyweight; Charlie Harris, Tony Martinez and Tom O'Connor. Army: Bob Land retained his 175 pound title for the second successive year and Ralph ~ a a b e ,competing for the first time, won the 121pound class as Army threatened a n overwhelmingly favorite Navy mat team in the intercollegiates. Coast Guard: A very successful season with.Bob Gershkoff, 128 pound Eastern Intercollegiate champ of 1945 the outstanding performer, winning four dual meet matches. Colorado State: Won the Colorado Intercollegiate championship and Rocky Mountain Conference title. Outstanding wrestlers were Fleiger, Yamaski, Klune and Shaw. Corndl: Finished third in intercollegiates with 19 points, two astern of Navy. Erie Miller, 145 pounds,,and heavyweight Forbes Brown won their class matches. Denver: Westling was resumed after a four year layoff. Competition was poor and many of the men inexperienced. Duke: Tied with North Carolina for Southern Conference championship. Dick Hay and Bill Leitzinger were undefeated during the season, and Alex Stork and Lynn Dellenbarger lost only one match apiece. Georgia Tech: The second year of wrestling for the Engineers. John James, 121 pounds, had an undefeated season. Illinois Normal: A late start and only three dual meets. Illinois: Won Big Ten championship with 31 points. Lou Kachiroubas, 128, Dave Shapiro, 165, and 'Norman Anthonisen, 175, won their respective title matches. Finished third in the NCAA with Shapiro winning the 165 pound title. Iowa State Teachers: Teachers College wrestlers won three firsts and took a second in the NCAA tournament. Gerald Leeman, sophomore, won the national title in the 128-pound class and was chosen the outstanding wrestler of the meet. Cecil Mott, senior, captured the 121pound crown while Bill Kell, sophomore, won the 145-pound title. Russell Bush was runner-up in the 136-pound class. Leon Martin, 175, waS undefeated in dual meet competition and compiled 21 victories against one loss in his collegiate career. Iowa: Rometo Macias, 128-pounder, completed his third season without a defeat in a dual meet intercollegiate bout. Loyola: Returning to competition after three years, a student-coach, inexperienced personnel and injuries all made for a weak squad which will be better next season. Frank Meagher won the 165-pound MasonDixon Conference title. Michigan State: Won the Michigan AAU championships w d placed three men in the NCAA championships. Best wrestlers were Gale Mikles, Iggy Konrad and Cliff Fletcher, N: W; (Appalachian) TWCWPSt - Most outstanding man was Captain Jimmy Reese. A stronger team is expected next season. Ohio State: George Bollas won Big Ten and NCAA heavyweight titles. 51



LOCAL LIGHTS: Leo Ford ( l e f t ) was the outstanding matman for the Univer~S in the sity of Denver. Penn State9 Sam henry (right ,won the C O Q C ~Trophy

Eastern Intercollegwte ?)oumment.

Oklahoma A&M: NCAA champions, capturing two first and three seconds. Dave Arndt, 136, and George Dorsch, 175, won their respective bouts, and Edgar Welch, 145; Jack St. Clair, 155, and George Walker, 165, were runners-up. Penn State: Sam Harry, returned veteran, was unbeaten in dual competition and was voted the most valuable wrestler a t the 1946 Eastern Intercollegiahes. Grant Dixon was 155-pound champion. Pa. (Lockhaven) Teachers: Won the Middle Atlantic State AAU championship. John Mullins finished season undefeated. Tony Verga and John Palmer other outstanding wrestlers. Purdue: For the first time in five years Purdue failed to finish one-two in the Big Ten championships. Mike Rajcevich took runner-up honors in the 175-pound division. Swarthmore: Don Kelley, 155, and George Robertson, heavyweight, didn't lose a collegiate bout. UCLA: A poor year for UCLA who tadcled more experienced foes. Only man with previous experience was Abe Greenbaum, former 145-pound Pacific Coast Junior AAU champ.



Wheaton: Ladoit Stevens, with 36 points, won the tiophy awarded annually to the Wheaton competitor compiling the greatst number of points in collegiate matches. Williams: Won Little Three title, defeating Wesleyan [email protected] Wyoming: Beat Denver to capture the Big Seven (Eastern Division) championship. J. Henry Mangus won his second conference championship by six straight falls in the 128-pound class. Jay Partridge won five without a 1- in the 136-pound class. Yale: First time in Eli wrestling history that both Harvard and Princeton were shutout.



The 1947 National Collegiate Wrestling Championships will be held at the University of Illinois on March 27 and 28, 1947.



Long Island Wrestling This year found many Long Island coaches returning from the service to resume wrestling programs that had been curtailed during the war years. Two tournaments, one clinic and the usual dual meet programs were included in the winter's activities. Baldwin snapped Mepham's undefeated streak on the lOlst trip to the mats. The tournaments found Mepham retaining the South Shore and Long Island championship. The SSAL individual champions were:


104 lb. class. .Octavius Vizzi, Baldwin 113 lb. class. ........................... .Richard Green Mapham 121 lb. class. ........................... .Robert Gerbinb, Central 128 lb. class.. .........................Steve Chohany, Oceanside 134 lb. class.. ........................ .Walter Sheffield, Mepham r39 lb. class.. .........................Robert Mahoney Mepham 146 lb. class. .......................... .Reginald Baldwin M 5 lb. class.. ............................Eric Erickson, Mepham 166 lb. class. .......................William Taussig, Long Beach Heavyweight. ........................... .Donald Berndt, Baldwin


The Long Island tourney individual champions were:

104 lb. class.. ...........................Octavius Vizzi, Baldwin 113 lb. class.. ......................... .Richard Green Mepham 121 lb. class. ............................Robert Gerbido, Central 128 lb. class.. .............................Robert Bury, Mepham 134 lb. class.. ..........................Robert Kmne, Amityville 139 lb. class. ......................... .Robert Mahoney, Mepham 146 lb. class.. ........................... .Eric Erickson, Mepham 155 lb. class.. ........................... .Ralph Jansson, Central 166 lb. class.. .......................James Dowling, Bay Shore Heavyweight. ...........................Donald Berndt, Baldwln

Illinois High School Wrestling Both the quality of wrestling and the balanced strength of the teams from all parts of the state was excellent. The State Tournament of the University of Illinois March 1 and 2 was the most closely contested meet ever held there. Team Scores: Tilden (Chicago) 19; Urbana 18; Proviso (Maywood) 17; Champaign 13; Rock Island 12; Pekin 12; Granite City 10; Tbornton 6; Lane (Chicago) 6; Crane (Chicago) 5; LaGrange 3; Morton (Cicero) 3; Danville 2; Parker (Chicago) 2;
............ .,. .........................

................Don Chaplain, Urbana 103 lb. class. 112 lb. class. .Lou Merzian, Granite City 120 lb. class.. ........................... .Norman Shelton, Pekin 127 lb. class.. ....................... .Joe Patacsil, Tilden Tech 133 lb. class.. ........................ .Don Plestina, Tilden Tech 138 lb. class.. ............................ .Don Well, Champaign 145 lb. class.. ............................ . P e t e Wilson Proviso Island 165 lb. class.. ........................Jerome Dasso, ~ o h k Heavyweight. ......................... .Joe Rockwood, Thornton


:rvice war ,ams am's ~und



ILLINOIS HIGH SCHOOL CHAMPS: L e f t to right, first row-~udzinski (manager), Patacszl, Costanza, Plestzna, Klausegger, Dahlzn, Kzttay, Romanowski, Ferguson; second row-Hicks (coach) Colombo Morande Marchert Schmudde, Kemp Romanowskz Fztzpatrzck ~ L ~ o t ~t 6, ~ e l l e . 1 f1 i, ~ ~ i c o~ ,a r ' a b a d i a n . third 'row- ath hi us' Pote ~ u b i h Umholtz R Wezck Mzchard Id. weick; Dolernba, Hook, lah his, ~ e f s s e m o s , ' ~ n ~~eorh, a s ' i n s k i ~, b s z k o s k i ;ourth rowSell, Ross, SIaney Vogel Bennett Melonas Swazes Krenn Patch Melonas W . ~ e h ~, a r b p u l u s ,euebener: fZfth &w-~y;nes, d~onnell,'Grzeskzewicz, Scichowski, Rehak, Nzep, Cheung, Roeske Bagcar Vegazo Kozan Savageszzth row-Foy, Henrzksen, Dwyer, ~ o q u i s t Roye, : dawicky, ~ u j c t k , ' ~ a ~ i n s k & DeMent.


3ms the set 17; I 6; 1 3; 2; I


Double this number of schools took part i n the 4th District tourneys.

A new surge of wrestling interest is expected with the return of coaches

from the service. Tilden, winner of the State Meet, went on to win the Chicago Championship f o ~the , 17th time in 19 years. SECTIONAL WINNERS

Winner and Section : Rock Island (Joliet) , Proviso (Morton) , Tilden (Chicago) , Cha,mpaign (Champaign) .


Indiana High School Wrestling By CLIFFORD R. MYERS Afhelfic Deparfmenf, Bloomlngfon High School

Wrestling in Indiana carried on splendidly through the war years, and 1946 marked a return to pre-war popularity. This interest was marked by a sharp increase in attendance a t both dual meets and tournaments. The North Conference Tournament was held on February 8 and 9, with Roosevelt of East 'Chicago winning the championship followed by Washington of East Chicago, George Rogers Clark of Hamrnond, and Hamr mond Tech. On the following week-end 12 schools participated in the Indiana State High School Invitational Wrestling Tournament. This was held at Purdue university with Jefferson High of Lafayette acting as host school. I n one of the most closely contested tournaments on record, Bloomington High nosed out Muncie Central by one point in the final match. Team Scores : Bloomington 42 ; Muncie Central 41; Washington Ea& Chicago 34; Southport 28; Roosevelt East Chicago 27; lCrawfordsville 13; Marion 13; George Rogers Clark 3 ; Howe Military Academy 2; Jefferson of Lafayette, Merrillville and Hammond Tech, all 0. IN~IVIDUALCHAMPIONS

.......................... .............................. .....................


95 lb. class.. .Perkin Muncie Central 103 ib. class.. ............................ .King ~ u n c i eCentral 112 ib. class. stewkt Bloomington Sangalis ~oose;elt E Chicago 120 lb. class. 127 lb. class. ................. .Popovich, washington: E: Chjcago 133 lb. class.. ..................... .Lax, Washington, E. Chicago 138 ib. class. .Lyon Bloomington 145 lb. class.. .& Bloomington 154 lb. class.. .Reason, Muncie Central 165 lb. class. .................... Wenzal, Washington E Chica o I75 lb. cIass. ............................Zachary. ~r&&ordsvi%e .Wood, Muncie Central Heavyweight.

................................ .............................. .......................... ...........................

Interscholastic Wrestling in Kansas For. the third successive year grapplers f r o p Wichita East showed wrestlers from the rest of the state some of the finer points of the sport as the Blue Aces romped off with the state championship a t Salina on February 22 and 23. With competition expanded to include a dozen weight divisions, East wrestlers scored a grand slam of the heavier weights to win six individual titles. The defending champs added one second and two third places to their collection for a total of 50 points. Salina was second with 30, Norton third with 27 and Oberlin fourth with 26. Other team scores were: Wichita North 21, St. Francis 17, Goodland 7, and St. John's of Salina 1. Abilene, Colby and Topeka had entries but did not score.




1st 'd,

W S A S HIGH SCHO0.L STARS; Left to right, @'.st TOW-Mulder Norton, Nevzlle S t Franczs Wznders Wzchita East. Aronzs, .Wzchtta NOT&; Hays, ~ z c h i t d~ a k Furtzck, ; Salzna; iecond row-~ahderson, Szdes, Norton; Sourbeer, Wells, McAllister, Wichita East; Weiters, East


.............. ..................... ............. ............. ........ . .,.....


95 lb.. .Mulder Norton 103 lb.. . ~ e v i l l eSt. Francis 112 lb.. .Winders, East 120 lb.. .Aronis, North 127 lb.. .Hayes East 133 lb.. . ~ u r t i i k ,Salina 138 lb.. . .Sanderson Norton 145 lb.. . .Sides ~ o i t o n 154 lb.. .sourdeer, East 165 lb.. Wells East 175, lb.. ~ c p l i s t e r East , Heavyweight. .Writes, East


Mills St. Francis port&, Salina Cooper North F'annink, East Sanborn, Salina Chambers, Oberlin Barnett, Oberlin Olson, Oberlin. Vernon Oberlin stewart, Salina Edmiston, Salina Raile, St. Francis


Brockelman, SalSoden, Goodland Witt Oberlin Van 'pelt, Oberlin Mines, Oberlin Bechtel East at chef or, North Park, East Ta lor, Norton Miger, Norton Solomon North ~omero,'~orth

Scholastic Wrestling in Nebraska By VERNON EKFELT Coach, Omaha Central HIgh School

High School wrestling was again carried forward chiefly by the high schools of Omaha. Competition was keen; interest ran high and the season was considered very successful. As in the past, Nebraska used 12 weight classes.



The state tournament was again held a t *Omaha Central andzwon by the same school for the third straight year after a down the wire .battle with Omaha Tech, Central edging the Techmen by one p o i n t 53 to 52. The championship was not decided until the tournament's final match. Competition during the season continued through the Omaha, Nebr.Council Bluffs, Ia., intercity league which engaged in a double round robin schedule. Thomas Jefferson High of Council Bluffs dethroned Omaha Central who had been champions for two years, and who had run a victory string to 20. With the war over and many of the team's members underclassmen, wrestling in this section is expected to boom in 1947. NEBRASKA STATE CI-IAMPIONS

............................Eugene Svagera, South ............................. .Frank GigLtto, Tech 105 lb. class.. ........................... .Rich Mascarello, South 85 lb. class.. 95 lb. class..

class. ...................................Dean Kelly T e c h class.. ................................Sam ~ o p i n a :T e c h class.. .............................Dan Vermillion South class.. ............................... .Ed Moses, kentral class.. .......................... .Louie Garrotto Central class.. .............................. .Jack ~ l o v G k South , class.. .............................Dave Mackie, Central 165 lb. class ............................Rum Lindeman, Omaha Heavyweight. .............................. .Herb Reese. Central

112 lb. 118 lb. 124 lb. 130 lb. 136 lb. 145 lb. 155 lb.

