New Teacher Resource Guide - Northern Michigan University

New Teacher Resource Guide - Northern Michigan University

New Teacher Resource Guide Prepared by Judy Parlato The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project New Teacher Resource Guide 1 Table of Contents New Tea...

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New Teacher Resource Guide

Prepared by Judy Parlato

The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

New Teacher Resource Guide

1

Table of Contents New Teacher Resource Guide prepared by Judy Parlato

Getting Ready Getting Organized – A Checklist

.

3

Management Tips

5

Activity #1 - Establish Rules and Procedures.

6

Setting Goals for the First Days of School

7

Activity #2 - Designing Getting Acquainted Sponge Activities

8

Activity #3 - Timesaver – Organizational Tips

9

Activity #4 - Room Arrangements and Bulletin Boards

11

Classroom Management Activity #5 – Guidelines for Effective Discipline

12

Assorted Classroom Management Plans

14

Five Tricky Personalities – How to Handle Them

18

Activity #6 – Strategies - Dealing with Behaviors.

19

Rewards and Consequences

20

Positive Classroom Management

21

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Communication Tips for Effective Communication

22

How to Deal with Difficult Parents

23

Tips for Parent Conferences

24

Activity #7 Student – Led Conferences

25

Activity #8 Evaluating Students

26

Activity #9 Teacher –Self Evaluation

27

Special Education / Legal Issues Individualized Education Programs (IEP)

.

29

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

30

Activity #10 Modifications for Special Education Students in General Ed. Classes

31

Legal Issues to Ponder

32

Preventing Safety and Liability Problems

35

Lesson Planning and Assessment Best Practices in Teaching

36

Methods That Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice and Integrating Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences

37

Classroom Instruction that Works: Research – Based Strategies

38

Ten Effective Classroom Practices

39

Harry Wong’s Assessment Strategies

40

Michigan Curriculum Frameworks Assessment Standards

41

A Checklist for Improving MEAP Scores

42

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Section 1: Getting Ready Organizational Checklist 1. Do you have keys?

11. Do you have a student handbook?

2. Is there a teacher supply budget?

12. Do you have a faculty handbook?

3. Do you have a building map?

13. Do you know the school policies?

4. Do you have any handicapped students?

14. Do you have a bell schedule?

5. Are classroom aides available? 6. How and where are classroom materials and texts obtained? 7 Where are the computers located? 8. Who is the technical support person? 9. Are there security procedures in your building? 10. Do you know procedures for: a. Teacher arrival/departure? b. Teacher absence call-in? c. Teacher substitute plans? d. Teacher parking? e. Lounge coffee / goodies?

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15. Do you have a district /school calendar? 14. Where are student files stored? 17. What procedures accompany access to these files? 18. What procedures accompany rules, consequences, detention, and make-up work? 19. Do you have bus students? 20. Do you know where students get on the busses ? 21. Do you know your class schedule?

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22. Are you expected to take attendance? Do you know the procedure? 23. What is the procedure for the morning arrival of students? Does it change after the first day? 24. Does the school have: a. a school nurse? b. counselors? c. daytime janitors? d. classroom aides? e. PTA? f. a crisis team? g. police officer? 25. Do you know where to: photocopy, laminate. order materials?

28. Do you have screens and maps? 29. Have you located all the electrical outlets? 30. Do you know what paperwork is required on the first day? Everyday? 31. Are your classroom expectations posted? 32. Do you have procedures for: a. Medical emergencies? b. Fights? c. Contacting parents? d. Record keeping? e. Storing $ in the room? f. Student hall passes? g. Using the restroom? h. Releasing students to adults?

26. Do you have enough textbooks? 33. Additional suggestions: 27. Do you have the necessary furniture ?

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Classroom Management Tips from: The First Days of School by Rosemary and Harry Wong

1. The number one problem in the classroom is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines. 2. Effective teachers present their rules clearly and provide reasonable expectations of the need for them. 3. The key to a good discipline plan is school-wide consistency. 4. The effective teacher INVESTS time in teaching discipline procedures; the ineffective teacher is anxious to start the textbook. 5. An effective discipline plan maximizes learning by minimizing classroom disturbances. 6. Effective teachers do not stop the lesson to deliver consequences. 7. Effective teachers communicate and work well with the home as collaborative partners. 8. Effective teachers have discipline plans that do not denigrate or degrade students.

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Activity #1 Design rules and consequences for the first day of school. If you will do this as a class, design the procedure for creating the rules.

Tips for rules: 1. Limit your list to three to six rules. 2. State rules in positive terms if possible. 3. Keep rules short, precise, and succinct to focus on specific behavior. 4. Post the rules and send a copy home. 5. Rules need to be taught, rehearsed, and reinforced to preserve student dignity.

A sample rule : Follow instructions 1. Look at your teacher when he / she is giving directions. 2. Do the task immediately without a second reminder. 3. Sit quietly and wait for the opportunity to ask questions if you don’t understand the directions. 4. Raise your hand and ask your question.

Tips for consequences: 1. Be clear/ specific/ and related to a rule. 2. Have a range of natural and logical alternatives. 3. Consequences should not be a punishment.

Discuss how you will: Explain, Rehearse, and reinforce these rules?

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Setting Goals for the First Days of School: When establishing your classroom expectations, remember that we must help students become responsible. The intent for creating and enforcing rules and procedures is to help students become self controlled and learn appropriate and productive life skills within a safe and orderly learning environment. Monitoring and encouraging appropriate student behavior is a critical part of our job. The activities of the first days of school should lead to specific goals. Here are three suggested categories:

A. Teacher gets to know students: 1. Review and conduct formal and informal diagnostic activities. 2. Actively engage all students in learning activities. 3. Monitor academic and social student activities. 4. Maintain a whole-group focus in instruction and review.

B. Students get to know the teacher and other students: 1. Teacher demonstrates personal interest in all students. 2. Students introduce themselves to each other. 3. Teacher designs simple yet meaningful activities to make students feel unique and successful. Use hands-on activities resulting in a product or a sense of group productivity is beneficial. 4. Foster an accepting climate. 5. Design student self-assessment activities.

C. Teacher acquaints students w/ classroom expectations Acquaint students with building, schedule, supplies, texts, & staff. 2. Explain, rehearse, & reinforce procedures, and attention signals. 3. Explain paperwork expectations and homework policy. 4. Demonstrate that the teacher is prepared and work purposeful. 5. Provide an overview of the curriculum to be studied. 6. Set year-long goals for the class.

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Activity #2 Design Getting Acquainted Activities for the First Days A. Primary Grades: 1. Fill in the blanks: Full name, favorite meal, favorite color, best friend, favorite game / sport, When I grow up I will be a ____. 2. Draw something that tells about your family. Use only circles. 3. Be ready to tell the names of the children in class that begin with B, P, or M. 4. Be ready to tell one playground, classroom, or lunch room rule.

