OASIcs-WCET-2016-0.pdf - DROPS - Schloss Dagstuhl

OASIcs-WCET-2016-0.pdf - DROPS - Schloss Dagstuhl

16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis WCET 2016, July 5, 2016, Toulouse, France Edited by Martin Schoeberl OA S I c s –...

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16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis WCET 2016, July 5, 2016, Toulouse, France

Edited by

Martin Schoeberl

OA S I c s – Vo l . 5 5 – WC E T 2 0 1 6

www.dagstuhl.de/oasics

Editor Martin Schoeberl Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science Technical University of Denmark Lyngby Denmark [email protected]

ACM Classification 1998 B.8.2 Performance Analysis and Design Aids, C.3 Real-Time and Embedded systems, D.2.4 Software/Program Verification, D.4.7 [Organization and Design] Real-time Systems and Embedded Systems

ISBN 978-3-95977-025-5 Published online and open access by Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing, Saarbrücken/Wadern, Germany. Online available at http://www.dagstuhl.de/dagpub/978-3-95977-025-5. Publication date December, 2016

Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de. License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC-BY 3.0): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode. In brief, this license authorizes each and everybody to share (to copy, distribute and transmit) the work under the following conditions, without impairing or restricting the authors’ moral rights: Attribution: The work must be attributed to its authors. The copyright is retained by the corresponding authors.

Digital Object Identifier: 10.4230/WCET.2016.0

ISBN 978-3-95977-025-5

ISSN 1868-8969

http://www.dagstuhl.de/oasics

0:iii

OASIcs – OpenAccess Series in Informatics OASIcs aims at a suitable publication venue to publish peer-reviewed collections of papers emerging from a scientific event. OASIcs volumes are published according to the principle of Open Access, i.e., they are available online and free of charge.

Editorial Board Daniel Cremers (TU München, Germany) Barbara Hammer (Universität Bielefeld, Germany) Marc Langheinrich (Università della Svizzera Italiana – Lugano, Switzerland) Dorothea Wagner (Editor-in-Chief, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Germany)

ISSN 2190-6807

http://www.dagstuhl.de/oasics

WC E T 2 0 1 6

Contents Preface Martin Schoeberl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

List of Authors ................................................................................

ix

Committee ................................................................................

xi

Regular Papers Mitigating Software-Instrumentation Cache Effects in Measurement-Based Timing Analysis Enrique Díaz, Jaume Abella, Enrico Mezzetti, Irune Agirre, Mikel Azkarate-Askasua, Tullio Vardanega, and Francisco J. Cazorla . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1:1–1:11

TACLeBench: A Benchmark Collection to Support Worst-Case Execution Time Research Heiko Falk, Sebastian Altmeyer, Peter Hellinckx, Björn Lisper, Wolfgang Puffitsch, Christine Rochange, Martin Schoeberl, Rasmus Bo Sørensen, Peter Wägemann, and Simon Wegener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2:1–2:10

Expressing and Exploiting Conflicts over Paths in WCET Analysis Vincent Mussot, Jordy Ruiz, Pascal Sotin, Marianne de Michiel, and Hugues Cassé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3:1–3:11

Continuous Non-Intrusive Hybrid WCET Estimation Using Waypoint Graphs Boris Dreyer, Christian Hochberger, Alexander Lange, Simon Wegener, and Alexander Weiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4:1–4:11

Eager Stack Cache Memory Transfers Amine Naji and Florian Brandner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5:1–5:11

The Variability of Application Execution Times on a Multi-Core Platform Vincent Nélis, Patrick Meumeu Yomsi, and Luís Miguel Pinho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6:1–6:11

BEST: a Binary Executable Slicing Tool Armel Mangean, Jean-Luc Béchennec, Mikaël Briday, and Sébastien Faucou . . . . .

7:1–7:10

Dynamic Branch Resolution Based on Combined Static Analyses Wei-Tsun Sun and Hugues Cassé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8:1–8:10

Measurement-Based Timing Analysis of the AURIX Caches Leonidas Kosmidis, Davide Compagnin, David Morales, Enrico Mezzetti, Eduardo Quinones, Jaume Abella, Tullio Vardanega, and Francisco J. Cazorla . . .