TOPS IN NEBRASKA: Omaha Central High School wrestlers who won the state championship. L e f t to right, first row-Mackte, Beber, Ekfelt (coach), Evans, Garrotto. second row-Bauer Nyberg Nzrgro Ostronic Bovee Bates M ~ S ~ Tthird O ~ row-Ries, ~ crhne, H . ~ e e s e ,R.' Reese, $isasale, ' ~ u l l i v a ; (manager).

OKLAHOMA HIGH SCHOOL GRAPPLERS : Left to right, first row-Chamgzons: Borders, Curry, McDowld: Patrzck, Alverson, Jones, Wamsley, Hardin, Gregson Szmmons. second row-Runners-up: Fowler Collyar McAllzster Ford ; 'row-~hird' ~ l n c d Gr;mes, ' ~ e k l ~hoda s , ale, .Flesner, Paysinger, ~ i t c h e i l third Wznners: Whzte, Keys, Wzlliams, Todd, Iglehart, Johns, Wyrzck, Moore, Grzffith, Tucker.


Oklahoma High School Wrestling Tournament

The Oklahoma High School Wrestling Tournament was held February 22 and 23, a t Tulsa,Daniel Webster High School Gymnasium. This was

the first time in the history of interscholastic wrestling in Oklahoma that the state tournament had been held in Tulsa. The fact that more than 5,000 fans attended the tournament is indication of its popularity here. Sixteen schools entered 112 boys in Oklahoma's finest wrestling tournament. The tournament was well managed, the officiating well done, and there was fine cooperation on the part of coaches and participants. The brand of wrestling, the condition of the wrestlers, and the sportsmanship were outstanding. Although no official team championship was awarded, Blackwell gathered 35 points by winning three individual championships, two second places, two third places and scoring 12 falls to top the field of teams entered. Tulsa Central followed closely with 30 points by virtue of winning four individual championships, one second place, one third place and scoring six falls. Arlie Curry of Tulsa central successfully defended the title he won in the 1945 tournament at Blackwell. Bob Tucker of Stillwater, the only other returning champion, dropped to third place in the heavyweight class.





103 lb. class. ................ .Bill Borders Tulsa Daniel Webster 112 lb. class. ......................... . ~ r d Curry, e Tulsa Central 120 lb. class. .....................Gene McDonald. Tulsa Central 127 lb. class. ........................Terrance Patrick, Blackwell 133 lb. class.. ................. .Ray Alverson, Tulsa Will Rogers 138 lb. class.. ....................... .Sandy Jones, Tulsa Central 145 lb. class.. ......................Jack Wamsley Tulsa Central 154 lb. class. ...........................David ~ a h i nBlackwell 165 lb. class.. ...........................Jim Blackwell Heavyweight. ...................... .Richard Simmons, Seminole



regs son:

Team Scoring: Blackwell 35; Tulsa Central 30; Tulsa Webster 15; Tulsa Rogers 14; Oklahoma City Central 6; Seminole 6; Geary 5; Perry 5; Stillwater 5; Bristow 1; Cleveland, Edmond, Paul's Valley, Ponca City, Putman City and Wewoka, all 0.

High School Wrestling in Southern California By FRANK CROSBY Wrestling in high schools of 8outhern California for the 1945-46 season was featured by the extensive scope of amateur wrestling in San Diego, and the increase in participation a s well as quality of wrestling in Imperial Valley. Due to the return of war veterans to San Diego State College and thb addition of Boys' Club and Vocational School as centers of wrestling activity, two outstanding city-wide tournaments were staged in San Diego. A novice tournament was held for newcomers only, followed by a senior tournament for all amateurs. More than 100 wrestlers competed in each tournament to make 1946 the most extensive and suecessful season in San Diego history. The Southern California Interscholastic Federation Wrestling Tournad ment was staged very successfulIy a t El Centro in Imperial Valley on March 16, which is the first time the tournament was held there in 21 years of CII? tournament wrestling. ~SanDiego High School won eight first places and three fourth places to retain the team championship it won last year and complete its second undefeated season. (Calexico an& El Centro finished second and third respectively as proof of the improved quality of wrestling in Imperial Valley. The following boys repeated as champions: Captain Jack Sutton of San Diego won his third championship, which is the maximum possibility fox boys m a three-year school. Jack is the first San Diego boy to ever accomplish this feat, He wcm the 95-pound title in 1944, the 103-pound championship in 1945, and successfully defended this title in 1946. Joe Kelley of San Diego won the 95-pound title in 1945 and the 120pound championship in 1946.



m g e l Negrete also of San Diego won the 138-pound championship 1945 and the 145-pound title i n 1946. captain Jack Kwkwood of Whittier won the 133-pound title in 1945 successfully defended the same title in 1946. Team Scores: Ban Diego 61; Calexico 35; El Centro 32; Whittier 28; ' EewneY 25; ~ o l t v i l l e11; Inglewood 10; 5.D. Vocational 4; El Monte 4; j, merman Institute 2; Valencia 0. : s ' ' ' ~






Kearney Reed Calexico ........Estrada San Diego Ingle ~obiGson Kearney ~arnGt,Whittier 103 Ib.. ........Sutton, an Diem Dahllig EI Centro 312 lb.. .......;Atkins- KearneyMillsap, El Monte , D Lakins Calexico s o lb.. ........J. ~ e l i y ,an Diego P , ~ h a 6 E1.Centro ~ h i g h t~ e a r n e 327 ~b..........J P McKim El Centro Pina Calexiso inn: Calexico ~ t r a h k~ o l t v i l r e -133 lb.. ........ irk wood. 'whittier WheeleG, ~ h i t % r 1%lb.. ........B. Myers. San Diego Dowe Calexico 1 Negrkte Ban Die -5~ e r n a h a d e zWhittier , Polos Calexlco 145 ib.. . ...... ~ u r c h e h El , ~ e n t r o Medina Calexico w ib.. .........Dierdofl, ~ u l l & .Holtville San Diego Frantz 'whittier 165 lb.. . ...... Draper, Inglewood ~ h o r r d u r gWhittier , . Macias El Centro 1g5 1b.. ...,....Hamen San Diego --eight.



.~ a y l u r , ' ~ aDiego n

Noe, Calexico

roo kg Inglewood

'9oTTSVJtLL;E P A YMCA WRESTLERS: Left to right first row-Mde Marks 138 (coach). hogah 175. Kasswandic 165. Hartnett l k l . second row- el lock' ,148; Ruch, f93. ~lan)dforkJones. ( ~ h y & c a'l~ i r e c t o r )~ e n b e s c a 128; , Woods, 155:




MT. H E R M O N BREAK EVEN: Wrestlers for Mt Hermon School for Bo s Maw., s lit four meets Left to rzght first row-~arsh&l, Peckham, Mulcahy cd tain) goy, Cushman, ' L 3 e ~ n ~ e l iskcond s; row-Campbell (coac!~),T h q , EUh[ 8hores: MacLean, Tvers. Epstezn (manager); third row-Tsesmetjz, Lewzs, Nazr, Norton, Greer, Bundy.

TRINITY HIGH SCHOOL: One of New York City's two High School wrestling squads Left to right first row-Kenny Schafer Matthews deHaas Moolten ~ a t t h & s ; second TO&-schneider (assdtant man&er) ~ e l l y )~ h o m a ; ~ o u d e n : Scott (coach), Popham (manager); third row-~tav&loke< ~ o l c o d b e ,Pim, Fetter.



Registration of Officials By BLISS P. SARGEANT, Jr. Chairman, N C A A Commiffee on Wresfling Officiating

INRECENT SEASONS westIing officials in the New England district have been required to pass a n objective theoretical (written) examination on current wrestling rules, plus a practical examination (officiating before a committee), in order to become a registered official. The results of each individual examination are reviewed by the five members of the Committee for Training and Examining Wrestling Officials in the New England District, and recommendations, based on the results of the examinations, are made to the NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee for final action relative to registration. ' Approximately '15 per cent of the applicants who have taken the examinations eventually became registered. Most of the colleges, private schools and high schools in New England a r e now using only registered officials for all regular meets. I n an attempt to keep a constant check on the quality of officiating in the district, opposing coaches have been asked to file a rating report on each referee a t a central office immediately after a meet. This phase of the plan needs further co-operation from the coaches if. the program is to work successfully, for many coaches have neglected to mail these standard rating reports to the committee. Annually, each official is required to attend the district rules interpretation meeting and also maintain a minimum average rating (per coaches' reports) of 85% in order to retain automatically his registration; otherwise he is required to requalify for registration by again submitting to the examination program outlined above. One factor which continues to cause a considerable amount of friction between coaches, or athletic departments, and officials is the question of ofElcials' fees and traveling expenses. Most schools want the best officials a t the lowest fee possible, and, likewise, most officials are seeking the highest paying officiating positions. The New England committee tried to cope with this situation by recommending the following standard fees and traveling expenses : d Fee plus Traveling Expenses Type of Meet College Varsity dual meet $10.00 12c per mile (one way) College Freshman dual meet 7.50 1212 per mile (one way) Combination College Varsity and Freshman dual meet 15.00 12c per mile (one way) High School and Private School dual meets 7.50 12c per mile (one way) It k very difficult to obtain the co-operation of all educational institutions, especially when a budget problem is involved; hence, the above recommendation did not meet with the approval of all schools and the problem is still with us. I t is my belief that as soon as some equitable standard of fees, agreeable to both athletic departments and officials, is established and maintained, another difficult problem which has been a constant irritant will be nearer a happy solution.

Tips For Officials By BLISS P. SARGEANT, i r . Chairman, N C A A Commiffee on Wresfling Offielafing

LETUS ASSUME the point system is here to stay. Our experience with this

system last year convinced many of us that it has improved wrestling, but the fact still remains that the official is in a position to improve the sport further from the officiating angle if he will keep the following suggestions in mind: (1) Be on hand about one hour before the time the meet is scheduled to begin in order to check on all necessary details. This includes such items as inspection of mats and watches, checking with timers and scorers, meeting with coaches and contestants, changing clothes, etc. (2) Know the wrestling rules and their proper interpretations and enforce them to the best of your ability. (3) Know and use the NCAA Wrestleg Officials' Code of Signals. Consistency among referees in the use of signals has been requested repeatedly by wrestlers, coaches, spectators and by officials themselves. (4) When awarding points in a match wait until the points have actually been scored before giving the signal. Many officials have a tendency to award points too quickly; this is especially true when awarding points for a near-fall. (5) Seek suggestions from qualified persons who have observed you in action and make an effort to improve your officiating technique. (6) Remember, to command the respect and co-operation of all concerned, the referee must have complete charge of the meet. (7) Check with the coaches and wrestlers, both before and after the meet, to clear up any doubtful points which may exist. Such clarification lends itself to better officiating. (8) Wrestling officiating is a profession, hence you should dress appropriately for the occasion. The following is suggested:

The suggestiqns made above are not the only factors to consider in ofticiating a wrestling match. They are, however, the main points which a good official should bear in mind if he is to keep abreast of the sport and seek for continued improvement in his officiating. (a) 'Shirt-White, open collar, sleeves rolled above elbows. (b) Trousers-Long, white. (c) Belt-Black. (dl Socks-White. (e) Sneakers-Low, white. (f) Coin-Silver dollar. (g) Sweater-Dark, medium weight. Freshly laundered for each meet.

The Coach and The Rules By B. F. MOONEY Wrestling Coach, Ohio S f a f e Unlversify

Organized society has folmd that certain rules and regulations are necessary for the common good because there are a few individuals who need to have their behavior regulated, as they 'lack the capacity for self -direction. The coaching profession has found it necessary to formulate rules and regulations to govern conduct in games and sports. Rules are necessary in order to control the behavior of the contestants according to accepted standards. An amateur athletic contest is more than making touchdowns or receiving falls. I t is an experience where individuals have the opportunity to learn to be honest or dishonest, to take an unfair advantage or not to take one, to fight out of a tough situation or to take an easy way out. Habits of behavior are developed in youth and, in general, adults behave according to their training in youth. Consequently, rules are necessary because they control the individual and the environment so that the desired behavior reactions will take place. In wrestling, the rules reward that type of behavior which is sportsman-like and they penalize that which seeks an unfair advantage. The immediate aim of the rules is to encourage falls by aggressive wrestling; the remote aim is to develop honorable and "high class" citizens. The rules have been made to realize this aim and if they do not accomplish this, then they should be changed. However, until there are better rules, the present rules should be enforced strictly and impartially. The strict enforcing of the rules by the referee is not only important, but it is necessary if the sport is to live. The referee is the leader and his bearing is quickly sensed by the contestants. He may either emanate a spirit of confidence and respect or radiate a sense of insecurity and indecision. He can control a wrestling contest without antagonizing the competitors with a deluge of penalties. He can minimize "on the edge of the mat" decisions by encouraging wrestling in the center of the mat. He can create wrestling situations in the early stages of the match and avoid the confusion which is sometimes caused by extra period bouts where the *' points are even. The referee can make or break a wrestling match. The majority of wrestlers want to wrestle, but there are.a few who need to be penalized in order to make them improve their position. For the most part, the coaches are gentlemen and they appreciate a strict and consistent enforcement of the rules. I t is quite natural for a coach to believe that his boy was "robbed" in a close decision. However, one must realize that the "veneer" is thin and that often one's hasty opinions are prejudiced, and that all the facts of the situation have not been considered. In general, wrestlers and coaches are "high class" people, but they have their human weaknesses like every one else. They should all strive to be tolerant and respectful to each other and endeavor to see the other fellow's point of view before forming opinions. With this attitude, wrestling will continue to grow and maintain the high standing among other sports which it so justly deserves. 68


Wrestling Coaches A


By RAYMOND SWARTZ Secrefary-Treasurer, American Amafeur Wresiling Coaches Assn.

are vh0 for and


ted vns or ! or vay lltS are



The American Amateur Wrestling Coaches Association is eagerly looking forward to a post war popularity in wrestling greatly exceeding the pre-Pearl Harbor years. The value and usefulness of wrestling so clearly demonstrated in this global war in conditioning our fighting men is being carried over into peacetime programs by high schools and. colleges all l everywhere are already employing wrestling over America. S c h ~ oofficials instruetors by mail before they have been released from service. I have received many inquiries from schools and colleges about wrestling equipment, coaches, schedules and other information necessary to the promotion of interscholastic, intercollegiate and intramural wrestling in the post war period. The Association urges all athletic directors who are working on their post war athletic program to allow for an expansion in wrestling unheard of before in the history of the sport.