B. Middle Elementary Grades: 1. Find someone in class who: Can whistle, has freckles, has red hair, is wearing yellow, likes pizza, has a great- grandpa, likes to play the piano, is left handed. 2. Each person has to sign their name next to the prompt. No one can sign twice.

C. Upper Elementary Grades: 1. Play Guess Who I am? Each student and the teacher write out index cards with biographical information and give it to the teacher. Students must guess who it is. 2. Count as far as you can in multiples of 7. 3. List the continents of the world 4. List 5 parts of the body above the neck with 3 letters.

D. Middle School: 1. Ask students to write a letter telling someone what they would do if they won $10,000. The only restriction is that they can only keep half. The other half must be given away. Have them explain who would get it and why. 2. Pick a choice and explain your choice. Are you a / an addition sign or subtraction sign? skateboard or roller blade? Reebock or Nike? pizza or burrito?

E. High School: 1. Fill out an interest inventory with age-appropriate questions. 2. Draw a cartoon to illustrate your choice for presidential candidate. 3. Write newspaper headlines to describe your summer. 4. List as many parts of a jet ski, 4 wheeler, or car as you can. 5. Write one kind of food beginning with each letter of the alphabet.

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Timesaver - Organizational Tips 1. Make a “to do” list every morning. Check off tasks as they are completed. 2. Expect to train students to hand papers in, right side up, with their names and student number at the top. Have a helper sort papers by student number. Have a basket, folder, or bin for each subject. 3. Assign each student a partner. Have this information available on the first day of school. When a student is absent, his/her partner is expected to gather notes, handouts, and assignments missed. 4. Plan to make assignment correcting an expedient process. Use an answer column along the right margin of the paper when doing math assignments or short answer assignments. Students can transfer answers to the right column. You can line up six papers at a time after this copying procedure is established. 5. Get some transparencies and an overhead projector. You may wish to put answers on a transparency to have students check homework while you take attendance etc. Transparencies photocopy well and the copy can be saved for absent students. You can date and save or reuse transparencies. They are great time savers. 6. Plan your board directions, notes, charts to read from the left to the right to avoid fragmentation and confusion for the students. Plan to designate one spot on the chalkboard for: warm-up activities, assignments, special classes, and daily activities. Try to avoid “board clutter”. Erase or wash the boards frequently. 7. Plan to write frequently used directions on charts or type up on an overhead transparency. Good idea for: paper headings, assignment guidelines, and report outlines. 8. Gather supplies and keep them tucked away. Include: PENCILS, calculator, markers, scissors, tape, band aids, aspirin, needle/thread, Handi wipes, Kleenex, note cards, stamps, glue stick etc. You may wish to identify these supplies with colored tape or marker.

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9. Plan to run off more copies of handouts than you need. Place extra copies in a “practice box” and file one for future reference. 10. Establish a filing system that suits your needs. Plan to re-file things ASAP. 11. Designate one day a week to send student work home to parents. 12. Design a bulletin board including special class schedules, announcements, lunch menus, or things a substitute teacher might need. 13. Design a sub folder. It will help you double check your first day procedures. 14. Design an Opening day / Open house letter. Some teachers include information needed for the first day of school or the first weeks of school. Students become excited about their new teacher and are anxious for the school year to begin. This letter may include: a. an introduction and a scanned photograph. b. Preferred classroom supplies c. Suggested reading selections d. Ways to contact the teacher / conference periods e. Upcoming school events f. Classroom expectations / rules / grading scale g. Opportunities for volunteers in your classroom h. Your school calendar i. Quarter or semester course syllabus* * middle or high school

Activity #3 Read 1-14. Pick out one tip to discuss and actually begin the design. Plan to share with your table any additional tips you know are time savers.

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Keys to Good Room Arrangement: A. Free high traffic areas of congestion: 1. Pencil sharpener 2. Trash cans 3. Supply areas

4. Teacher’s desk 5. Learning centers 6. Computer lab

B. Frequently used materials need to be readily accessible; 1. Classroom library 4. Projection equipment / screen 2. File folders/ storage cabinets 5. Every day and art supplies 3. Student personal belongings 6. Plant / pet care supplies C. Consider facing every student towards the instructional area in rows or groups at the beginning of the year to minimize distractions. D. Keep in mind these distractions: 1. Windows or doors 2. Animals or other interesting displays 3. Small group work areas. E. Locate the electrical outlets before you place desks or equipment.

Bulletin Board Ideas: A. Get the background for bulletin boards completed before school starts. Use non-fading paper, fabric, or wallpaper. B. Try to make re-usable or laminated letters. Take a picture for future reference. C. If you are doing student - initiated boards, have ideas ready: 1. Guess who? (Baby pictures) 4. Child of the week 2. Birthday board 5. Student name board 3. Welcome 6. Student work display

Activity #4 What are your guidelines for effective classroom management? Design your classroom layout to include where rules will be posted, where assignments will be posted, where make-up work could be located etc. The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

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Section 2: Classroom Management 1. Do you monitor student behavior? Use an “active eye”. Don’t get preoccupied with someone or something and ignore the rest of the class. Remember: one teacher on his / her feet is worth two on his/ her seat!

2. Are you Consistent? Have the same expectations for appropriate behavior all students. Remember that all consequences should be reasonable and appropriate.

3. Do you execute prompt management of inappropriate behavior? Deal with behavior in the least amount of time, with the least distraction, and the least negative feelings.

a. How do you use Eye Contact? Simply look the student directly in the eye for prolonged contact A nonverbal message says,” I saw what you did; I want it stopped.”

b. How do you use Proximity? This nonverbal message of closeness says, “I am in charge here, I need your attention.”

c. How do you effectively use a Pause? An occasional pause- just for a few seconds- can bring off-task students back into focus.

d. How do you use Touch / Gesture? This can be added to other strategies for emphasis.

e. How do students react when you Ask for a Response? Hearing your name can be an attention - getter. Say the student’s name first, in order to allow them to hear the question they are expected to answer. The purpose is to refocus, not to embarrass.

f. How do you Praise Appropriate Behavior / Use Rewards? Rewarding students with an enjoyable activity that is contingent on appropriate behavior can be effective in motivating students to commit to the completing of a task.

Activity #5 List several things you believe to be true about effective behavior management:

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Points to discuss with your mentor or group 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Is there a building discipline code / policy? Is there a detention policy? Is there a procedure for getting assistance from a principal counselor? When should the principal be involved? Can you keep students after school? What records are you expected to keep? When do you call the parent? Who in your building has experience handling severe problems? In order to be most effective, you need to find out what the limits and options for disciplinary action are for your building. Enlisting the assistance of parents is an important strategy to employ. Your approach will have much to do with the level of cooperation you might receive. Consider parents as part of the support for a mutually agreed upon solution to problems.