9:1–9:11

Employing MPI Collectives for Timing Analysis on Embedded Multi-Cores Martin Frieb, Alexander Stegmeier, Jörg Mische, and Theo Ungerer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1–10:11

16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Editor: Martin Schoeberl Open Access Series in Informatics Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany

0:vi

Contents

Parallel Real-Time Tasks, as Viewed by WCET Analysis and Task Scheduling Approaches Christine Rochange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1–11:11 Understanding Shared Memory Bank Access Interference in Multi-Core Avionics Andreas Löfwenmark and Simin Nadjm-Tehrani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:1–12:11

Preface It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). This year we had 20 paper submitted. Each paper was reviewed by four members of the program committee. From those 20 papers we selected 12 papers for presentation at the workshop and publication in the proceedings. The proceedings of WCET 2016 will be published through the Schloss Dagstuhl’s OASIcs online proceedings series, as they were in the last years. I would like to thank all authors for their contribution to WCET 2016 and all program committee members for their insightful and helpful reviews. This year’s WCET workshop received financial support by the EU COST Action IC1202: Timing Analysis on Code-Level (TACLe) and by the COST Office, which is highly appreciated. WCET 2016 is being organized as satellite workshop of the 28th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2016). I am therefore grateful to the ECRTS 2016 general chair, Christian Fraboul, his local team, and the Real-Time Technical Committee Chair of Euromicro, Gerhard Fohler, for their support. I hope that you will find this program interesting and maybe triggering new ideas. I wish you informative and exciting sessions and and stimulating discussions during and between the sessions to share ideas with other researchers and practitioners.

Martin Schoeberl Program Chair, July, 2016

16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Editor: Martin Schoeberl Open Access Series in Informatics Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany

List of Authors Jaume Abella

Wolfgang Puffitsch

Irune Agirre

Eduardo Quiñenones

Mikel Azkarate-Askasua

Christine Rochange

Sebastian Altmeyer

Jordy Ruiz

Jean-Luc Béchennec

Martin Schoeberl

Florian Brandner

Pascal Sotin

Hugues Cassé

Alexander Stegmeier

Francisco J Cazorla

Rasmus Bo Sørensen

Davide Compagnin

Wei-Tsun Sun

Enrique Diaz

Theo Ungerer

Boris Dreyer

Tullio Vardanega

Heiko Falk Sebastien Faucou Martin Frieb Peter Hellinckx

Peter Waegemann Simon Wegener Alexander Weiss Patrick Meumeu Yomsi

Christian Hochberger Leonidas Kosmidis Alexander Lange Bjorn Lisper Andreas Löfwenmark Armel Mangean Enrico Mezzetti Marianne de Michiel Briday Mikaël Jörg Mische David Morales Vincent Mussot Simin Nadjm-Tehrani Amine Naji Vincent Nelis Luis Miguel Pinho 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Editor: Martin Schoeberl Open Access Series in Informatics Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany

Committee Program Chair Martin Schoeberl, Technical University of Denmark

Program Committe Sebastian Altmeyer, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg Guillem Bernat, Rapita Systems, UK Hugues Casse, IRIT – Universite de Toulouse, France Francisco J. Cazorla, Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain Heiko Falk, TU Hamburg-Harburg, Germany Damien Hardy, IRISA, France Raimund Kirner, University of Hertfordshire, UK Jens Knoop, Vienna University of Technology, Austria Bjorn Lisper, University College of Malardalen, Sweden Claire Maiza, Grenoble INP/Verimag, France Enrico Mezzetti, University of Padua, Italy Wolfgang Puffitsch, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark Isabelle Puaut, IRISA, France Peter Puschner, TU Wien, Austria Harini Ramaprasad, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA Christine Rochange, IRIT, France Martin Schoeberl, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark Tullio Vardanega, University of Padua, Italy

16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Editor: Martin Schoeberl Open Access Series in Informatics Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany