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P H I L A N T H R O P I C DIANE WHITTY Global Head of the Philanthropy Centre at J.P. Morgan Connecting to a world of possibility P H I L A N T H ...

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P H I L A N T H R O P I C

DIANE WHITTY Global Head of the Philanthropy Centre at J.P. Morgan Connecting to a world of possibility

P H I L A N T H R O P I C

© June 2015. Not for broad distribution.

TA BL E OF CONTENTS Introduction: It’s a great age of exploration Phil Di Iorio and Diane Whitty

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Helping a family and a business work for the good of people, planet and profit Erramon Aboitiz

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For the sake of tradition, country—and the future Semahat Sevim Arsel

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The deeper you go into a community, the better the chance for sustainable change Donna and Philip Berber

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Helping women and girls helps the world Yann Borgstedt

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Finding a way to make good on the promise of opportunity for all Katherine Brittain Bradley

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To help humanity is a joy, a privilege and a family legacy Ronnie C. Chan

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Believe in your goal and strive for excellence; others will join you Jagdish Mithu Chanrai

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Building bridges across Asia Ronald Kee-Young Chao

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We need this revolution because we cannot afford to write off human capital Sir Ronald Cohen

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Saying “thank you” to one’s country, community, people—and the organizations that serve them Lester Crown

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Innovate to achieve real-world solutions to real-world problems Gururaj “Desh” Deshpande

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Education is the key to creating social equality Marco Ferrara

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Working with a powerful partner for reach and impact Stefan Findel

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There are many ways to effect change, but passion is always the best driver Jesse and Betsy Fink

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Commit to a cause—and identify ways to create impact Jon and Mindy Gray

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A foundation isn’t always needed to pursue common philanthropic goals Kuehner Family

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Supporting young leaders to make the world a better place Laura Lauder

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To achieve change, all engines—NGOs, government and the private sector—need to be firing Laurence Lien

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Focus where you have knowledge, and your voice carries weight Katherine Lorenz

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A young philanthropist engages his peers to fight poverty in the Bay Area Daniel Lurie

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Enterprises that achieve a social good can be self-sustaining Letizia Moratti

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Embracing tikkun olam—the human responsibility to heal the world Judith Yovel Recanati

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It is about what we can do for others Bernard Sabrier

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It is essential to pay attention to what makes people truly happy Yousriya Loza Sawiris

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Philanthropy is a vocation that can change your life Anant Shah

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Promoting a professional and dynamic culture of philanthropy in China Shen Guojun

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It is our responsibility to leave the earth a better place Shannon B. and Theodore “Ted” C. Skokos

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Nobody can do everything, but everybody can do something Gunhild Anker Stordalen

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Creating a post-business career promoting the art of Catalonia Antoni Vila Casas

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Transformational philanthropy can start with simple volunteering Nancy Yang

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Fully engage by becoming visible and actively involved Niklas and Catherine Zennström

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Index

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Important Information

140 PHILANTHROPIC LIVES 5

It’s a great age of exploration “What are others doing?” These days,

Hearing from peers will hopefully help you

that’s one of the most common questions

develop your own philanthropic mission

that philanthropists consider.

and provide an opportunity to learn from their successes and mistakes so that you can

In search of an answer, we spoke with

make your efforts as effective as possible.

31 of today’s most prominent and inspiring philanthropists, ranging in age from 30 to

In many respects, we are in a great age of

80. While each of their journeys is unique,

exploration in philanthropy with many ways

they have all dedicated substantial financial

to be effective:

resources and personal time to helping neighbors, communities and countries around the world.

•A  t the juncture of business and philanthropy, we find many models for corporate social responsibility, venture philanthropy, impact

Through their stories, you’ll see the tremendous

measurements and socially responsible

variety of approaches to philanthropy. They show

investing—to name just a few approaches.

the interesting and complex environment in which new models and innovations from recent

• We see traditional philanthropy continuing

decades are being field tested and disseminated.

to accomplish great things and being

In fact, philanthropists often deploy a number

reinvigorated by a new generation. There

of methods, all at the same time.

also is traditional philanthropy with a twist: For example, some philanthropists are setting a mission—then creating ways for others to join their causes.