More Classroom Management Resources to Explore With Your Mentor or Professional Development Chair Staff Development Videos: “Defusing

Anger and Aggression: Safe Strategies for Secondary School Educators” – Geoff Colvin, Ph.D. (0rder from IRIS Media) 1-877-343-4747 “Managing Threats: A School wide Action Plan” – Geoff Colvin, Ph.D. (Order from IRIS Media) 1-877-343-4747 Staff Development Concept: Connecting Character to Content: Helping Students Do the Right Things by Rita Stein et al.

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Some Management Plans to Discuss: Discipline with Dignity (Sample A) Adapted from: Discipline: Winning at Teaching

by Barbara Coloroso.

Remember: Say what you mean! Mean what you say! Do what you said you would do!

To discipline with authority is to give life to learning. You’re worth it! Your students are worth it! Go for it!

Keep the rules simple: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Show up on time. Be prepared. Do assignments. Respect your own and other’s life spaces.

Steps in setting up a discipline structure: 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Daily use teaching strategies that promote trust, respect, and success. List decisions and responsibilities that belong to the teacher. List the responsibilities that belong to the students. Establish simple rules that the class can live with. Find logical and realistic consequences for rule violations. Set up an I.S.S. system in the school.

Six Critical Life Messages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I believe in you. I trust in you. I know you can handle it. You are listened to. You are cared for. You are very important to me.

All students need a safe place where they can be themselves and learn to know themselves. They need to learn that they are important, listened to, and cared for. In learning this, they are able to extend themselves in responsible and loving ways. In a safe classroom, where there is teacher and peer support, a student can relate more realistically, responsibly, and constructively with the environment, nurturing healthy self respect.

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Discipline Without Tears (Sample B) adapted from Dr. Rudolf Dreikurs /Pearl Cassel

Four Goals of Children’s Misbehavior: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Attention - getting Power Revenge Display of inadequacy

Observing your response may be in line with his expectations: 1. If teacher feels annoyed - indicates goal one 2. If teacher feels defeated or threatened - indicates goal two 3. If teacher feels deeply hurt - indicates goal three 4. If teacher feels helpless - indicates goal four Confrontation Technique: Teacher: Do you know what you did? Student: No

Teacher: I have some ideas that may be helpful. Are you willing to hear them? Student: Yes... no... usually curious

Teacher: (in a non judgmental / unemotional tone ask all 4 questions) 1. Could it be that you want special attention? 2. Could it be that you want your own way/ want to be boss? 3. Could it be that you want to hurt others as much as you feel hurt by them? 4. Could it be that you want to be left alone?

Conflict Solving: 1. Don’t fight, don’t give in. 2. Identify the nature of the conflict. 3. Extricate yourself from the problem. You are only able to control you. 4. Let everyone in the conflict participate in the decision-making. Points to remember: 1. Don’t lose your temper. You’ll lose the point. 2. Remember you are trying to win an agreement, not an argument. 3. Stay with the point, pursue your objective but don’t devastate. 4. Bargain in good faith. Your intelligence will tell you when you are bargaining, your conscience will reveal when you have good faith. 5. Don’t imply superior knowledge or power. 6. If you want the truth, give it. Say what you mean, mean what you say.

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Assertive Discipline (Sample C) adapted from Lee Canter

A. Assertive Teachers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Clearly and firmly express rules Say what they mean and mean what they say Will not tolerate misbehavior Define appropriate behavior Reinforce good behavior

B. Assertive Teachers use comfortable responses (I - messages): 1. 2.

3.

Identify the condition / behavior that is causing the problem for you. Teacher: “When you .... I am...” Pin down the concrete effect of the described behavior in the message’s first part. Teacher: “When you shoot paper airplanes across the room when I am teaching, I have to waste a lot of class time and often need to repeat the directions due to the interruption.” State the feelings generated by the tangible effect. Teacher: “When you shoot paper airplanes across the room when I am teaching, I have to waste a lot of class time and I feel disappointed because of my high expectations for mature behavior from this class.” (A warning has been suggested concerning “I - messages” where anger is the feeling expressed. Anger elicits anger. Anger is a secondary emotion. Anger is generated from frustration, fear, anxiety, disappointment, or hurt)

C. Assertive Teachers Use the Problem Solving Process: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Define the problem: what, when, how, how often? What is the goal? What is the price paid or reward for not solving the problem? How does the speaker feel about solving the problem? Explore the alternatives: What are alternative ways to solve the problem? What rewards and prices are attached to the alternatives? What are the feelings attached to he alternatives? Choosing an alternative and initial planning: What are the initial changes needed to reach to goal? How much success id needed to keep motivated and keep working on the problem? Final plans and testing out: What is the order of activities needed to accomplish the plan? What are the ways that could be used to avoid the problem? What are the fears about facing the problem and implementing the plan?

Assertiveness requires confidence, communication, and caring 1. 2. 3. 4.

Teacher has a problem Teacher clarifies feelings, and needs concerning conflict. Teacher generates alternative solutions Teacher chooses solution / action plan

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Limit Setting (Sample D) adapted from Fred Jones

The Technique: 1.

2.

3.

4.

Turn and Stare a. Terminate instruction with obvious gesture. b. Stand up straight and face students squarely. c. Keep arms at sides. d. Look students in the eye and do not break the stare. e. Do not smile. f. Take 2 cleansing breaths. (4 sec. in - 4 sec. out) g. Say students’ names quietly and calmly. h. Take 2 cleansing breaths. i. Wait a few seconds and observe if on task behavior returns. j. If they do, continue staring to make sure behavior continues. If they do not, follow through with “closing in”. Close In a. Walk slowly and purposefully toward student, stand directly in front of him. b. Look down at them, stare, and take 2 cleansing breaths. c. Wait for appropriate behavior. d. If behavior occurs, say “Thank you”; stay a little longer to see that it continues. (Fred calls this “warm emotions”) If behavior does not occur, give a prompt. Prompt a. Use broken record. “Please turn around.” (usually 3X max.) b. Stay calm; take cleansing breaths. c. If they comply, say, “Thank you”, and stay longer. (warm emotions) If they don’t comply, go to “palms down”. Palms Down a. Put your palms on the desk and stare. b. Stay calm, take cleansing breaths. c. Repeat prompt (broken record) d. Wait for compliance.