NCAA Wrestling Films The movies of the National Collegiate Wrestling Tournament may be secured by writing to the Central Office of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, Hotel Sherman, Chicago, Ill. The movies will be distributed and may be secured without rental fee, the cost being transportation to and from the Chicago office. Of course, it will be necessary to abide by their regulations concerning their use;

Roster of Officipls FIRST DISTRICT (NEW ENGLAND) Anderton. Ralph G . . ..320 Grand St., Providence, R. I. Cole, Richard K.. 60 Taft Avenue, Providence, R. I. Engel, John A.. .604 Fairfield Avenue Stamford Conn. Finger, Frank W.. .Brown University Pkovidence 'R. I Grant, Donald. .Springfield ~ o l l e g k ,springfield, M&. Klein, Arthur. .692 Parker St., Roxbury, Mass. Knowles William. .Springfield College Springfield, Mass. Kodis, &tor. .84 Beacon venue,' Holyoke, Mass. Leathers Roger K.. .Oaklawn R. I. ~ e n n o c k :E. W.. springfieid College Springfield Mass .70 Granby Road Gouth all's, Mass. Rae, Thomas.. Ricks, Jay E.. ..Route No. 1, ~ a i e Mass. , Ruggeri, Samuel. .ll8 Marble St., Stoneham, Mass. Sargeant, Bliss P., Jr..Spring.field College, Springfield, Mass. .I81 Scituate St., Arlington, Mass. Meyer, Robett V..

..... ... ....... ....... ... ........ .. ......

...... .......

adl lei

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Appleton, Lloyd 0.. .U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y. Bishop, Ben. :.Bethlehem, Pa. Bishop, W. Austin.. .Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Bohn, Dr. J. Lloyd.. .2444 West 78th Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. Cann, W. E,. .Supervisor Phy. Educ., Public Schools, Elizabeth, RT. J . .Broad Street, Y.M.H.A., Philadelphia, Pa. Charon, Ben.. Dickenhoff, Charles B.. Dormont Public School, South Hills Branch, Pittsburgh, Finkelman, Dr. Ellis. .6218 Wayne Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. Gallagher, Clifford J.. .Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. Grebos John. .510 North Ave Wilkinsburg, Pa. .High School, ~ f n g s t o nPa. , Hock Anthony. ~ o l o i a u g h .S. S.. .....Manheim. Pa. .215 East ~ e n St n Germantown Pa. Horn, &orge G.. Horner, Frank.. .508 West 114th S't New York 6ity Jenness E L.. ........Univ. of PennsylGnia ~hiladelphia Pa. .Pennsylvania State ~ o i l e g eState ~ d l e g ePa. ~ o h n s o iH'oward. Kling Lynn W.. .I443 Hillsdale Avenue ~ o r h o n t~ i t t s b u r k hPa. , .Cheltenham High ~ c h b o l ~ , l k i n Park, i Fa. ~e+Hn, W. B.. ,1324 Prospect St Bethlehem Pa Lewis, R. B.. Loeser E M.. .404 Westfield A;., ~ l i z a b e t h :N. 'J. ort to; ~t D *W.. .17 East Albermarle Ave Lansdowne, Pa. ~ e w h a i t , charles. .High School parkersbu;fg W Va Osterman, J. 1(........442 E cathekine St ~haAbersbu&,Pa. Phillips Harold. .I233 chew St ~ l l e & o w n Pa ~ u i m b ; Neal F.. .64th St and ~ a l v e r nA V ~ ~ h i l a d e l ~ h iPa a Rawley Palmer B.. .I51 adi is on Ave ~ a s b r d b c kHeights, N. J: Cornwells ~ e i ~ h Pa t z ~ e i m e rGeorge E.. ~ i n ~ l eDona1 ; W.. Union High ~ c h o hunion N J .222 West ~ o n t g o m 6 r y~ v e . ' ,~ i v e r f o r d Pa. , ~ ~ m e r , ' ~ a W.. lph Saltzman, William Y..6725 Sydenham St Philadelphia Pa Sapora Joseph.. City College of NI&JYork New korl; N Y ~ a r g e a h Bliss , J.. Jr.. .Claremont Res. Club, 140 dlaremont be.; ~ k York, w N.Y. Schwartzwalder, Floyd High School, Parkersburg, W. Va. Shanker M W.. 33 Crook Ave Brooklyn. .Swarthmore $a. Smith bhakes. sntith: Charles S.. .7320 Anster kt Forest Hills Long Island, N. Y. Spitler Paul.. .517 West 16th s t New YO& N Y. storey: Edward J . . .Mamaroneck ~ c g o o l s New k o i k Thrust Murl. .New York A C ~ e $ York N Y ~ o l i v a : Richard. .State ~ e a c h e k'kollege, s ~ o h t c i a i r ' ,N, J. Williams, T. Ralph. .High School, Roselle Park, N. J. Wolcott Mark W.. .3733 Spruce St Philadelphia P a Upper arb$, Pa. wolfga;g, Roy W.. .419 Elizabeth



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ano or, 70

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Bailey W. F.. Physical Director, High Point YMCA, High Poir.tpN. C. ~ a r n e d Sam. , :... .Lexington Va Brill. Gordon.. .~altimore,'~ d . Crooks. James. .Harmony N. C. Fields, A. T.. .U S ~ a ; a l Academy Annapolis Md ' n n a ~ o l i~s : d : Henson Stanley. ......U: S: Naval ~ c a d e m y ~ ~acken;, Buck, ........Barium Springs, N. C: Johnston Robert & Box I.. 548 Blacksburg Va. ~ozlows&,~ a y m o h dJ.1701. ~ o h t p e l i e rSt., ~ a l t i m o r e(18), Md. Mathis, Archie. .......Lexmgton. Va. .Greensboro N. C. Morrah, Dave. Quinlan, P. H.. ........Chapel ~ i l N. t C. Schwartz, Ray.. ..... .U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. Sanders, E. T.. .......Box 549, Burlington, N. C. Watkins Red.. ...... .State Teachers College, Boone, N. C. ~ o o d w i r d ,William. . .13 Edmondson Ave., Lexington, Va.



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.c/o Goodrich Sales Racine Wis. Anderson John. .413 S Franklin ~ o h hen& Ind. Aronson orris. Barton, heorge.. ..... . ~ a i l yNews ' ~ h n e a p o l i s~ h n .Whitehead i(r Kale ~ o n s t b c t i o nCo., ' ~etroit,'~ich. Bauss, Harvey. B r o p , Wes. ......... .Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. Collins, Fendley .......Michigan State College, Lansing, Mich. .Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. Devine Pat. .Bedford, Ind. ~ i l l u m :0. C.. .Appleton Post-Crescent Neenah Wis Haase Randolph. .Central High School ~ d u t hen& 1nd. Jones Bob. Kallas, J. G.. 945 South Wabash Ave chicago' Ill Keaton Walter B.. .514 North Harrison ~ t r g e t ~ , u s h h l l e ,Ind. ' .University of Mlch~gan,Ann Arbor, Mich. Keen, klifford. Law G. C.. ..University of Illinois, Urbana, I11 ~ e d d e r m a n ,Lawrence.1116 West Walnut St Milwaukee is Martin, George A.. .University of ~ i s c o r h n madison: , ~ i i Granite City Ill McCauley, L. C.. Parker. Ray. .High ~chool,'Fordson, Mich. Sheldon Ill. Pinneo, Geo. M.. .Boys9 d u b Dearborn Mich. Righter, Pat.. Shave, Ed.. .......... .University 'of Illinois brbana Ill. Robertson Port. ..... .Civic Center, ~ a m m b n d ,1ndY. .University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Sapora, ~ i l e n . Scott, A. B.. .St. Paul Daily News, St. Paul, Minn. Tatum, John R.. ..... .40G East 51st St., Indianapolis, Ind. .332. South LaSalle St., Chicago, Ill. Thomas. Earl.. Vorres John. Chlcago Ill. .university of Chicago Chicago Ill ~ o r r e s Syros. ' ~ i t u c d i ,B.. .Washington High ~ c h d o l s, o u t h Y ~ e i Ind. d, I

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........ Outwait Junior High School Cleveland. Ohio. .......Baldwin-Wallace College ~ k e Ohio. a .......... .Kent State University ~ e n 0hio t ..... .South High School ~ d l u m b i iohid ...Garfield Heights ~ i g h school' clevhland Ohio. ......... John Marshall High School, dleveland, dhio. ........ .Western Reserve Academy, Hudson, Ohio.

Ascheuer, Joe. Barno Peter S.. ~ e ~ a l Joe. d, Blosser, Kermit. Bsbenmeyer, R. S.. Eushea, A. E.. Caldwell, Ed. Carter Nick. Crane Russell.. I

......... State University, Kent, Ohio. .......Kent .Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.



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Fish, Oren.. .:. .East High School Cleveland Ohio. .417 Longmere l rive Kent bhio Gillum. Alden.. Euclid Central ~ i ~~ chh o ' d l~ u c i i dOhlc. Graven, B.. .West Technical High ~ c h o o i levela and, Ohlo. Griffith Lloyd. .East High School Akron 0hio Hawk j r F. E.. .... HU- el,"^. H.. .... ..Guardian Trust gldg ~1;velan'd Ohio. .I849 Taylor Rd ~ l e & a n d ohid Jamison, Hugh R.. Keller, Arch ........ . .I2008 Brighton i v e ~ l e v e i a n d0hio. Kester, Hal. .......... .West High School Cleveland 6hio ..South High School ClevelaAd 0hio Kraft, Ray T.. ..South High ~choo: levela and: 0hio: Leamon, E. H.. Littlepage, J. T.. .... . .Twin Lakes, Kent, bhio. Lukens, Cleve.. ..... .10 Broad St., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio Matthes, Henry. ..... .University School Cleveland Ohio Mooney, Bernard. ... .Ohio State ~niveGsity ~olu&bus,0hio. Morris, W. A,. ....... .7918 Rosewood Clevefand Ohio. .Lakewood ~ i g School h ~Bkewood,Ohio. Ness, Ralph.. Norwin, Carter.. ......Kent State University ' ~ e n tOhio. Olson, Thor.. ....... .Ohio University Athehs 0hio Owens, A. P.. ....... .John Adams ~ i i ~h c h o d ,leie el and, Ohio. Pomeroy, Leonard. .U. S. Army. Poroznki, E. L.. ..... .3776 East 71st St Cleveland Ohio. .317 North ~ t r e e t " ~ e d f o r dhio d Richards, J.. Chardon High ~ k h o o l~16velanhOhio. Scott, Fred Seedhouse, George. . Rhodes High School bleveland bhio .Kennard Junior ~ i g School h ~ i e v e l a h dOhio. Sepeta, Ray Sharer, Claude.. .... .Case School of Applied ~ c i & c e ~levefand Oh .255 Board of Education Bldg., ~ieveland,~ h i o . Sintic, J. G.. Sivon, Lynn. ........ Ravenna, Ohio. .2619 West 6th St Cleveland, Ohio. Span Marty ~wackhamer,C. E.. .Shore School ~ G c l i d Ohio .I14 universit5 St ~ ' e n tdhio Tabor, Joseph. .8205 Meding Ave " ~ l e v h a n dbhio Tanski, Vic. school' clev&nd, Ohio. Troyan, Paul.. ...... .Shaker Heights ~ i g h .West High School levela and Ohio Warfield, Orson.. .Shaker Heights ~ G n i o rH S ' ~leveiand,Ohio. Woodell Joe.. : .Shore High School ~ u c l i d0hio ~accarriella, A.. .East High School, bolumbhs, 0h;o. Webster, Ralph..

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Barnes Dr. R.. Cherokee, Ia. .University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr. Clapp, 'DX. R. G.. Clodfelter, Melvin.. .. .High School, Ponca City, Okla. Duncan, Dale. ........ .Manhattan, Kans. Firkins B. J.. ........ .Ames, Ia. ~ o r e m a kMarion. .Newkirk Okla. Grlffith, ' ~ r t . ~ k l a h o m A&M i College Stillwater Okla. Griffith Paul. ........ .Kansas State College, anh hat tan, ' ~ a n s . Groom;, Clair .........Davenport Ia Hove L W.. ..High ~ c h o b l ear^ Okla. Keen' h u l . .University df ~klahtoma,Norman, OMa. ell&^ John. .Lincoln, Nebr. ......... .University of Kansas Lawrence, Kans. ~ e n e h l ,Ray. ' Lookabaugh, Guy A.. .Oklahoma City 0kl; .State Teachers bollegk, Weatherford, Okla. Milam Joe. ort to;, Kenneth.. .Colby, Kans. Patterson, B. R.. .Kansas State College, Manhattan, Kans. Reynard, Leon. Colby, Kans. Sappington, Guy. .Columbia, Mo. Sievers Harry. ........East Waterloo High School Waterloo Ia .Central State Thrs. college: Edmond, '0kia. Smith, ' ~ e n e .