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• Across the globe, philanthropists are

We hope you will find these philanthropists’

finding different ways to engage recipients

stories inspiring, and that their work can help

that identify and shape responses to

you refine your own strategy for your personal

community needs.

philanthropic endeavors. We look forward to working with you as you develop your own

• Private-public partnerships are helping

approach to changing the world for the better.

bring answers to scale. Philanthropists are creating, funding and testing programs to identify models that work—and that governments can then adopt for society at large. These 31 philanthropic lives showcase a diverse range of causes: from empowering

Phil Di Iorio Chief Executive Officer J.P. Morgan Private Bank

the poor in Mexico through vocational education, to new approaches out of Scandinavia for tackling climate change,

Diane Whitty

to developing a vibrant social sector in

Global Head, The Philanthropy Centre J.P. Morgan Private Bank

China and beyond.

PHILANTHROPIC LIVES 7

Helping a family and a business work for

the good of people, planet and profit

ERRAMON ABOITIZ Aboitiz Foundation

“We truly believe that we can do well by doing good and

T HE RE PU B LI C OF THE PHI LI PPI NE S

run both our business and foundation accordingly,” says

• The Aboitiz Group Foundation

Erramon I. Aboitiz, the fourth-generation head of the Filipino

was established as the corporate

dynasty that founded and still runs Aboitiz Equity Ventures,

foundation to implement the

Inc. (AEV). “When our company enters an area, it is important

corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs of Aboitiz companies across the Philippines (1988) • The foundation reflected the values of the Aboitiz family on private philanthropy and explored

that everybody benefits: not only shareholders and employees, but also the community.” The AEV enterprise effectively began before the turn of the 20th century, when Spanish mariner Paulino Aboitiz started

how institutions can address social

trading hemp and general merchandise in the central region

problems. It was renamed the

of the Philippines. A public holding company since 1994, AEV

Aboitiz Foundation (2008)

is currently the Philippines’ 10th largest business by market

• Aboitiz Equity Ventures, Inc. (AEV)

capitalization, and it operates throughout the country, with

was listed on the Philippine Stock

investments in power, banking, food, and land development.

Exchange, with Jon Ramon Aboitiz

It plans to expand further, into infrastructure and infrastructure-

as president and CEO (1994)

related businesses.

• Erramon Aboitiz took over for Jon Ramon, who became Aboitiz

Running alongside this business success is the “philosophy

Group chairman (2009)

that everybody—all stakeholders—should give something back. The whole family (now 500 strong), our team members and our employees are all proud to be part of an organization with social impact,” says Mr. Aboitiz, who, at 57, is AEV’s current president and chief executive officer.

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Education n io at uc Ed

PHP483 MILLION

vi En

THE COMPANY’S PHILANTHROPY PORTFOLIO COVERS nm ro

t en

Business

2013 BUDGET

He

FIVE AREAS th al

re ca

/S

cie

e nc

Education Environment Environment

Enterprise Government Development

es s

Environment

Healthcare

Childcare THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

Healthcare/Science

Healthcare/Science

Indeed, sharing with the less fortunate has been an integral part of AEV long before a corporate foundation was formally incorporated

“Our foundation’s mission is to help people help

into the company’s organizational structure.

themselves, so it is imperative that we identify

In 1988, the Aboitiz Group Foundation was

what is important to people, deliver on their

established to develop more effective CSR

expectations, and collaborate closely with the

programs, especially where Aboitiz business Business

public sector to build higher capability on the

units operated.

community level,” says Mr. Aboitiz.

Business Government

“It is imperative that we identify what isGovernment important to people, deliver on their expectations, and collaborate closely with the public sector to build higher capability on the community level.”

STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY One of the most valuable lessons his family has learned, says Mr. Aboitiz, is how much more effective it is to closely integrate the business, the foundation and the family itself. That is why today, the foundation’s trustees are mostly family members who also serve as the CEOs of Aboitiz Group companies. Also

The foundation, renamed the Aboitiz Foundation in 2008, is currently working toward CSR 2.0 through programs with longer-term benefits,

sitting on the foundation board are AEV’s chief reputation officer and its chief human resources officer.

bigger projects of national scope with greater positive sustainable impact, and stronger stakeholder engagement.

ERRAMON ABOITIZ 9

AEV companies are actively encouraged to

of the business. And “the fact that it is all held

set aside a percentage of profits to be paid to

together on a common communication platform

the foundation each year to fund its programs

also has enhanced the reputation of the business

in education, social enterprise development,

and the family’s CSR and philanthropic activities,”

environment, health and wellness, and

he says.

disaster relief. In fact, the foundation’s work has generated “Our team members got behind the philosophy”

respect and support across the Philippines

of coordinating their efforts, says Mr. Aboitiz,

and the world.

and “we took a quantum leap.” In 2013, for example, with a PHP483 million budget (about US$11 million), the foundation allocated a majority of its funding for projects to support the country’s public education system, such as new buildings, scholarships and computers, as well as the development of special science elementary schools and technical vocational high schools. This coordinated, professional approach has been beneficial for the family, inculcating a culture of giving back, says Mr. Aboitiz. It has also created a bridge between the family and the employees

TYPHOON YOLANDA RELIEF EFFORTS INCLUDED:

SEED FUNDING

PHP50 MILLION CREATING A

COMMAND CENTER DISTRIBUTING

52,000 RELIEF PACKS

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RESULTS When Typhoon Yolanda struck the heart of the Philippines in November 2013, killing 6,300 people and leaving 13 million homeless, the Aboitiz Foundation launched its #BangonVisayas campaign and released an emergency fund of PHP50 million (US$1 million) to support relief efforts. The group also mobilized teams of volunteers from subsidiary AboitizPower’s distribution units to help in the immediate restoration of power lines in the affected areas.

In 2012, the foundation established the Weather Philippines Foundation, together with technology partner Meteogroup, to provide free weather information at weather.com.ph. The foundation is partnering with the private sector and local government units to install 1,000 automated weather stations across the Philippines, especially in remote rural areas, to provide accurate, localized weather forecasts. Giving people this information helps communities become better prepared to protect themselves against the 

E ARLY WARNING—The Weather Philippines Foundation seeks to install 1,000 automated weather stations across the Philippines.

impact of adverse weather conditions. “We want our business to be the neighbor-of-choice in communities where Aboitiz companies operate,”

Funding for such work came from family

says Mr. Aboitiz, adding, “Our reputation is

members, the business and staff. But it also

everything, and we stake this reputation on the

came from donors across the country and

idea that our business values are the same as

around the world, Mr. Aboitiz says. Indeed,

our foundation’s: We work for the benefit of the

when the foundation sought to raise an

people in our country, our region, and the world

additional PHP150 million from other sources,

at large.”

PHP250 million poured in from local and international, corporate and individual donors.

“We believe in balancing the interests of people, planet—and profit.”

“People said they wanted to be part of this, and the money just came to us. They knew they could rely on us to distribute the funds efficiently and effectively,” says Mr. Aboitiz. The foundation set up a command center in Cebu, where some of its 5,000 volunteers, including many employees of Aboitiz companies, prepared 52,000 relief packs that were transported to affected communities by trucks and boats. The

• Corporations have a responsibility to all stakeholders: shareholders, employees and the wider community • “People, planet, profit” is a philosophy that businesses and families can share and drive forward social change together—enhancing the reputation of both

support for rebuilding continues.

ERRAMON ABOITIZ 11

For the sake of

tradition, country— and the future

SEMAHAT SEVIM ARSEL Vehbi Koç Foundation T URK EY •D  aughter of Vehbi Koc—one of Turkey’s leading industrialists, who created the country’s first family foundation • T ook over as chair of the family

Semahat Arsel says all philanthropists must find their own approach and areas of interest. Her path has been to carry on a family legacy brought to great heights by her father, Vehbi Koç, a leading businessman, philanthropist and Turkish patriot. The rise of the Koç empire—today one of the world’s

foundation’s board of directors in 1996,

largest enterprises—coincided with the 1923 birth of Turkey’s

when her father passed away

republic. Mr. Koç believed passionately in the republic and

• S tated goal: to continue Vehbi Koç’s

its modernization agenda. Indeed, in his 76 years in business,

tradition of philanthropy that works

Mr. Koç funded many education, healthcare and culture

to build the Turkish republic

projects to support this effort.

• C hairs the board of the Semahat Arsel Nursing Education and Research Center • S erves as a member of the board of directors of Koç Holding

Mr. Koç also spent decades fighting to change Turkish law so that, in 1969, he was able to create Turkey’s first family foundation, modeled after the leading U.S. family foundations—e.g., Ford, Rockefeller—that he had visited during

AWA R DS G RAN TE D TO TH E KOÇ

a 1946 trip to the United States.

FA MILY AN D THE FOU N DAT ION • Grand  Prize for Individual Philanthropy by BNP Paribas in 2011 •A  ndrew Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy Award by Carnegie Foundation in 2009 •H  adrian Award by World Monument Fund in 2007

Like her father, Ms. Arsel spent many years fighting. In 1948, at age 20, she fell gravely ill. It took 14 years and nine operations in hospitals across the world to diagnose hydatid infection, a potentially lethal parasitic disease. After Ms. Arsel’s resilient response to her disease, she continued her work in business and in philanthropy. After her father passed away, she (as the eldest member of the family) assumed responsibility for the Vehbi Koç Foundation to continue Mr. Koç’s work.

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ment

Healthcare/Science

re/Science

t

KOÇ HOLDING AND KOÇ FOUNDATION INITIATIVES ON VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Environment

8

KOÇ GROUP COMPANIES IN Healthcare/Science 5 SECTORS

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Education

ESTABLISHED LABORATORIES

IN 2006, ACROSS TURKEY

8,000 STUDENTS FROM 264 VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS RECEIVED SCHOLARSHIPS AND Business INTERNSHIPS Government

INFLUENCING

7

GOVERNMENT POLICY IN EDUCATION

EDUCATION CENTERS Business

Government

2

VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

Environment

Today, the foundation bankrolls Koç University in Istanbul and Koç schools across Turkey. The foundation also funds myriad efforts:

SEEING AND Healthcare/Science FILLING A NEED During Ms. Arsel’s time as a patient, she developed an appreciation for good nursing care. After she recovered, she asked her father to establish a fund to support the training of nurses in Turkey. That fund was launched in 1974. Years later, in Business 1992, Ms. Arsel founded the Semahat Arsel Nursing Education and Research Center to provide more comprehensive educational Government opportunities to nursing students. Meanwhile,

a health sciences campus, clinics, health facilities, libraries, museums, art galleries and archaeological research facilities—along with continuing scholarship and awards programs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other programs. Since the foundation’s creation, its expenditures and investments have totaled $1.01 billion (1969–2014). Its current assets are valued at $1.7 billion.

her father had built a range of other education initiatives, starting with scholarships, then schools, and culminating in the launch of Koç University in 1993. To round out her efforts, Ms. Arsel established the Koç University School of Nursing. When, in 1996, Mr. Koç died at age 95, Ms. Arsel succeeded him as foundation chair, a position she still holds at age 86, overseeing a budget

PROMOTING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY Ms. Arsel says she is “only” continuing the tradition her father established. But this is a living and ever-evolving tradition, as Ms. Arsel believes philanthropy must lead the way on the issues of the day.

of $100 million in 2015. SEMAHAT SEVIM ARSEL 13

One example is the Vehbi Koç Foundation’s work,

launched in collaboration with a policy think

together with Koç Holding and 20 Koç Group

tank (the Education Reform Initiative, or, in

Companies, on vocational education. “We felt

Turkish, Eğitim Reformu Girişimi) supported by

that we could get huge leverage with vocational

many of Turkey’s major foundations. The goal is

education,” Ms. Arsel says. “Our young people need

to provide the government with evidence-based

to be able to access the education that they want

research on educational policy. And, indeed,

and they need.”

the government has implemented many of the proposals developed.

The Vocational Education: A Crucial Matter for the Nation Project (MLMM—Meslek Lisesi Memleket

“You have to find a positive way to attract the

Meselesi in Turkish) is unique in that it has created

attention of policymakers,” says Ms. Arsel.

a model of sustainable cooperation between

“We want to support the Ministry for Education

private and public sectors as well as NGOs.

by providing the evidence on which they can base sound policy decisions.”