Remember: Catch misbehavior early! Prevent students from getting off the hook. At this point students will “mouth off” by making excuses, blaming someone else, ridiculing you or using profanity. The only useful response is to hold your ground and move slightly closer each time they start a new sentence. DO NOT engage in debate, repeat rules, arguments, or self justification. Take cleansing breaths and stare. Guard against a startle response in which you back off. When the student capitulates say, “Good” or “Thank you”. It serves as an olive branch. Let your emotions go from cold to warm.

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Five Tricky Personalities and How to Handle Them adapted from Bill Rodgers

Five personalities:

Chatterbox, Clinger, Boycotter, Debater, Sulker

A. The Chatterbox 1. Give a positive direction or reminder, followed by “Thanks”. 2. Choose your tone of voice / body language carefully indicating you expect compliance. 3. Try a strategic pause after using name. “Emma... (pause)” 4. Keep the focus on the primary issue (listening not talking) by knowing how to redirect attention restating the class rule on listening. B. The Clinger 1. Start with tactical ignoring, reinforcing expected behavior. 2. Combine request to stop demanding with simple directions / reminders with hand signals to reinforce class rule. 3. Give children alternatives, “Ask three before me”. C. The Boycotter 1. Give students a choice with consequences involved. (reinforce work responsibility) 2. Provide Take-up time (Take - up time = wait time you give for request. compliance) 3. Reestablish the relationship quietly to assure there are no grudges. D. The Debater 1. Distinguish primary and secondary behavior. (What really annoys you? Is it the tone? the interruption?, the words? the manner?) 2. Avoid unnecessary power struggles. (We can’t directly control the argumentative student, but we can control our reactions to the conflict.) 3. Remain assertive but civil. Redirect the student to the primary issue. Don’t capitulate to secondary behavior by discussion, argument, or adversial tactics. E. The Sulker 1. Schedule a follow-up chat (after school if necessary) to define behavior. 2. Time your invitation for a chat carefully 3. Keep your presentation positive. (Talk with, not talk at) 4. Offer to mirror the problem behavior.

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Activity #6 Brainstorm strategies for dealing with behaviors. Role Play the behavior and strategy for dealing with that behavior. 1. List behaviors of concern that you have discussed.

2. Brainstorm with your mentor / group strategies to deal with the behaviors listed.

3. Share with your table the behaviors and potential strategies.

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More Rewards and Consequences Ideas A. Rewards First of all, ask class to list rewards they value... Letter home, First in line, McDonalds stickers, great work board, Fun table, treasure chest, only odd problems on the next assignment, standing ovation, points, tokens, be the teacher’s aid, listen to music / tape / CD, change seat on seating chart, sit in special chair, wear special hat or badge, Tutor for the day, get a drink when you want, library pass, choose an activity, chose the order of activities, party, skip a homework assignment, work puzzles, word games, earn a free book or magazine, earn a pencil, pen, or marker, use a disposable camera to document the day, run the tape recorder or VCR, illustrate a class story or poem, student writes a note informing parent of the reward, and appropriate and sincere comments from the teacher or other students.

B. Consequences First of all, ask students to list consequences they expect... Call home, conference in the hall, zero on the assignment, loss of classroom privilege, wash desks, detention, keep after school, take points away, move seat, send to the office, loss of free time, ground for the last three minutes of class, change seat, name on the board, ignore, student will write a letter of apology, head down on desk, isolation, detention, sit out on a session, have parent sign the homework / test paper, have parent attend class, fix what the student broke, pick from the “Choose your consequence” box, student writes a letter to the parent describing behavior and consequence, Go out in the hall and start over, time out, watch the clock for one to five minutes.

Remember the suggestions from page 12 regarding consequence. Your goal is to be fair, but that might mean not applying the identical consequence for all situations. This takes experience and should be a part of your planning when creating a variety of consequences. Remember that all consequences should be reasonable and appropriate.

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Positive Classroom Management – a Focus on Developing Key Life Skills from Ragene Henry K. I. Sawyer Elementary School Gwinn, Michigan

Confidence Being qualified, knowing you can do what you have to do.

Perseverance Keep going when the going gets hard, not giving up.

Problem Solving Having the skill and will to find answers.

Effort Using your maximum energy to do things, trying your hardest.

Friendship Being a person who is liked and trusted by others.

Common Sense Using good judgment, being wise.

Curiosity Wanting to know and learn about the world.

Initiative Do something because it needs to be done, offering without being asked.

Responsibility Being reliable, trusted, and dependable.

Cooperation / teamwork Working together with others.

Integrity Honesty, act according to what’s right and what’s wrong.

Caring Being interested and concerned about others.

Patience Willing to wait for people or things.

Sense of Humor Finding laughter and joy in life.

Organization Being orderly, arranging your life to fit your needs.

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Section 3: Tips for Effective Communication 1.

Communicate as often as needed or desired.

2.

Be professional in dealing with parents. Avoid rumors and don’t gossip.

3.

Listen to parents, be respectful and positive.

4.

Involve parents and the student in the decision –making process.

5.

Use plain English, professional jargon is often misunderstood.

6.

Be direct with parents. Be clear in what you say. Think through, in advance what you will say. Make a list of topics you want to address.

7.

For documentation, keep a record or log of notes, phone calls, or a folder of communications from parents.

8.

Be sure to have someone like your mentor proofread any notes or newsletters going home to reflect the tone and clearness of the message. Remember: when in doubt, leave it out!

9.

Inform your principal of parent / student problems. This way the principal can be in a position to back you in case he/she receives an unexpected communication from a parent. 11.

Be assertive, yet flexible enough to take appropriate suggestions from others.

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How to Deal with Difficult Parents adapted from Home and School’s 1997 “Middle Years” Magazine

1. Use the personal approach - Respect their difficult job of parenting. Ask yourself, “How would I like to be treated?” Let parents know you need to work together. 2. See parents as caring – not just angry – It helps to remember that most parents, even angry ones, are concerned about their children’s education. 3. Schedule appointments for visits – If a parent shows up unannounced, try to be gracious, smile, listen for a minute, and then schedule a conference. 4. Stay cool under fire - Your calm, controlled, quiet, and firm tone of voice will often be enough to soothe an irate parent to where rational discussion can begin. 5. Turn arguments into discussions – Let parents talk without interruption. Acknowledge any points that they have made that you know are true. Admitting your mistakes may be uncomfortable, but that may diffuse anger. 6. Outline parent concerns in writing – Taking good notes helps document your meeting. If possible find the key points and discuss them individually. Ask questions for clarification. When you finish, summarize the main points to see if they are accurate. 7. Invite a colleague if you expect trouble – Always hold the conference in school, during hours when other staff is in the building. When you use the team approach, discuss in advance how you will handle the situation and the roles you each will play. The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

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8. If you feel abused. – If anger does not abate despite your calm efforts, say,” I’m very uncomfortable with the way you are speaking to me. Perhaps we will not be able to continue today. I’d be glad to set up an appointment for another meeting when everyone is calmer.” If you feel physically threatened, get help or even call the police.