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Ardouin, Louis. .2931 Willow Place South Gate ~eandrd. Berven Harold. ......779 Victoria Ave .I760 S. Painter &e Whittier. Bowen Don.. Boyle ' ~ e e . .Calexico Union I3ig< School Calexico. ~ r u n d ,Emilio.. .Capt. of Guard, San ~ u e n t i APrison, San Quentin. .Garberville. Coombs Ma1 G.. Crosby, 'Frank. .San Diego High School, San Diego. Della-Naggorie Sam.. San Jose High School San Jose. .3927 35th Ave., ~ a k l a g d . Deshaies, ~ l b e h . .I45 Kimbark Ave., Whittier. Dozier Don. .4047 Barnes Ave Oakland. Ferguion Herbert. Gale, ~ e i a n dA.. .Box 62, Route 1;' Woodland. Hollingswmth Cecil. .UCLA Los Angeles. Hunt, M. ~ r i i g s . . .UCLA' Los Angeles. ~olvaGg. Jensen, Arden. Johnson Robert. .406l Randolph San Diego. ~ a m b e r i Algy .Kearney ~ i g hSchool ' San Diego. .Berkeley YMCA, ~ e r k e l e y . ~ a d d o c d Harold. , Mautz Ferd ..........832 Myrtle Ave Inglewood. Matts&, in W. ....Acalanes High school Lafayette. .Central YMCA San grancisco. Merritt, Philip G,. Moore, Roy. ,643 Nectarine, hglewood. Moreno Manuel. .2728 Island San Diego. .220 waver15 St., Palo Alto. Mumby: Ted. .I634 Brookes Ave,, San Diego. Neeley, Virgil.. University of California, Berkeley. Nemir, Edgar.. .I371 Fulton St., San Francisco. Northrup, M. A.. Olson, Ivan, .Vocational High School San Diego. Ortlieb Craige.. .Petaluma High School Petaluma Park ~ o u ~ l a s . . .Olympic Club Post ~b San ~rarkisco. RobGrts, June. .Washington state college Pullman Wash. .Olympic Club Post St., $an ~rancisco. Roper Ed.. Richaids Ray. .UCLA Los ~ i g e l e s . Ritchie, k. M.. ,100 ~o'monaAve., El Cerrito. .733 Grace St Hayward. Rush Melvin. .3015 W. 85th"~t Inglewood. schnGller Jack. Shoaf, ~ b s sT.. .76 ~01lingwood"~tSan Francisco. ..Central High ~ c h o &El Centro. Spencer G E.. Stone, ~ e n i yA.. .374 Vassar Ave ~ e r k e l e y . .741 N. pickerin: Ave., Whittier. Wegner, Walter.. .2051 Coolidge St., San Diego. Wharton, Daniel..



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E.C.GALLAGHER was unquestionably the outstanding wrestling coach in the United States. He produced 50 national champions and 12 championship teams. WRESTLING was published just before his death in 1940. A classic, it has sold over 25,000 copies. It is full of illustrations and Gallagher's own graphic descriptions of holds and other fundamentals. WRESTLING is required reading for everyone interested in the world's oldest sport.

WRESTLING by E. C. Gallagher is just one of the volumes in the Barnes Sports Library. Written by experts. these "how-to" books are standard texts on all our popular sports. Liberally illustrated. they are priced at $1.25. Available at all book or sporting goods dealers or send cash to A. S. Barnes and Company, Dept. JBl 67 West 44th Street. New York 18, N. Y.


B . R. Patterson

Norman J . Daniels

Cliff Keen

Elbert F . Caraway 1

NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee B R Patterson Chairman. ................................ a s s State .Colle e ~ b r r i a nJ. ~ a r h e l s........................................ . e s y n uniYe&y Clifford Keen. ...................................University of Michigan J: W. Hancock.. ........................... .Colorado State College of Education E. F. Caraway ................................................. Lehigh University Ray Swartz. ............................................ .U. S. Naval Academy H. D. Kester.. .......................: ....... .National High School Federat~on

ADVISORY COMMITTEE University of Texas R. J. McLean.. C. W. Mayser.. .......................................... .Franklin and Marshall James Dixon. ........................................... .Oregon State College T. V. Dolan.. .. .: ....................................... Montana State College L. L. Mendenhall.. ................................ .Iowa State Teachers College Fendley Collms .................................. Michigan State College Arthur Griffith. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma A&M College R. L. Carns. ..............................I....National High School Federation Major C. J. Gallagher.. ................... .Ath. Div. Spec. Services, Hq. USFET OF THE NATIONAL COLLEGIATE WRESTLING RULES STANDING SUB-COMMITTEE COMMITTEE FOR 1946-47



Point System Charles Spiedel, Chairman. .Pennsylvania State .College William Sheridan. Lehigh University Blackwell High School, Blackwell, Oklahoma Harold Cotton. J. E. Ricks. .Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ross Flood. ............................. Southwesteren Institute of Technology Wesley Brown. .Northwestern University

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OF WRESTLING OFFICIATING STANDARDIZATION B. P. Sargeant, Chairman. ....................................Sprinefield College W. Austin Bishop. University of Pennsylvania D. C. Bartelma. University of Minnesota C. B. Sharer.. .................................. .Case School of Applied Science L. N. Reynard Colby, Kansas P. H. Quinlan.. .University of North Carolina

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All I



GENERAL RESEARCH COMMITTEE Claude Reeck, Chairman. ....................................Purdue University Raymond Swartz. ................................. U n i t e States Naval Academy H. A. Stone.. ., University of California H. E. Kenney.. University of IIlinois Julius Wagner. .......................................... Colorado State College Allen V. Sapora.. U n i v e r s i t y of Illinois



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#. y:




College Wrestling Rules RULE I E L l G l B l L l T Y

1. Each contestant must be a n Amateur as defined in the rules of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and be eligible according t o the rules and regulations of the college o r university which he represents. 2. In addition to the above, participants in the National Collegiate Athletic Association tournament must represent institutions which are active individual or allied members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and must coniorm to the rules of eligibility adopted by the N.C.A.A., to apply to all annual charnpionship meets conducted by this Association. These rules will be printed and explained in the entry blanks for the National Collegiate Wrestling tournament. Representatives of institutions which are included in the Allied Membership of the N.C.A.A. may participate, provided the [email protected]' institution pays into the N.C.A.A. treasury fee of $10.00. In addition to the above, the usual individual entry fee of $2.00 is charged by the National Collegiate Wrestling Rules Committee. Note. See Rule 5 , Section 4.

3. All colleges, universities and institutions of learning in the United States with acceptable scholastic and athletic standards may be electkd to membership in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. To comply with "acceptable scholastic standards" the institution must be on the approved list of the accepted accrediting agency of the district in which the institution is located. An institution is considered as having' "satisfactory athletic standardsJ'*onapprovaVof its standzl'rtk'by a two-thirds majority of the active members of the


Rule I-Section



3 (Continued)

N.C.A.A. in the A'ssociation District in which the insutution is located. Further information regarding application for membership may be obtained from the Secretary of the N.C.A.A., Kenneth L. Wilson, Hotel Sherman, Chicago, Ill. At least 30 days should be allowed for the above procedure. RULE 2-REPRESENTATION 1. An institution shall be represented by only one contestant in each class, but two or more names may be submitted in advance of the date set for the meet. 2. No contestant shall be allowed to compete in more than one class in each meet. Note. See Rule 5, Section ID (a), (b), (c).

RULE 3 M A T S . ROPES AND COSTUMES 1. The area of the mat shall not be less than 20 feet by 20 feet and a 24-foot by 24-foot mat shall be considered standard. Supplementary mats, 5 feet in width, should extend entirely around the mat proper. I t is recommended for competition and for practice that a canton flannel mat-cover be provided sufficientIy ,large to cover the mat proper and all supplementae mats and to fold under the edge of the supplementary mats for a distance of at least one foot on all sides. This cover should be stretched tight and should be held in place by horse blanket safety pins, by tape fastening the mat cover to the under side of the supplementary mats, or by lacing the cover underneath the mats. The' wrestling mat proper should be marked off on the matcover by painted lines two or three inches in width. At the center of the mat proper there shall be similarly painted a circle ten feet in diameter. Whenever the match is started or resumed with contestants in neutral




Rule 3-Section

I (Continued)

position on the feet the contestantseshallbe within and on opposite sides of this circle and throughout the match contestants are expected to wrestle within this circle so far as possible.' There shall be placed at the center of the cover an arrow head twelve inches long, placed perpendicular to and pointing away from the timer's table and not pointing towards either team. This arrow designates the place where bouts are to start and the direction wrestlers are to face when starting the wrestling from "the referee's position on the mat."



(If &? than stan* si+ wrestling area is used, the safety uerr should be appronmately 5 feet in w~dtb.)

2. The uniform shall consist of full length tights, an outside wrestling supporter or close fitting outside short




, I


Rule 3-Section


2 (Codinued)

trunks, light heel-less gymnasium shoes laced by means of eyelets, and shirts, if they are required in accordance with the following provision: The home institution shall decide whether shirts shall or shall not be worn; however, the visiting team or teams shall not be required to wear shirts unless thev are so notified by the home management a t least ten days before the meet. If shirts are worn, they shall be sleeveless; there shall be no fasteners of any sort on the shoulders, and they shall be fastened down a t the crotch. (The shirt recommended is the "V" type, fastened underneath the crotch by small hooks and eyes.) The Wrestling Rules Committee strongly recommends that cotton, and adhesive bandages or soft headgear be used in all practice and competition. All hard headgears are now illegal in competition (even if covered with soft material). 3. It happens occasionally that two contestants look so much alike and are dressed so similarly that it is very difficult for the Referee and spectators to distinguish them. In all dual meets or tournaments, the home management should have immediately available some provision for clearly identifying the contestants. Such provision may be by means of colored anklets, numbers, or any other plan which will accomplish ,the purpose. ,



i . Competition shall be divided into eight weight classes as follows : 155 lbs. and under. 1 2 1 lbs. "and under. 165 lbs. and under. 128 lbs. and under. 175 lbs. and under. 136 lbs. and under. Unlimited Heavyweight. 145 lbs. and under.



NO. 1-LEGAL "REFEREE'S POSITION ON MAT." This position is shown as required in Rule 10, Section 3. Note particularly that offensive wrestler's right leg is outside of defensive wrestler's left leg.

NO. 2-ILLEGAL "REFEREE'S POSITION ON MAT." This position is illegal beeause offensive wrestler's right knee is inside ef defensive wrestler's left lee.





I. Time . A. I n Tournaments. Contestants may weigh-in a maximum of five hours and a minimum of three hours before time meet is scheduled to begin. B. I n Dual Meets. Contestants may weigh-in a maximum of five hours and a minimum of one-half hour before time meet is scheduled to begin. The exact maximum time shall be decided by mutual agreement of the competing teams. C. Supervision. The Referee or other authorized person shall supervise the weighing-in of contestants. D. (a) In tournaments or dual meets, a team is privileged to weigh-in two contestants only, in any weight class, but only such contestants as have properly weighed-in for that weight-class shall be allowed to compete. . (b) In tournaments the contestant who is to represent his institution must be named before the drawings are made. (c) ,In dual meets the home team's representative shall be sent onto the mat first, and he cannot be withdrawn or replaced. 2. Weight Allowance I n Dual Meets and Tournaments. In all dual meets and tournaments net weights shall be required, except that on the second day and succeeding days in tournaments, one pound overweight shall be allowed. 3. Failure t o Make Weight Any contestant failing to make weight at the maximum time mutually agreed upon, shall be allowed until the minimum time to make weight (see Rule 5, 1-A and 1-B). Contestants who then fail to make the required weight shall be rejected. 7



Note. Excessive weight reduction has hurt, and is still hurting, some contestants and our sport in general. The National r.oilegiate

I " . -



NO. &-ILLEGAL USE OF HANDS I N BODYLOCK WHILE DEFENSIVE CONTESTANT HAS BOTH KNEES ON MAT. Offensive wrestler ts not allowed to lock hands, wrists or arms around body while defensive wrestler has both knees on mat. (See Rule 10, Section 1.)

No. &ILLEGAL USE OF HANDS I N LEGLOCK ON MAT. The position is illegal because of Rule 10, ,Section 1, which forbids interlocking of fingers, hands or arms around body or Ars whlle contestants are en mat.



Rule 5-Section 3 (Continued) . Wrestling Rules Committee urges all Directors of Athletics to use their influence against excessive weight reduction by members oi their wrestling teams and to put the entire control of weight reduction to be allowed in the hands of the College Physician. It is further recommended that the College Physician personally weigh all candio dates for the team a t the beginning of the training season and that the Wrestling Coach shall be required to furnish the College Physician during the regular training season daily records of the weights of all candidates for the team taken at the beginning and at the end of each practice period, and that no wrestler shall be allowed to participate in any contest without the approval of the College Physician.

4. Communicable Disease t o Disqualify

At the time of the weighing-in on the opening day of , the annual National Collegiate Tournament, a physician or physicians shall be present to examine all contestants for~communicablediseases and shall disqualify any contestant who, in their judgment, will endanger other participants. In other meets it is recommended that a medical examination of all contestants be made at the time of the weighing-in, and the presence of a communicable disease or any other condition which in the opinion of the examining physician makes the participation of that individual inadvisable, should be considered full and sufficient reason for disqualification.




shall be awarded as follows: The loser in the final firsf place match shall automatically take second place; the winner of the final consolation match shall be awarded third place and the loser fourth place. 2. Drawings. Drawings shall be made in accordance with the regular Bagnall-Wild System, except as provided in Sections 3 and 7 of this rule. 3. Seeding. The new plan for scoring four places requires most careful seeding. Whenever there are two outstanding contestants in any class, the name of one of d






,, ,



NO. 5-LEGAL USE OF HANDS I N BOD\-LOCK. This complete bodylock is legal because defensive wrestler is in a sitting position. This hold would be illegal if defensive wrestler had both knees on mat. (See Rule 10, Section 1, Note 3.)

No. +-LEGAL BLOCKING ON FACE (ON CHIN). Blocking on chin or forehead is leaal but is not lepal over face proper; that is. over mouth, nose or eyes.

NO. 7-ILLEGAL BLOCKING ON FACE (ON FACE PROPER). This form of blocking is illegal becqwe it is over mouth nose and e y q in contrast to position \n No. 6.