Tips for Parent Conferences 1. Make clear the four purposes of a conference: a. information getting b. information giving c. joint problem-solving d. development of mutual trust 2. Let parents see first-hand how their child is doing: a. work samples b. organized examples record keeping and grading c. protected confidentiality of their child’s grades 3. Ask the parent’s perception of the child’s strengths and weaknesses. 4. Establish a rapport by making your first statement positive. 5. Do not compare students, classes, or other schools. 6. Take notes for follow-up. Do what you said you would do. 7. Don’t let a parent berate you. 8. Try to end the conference on a happy note. 9. Stick to the conference schedule. 10. After the conference is over ask yourself these questions. a. How well prepared was I? b. How well did I use my time? c. Did I start on a positive note? d. Did I listen attentively? The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

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e. Did I involve parents? f. Were follow-up plans made? g. Did I gain insights? 11. Did I use more positive expressions like: a. Complacent, not challenged vs. lazy b. Tendency to stretch the truth vs. liar c. Has difficulty getting along with others vs. mean d. Uses inappropriate language vs. vulgar & profane

Student – Led Conferences (A Win / Win Approach) The student-led conference offers great potential for students to demonstrate understanding of classroom goals and expectations. Students can showcase individual strengths. Each assignment has authenticity as it is a potential reflection of learning and understanding. The student has ownership in the communication process as the most active participant. If changes are to occur in student behavior or productivity, the student has an opportunity to state intentions towards those changes.

A Sample Student Conference Plan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Read a book, paragraph, story, essay, or report. Share My Poetry / Reflective Journal, Writing Portfolio, Art Share my group project and our planning sheets Share my quality work in my work portfolio Share my work Intend to revise for publication

Sample Questions for Parents to Ask During S – L Conferences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

What are the main things you hope to accomplish this year? What is your favorite piece of work? Why? Describe your favorite activities or subjects. What experiences at school do you find the most satisfying? What activities or subjects are hard for you? Why? Does anything frustrate you? What are the most important things you’re learning this year? What are some things you can’t do yet but hope to do?

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Evaluating Students There are many ways to inform students and parents of the student’s progress in school. It is important to have this kind of communication with the students and parents long before the first report card goes home. Some methods of reporting 1. Notes sent home 2. Checked and returned work 3. Send home results from standardized testing 4. Telephone (report outstanding performance as well as concerns) 5. Progress reports 6. Teacher – student conference 7. Parent – teacher conference 8. Student – led conference w/ parent 9. Prepare checklists for expected behaviors. :

Activity #8 Design or share checklists for evaluating, recording and/or reporting growth in expected behaviors and learning tasks that would be helpful during a student / teacher / parent conference.

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Teacher – Self Evaluation Activity # 9 Use a separate piece of paper to complete this inventory.

Reflect

upon your current management situation.

Diagnostic Checklist for Classroom Management adapted from Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers by Evertson et al

1. Re-evaluate your room arrangement

Y/N

a. Does congestion often occur in certain areas of the room? ______ b. Are traffic lanes blocked by desks or other furniture? ______ c. Do students in small groups or stations distract nearby students? ______ d. Are all students visible from anywhere in the room as you teach? ______ e. Can students see all instructional displays without straining? Or moving their chairs? ______ f. Are students who need attention seated where you can help them? ______ g. Do some students frequently bother others near them? ______

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2. Review your rules and procedures for student conduct a. Have you stopped enforcing one or more of your rules? ______ b. Are your major class procedures being followed without prompting? ______ c. Is some student behavior occurring that is not covered? By your current procedures? ______ d. Are the same directions given repeatedly for some common procedure? ______ e. Are you spending as much time going over directions now as at the beginning of the year? ______

3. Review your accountability procedures a. Do many students fail to complete assignments? ______ b. Is much student work messy and illegible? ______ c. Are students completing work on time? Are you giving extensions? ______ d. Do students claim they didn’t know an assignment was due? ______ e. Do students claim they didn’t know what the assignment requirements? ______ f. After grades are given, do students complain they don’t know why? They received a particular grade? ______

4. List consequences for appropriate and inappropriate behavior

Y/N

a. Do you always reward positive student behavior including effort? In a variety of ways? ______ b. Are your rewards still attractive or have students tied of them? ______ c. Do you find yourself assessing penalties more, rewarding less? ______

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d. Are you warning and threatening frequently and failing to follow through when students continue to misbehave? ______ e. Have your penalties lost their deterrent value from overuse? ______ f. Does administering your reward / penalty system take too much time? ______

5. Early detection and stopping misbehavior from becoming worse a. Do you tend to notice misbehavior after it involves several students? _____ b. Is the class noisy when you are working one-on-one / small group? ______ c. Is there so much inappropriate behavior; you don’t know where to start? ______ d. Do you sometimes find that students have hardly begun an assignment? When the assignment should be completed? ______ e. Do you have the feeling some misbehave to gain attention? ______

6. Review the management of your instructional activities a. Do students frequently become confused about work requirements? ______ b. Do students fail to follow directions even if posted on the board? ______ c. Do you often discover that students have not understood your instructions and therefore cannot do the work? ______ d. Are transitions from one activity to another taking too long? ______ e. Is there widespread misbehavior during transitions? ______ f. Do you notice students require more time than you give them? ______ g. Is there constant demand for sponge activities and fillers? ______ h. Is the performance of many students below grade level? ______ i. Are some students so fast finishing work that they get bored and bother other students? ______ j. Does a relatively small group of students monopolize class discussions? ______ k. Are a few students so far behind that you have given up on them? ______

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Section #4: Special Education and Legal Issues Individualized Education Programs (IEP) IEP’s are important to provide appropriate educational practices and opportunities for special needs students. It is important to review the IEP forms early in the school year to adjust teaching practices to comply with the prescribed plan for the special needs students. It is important to ask where the forms are kept and what procedures are involved in meeting individual student needs. What must an IEP include? A student profile and progress evaluation The student’s present level of educational performance Annual educational goals Short – term objectives for these goals A description of the educational services to be provided Initial starting date and anticipated duration of services A transition plan for the student and the related services The percentage of time in a general classroom Special instructional media and materials needed Service providers with primary responsibility for student Justification for educational placement Parent consent signature Plans for an evaluation review Who is required by law to attend IEP meetings? A school representative, other than the teacher Parents or guardians The student The student’s general classroom teacher

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Others whom the school or parents believe can help develop the IEP