Rule &Section

3 (continued)



these contestants shall be placed in the upper half of the drawing bracket and the name of the other in the lower half. In case another pair are distinctly superior to the remaining wrestlers in the class, this pair shall be placed in different halves of the bracket. If there is one outstanding wrestler in any class and also two others who are distinctly superior to the remainder in that class, these two wrestlers should be seeded in different quarter brackets of the opposite half-bracket from the outstanding wrestler. In the annual National CoJlegiate tournament, whenever possible, contestants from the same geographical location or conference, who have previously met in dual or other competition, shall be so seeded as to prevent them from meeting in the early rounds. Note. Seeded contestants may be given any number in their own half of the bracket, but a number which represents a bye shall only be given when that appears to be the fairest plan for the majority in that bracket.

Method of Drawing 4. Drawings for First Place. Immediately after the expiration of the minimum weighing-in time, drawings shall be made for each class, starting with the 121-lb. class, and progressing in order up to the heavyweight class as follows: Each contestant (except "seeded" contestants) shall draw a number and shall compete in accordance with the diagram shown in Section 6 of this rule. Note. Before drawings for each class begin, the numbers opposite the byes and also the numbers assigned to seeded contestants must be taken out.

5. Byes. When the number of competitors is not a power of two (that is, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) there shall be "byes" in the first round. The number of pairs which meet in the first round shall be equal to the difference




NO. 8-ILLEGAL FACE HOLD. Shows a hold commonly used but which is contrary to both the letter and spirit of amateur wrestling rules. I t is frequently used momentarily in order to prevent defensive wrestler from coming out from underneath or to bring defensive wrestler back into position for a fall. Referee should see that offensive wrestler does not seaire unfair advantage by means of this illegal hold.

NO. 9-LEGAL HEAD-SCISSORS. The head-scissors is considered legal when taken as shown above, with the hold on either side of the face, even though the bend of the knee may be m front of the nose, mouth or eyes; provided the leg is not in such close contact as to interfere with the breathing of the defensive wrestler. If defensive wrestler strangles himself by refus~?g to let h u body turn as head is twisted bu th+ head-scissors, the hold IS st111 legal.


Rule 6-Section


5 (Continued)

between the number of competitors and the next lower power of two. The byes, if even in number, shall be equally divided between top and bottom. If the number of byes be uneven, there shall be one more bye at the bottom than at the top, as shown in Section 6 of this rule. 6.

Graphic Illustration of Drawings by Bagnall-Wild System. .


1 (Bye)


The foregoing illustration of method of drawings and participation of contestants by the Bagnall-Wild System shows drawings with thirteen contestants. Competitors drawings Nos. 1, 12 and 13 draw byes and go into the second round without wrestling. Except as just stated, the numbers carried forward to next frame indicate the winners of these bouts. This illustration shows



NO. 12-ILLEGAL TOEHOLD. All toeholds, regardless of the degree to which the leg is twisted- are illegal

under these rules.

No. 13-OVER-SCISSOS (AN ILLEGAL HOLD). The over-scissors is barred entirely under these rules because it is only a ~unishinghold and is ot no value unless defensive contestant who uses it is allowed to force the hold, which thereby endangers the ankle and knee of his opponent.


Rule 6-Section



7 (Continued)

eated by the finalist (No. 13) and therefore only one match is necessary to decide the third place finalist from the lower half-bracket. We will assume that No. 12 wins this match. He meets No. 7 in the final consolation match in this weight. The winner is awarded third place and the loser fourth place. C. All third place matches, except the final one, should be run off during the next to the last session of the meet. The final third place match in each weight should be held during the final session of the meet and each one should immediately follow the final first place match in that weight. 8. The Wrestling Rules Committee recommends that medals and team trophies be formally presented at all tournaments immedately following the completion of the competition in a ceremony made as impressive as possible.




, .'

, 1-A. First Place Matches in Tournaments. All first place matches in tournaments and all dual meet matches shall consist of three three-minute bouts. The first , three-minute bout shall start from the neutral position I with both contestants on their feet. &.fall in the first three-minute bout terminates themst. If neither cont e s m c u r e s a f 5 l I T F m r s t three-minute bout, the Referee shall stop the bout, toss a coin and the winner \ of the toss may elect to go behind or underneath in the "Referee's Position on the Mat'' at the beginning of the second three-minute bout, no rest period being allowed. At the expiration of the second three-minute bout, the Referee shall stop the bout and shall put the contestant who started with the Position of Advantage 1 in the position underneath when he starts the third three-minute bout, no rest period being allowed. If a





No. 14-FULL NELSON. This hold needs no explanation. Most of the difficulty has arisen when the three-quarter nelson is confused with the full nelson. I n the full nelson the aggressor place5 both arms under his opponent's arms and clasps his hands or wrists on the back of his opponent's head. This is dangerous and is barred.

NO. 1!$-ILLEGAL HAMMERLOCK (ABOUT RIGHT ANGLE). The hammerlock is a legal hold, provided the arm is not bent above the right angle ( i e provided that the arm is not carried above the small of the back). and p;ihded further that the hand is not forced out away from pe body, 'making i t a twisting iammerlock. In this illustrat~on the arm is carried distinctly above the right angle and is dangerous.


Rule 7-Section


I-A (Continued)


contestant secures a fall in the second three-minute . period, this terminates only the second three-minute bout, and the third three-minute bout shall be wrestled as though no fall had resulted in the previous bout, ex- I cept as provided in Rule 7, Section 4, A and B. When a i fall does not occur in any match the Referee shall j award the match to the contestant who has scored the / greater number of points. (See Rule 17, Section 1.) In I case of tie in number of points scored the Referee shall call for extra-period bouts. If no fall occurs in the extraperiod bouts the Referee shall award the match to the contestant who has scored the greater number of points. If themis-still-E-Referee shall name the 1 winner, basing his d&-5nperior - --wrestling ability \ and agpxssi6ness shown. 1-B. Dual Meet Matches. Dual Meet Matches shall be conducted in the same manner as first place matches in tournament except as follows: 1. Before the meet starts the referee shall have , the competing coaches or captains decide by toss of a coin the choice of position at the start of the second r bout in the first match. The choice of p o s i t i o ~ ~ i n suematches s h b l t e r a & t : . In extra-period i bouts the choice of position shall be determined by toss of a coin in each match. 2. In case of tie in number of points scored at the end of extra-period bouts, the match shall be declared .





2. Third Place Matches in Tournaments. Third place matches shall consist of three two-minute bouts conducted in the same manner as first place matches in tournaments, except as provided hereafter. When a fall does not occur and the points are tied at the end of the third two-minute bout the Referee is expected to name the winner in accordance with plan after extra-period houts in first place matches. (See Rule 7, Section LA.)



No. 16-LEGAL


The double wristlock as shown above is legal so long as the arm is not carried back into a twisting 'hammerlock and provided the bod or legs are not so locked as to prevent the opponent% body frowturning. ~ i hookmtlng e of the toe over opponent's near ankle is commonly used to prevent opponent from swinging around to the front, and if held loosely does not prevent opponent's b*y from turning; but it must be released before opponent can be brought onto h ~ sback.

NO. 17-ILLEGAL DOUBLE WRISTLOCK. This cut shows double wristlock turned into a typical twisting hammerlock that will injure opponent's shoulder if the arms are forced upward, unless opponent turns with the pressure, which often he is unable to do promptly enough to prevent injury to the shoulder.


Rule 7-Section


2 (Continued)

If he is unable to make such decision he may call for extra-period bouts. If no fall occurs and the points are still tied at the end of the extra-period bouts the Referee must name the winner. 3. Extra-Period Bouts. If the match is a tie at the end of the third three-minute bout in dual meets or first place tournament matches, or at the end of the third two-minute bout (and the Referee is not able to name the winner) in third place matches in tournaments, two extra-period bouts of two minutes each shall be wrestled. Both of the extra-period bouts shall start from the "Referee's Position on the Mat." (See Rule 10, Section 3.) The flip of a coin by the Referee shaIl decide the choice of starting positions in the first bout. Position of contestants shall be reversed in the second bout.


Note. The term "main bout" refers to bouts other than extra-period bouts.

B. Length of Dual Meet Matches W h e n Falls Occur. If a fall occurs in the first three-minute bout this terminates the match. A fall in the second threeminute bout or in the first extra-period bout terminates that bout, but the third three-minute bout, or the second





Rule, 7-Section 46 (Continued) extra-period bout runs the full time unless terminated by a fall. 5. Intermissions. A. Main Two-Minute and ~ h r e e - ~ i n u Bouts. te Only such time shall intervene between the main bouts of any match as may be required for the Referee to bring contestants into proper position for the next bout, except when the second three-minute or second twominute bout is terminated by a fall, in which case a oneminute rest may be allowed if, in the opinion of the Referee, either contestant needs the rest. B. Extra Period Bouts. Between the main bout and the first of the extra-period bouts a one-minute rest shall be allowed, during which time contestants shall not leave the mat. In all intermissions of one minute or more, contestants may receive aid and coaching from one person only.



1. Whenever a contestant brings his opponent to the mat under control while all of the supporting points of either wrestler's body are on the wrestling mat proper he has earned the Position of Advantage and the offensive wrestler is entitled to this advantage until such time as his opponent, in legal manner, gains a neutral position within the boundary of the mat proper, except when he forfeits this advantage by reason of penalty inflicted by the referee for infringement of the rules. (See Rules 9 and 13.) Note I. The supporting parts of the defensive wrestler's body are any and all parts touching the mat a t that time. The supporting parts of the offensive wrestler's body are the parts of the body touching the mat other than the parts with which he is holding his opponent. (The offensive wrestler's usual points of support are the knees or the side of one thigh and buttocks.) The offensive wrestler must have control of his opponent and must have brought him to the w to constitute a "take-down."



Rule 8-Section I (Confinued) Note 2. In the interpretations of the above rule it should be clearly understood that the offensive wrestler is entitled to the Position of Advantage only when he brings his opponent to the mat under contrbl as indicated above; i.e., when the contestants leave the mat on their feet the offensive wrestler is not entitled to the Position of Advantage, even though he may have a decidedly advantageous hold, and the bout is resumed in neutral position at the center of the mat unless, in the opinion of the Referee, the defensive wrestler intentionally went off the mat to prevent his opponent from going behind him. (See Rule 13, Section 2-A.) Note 3. The latter part of Section I above, but not Note 2, applies also when one contestant has had the Position of Advantage on the mat immediately before leaving the mat.


2 . ' ~ h eReferee shall indicate orally, and by pointing in such a manner that all present may know, whenever a contestant has earned the Position of Advantage, and he shall also indicate in similar manner during the progress of the bout which opponent has the advantage whenever he thinks there may be doubt in the minds of the contestants, coaches, or spectators as to which contestant has the Position of Advantage. The Referee shall also indicate in a manner clear to all present whenever the match reverts to a "No Advantage" status. For the sake of uniformity, it is recommended that all Referees use the new set of National Collegiate Officials' Signals. (See page 120 of this Guide.)

RULE 9-BRINGING CONTESTANTS BACK TO MAT AFTER GOING OUTSIDE 1. When the contestants are interlocked off or on the edge of the mat, time shall be taken out and contestants shall be brought to the center of the mat. Contestants are "off the mat" when any su$porting parts of both wrestlers' bodies are off the mat proper except when a fall is imminent-in which case Rule 15, Section 2-A and B shall apply. The position to be assumed by contestants on resumption of match shall be determined as follows:





Rule 9-Section

I (Continued)

A. If neither contestant held a position of advantage immediately before leaving the mat, the bout shall be resumed with contestants on their feet in neutral position, except when Referee applies penalty indicated in Rule 13, Section 2, A and C. (See Rule 8, Section 1.) B, If a contestant held a position of advantage immediately before leaving the mat, on resumption of the bout this contestant shall be given the Position of Advantage in the "Referee's Position on the. Mat" (see Rule 10, Section 3), except when Referee applies penalties indicated in Rule 13, Sections 2B, 3 and%, or in clause C following. Note. In case contestants leave the mat proper on their feet the above rule still applies unless the defensive wrestler has secured a neutral position before crossing the boundary of the mat proper.

C. In case a fall is imminent and the man underneath intentionally leaves the mat, the Referee shall give contestants as nearly as possible the same position which they held when the bout was stopped. (See Rule 13, Section 6.)


1. Illegal Holds. Any hold, lock or grip shall be alPowed except the hammerlock above the right angle, twisting hammerlock, over-scissors, strangle holds, /full (double) nelson, toe holds, certain body slams (see Note 6 ) ) holds over mouth, nose, eyes (i.e., over front of face) or front or side of throat, interlocking of fingers, hands or arms around body or legs while contestants are on the mat, bending or twisting of fingers for punishment or to break holds, or any hold used for punishment alone. Note I . Attention is called to the fact that if the double wristbck is brought up into a twisting hammerlock, it becomes an illegal hold and must be stopped by the Referee and treated as any other illegal


Rule I 0-Section


I (Continued)

hold, and no contestant shall be allowed to retain any advantage he secures by use of the wristlock in this illegal way. The Referee is further instructed that he should anticipate danger of injury from this hold and stand. so that he may block the double wristlock before it reaches the danger point. Note 2. The Committee calls the attention of the coaches and contestants to the fact that injuries are sometimes caused by a lack of knowledge on the part of contestants of such holds as the double wristlock (which may cause injury when used legally), the keylock and other more or less dangerous holds. Contestants should have a knowledge of the dangers of these holds and a knowledge of the blocks for them. Note 3. In the interpretation of the clause "interlocking of fingers, hands or arms around body or legs, while contestants are on the mat," in Section 1 of this rule, this restriction does not apply when the defensive man has regained his feet, when he is in a sitting position on the mat or when he has only one knee on the mat. Lifting of one or both hands from the mat does not affect this rule and, therefore, no complete armlock is permitted until one knee is rziised from the mat. Note 4 . Contestants may grasp all four fingers in an effort to break a hold, but pulling back the thumb or one, two or three fingers is illegal. Note 5. See photographs and explanations of legal and illegal holds. Note 6. A body slam is illegal unless the attacker brings one of his knees to the mat before the upper part of his opponent's body touches the mat. The term "slam" refers to the lifting of an opponent off his feet and slamming him to the mat. Note 7. In the interpretation of "hold over front or side of throat," pressure from side of hand, wrist or forearm is considered a "hold" and is therefore barred.