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 is part of a civil rights statute, not a special education law like the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Section 504 prohibits discrimination on the basis of handicap by any entity that receives federal financial assistance. An individual with a disability (handicap) is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity, has a record of the impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment. Major life activities include functions as caring for self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning and working. Your school district is required to address the needs of these students by conducting evaluations and planning a free appropriate public education that will be implemented in the least restrictive setting. School districts are required to provide adjustments and / or adaptations of teaching practices which may include: 1. Providing a structured learning environment 2. Repeating and simplifying instructions 3. Supplementing verbal instructions with visual instructions 4. Using behavioral management techniques 5. Adjusting class schedules 6. Using tape recorders, computers, & other audio-visual equipment 7. Selecting modified textbooks or workbooks 8. Tailoring assignments to meet student abilities 9. Using one-on-one tutorials 10. Using classroom aides or note – takers 11. Adjusting of nonacademic times like lunch or recess

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Check with your administration to see what forms are necessary for referral for evaluation of a suspected special needs student. The school counselor or Special Education coordinator will know which referral forms your district uses. The testing process can be lengthy. In the meanwhile, try some suggested strategies for adjusting your lessons.

Accommodations Needed for Students to Succeed in General Education Classrooms Adapted from IEP Team Manual – Resource from Dr. Laura Reissner

Pacing: 1. Adjust deadlines 2. Vary activities 3. Omit assignments that require copying 4. Adjust amount of work required to meet IEP plan 5. Provide home set of text / materials for preview or review Environment: 1. Plan seating strategically 2. Alter physical room arrangements 3. Reduce distractions 4. Teach positive rules for use of space Assignments: 1. Give directions in small distinct steps 2. Provide print copy for oral directions 3. Reduce difficulty level 4. Shorten or otherwise adapt assignments 5. Reduce pencil and paper tasks 6. Read or tape-record directions 7. Give extra cues or prompts 8. Allow the student to record or type assignment Materials: 1. Different arrangement of material on The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

the page. 2. Note taking assistance or copy the lecture notes. 3. Use supplemental materials 4. Taped text and / or other materials Presentation of Student Matter: 1. Teach to the student’s learning style 2. Use individual or small group instruction 3. Tape lectures / discussions to replay later 4. Provide study notes 5. Present demonstrations 6. Utilize manipulatives 7. Highlight critical on formation 8. Pre-teach vocabulary 9. Reduce reading level of the assignment Self-Management: 1. Follow visual daily schedule teacher posts for student 2. Use calendars 3. Check often for understanding / review 4. Request parent reinforcement 5. Have student repeat the directions 6. Teach study skills 7. Use study sheets to organize materials New Teacher Resource Guide

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Testing Adaptations: 1. Oral responses 2. Taped questions or directions 3. Application in real setting 4. Resource person administer or read test to the student

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Preview test language Extend time frame Short answer Multiple choice Modified test format

Legal Issues to Ponder Adapted from Physical Education Methods for Classroom Teachers by Bonnie Pettifor

Playground Hazards and Safety Measures: 1. Equipment The size and type of equipment should meet the developmental needs of the children. Will large students be colliding with smaller ones? 2. Surfaces Surfaces under and around climbing and moving equipment should be soft and absorbent. (wood chips?) Is the ground free from glass/ sharp stones? 3. Fall Zones Fall zones are the areas onto which a child may fall from a piece of equipment. These surfaces should be cushioned appropriately. 4. Entrapment Be aware of angles or openings in which a child’s head or other body part could become trapped. Like angles of less than 55 degrees where two pieces of wood or metal join should be covered. 5. Clothing Entanglement Parts of a moving apparatus that a child can access and parts next to sliding surfaces such as ladders and handrails are potentials for danger. Be alert if a child is wearing clothing with drawstrings or a long scarf. 6. “Ouch” Places These include anything sharp like points, corners, or edges. Also these are things that could pinch, crush, protrude, or project. Gliders, see-saws, and merry-go-rounds are examples of these.

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How Do Children Play? Adapted from Physical Education Methods for Classroom Teachers by Bonnie Pettifor

Young children tend to explore, run without looking, use manipulative materials, and play by themselves. Older children tend to challenge their physical abilities. They also like to use equipment in ways it was not intended to be used. Falls from the top of tall equipment are more likely with older children. Eye control requires vigilance... no visiting while on playground duty! There is a tendency to break more rules when no one is looking. You will be able to be proactive and more alert to danger if you are scanning the group. Playing with one or two children or pushing them on a swing distracts your vigilance. Limit the number of children on equipment. If it seems like children are bumping into one another, the piece of equipment is too crowded. Proximity control will work if you are moving. Stay near children as you move continuously about the area. If there seems to be potential for danger, remember the saying, “Divide and Conquer!” Your presence may prevent a potentially dangerous situation before an injury occurs.

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Ensuring A Safe / Orderly Environment Begins with: Me Adapted from Physical Education Methods for Classroom Teachers by Bonnie Pettifor

Do I use strategies that deal with behavior in the least amount of time, with the least amount of distraction, and the least amount of negative feelings? Do I go over procedures? / post the rules? Do I let students know what I expect? Do I monitor student behavior? Am I consistent? Do I use eye contact? (This says, “I saw what you did and I want it stopped!”) Do I use proximity? (Do I move students immediately?) Do I know the student’s names so I can use their name to get their attention? Do I use praise for appropriate behavior? Do I start fresh everyday or hold grudges?

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Do I listen when students talk to me? Do I have the proper discipline / report forms handy? Do I know the rules and consequences by heart? Do I ever say,” Shut up!” or use vulgar language? Do I use putdowns to try to control students?

Preventing Safety and Liability Problems Adapted from Physical Education Methods for Classroom Teachers by Bonnie Pettifor

1. Districts have a duty to write explicit policy statements to identify the serious infractions that may result in punishment, expulsion, or other punishment. 2. Districts have a duty to provide proper instruction for playground use and bus transportation. 3. Districts have a duty to provide a safe play environment and safe busses. Tort Liability: Negligence A tort is a civil wrong (which may include criminal) that caused harm to a person or property for which the courts will provide a remedy. (usually damages) A tort will always include the following elements: 1. Duty and Standard of Care What was the intent? Did you have knowledge? Were you reckless? Were you negligent? 2. Breach of Duty A failure to satisfy the relevant duty of care

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3. Proximate Cause Did my behavior result in harm to the student? If I were more vigilant or proactive, would this have happened? Was my negligence the last negligent act that preceded and contributed to the injury? 4. Injury and Damages The student sustained an actual injury, one that can be measured in monetary terms.

Section #5 Lesson Planning and Assessment Best Practices in Teaching include: adapted from “Teaching and Learning: A Shift in Emphasis” More of... 1. Experiential, inductive, hands-on learning

Less of... 1. Whole class, teacher-directed instruction, lecturing

2. Active learning in the classroom

2. Student passivity, sitting, listening,

3. Higher-order thinking, key concept learning

3. Fill-in-the-blank, dittos, workbook

4. Expecting student movement, talking, collaborating

4. Prizing/rewarding silence in classroom

5. Time devoted to reading whole books, original writing, and nonfiction materials

5 Student time spent reading textbooks & basal readers

6. Application of concepts to demonstrate knowledge and understanding

6. Rote memorization of facts and details

7. Heterogeneously grouped students, where 7. Tracking or ability grouped levels individual needs are met through individualized activities, not segregation of bodies 8. Delivery of special help to students in regular classrooms

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8. Use of pull-out special programs

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9. Attention to affective needs and the varying cognitive styles of individual students

9. Teaching to one cognitive style of learning

10. Reliance upon alternative forms of assessment to include teacher’s qualitative or anecdotal observation

10. Use of and reliance on standardized tests

Methods That Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice By M. Bizar and Harvey Daniels

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Integrative Units Small Group Activities Representing to Learn Classroom Workshop Authentic Experiences Reflective Assessment

So Each May learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences By Harvey R. Silver et al. “In developing (the theory of Multiple Intelligences) I did not start with an examination of existing tests… I was not interested in predicting success or failure in school…Instead, my initial intuition that there were different kinds of minds, led me to sample the range of cognitive end-states that might help us to progress in explaining how these different competencies develop.” Howard Gardner (Gardner, 1987, p. 80)

How the authors integrated multiple intelligences and learning styles: 1.

Silver, Strong, and Perini divided all eight intelligences into mastery ( a sensing – thinking perception preference), interpersonal strengths ( a sensing – feeling judgement preference), understanding (an intuitive-thinking perception preference), and self expression (an intuitive – feeling judgement preference).

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2. 3.

They match real world applications and vocations to each intelligence. They collected products each individual with a particular style-intellegence ability might create.

Curriculum Auditing and Realignment Suggestions: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Think about a lesson you have planned. Identify the standards you are addressing List the assessment tasks, processing activities, and instructional episodes students will engage in throughout the unit. Use the Learning Styles-Multiple intelligences Matrix to adjust those styles and intellegences you are already addressing in your curriculum. Based on your intelligences, generate some ideas on what kinds of intelligences and styles you need to address.

Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increased Student Achievement by Robert J. Marzano et al. The instructional strategies selected for publication in this book this book were obtained by researchers at Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). For more information see http://www.McREL.org/resources .

Nine Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement: 1. Identifying similarities and differences. a. Comparing b. Classifying c. Creating metaphors d. Creating analogies 2. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition a. Effort and achievement rubrics b. Guidelines for effective praise (what is/ is not effective) c. Influence of abstract vs. tangible rewards 3. Homework and practice a. Amount of homework b. Parent involvement c. Purpose of homework needs to be identified and articulated d. Establish and communicate a homework policy The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

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e. Design practice assignments that focus on specific elements of a complex skill or process 4. Nonlinguistic representations a. Create graphic organizers b. Make physical models c. Generate mental pictures d. Draw pictures and pictographs e. Engage in kinesthetic activity 5. Cooperative learning a. Positive interdependence b. Face - to – face promotive interaction c. Individual and group accountability d. Interpersonal and small group skills e. Group processing 6. Setting objectives and providing feedback a. Specific but flexible goals b. Designing contracts c. Feedback should be corrective and reflective in nature d. Feedback should be timely and specific to a criterion 7. Use a variety of structured tasks to guide students through generating and testing hypotheses a. Hypotheses generation can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner. b. Teachers should ask students to explain hypotheses and conclusions 8. Questions, cues, and advance organizers a. Cues should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual b. “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning c. Wait time has the effect of increasing the depth of student answers d. Advanced organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized. 9. Summarizing and note taking a. Narrative summaries b. Definition summaries c. Problem / solution summaries The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

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d. Reciprocal Teaching (students act as teacher) e. Teacher – prepared notes for the outline f. webbing

Ten Effective Classroom Teaching Practices Material from Shirley Rice – Gwinn Area Schools

1. Know the state standards and benchmarks for the content areas you teach. 2. Use higher level thinking skills of evaluation, synthesis, analysis and metacognition. 3. Use effective teaching strategies throughout the year. 4. Connect learning to real life authentic experience. 5. Familiarize students with content area vocabulary as reflected in the Content Standards and Benchmarks. 6. Teach for transfer across the curriculum. 7. Help students use support materials and teaching tools appropriately. 8. Write in ALL content areas. Know and use scoring rubrics. 9. Create a comfortable testing environment. 10. Develop familiarity with the MEAP for all K-12 staff and administrators.

Ineffective and Inappropriate Practices to Avoid 1. Teaching MEAP as a separate entity in isolation from the K-12 curriculum. 2. Teacher Not providing opportunities to write on a regular basis throughout the year. 3. Teacher Not using current learning research to design, implement and evaluate instruction 4. Providing vocabulary words / definitions right before the test. 5. Teacher Not using graphs, charts, and other graphic organizers in classroom activities. 6. Teacher Not being familiar with test formats and directions. 7. Teacher Not introducing students to test-taking strategies and best practices.

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8. Teacher using grading, scoring practices, and rubrics that are unclear to students and parents. 9. Using substitute teachers to administer tests. 10. Teacher giving students the tools like calculators to use on the test without support throughout the school year.

Harry Wong’s Assessment Strategies adapted from “The First Days of School”

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Seven Assessment Standards Michigan Curriculum Frameworks - MDE 1. Organization of Information: a. Organize ideas by categorizing, connecting, showing relationships among ideas b. Interpret ideas by using pictures, symbols, create a metaphor or poem. c. Explain ideas by translating and articulating key points into own words. (Speeches, drama enactment, essays, letters, debates) d. Evaluate ideas by comparing them to others or supporting them. (Position papers, debate, Venn diagrams)

2. Consideration of Alternatives: Students are asked to explore alternative solutions, strategies, perspectives, or points of view in addressing the concept, problem, or issue. (journal entries, listing, role playing, extended response prompts, “minds-on in place of hands-on”)

3. Disciplinary Content: Students are asked to show understanding and / or use ideas, theories or perspectives considered central to an academic professional discipline. Use the Social Studies and/or language arts content standards for guidance.) Ask yourself: - What are the central concepts to be learned by the end of the study? - What are the central concepts to be learned daily? - How might students demonstrate understanding of these concepts? The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

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- How will I judge student levels of learning of these concepts? 4. Disciplinary Process: Students are asked to use methods of inquiry, research, or communication characteristic of an academic or professional discipline. (Students research, collaborate, or study facts before reporting / preparing a project.)