2. Unnecessary Roughness. No striking, kicking, gouging, hair pulling, butting, elbowing, strangling, or anything that endangers life or limb shall be allowed. Note. In the application of the.latter part of the above rule, all Referees, Coaches and Contestants should understand that any and all holds used in such a way as to endanger life or limb are illegal and all Referees should be on the alert to stop, if possible, all holds that in their opinion are likely to result in endangering of life or limb before real injury does occur. It should also be understood that no contestant should ever be put in a position where he must forfeit a neutral position, a Position .of Advantage or a fall because of danger to life o r limb, and tlie Referee should promptly stop any and ,all holds which in his opinion may so result. (See Setltion 1, Notes 1 and 2.) t



Rule 10 (Continhed)

3. Referee's Position on the Mat. The defensive contestant must face in the direction indicated b y the arrow at the center of the mat. He must place both knees on the mat with the lower legs parallel, the knees must not be more than the width of the shoulders or ! hips apart and the heels of both hands must be on the / mat not less than 12 inches in front of the knees. The , offensive wrestler shall be slightly over opponent at his left (or right) side with his right (or left) arm resting loosely around opponent's waist and his left (or right) hand loosely on opponent's left (or right) elbow. The thumb may be behind, in front of or at side of elbow. Both of his knees shall be on the mat and outside of defensive wrestler's near leg. H e m a y take any position between that parallel to the def~rtsivewvestZeJs body or at right angles to it b ~ his f near leg must not tmtch the near leg of the defensive wrestler. Note I. See cuts on pages 82, 84 and 86. Note 2. Occasionally a Referee has been guilty of standing so close to contestants as he starts a bout from the "Referee's Position on the Mat" that one or the other of the contestants has been handicapped in his legitimate activity. It is recommended that the Referee take a position directly in front of contestants and facing them, and that before he calls "wrestle" he shall move back far enough so that neither contestant can possibly be handicapped by his presence on the mat.

4. Contestants are expected to wrestle near the center of the mat, whether on the feet or in the "Referee's Position on the Mat." See new provision for ten-foot circle at center of wrestling mat and its use in Rule 3, Section 1. (Penalties for infringement of this Rule will be found under Rule 13, Sections 2 C and 3. ) I

I I ;


I. Stalling Is Illegal Under These Rules. While on their feet, contestants must wrestle; i.e., they must make an honest effort to secure a Position of Advantage,


Rule I I-Section


I (Continued)

regardless of any advantage previously obtained, and when one contestant has secured a Position of Advantage, whether on the feet or on the mat, he shall make an honest effort to secure a fall; furthermore, a contestant who has previously secured a considerable advantage over his opponent is stalling if he fails to make an honest effort to wrestle aggressively thereafter. (For Penalties, see Rule 13, Sections 1, 2 and 5.) 2. Running or sliding off mat to prevent an opponent from going hehind is to be interpreted as stalling. (For Penalty, see Rule 13, Section 2, A.) Note. Referees must enforce the foregoing rules on stalling.



Coaching from the sidelines or stands during the progress of a bout by the coach, team mates or spectators is illegal. (For Penalty see Rule 13, Section 8.) Note. All communication, either vocal or by signal, other than simple encouragement, by the Coach or members of the team with contestant a t any time during a bout, except when time is taken out because of injury to one of the contestants, or during the intermission between the main bout and the first extra-period bout, or during intermission ordered by the Referee after a fall, shall be interpreted as coaching.



1. Stalling. A. If, in the opinion of the Referee, a contestant in the Position of Advantage on the mat is stalling, the Referee shall give him one warning. If and when the offense occurs a second time, the Referee shall immediately order the contestants to their feet in neutral position. For such offense for a third time, the penalty shall be reversal of position in the "Referee's Position on the Mat" and a secondandfinalwarningshallbegiven.



Rule 13 (Continued)

5. Disqualification After T w o Penalties. When a contestant has been penalized a second time by the Referee for infringement upon Rule 13, Section 1, 2, 3 or 4 the Referee shall, when inflicting the second penalty, give the offender a final warning. If and when such infringement occurs again in that match the Referee shall immediately disqualify the offender. 6. Going Off Mat T o Prevent Fall. If, in the opinion of the Referee, the defensive wrestler intentionally crawls or rolls off the mat to prevent a fall, the Referee shall give one warning, and if infringement is repeated the Referee shall award a fall to his opponent. (See Rule 9, Section 1C.) 7. Points t o be Awarded When a Contestant is Penalized by the Referee. When the Referee gives a contestant the offensive position in "Referee's Position on Mat," or neutral position after he has been in the defensive position on mat, as a penalty inflicted upon his opponent for violation of rules, the same number of points shall be awarded to the offended wrestler as though he had earned the change in position. 8. Sideline Coaching. If, in the opinion of the Referee, Rule 12 is being infringed upon, the Ref eree shall stop the bout and shall give a warning in such manner that all contestants, coaches and spectators present shall be aware of the same. If the offense is repeated, the Referee shall award a fall to the representative of the offended side. 9. A. For flagrant, intentional violation of the spirit or letter of the rules, the Referee shall award a falll to the opponent. B. In extremely flagrant cases, such as a deliberate and intentional attempt to injure an opponent, the Referee shall disqualify the offender for the remainder of the meet.




1. If a contestant is injured, the Referee shall allow a maximum of three minutes' rest. There shall be no limit to the number of rest periods which may be taken in any match, but the total time out shall not exceed three minutes. If, at the expiration of the rest period, he is able to continue wrestling, the bout shall be resuqed as if the contestants had gone out-of-bounds. (See Rule 9, Section 1.) If the injured contestant is unable to continue wrestling, the match shall be awarded in accordance with Section 2 and 3 of this Rule. Note. In the interpretation of this rule nosebleed is not an injury, and the number and length of rest periods to be allowed is a t the discretion of the Referge.

2. Accidental Injury. If a contestant is accidentally injured and is unable to continue the bout, his opponent shall be awarded the match by fall. 3. Injury from Illegal Hold. If a contestant is so injured by an illegal hold that he is unable to continue, the match shall be forfeited to the injured*contestant and shall be scored as a fall. 4. General Default. If a contestant forfeits a tournament match for reasons other than those mentioned in the foregoing, his opponent shall be awarded the full quota of points he could score by securing a fall, provided the opponent has properly weighed in and would be eligible to participate in this contest if held. 5. Whenever a contestant defaults a match in any tournament, he is thereby barred from further participation in. that meet; however, this shall not make him ineligible for any award to which he may be entitled as the loser in the next round.




1. Pin Falls Pin faus only shall count. (Flying or rolling falls shall not be considered.) Any part of both shoulders held in contact with the mat for an appreciable length of time constitutes a fall. (By an "appreciable length of time" is meant the Referee's silent count of two seconds. The two-second count shall start only after the Referee is in such position that he knows positively that both of the defensive contestant's shoulders are in contact with the mat, after which shoulders must be held in continuous contact with the mat for two seconds before a fall shall be awarded.) 2. Fall With Part of Body Off Mat. A. A fall shall not be awarded when one or both shoulders of the defensive contestant the mat. B. Zj the defensive wrestler is handicapped b y having any portion of his body o f f the mat, the Referee shall stop the bout, which shall be resumed in accordance with Rule 9, Section 1, B and C, and Rule 13, Section 6. N o t e . In the interpretation of this m e it should be understood that all parts of the body except the ;boulders may be off the mat proper and still a legal fall may be called if the defensive wrestler is not handicapped by this position.

3. Double Falls in Three-Minute, Two-Minute or Extra-Period Bouts. A. In Tournaments. In case both contestants secure falls in the last two three-minute, the last two twominute or extra-period bouts, the match shall be awarded to the one securing the fall in the shorter time and he only shall be awarded a point for the fall. (See R-ule 7, Section lA, 2 and Rule 17, Section 2.) B. In Dual Meets. If both contestants secure falls in the last two three-minute bouts or in both of the


Rule 15-Section


3 (Continued)

extra-period bouts the match shall be awarded to the contestant securing his fall in the shorter time. (See Rule 7, Section 1, B, and Rule 17, Section 3.) 4. Fall vs. Decision. I n tournaments or in dual meets, a fall shall take precedence over a decision. 5. Near-Fall. A "near-fall" is a situation in which the offensive wrestler has control of his opponent in a pinning combination and a fall is imminent. Note I . Whenever all provisions af the above rule are complied with and both shoulders of the defensive wrestler are held in continuous contact with the mat for a minimum of one full second and a maximum of less than two full seconds, a near-fall shall be scored. h

Note 2. Whenever all provisions of the above rule are complied with and both shoulders of the defensive wrestler are held continuously within approximately two inches of the mat or less. for two full seconds or more, a near-fall shall be scored. Note 3. I n order to further clarify the awarding of a near-fall as indicated in Note 1 and Note 2 above and the awarding of a fall as indicated in Rule 15, Section 1-the following recommendations and Graphic Illustration are offered:-

A. When a fall or near-fall is imminent and the referee is in such position that he can See definitely that . both shoulders of the defensive wrestler are in contact with the mat he shall start to count-silently and slowly as follows-s-lOO1 (One full second), 1002 (Two full 1 seconds). The referee shall award a fall or a near-fall if I and when all provisions of Rule 15, Section 1 or Rule 15, Section 5, Note 1, respectively have been complied with. B. When a fall or near-fall is imminent and the referee is in such position that he can see definitely that both shoulders are within approximately two inches of ' the mat he shall start to count as in "A" above and a near-fall shall be awarded if and when all provisions of Rule 15, Section 5, Note 2 have been complied with.



5 (Continued) ILLUSTRATION

Rule 15-Section


One full second

+. . . . . .Slightly


1 I

less tha n two full seconds.


A "near-fallH-if both s -haulders are held in continuous contact with the mate for a minimum of one full second or a ma xirnum of slightly less than two full seconds. c..

. . . .. . . .

Two full( seconds

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .'. . -1

A fall, if shoulders are held in continuous contact with the mat for TWO FULL SECONDS. A near-fall, if shoulders are held continuously within approximately two inches of the mat or less for TWO FULL seconds. I

Note 4. Regardless of the length of time a defensive wrestler may be held in a somewhat dangerous position, no near-fall may be scored except as provided in Note 1 or Note 2 above. Note 5. Only one near-fall may be scored in any one "situation." -

A "situation" iS ended: ( 1) When the defensive man escapes to neutral position or reverses position. ( 2 ) When he assumes the defensive "referee's position on mat." (3) When he secures a position of defensive value equal to the defensive "referee's position on mat." The referee must not signal a "near-fall" until the "situation" is ended. Nothing in the above shall prevent repeated efforts by the offen,sive wrestler to "pin" his opponent, but, regardless of the number of near-falls he may secure in any one "situation," he is credited with 2 points only for "near-falls" in that "situation."


Rule 15-Section


5 (Continued)

Note 6. I t should be clearly understood that the position of advantage in any match may change frequently and that the contestant who has previously been in the defensive position may secure the position of advantage and earn a near-fall in a very short period of time. Illustration:-Contestant A brings his opponent B to the mat and is awarded 2 points for a "take-down"; A takes a "body-scissors" or a "cross-body-ride" on B; B rolls and by proper shifting of his weight or by an arm or head lack he obtains control of A-for which maneuver he wins 2 points for "reversal" of position: next by bridging he works A into a "near-fall" position and if he has complied with all requirements included in Note 1 or Note 2 above he is awarded 2 additional points for a near-fall-even though he may still be held in A's "body-scissors" or "cross-body-ride." I t often happens in cases such as the above that A eventually regains the advantage-in which case-A is, of course, awarded 2 points for "reversal" of position.


1. Regular Bouts. If no fall has resulted after the expiration of the three regular bouts of any match, as provided in Rule 7, Section 1, the Referee shall award the match to the contestant who has scored the greater number of points. 2 . Third Place Matches in Tournaments. If neither contestant secures a fall in the three two-minute bouts, the Referee shall award the decision to the contestant who has scored the greater number of points, except as provided in Rule 7, Section 2, third sentence. 3. Extra-Period Bouts. A. I n Tournaments. When no fall has been se- 1 cured, the Referee shall award the decision to the con- i testant who has scored the greater number of points, i but if points are still equal, the Referee shall decide the winner on the basis'of superior wrestling ability and aggressiveness shown throughout the entire match. B. In Dual Meets. The Referee shall award the match as in "A" above, except in case of tie, when the match shall be declared a draw.


Rule 17-Section


I pontinued)

maximum number gof points tbat (may he awarded ip extra-perioa bouts is 1. Time-advantage in extra-period bouts is entirely independent of that in the main match and if one or the other of the contestants has scored one or two points .for t,ime-advantage in the main match he still retains these points.

A. In tournaments, first place in each weight shall count 6 points, second place shall count 4 points, third place shall count 2 points and fourth place shall count 1 point. One additional point shall be awarded for each fall secured throughout the meet. In case both contestants secure falls in second and third three-minute bouts, in extra-period bouts, or in the second and third two-minute bouts of third place matches, only the contestants securing the fall in the shorter time shall be given a point award for a fall. Note. For information concerning the length of these bouts when falls occur, see Rule 7, Section 4A.





B. If in any tournament, only one contestant enters and qualifies for any weight class, he shall be declared the winner of that weight class and the team he represents shall be awarded 6 points for first place, but nc points shall be scored for a fall. Should only two, three or four contestants enter and qualify for any weight class, the contestant taking second, third or fourth place shall be awarded only 4, 2 or 1 points, .respectively. 3. Dual Meets. A. Falls. In dual meets, iwhen only one of the two contestants in any match secures a fall, 5 points shall : be awarded t o the contestants securing the fall; but if i both contestants secure {fallsin second and third three'minute bouts, or in extra-period bouts, the contestant securing the fall in the shorter time wins the match and shall be credited with 5 points, but his opponent shall also be credited -with 3 .points for his fall.