5. Elaborated Written Communication: Consider the author’s purpose, audience, and form. Form to consider: - Journals (written to capture personal thoughts) writing remains in draft form - Letters (written to communicate) writing is revised and edited - Personal narrative (written to explore own memories) revised / edited - Biographical / autobiographical (story of someone’s life) revised / edited - Narrative (fiction writing following a story structure w/ plot, character, setting, conflict, point of view) revised / edited - Expository (nonfiction writing meant to share information) revised / edited - Persuasive (author takes a position and attempts to persuade others’ opinion) - Poetry (captures images, emotions in free form, rhyme, or patterns) revised - Multi-genre papers (a combination of some of the above) revised 6. Problem Connected to the World Beyond the Classroom: Students are asked to address a concept, problem or issue that is similar to the one that they are encountering or are likely to encounter outside the classroom. (Search within his/her own experiences or revisit world or historically known events) 7. Audience Beyond School: Students are asked to communicate their knowledge, present a product or performance or take some action for an audience beyond the teacher, classroom, or school building. Ask yourself: -What is the purpose of having students present beyond the classroom? -Who might be interested in hearing from the students on this topic? -What response do you anticipate from this audience beyond the classroom? -How would your students present these topics? (exhibits? drama? book?)

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A Checklist for Improving Your Students’ MEAP Scores adapted from “Improve Your MEAP Scores - Get Them Up Now! “by Dr. E.A. Bauer and Dr. G. Blackburn

Analyzing MEAP Results 1.__ Have you reviewed and analyzed your 2002 MEAP results?

8.__ Have you been taught to write MEAP like items for lessons you teach so that students will be familiar with the MEAP format and prompts?

2.__ Are there specific skills your students lack? 3.__ Is there specific content your students don’t know? 4.__ Are the specific areas covered on MEAP taught in your applied curriculum? 5.__ Do you use classroom discussions and class work to prepare students for the content on MEAP? 6.__ Have you examined and considered using commercially produced MEAP preparation materials? 7.__ Have you prepared and used district developed MEAP prepared practice materials?

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Attitudes Toward Taking the MEAP Test 1. __ Do teachers and administrators exhibit positive attitudes about the importance of MEAP? 2. __ Are all teachers supporting the effort to increase MEAP scores? 3. __ Are parents informed about the importance of the MEAP test? 4. __ Are students encouraged to do their best? Do they understand that this means they must work hard throughout the entire test?

5. __ Are your students familiar with the item format of MEAP in reading, math, social studies, and science? 6. __ Do you instruct students to read the entire item, do the work, and THEN look for the answer? 7. __ Do you instruct students on how to fill in the answer sheet? 8. __ Are students taught how to use answers to items to check and validate answers to relate items?

5. __ Have you considered the use of incentive?

9. __ Have students been taught to identify central themes or key questions in reading or content selections that may set up a logical framework for many items on the MEAP test?

6.__ Are students promised that they will receive systematic feedback on their results?

10.__Have students been given practice on open ended items (constructed responses)?

Testing Conditions 1. __ Do you carefully consider the physical setting for administering the test?

Preparing Students to Take the Test (Test Taking Skills) 1. __ Do students know what is expected of them on the MEAP test? 2. __ Are there specific testing concepts or vocabulary terms your students lack? 3. __ Are your students taught to avoid making predictable errors? 4. __ Are your students familiar with graphics / charts similar to those on the MEAP?

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2. __ Have you created the optimum testing environment for the MEAP test? 3. __ Do you provide rest breaks during the test? 4. __ Have you chosen time periods where the students will be alert? 5. __ Have you avoided large group administration of the test where students feel like they are a part of a herd rather than in a setting where serious testing is being administered?

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6. __ Have you surveyed the students who take the test and asked what they liked and what didn’t like about the testing conditions?

7. __ Have you changed your testing procedures and setting accordingly based on the survey given?

References Bailey, Jane, et al. Mentor and New Teacher Resource Book , Charlevoix, MI: Charlevoix - Emmet Intermediate School District, 1997. Bauer, Ernest A. and Guy Blackburn. “Improve Your MEAP Scores - Get Them Up Now!”.Oakland Schools. 1996.

“Best Practices in Teaching”. Northern Michigan Strategic Reading and Writing Project. NLM-LTLC and UPCED. 1996 - 1997. Bizar, M.and Harvey Daniels. Methods that Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice Classrooms. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. 1998.

Canter,L. & Marlene Canter. Assertive Discipline: A Take-Charge Approach for Today’s Educator, Seal Beach, CA: Canter and Associates. 1976. Coloroso, Barbara. Discipline: Winning at Teaching. 1983. Dreikurs, R., & Pearl Cassel. Discipline Without Tears. New York: Hawthorne Books. 1972. Evertson, Carolyn, et al. Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers, Toronto, Ontario: Allyn and Bacon. 1994. The Upper Peninsula Mentoring Project

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Gardner, H. “Multiple Intelligences as a Partner in School Improvement”. Educational Leadership, 20-21. 1997. Henry, Ragene. “Positive Classroom Management: Developing Key Life Skills”. Gwinn Area Schools. 2001. Individualized Education Program. Marquette-Alger Intermediate School District. 1998. Jones, F.H. Positive Classroom Discipline. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1997.

Marzano, Robert J., et al. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2001. McTighe, Jay and Steven Ferrara. “Assessing Learning in the Classroom”. National Education Association of the Michigan Curriculum Framework. Michigan Department of Education. 1996. Michigan Curriculum Framework. Michigan Department of Education. 1996. Middle Years, Front Royal, VA: Resources for Educators, Inc, 1997. Parks, Beblon. “Seven Time-Management Sanity Savers”. Scholastic, Available at http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/classmgmt/time manage.htm. Pettifor, Bonnie. Physical Education methods for Classroom teachers. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1999. “Positive Reinforcement”, Peterborough, Ontario: Peterborough - Victoria – Northcumberland - Clarington Schools, 1998. Potter, Sheila. “A Process For Integrating The Curriculum: Standards - Based Units of Instruction”. Michigan Department of Education. 1998. Rodgers, Bill. “Five Tricky Personalities - and How to Handle Them”. Scholastic, http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/classmagmt/trickypersons.htm.

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Strong, Harvey F., R.,H.,Silver, and M. Perini. So Each May Learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2000. “Teaching and Learning: A Shift in Emphasis: Common Conclusions across the Michigan Content Standards” Stoneham, MA: Learning Innovations. 1999. Wong, Harry K. and Rosemary T. How to Be an Effective Teacher: The First Days of School , Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc, 1998.

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