Rule 17-Section

3 (Continued)

B. Decisions. A decision shall count 3 points. C. Draws. (1) In case of a draw each team shall be awarded 2 points. (2) In case both contestants secure falls in the same time (which is extremely unlikely), each team shall be awarded 3 points. 4. Tournaments or Dual Meets. If a contestant secures a fall in each of the last two three-minute, the last two two-minute or extra-period bouts in Tournaments or Daal Meets, he shall be credited only with points for one fall. 5. Team Championship in Tournaments or Dual Meets. The team securing the highest total of points shall be declared the winner.

i j

RULE 18-OFFICIALS Referee's Duties 1. The Referee shall have full control of the meet

and his decisions shall be final and without appeal. (See Rule 16.) 2. Before the contestants come to the mat, the Referee should inspect contestants for presence of oily rub, rosin, objectional pads, improper clothing, finger rings, etc. He should also see that finger nails are trimmed short: 3. Immediately before each match the Referee shall call contestants to the center of the mat, where they shall shake hands and then step back to the edge of the ten-foot circle and be prepared to wrestle. The Referee shall start the match from this position. 4. The Referee shall notify the Timekeepers as follows : A. When he starts a bout. .



'Rule 18-Section


4 (Continued]

B. When time is to be taken out to bring contestants back to center of mat because of injury to a contestant or for any other cause. i

Note. The Referee should give contestants to understand that he alone is authorized to stop the bout, and he should deal sternly with any contestant who presumes that he may stop wrestling for any cause before the Referee so orders.

C. When the bout is to be resumed (except in cases where the rules set a definite limit on the amount of . / ' time which shall be allowed). (See Rule 14, Section 1, '\ ' and Rule 7.) D. When a contestant has secured the Position of Advantage, when the defensive wrestler has "escaped," when the defensive wrestler has "reversed position" and when a fall has occurred. 5. The Wrestling Rules Committee strongly recommends that all Referees use the set of signals recommended by the Sub-committee on Officiating and adopted as the official signals by the Wrestling Rules Committee, in order to establish a uniform, standardized code of Referee's signals. (These signals will be found on pdges 120-1 of this Guide.) 6. The Referee should anticipate dificult positiorts on the edge of the hat and prevent them by changing direction of contestants or b y bringing them to the ccnter of the mat. 7 . The Referee shall be firm in warning contestants regarding such violations of the letter and the spirit of the rules as crawling off the mat, running away from an opponent, or any other form of stalling, in the use of such illegal holds as illegal face holds and interlocking of fingers, wrists or arms around body or legs while opponent is on the mat, the use of scissors for punishment alone, at. the use of ahy other hold with which it is evident to the Referee that the man is playing for time -or is using the same for punishment al~ne.~.. -


1 I


, ,





Rule 18 (Continued)

8. The Referee MUST enforce VIGOROUSLY and the penalties for stalling, etc., as provided in Rule 13. 9. The Referee is instructed not to put ,his hand under shoulders of a contestant unless absolutely necessary to determine a fall. 10. The Referee should meet promptly, in a spirit of good sportsmanship, any situation developing unexpectedly. 11. If the behavior of the spectators becomes disrespectful or unsportsmanlike to the Referee or to either team, the Referee shall stop the bout and warn the offenders, and if the warning is disregarded, he shall award the match to the offended team. 12. At the end of each match the Referee shall order the contestants to their corners. After he has checked the time-advantage and the scorers' records, and has decided the winner he shall call the contestants to the center of the mat, announce the winner, have the contestants shake hands, after which they shalI leave the mat via their own corners. 13. Timekeepers. In all Tournaments, there shall be three Timekeepers, who shall be supplied with stopwatches. The Head Timekeeper shall record the general time of the match and shall call the minutes in such manner that Referee, contestants and spectators may hear. The head timekeeper shall be provided with two extra stop-watches for recording time out in case of injury to the contestants. Each of the other two Timekeepers shall record the accumulated time-advantage of the contestant to whom he has been assigned by the Referee and he shall report to the Referee on the same at the end of the match. Each contestant shall be allowed to have a representative a t the Timekeepers' table and the watches shall be in plain view of these representatives throughout the match. Only the Time. PROMPTLY


Rule 18-Section


13 (Continued)

keepers and the representatives indicated above shall be allowed at the Timekeepers' table; there shall be no communication between the Timekeepers or representatives at the Timekeepers' table and coaches, contestants or spectators, and -d-t w b e secret until the match isx~mpleted..(This rethe Timekeepers to give their striction is made to undivided attention to their duties.) 14. The Timekeepers shall be notified by the Referee when to start and to stop their watches, in accordance with Rule 18, Section 4. The Head Timekeeper shall be provided with a small caliber pistol, a loud : gong or horn, by which he shall notify the Referee when the time limit of the bout has expired or when the time for intermissions has elapsed. (See Rule 14, Section 1, and Rule 7.) 15. I n all intercollegiate matches there shall be two :Scorers, each of whom shall record the various points awarded by the Referee to the contestant whose rec, ord he has been assigned to keep. Such records shall be ; available to the Referee at a11 times.





I. Equal Rights for Visiting Teams. All modifications of rules of competition, "ground rules," etc., proposed by the home manager, must be submitted to the manager of the visiting team, or teams, a sufficient length of time before date of meet for agreement to be reached on same, and no such action is binding unless approved by the visiting team or teams. 2. I n dual meets the selektion of a Referee and the maximum weighing-in time shall be mutually agreed upon at least ten days prior to date of meet.

Note. In case the Coaches concerned are unable to agree on a shorter maximum weighing-in time than the five hours specified as



Rule 19-Section

2 (Continued)

the maximum in these rules, it is understood that the maximum amount of time as specified in the rules shall hold.

3. The home management shall notify visiting teams at least seven days prior to date of meet the exact time and place of match.

High School Wrestling Rules The Wrestling Rules Committee of the N.C.A.A. recommends that interscholastic Wrestling contests be governed as follows: Wrestling rules of the N.C.A.A. as.published in the Intercollegiate Wrestling Guide shall apply in high school wrestling contests with the following modifications : 1. Eligibility. Contests shall be eligible under the rules of the High School Athletic Association of the State in which their school is located. 2. Weight Classification. Competition shall be divided into ten weight classes as follows:

103 112 120 127 133

lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.

and and and and and

under. under. under. under. under,

138 lbs. and 145 lbs. and 154 lbs. and 165 lbs. and unlimited.

under. under. under. under.

Beginning February 1st and continuing for the remainder of the wrestling season, one additional pound shall be allowed in each weight class. Note. Additional competition may be added in the 95 lb. class or the 175 lb. class, or both, p.rovided such action is approved by the local, state or sectional assouation concerned.

3. weighing-in Allowance.


Contestants and Weight




A. Weighing-in Time. Contestants may weigh-in a maximum of one hour and a minimum of one-half hour before time meet is scheduled to begin. B. No Weight Allowance. Net weight shall be required in all dual meets and tournaments. Note. The Committee wishes to emphasize the discouragement of any appreciable weight reduction especidy among high school competitors, as it is much more apt to produce injurious effects if practised by growing boys.

4. Length and Methods of Conducting Matches.

A. Dual Meet and Final First Place Matches in Tournaments. These matches shall be eight minutes in length, divided into three bouts of two minute, three minute, and three minute duration respectively. These matches shall be conducted in the same manner as dual meets and first place matches in tournaments under college rules except that there shall be a rest period of one (1) minute between the first and second threeminute bouts and that there shall be no extra-period bouts in tournament competition. If a tournament match results in a tie, it shall be decided in accordance with the last sentence of College Rule 7, Section 1. B. All Matches in Tournaments Except Final First Place Matches. These matches shall consist of three bouts of 2 minutes each, conducted in the same manner as third place matches under college rules, except for a one ( 1 ) minute rest period between the second and third two-minute bouts. If a match results in a tie, it shall also be decided in accordance with the last sentence of College Rule 7, Section 1. C. Extra-Period Bouts. (1) I n Dual Meets, extraperiod bouts shall be conducted in the same manner as corresponding bouts under college rules except for a one-minute rest period between the two extra-period bouts, in addition to the one-minute rest period between the last bout of the main match and the first



extra-period bout. ( 2 ) In Tournaments no extraperiod bouts shall -be allowed. D; No contestant shall be required to wrestle two matches in any tournament with less than a one (1) hour rest-period between such matches. 5. Illegal Holds. A. In addition to holds barred in College Rule 10, Sections 1 and 2, all "slams" from a standing position (Rule 10, Section 1, Note 6) and the "fall-back" from the standing position, the double wristlock and the head scissors, are barred. Note. The term "fall-back" refers to the hard falling or jumping backward when opponent is on contestant's back in a "cross-scissors ride" or "body-scissors."

B. Penalties for infringements on No. SA above are the same as for illegal holds indicated in College Rule 10, Section 1 and are given in College Rule 13, Section 5A and B. (In case of injury to the defensive contestant by foregoing illegal holds, Rule 14, Section 3 of the Collegiate rules shall apply.)




WRESTLING OFFICIALS' CODE OF SIGNALS ( I ) Startirlg or Resuming a Bout Standing-Extend right arm slightly above the horizontal to the front; verbally announce, "Ready" pause quickly lower arm and at t h ~same instant verbally annynce "Wrestle." (2) Stop Wrestling-Verbally announce ~ r e i k ' ' ; at the same instant extend arm slightly above horizontal to the front, palm outward. (3) Neutral Position. Standing-Upper arms front, horizontal; both forearms vertical hands extended. (4) ~ e g i Wrestling i On Mat (Referee's Position)-Referee should be eight to ten feet in front of wrestlers, facing Timer's table, squat position. Give signal f ~ No. r 1 above. (5) A d v a n t a g e o n e arm and index finger extended pointing to wrestler receiving advantage. At the same time verbally announce "Advankage" and name the institution which offense represents. (6) Neutral Position (No Advantage) On Mat-Both arms extended sideward slightly below the horizontal, palms down; move hands back and forth ~ , i t h fingers spread and at the same instant verbally announce, "No Advantage. (7) Time Out-Give hand signal for No. 2 above and verbally announce "Time Out." (8) Declaring Near Fall-Extend one arm vertically; no verbal announccment. (Award of near fall should not be made until the immediate "situation" i s finished, as indicated in last sentence of Note under Rule 15, Section 5.) (9) Declaring a Fall-Quickly strike mat with palm of one hand and at the same instant verbally announce, "Fall." Do not slap wrestler on back. (See .Rule 18 Section 9.) (10) Awarding a Decision or Declaring a Draw-Referee shall call contestants to center of mat and raise the left arm of the winner to a vertical


. ..





position. In case of draw a t end of extra-period bouts in dual meets, Referee Ehall call contestants to center of mat and ralse left arms of both contestants to vertical position (1 1) ~ e ' c l a r i nExtra-Period ~ Bout-Extend both arms vertically and verbally announce, "Extra-Per~od Bout." connection with, or immediately following the (12) Award of Pomts-In signal for change of position or advantage the Referee shall indicate award of points by pointing to the point scorer with the index finger of one hand and at the same time raise the opposite hand to or near a vertical position, extending one or two fingers of that hand to indicate the number of points awarded. Such signal must be clearly evident to the official Scorekeeper and to the operator of the scoreboard (if such is used), and also, so far as possible, to coaches, contestants and spectators

Coaches and ContestantsAttention ! Much severe criticism of amateur wrestling is caused by the disgusting, unsanitary, and usually unnecessary habit of many wrestlers of expectorating on the wrestling mat or on the floor outside the mat, blowing the nose without use of handkerchief, wiping the nose with the back of the hand and then wiping the hand off on the trunks etc. Such hab~tsare repulsive to people of culture. The foreign representatives kt the Olympics a t Los Angeles in 1932 were astonished a t the degree to which this was prevalent among our wrestlers. I am informed that many ladies refuse to attend wrestling matches for this reason. There are so many good reasons against and none for these practices that all interested in the develo ment of amateur wrestling should c w p e n t e in the elimination of this evil. following suggestions, if carried out in both practice and competition, would unquestionably eliminate these practices in a comparatively short time: First, education of the contestants by the coaches as to the detrimental effects of these practices; second, if i t is considered necessary (which I personally doubt) for the contestants to have something into which to expectorate during matches, two small boxes of sawdust should be placed a t opposite corners of the mat; and, third, much preferable to the second suggestion, require each contestant to carry a small handkerchief somewhere in his "jeans" and use this when necessary. The latter custom is quite common among foreign wrestlers.

Note to coaches and wrestlers from the Rules CommitteeL




In the past some coaches have lost sight of the importance of each individual's conduct when in the public eye, and, as a consequence, incidents have occurred, on the part of both coaches and wrestlers, that certainly have not been conducive to the type of public reaction that is desirab1e.A~we all know, ninety per cent of our athletes' conduct is a direct reflection on the type of sportsmanship advocated by his coach. The natural trend of the athlete is toward proper conduct but it is expecting too much of him to carry on this quality if the coach in khom the boy has confidence continually violates these sporhng that many college and schoolboy principles.' I t has been evident in the wrestlers have been embarrassed by the conduct of their coaches in public meets. The attention of the rules committee has been specifically called to the childish and unsportsmanlike actions of several coaches (who were named) for abusive language from the bench, coming on the mat proper during the progress of the meet to argue with the referee, playing to the crowd through expressive gestures following the referee's decisions and in general conducting themselves in a manner unbecoming a coach. Strong recommendations have been made to the committee that specific rulings be included in the rule book to penalize such conduct and unless this condition is remedied it is obvious that official action must be taken. Unfortunately a penalty of h i s nature would cause unwarranted hardship to the contestant du& whose match the penalty was enforced. I t seems entirely out of order that a few people in the coaching profession should jeopardize the good name of wrestling. hy the lack of a little common sense and decency. I t is hoped that the coaches who have been8guilty of this unseemly conduct will take stock of themselves and spare the committee the unpleasant duty of3enacting embarrassing legislation.




; ,


Referees-Attention ! By R.


Former Chairman NCAA Wresfling Rdes Committee

Penalties for Stalling and Other Infringements on the Rules.

RULE 13 For the convenience of referees, warnings and penalties have been classified under four heads as follows: Head No. 1-Rule 13, Sections 1 A & B, 2C. Referee gives a warning o d y on first offense* he must penalize for second such offense; he must penallze for third such offeise and give second and final warning. Head No. 2-Rule 13 Section 2 A 3 4 A and C. Referee must penalize on fist offense; he must penalize on secdnd 'ofiense and give. final warning. Head .No. 3-Rule 13, Section 5. After Referee has inflicted the second penalt for infringement under Head 1 or 2 above he must immediately award a f a i to the opponent if and when the infringement occurs again. Head No. &Rule 13, Section 6. Referee must give warning on first offense a d award fall to opponent on second such offense. The large majority of referees have in the past been far too lax in enforcing prescribed penalties for stalling and for other infringements on the rules. This year the committee has tried to specify very definitely when penalties should be ~nflicted. Heretofore the rules were sufficiently flexible in this regard as to allow the referee to be very lenient in this enforcement and still be within the letter of the rules but this will not be true in 1943. Drab uninteresting stalling matches will not stimulate normal growth in popularity' of wrestlini and failure of referees to properly enforce the rules in the past has been an important factor in the lack of interest in amateur wrestling on the part of the sporting public The committee expects the referees to do their full share to improve these condi: tions in 1943. Every competent referee should be able to discriminate between honest effort to secure falls or to improve position and "fakedJ' effort or aggressiveness put on to deceive the referee. A "good showman" may occasionally make it difficult for the referee to distinguish between real and counterfeit effort but in such cases the referee should realize that if a really superior wrestler ii penalized for stalling he will soon be back in the position of advantage and he will then make such an honest and obvious effort to secure a fall or to improve his position that the referee will have no further reason to ~enalizehim. Furthermore referees should clearly undeistand that they are not doing their duty if they h o w a contestant to score a single point for time-advantage by means of stalling. Under most circumstances 30 seconds is ample time for the referee to allow the offensive wrestler to demonstrate his offensive effort and referees should also understand that the primary burden for starting active wrestling rests on the shoulder of the offensive and not the defensive wrestler. Contintrous "counter-wrestling" with no real oflensive effort should be interpreted as stalling.

DANGEROUS HOLDS Referees should be alert to possible injury which may result from dangerous holds whether legal or illegal and should anticipate and be prepared to block such balds before injury result;. I t is far better to have a half-a-dozen potentially dangerous holds stopped too soon than to have one mious injury result because the referee failed to stop that hold in time. Furthermore no contestant should ever be put in a position where he must yield a fall t d avoid injury to a limb or to escape severe punishment Intercollegiate wrestling is a contest of strength, speed and skill, and not punisLent, and referees are expected to require contestants to break holds which endanger life or limb, and which are primarily punishing holds. No contestant should be allowed to retain any advantage which he has secured through use of an illegal hold.


questions and Answers dULE 2 SECTION 2.

in a tournament a man who is a lone entry wrestle in one weight Q.-'1f (say 165-pound class) the first day, can he drop back to a lighter class (say 155-pound) the next day if his weight will permit? A.-No. He would be allowed to drop back to the lower weight on the first day before drawings are made for that class if he should see fit and if his institution is not represented by another contestant in that class.


~ . L l as man permitted to wrestle barefooted? A.-No. The rules require light, heel-less gymnasium shoes laced by means of eyelets Q.-cab a wrestler be disqualified or otherwise punished for abusive language when not in a contest: (a) when on the bench; (b) when in the lociier room? -4.-The N.C.A.A. rules-do not provide for such a matter and such a rule should be unnecessary in intercollegiate matches.

RULES 4 and 5. Q.-Is it permissible to allow slight owrweight in dual meets? A.-No. Contestants and coaches know the required weights and it $ not good sportsmanship for a coach to ask another coach to concede a hapdland it is unfair to the contestant who has complied with the welght


RULE 5 SECTION lD(b). 9.-'1f in a tournament a man is injured in the first round, can a reserve be put in his place for a later round? A.-NO.


~ ~ - 1 na triangular meet, how should the drawings be made? A.-Our rules provide for no different arrangement in triangular meetr than in larger tournaments. Undoubtedly, however, in triang~lar meets wlth only one contestant representing each institution, a round robln would-be the fairest and most satisfactory method, with an agreement relative to points for decision or fall.

RULE 6 SECTION 7 AND RULE 14 SECTIONS 1 2 AND 3. Q.'-ln a tournament a man is adcidentally i?ju;ed*and thus loses a match.. Can he enter his next regular match for a third place? A.-Yes, because forfeiture of a match because of injury is not interpreted as a default. RULE 6. Q.-In a tournament a man i s accidentally injured but wins the match notwithstanding. He defaults the next match which 'comes the same dry because of the injury. Can he the following 'day, compete for third place; A.-Yes. See preceding Q. a)nd A. Q.-If two opponents enter the ring dressed exactly alike and closely resembling each other, what can the Referee do to keep track of their identity? A.-See Rule 3, Section 3.

-RUIX - - --

7. SECTION -- - - - - - 4.

~ : + V h e n a fail results in the second three-minute bout of a match, what is the length of the last period? A.-In tournaments the bout lasts only for the time i t took the contestant to secure his fall in the second three minutes bout (i.e if the fall was secured in two minutes, the third bout lasts but two mi&tes unless a fall is secured in less time). I n dual meets the third bout is a three-minute bout because the contestant who lost the fall in the previous bout is allowed the full three minutes in which to t r y to pin his opponent. I f he pins him in less time, then he wins the bout. If he pins him in a longer time, he is credited with 3 points and his opponent 5 points.




SECTION 1-C Q.'-1n resuming a'match a t the center of the mat when should the Referee give contestants the same position they had when t&y left the mat? A.-Onlv when a fall is imminent and the defensive wrestler intentionally works off the mat.

RULE 9. Q.-If a man is temporarily injured when a fall is imminent, what positions do the men take when they continue after the three-minute rest period? A,-The bout should be resumed as in Rule 9, Section 1. RULE 10 SECTION 1. Q.& interlocking of hands or arms permissible after defensive man has taken one or both hands from the mat? A.-No. So long as both knees are on the mat, no complete armlock is legal. (See Rule 10, Section 1, Note 3.)


Q.LM underne'ath ~ ~ raises both hands from mat and sits back on haunchw at the same time using his hands in an effort to escape. Can top man lock hands or arms around him? A.-No. Underneath man is still on the mat. RULE 10, SECTION 1, NOTE 3. Q.-Man underneath rams on knee from mat in an effort to escape. Can underneath man lock arms or hands? A.-Yes. In order to prohibit locking of arms or hands, opponent must have both knees on mat. RULE 10 SECTIONS 1 and 2. Q.+~oes the offensive wrestler lose his position of advantage when he is required by the Referee to break a dangerous or illegal hold? A.-Yes, if illegal hold. No, if legal hold. See Rule 13, Section 5. LE 10 SECTION 2 Q . L ~ h a tshould'the Referee do in case a hold which is usually considered a legitimate hold is forced to such an extent as to endanger a limb, or where the hold becomes purely a punishing hold? A.-Referee should require the hold to be broken, time should be taken out and the contestant who had the advantage should be given the Referee's position behind.

10. .RULE Q.-Is a full nelson taken with the legs illegal? A.-Yes. RULE 10. Q.;-Has a man on defense a right to hold his forearm against his opponent s throat so that he cannot get closer and make his hold more effective? A.-No. See Rule 10, Section 1. RULE 10. Q.-If a man in a body-scissors hooks one leg over the top toe of his opponent, does that class as an over-scissors? A.-Yes, according to the rules all over-scissors are barred. RULE 10. Q.-Is a man on defense permitted to use toe holds, pressure across the face, twisting hammerlock, etc.? A.-No. See Rule 10, Section 1 and Note 7. RULE 10. Q.-If the man behind on the mat clasps his arms about his opponent's waist and one arm, is this an illegal hold? A.-Yes, if both of defensive wrestler's knees are on mat. RULE 10. 0.-If the defensive man frees himself from a dangerous hold by pushing against the face or throat or by twisting the fingers, what is the penalty? A.-No specific .penalty is provided and the Referee should decide tho matter on the merlts of the case.




RULE 11. ' Q.-How long should a Referee allow a contestant to retain a stalling hold? A.-If the contestant behind has been working hard and shows extreme breathlessness or exhaustion he should be allowed to retain a hold of this period of thirty seconds or thereabouts should nature for a short time; be sufficient for the Referee to decide whether or not the contestant is stalling. KULE 11. Q.-When a man has a fairly good hold say a headlock with the underarm included, can he be penalized for stallihg if he holds it but is unable to pin his opponent? A.-If the hold is one with which, in the opinion of the Referee, the offensive wrestler has a fair chance to pin his opponent dnd is making a real effort to pin him, it should not be considered a stalling hold. RULE 11. Q -A man secures a riding-scissors and mere!y holds his opponent dowp, not being in a position to secure a fall and maklng no effort to secure a fail. Would this be construed as stalling? A.-Yes. KULE 15. Q.-May the Referee legally call a fall when part of the opponent's body is off the mat? A.-Yes. Any part of the body may be off the mat except one or both shoulders, provided, in the opinion of the Referee, the defensive contestant is not handicapped thereby. RULE 16. Q.-Must A.-Yes.

the Referee make a decision in all tournaments? See Rule 7, Section 2, and Rule 16.

RULE 16, SECTION 2-A, Q.+lght a situation arise where two contestants are evenly matched and overtime periods fail to disclose any advantage when a draw might be the only decision? A.-See Rule 16, Section 3, A and B. RULE 18, SECTIONS 1 and 10. Q.-If a man underneath slaps his opponent on the back. and become5 released a s a consequence, and his opponent claims he thus concedes a fall, and he claims he was only - trying - - to fool his opponent, what verdict should the Referee give? A.-The Referee should decide the matter on the basis of his judgment to intent of the defensive wrestler, and in the interests of good sportsmanship. Trying to "fool" an opponent is not good sportsmanship and should be so interpreted by the Referee. RULE 18 SECTION 4-B. ~ . under f what condition is a man permitted or not permitted to take out tlme for lacing a shoe or other adjustment of his clothing? A.-Only when the Referee considers it necessary and so orders. RULE 18 SECTION 13. ~ . k h o u l dnot Timers call out the passing minutes so distinctly as to be heard by contestants, coaches and spectators? A.-Yes. RULE 18. is the penalty for fouling if no injury is done to the opponent? Q.-What A.&e Rule 13


~ . A W h a tis the penalty for making derogatory remarks to an opponent or to hls coach? A.-The Referee has authority to disqualify the contestant if in his opinion the circumstances Warrant it.


Index-to Rules RULE

............ 66 ........................................................... ......................................... ..................................... 235 ...................................................... ......................................................-16 16 Extra-Period Bouts .......................................... Regular Bouts .............................................. 16

Illustration of Drawings by Bagnall-Wild System Byes Communicable Disease Compete in One Class Only Costumes Decisions

in Tournaments .......................16 ........................................................ 14 ...................................... ............................. 63 F o r F i r s t Place ..............................................6 F o r Third Place ..............................................6 Graphic Illustration of ..................................... 6 Seeding ......................................................6 Eligfbiaity ......................................................1 Falls ...........................................................15 Double .......................................................15 Fall vs . Decision .............................................-15 Pin ..........................................................15 With P a r t of Body Off Mat ...................................15 Holds-Illegal .................................................-10 ;Bending of Fingers ..........................................-10 Body Slams .................................................-10 Double Wristloclr ...........................................-10 Double Wristlock (High School rules) ....................... 5 Full Double Nelson .................... t ......................10 Hammerlock Above Right Angle ..............................10 Holds Over Mouth Nose. Eyes or Throat ....................10 Interlocking of ~ r h s........................................ 10 10 Interlocking of Fingers .................................a*..m. Interlocking of Hands .......................................10 Over-Scissors ...............................................-10 Strangle Holds .............................................-10 Twisting of Fingers .........................................-10 Twisting Hammerlock .......................................10 Toe Holds .................................................. 10 Injuries ........................................................ 14 Accidental ................................................... -14 From Illegal Hold ............................................14 General D e b u l t .............................................-14 Intermissions ..................................................7 Matches-Length of ........................................... 7 Extra-Period Bouts ..........................................7 For First Place .................. 7 F o r Third Place in Tournaments.............................7 Intermission Between Bouts .................................. 7 Mats ...........................................................3 Near Falls .....................................................15 Notifications and Agreements..................................19 Officials ........................................................18 Referee ......................................................-18 Timekeepers ..................................................18 Penalties ....................................................... 13 13 F o r Illegal Holds ............................................. Off Mat t o Prevent Fall ......................................13 OffMat Intentionallv ........................................ 13 Pushing Defensive Man Off N a t ..............................13 Third Place Match-

Defaults Distinguishing Emblems Drawings and Eliminations

...........................................-13 ...................................................... 13 .................................................. 17

Sideline Coaching Stalling

Point, System



6 5


2 2


1 2 4-5

.34. 7 6 3 1

.3. 4



1 1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1'

.2. 3




1 2 5 1 6

.... 1 13 .4. 6 2 3 8 1 1


........................................... .....................................1 8 ................................................ .......................................12 Butting .......................................................1 Elbowing ....................................................1 Gouging .................................................... 10 Hair Pulling .................................................10 Kicking ......................................................1 Strangling ....................................................0 Striking ...................................................... 10 Seeding. .........................................................6 scoring ...................................................... 1 7 Tournaments ...............................................17 Dual Meets ...............................................17 Point System .................................................17 Touruaments or Dual Meets ..................................17 Team Championship ......................................... 17 Sideline Coaching ..............................................12 Spectators9 Behavior .........................................1 8 Stalling .........................................................1 Weighing-In ..................................................... 5 Weight Classification .......................................... 4 Weight Allowance .............................................5 Failure to Make ............................................... 5 Position of Advantage Referee's Position on Mat Representation Roughness-Unnecessary


98 102


2 101 2 ' 101 2 2 2 2 2


..32 3 1 4 5



..1 1



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