Begun in 2006 to provide 8,000 students from 264 vocational high schools across Turkey with

The project’s goal now is to see the vocational

educational scholarships and internship

education model adopted in other sectors of the

opportunities, in time it has expanded to include

political, economic and educational landscape.

curriculum development, laboratories, coaching

She also hopes to see the collaborative Education

and employment. As a result, eight Koç Group Companies in five sectors established 29 laboratories, seven education centers and two vocational schools. To disseminate learnings from the MLMM Project across Turkey, the Partnership for Quality in Vocational Education Project was



VOCATIONAL  TRAINING— Pilot programs sponsored, developed and promoted by philanthropists and experts helped show the government what works.

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“We felt that we could get huge leverage with vocational education. Our young people need to be able to access the education that they want and they need.”

Also in the works is a new contemporary art museum in the Dolapdere district in central 

S TATE OF THE ART—A new facility (model shown, top right) will be home to both research and education for healthcare professionals.

Reform Initiative adopted as a model for collaboration between private philanthropists. “You can tackle larger challenges with more families,” she says.

Istanbul. The plan is to open the new building— conceptualized as a cultural, educational and leisure hub—in 2017. In all that the foundation does, Ms. Arsel believes she is continuing her father’s mission: using his fortune to create the infrastructure that Turkey needs to develop as a modern global economy. “Education, healthcare and culture,” says

LOOKING TO THE FUTURE Ms. Arsel is a firm believer in both multiparty and multidisciplinary strategies. It is an ethos that was a founding principle of Koç University, and can be seen towering in the Health Sciences Campus currently under construction, and whose first phase has been operational since September 2014. The goal of this education and research facility is to bring together medical knowledge and practical experience. The campus, therefore, will accommodate both the Koç University School of Medicine and the School of Nursing, as well as

Ms. Arsel: “These are Turkey’s needs” that the Koç family has long dedicated its resources and passion to address.

• Supporting a nation’s development demands patience, commitment and intense involvement • Private foundations can take the lead on innovation and help show policymakers the way • Collaboration among philanthropists can help accelerate change

other facilities, including student dormitories. SEMAHAT SEVIM ARSEL 15

The deeper you go into a community,

DONNA AND PHILIP BERBER

the better the chance for sustainable change

A Glimmer of Hope Foundation UNITED STAT E S • Irish-born Philip Berber and English-born Donna Berber met in 1979 and were married in 1985 •M  s. Berber was deeply moved by the famine in Ethiopia. The images of displaced families and children dying of malnutrition stayed with her over the next 15 years (1985) • T he couple moved to Texas, where Mr. Berber started CyBerCorp (1991) •A  Glimmer of Hope began with the vision to relieve some of the pain and suffering on the planet (1999) • C yBerCorp was sold to Charles Schwab for dotcom millions (2000)

Donna and Philip Berber’s work across Ethiopia’s vast rural regions is a testament to how a strong emotional response to suffering can transform one’s life and the lives of millions of others. In 1985, Donna Berber attended Live Aid, the global concert that showed the world the human misery caused by Ethiopia’s severe famine. That famine—the worst in a century in Ethiopia—began in 1983, claimed eight million victims and caused one million deaths. “Seeing those children dying was one of those hopeless moments,” she says. Ethiopia’s plight made a lasting impression on Ms. Berber, then in her early 20s, and planted a seed for what would later become her life’s passion.

• $ 100 million of Schwab stock set up the Glimmer endowment (2000) • Barron’s ranked the couple sixth

Then family life took over. The Berbers married in 1985 and later moved to Texas. There, Mr. Berber set up CyBerCorp, an

on the list of “The 25 Best Givers”

online brokerage. While enjoying a happy family life with three

in 2009 and seventh in 2010

young sons, Ms. Berber describes herself as “comfortably numb” with the growing financial success. “The nagging got louder as more time passed,” she said.

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“Our philosophy was to go and listen to what people wanted. We tuned in to what they needed.” “He told me to go to Ethiopia and see it for myself,” Ms. Berber says. Ms. Berber made her first trip to the East African country in 2000, and she says that when she arrived, she “fell apart. I was absorbing the depth and breadth of need.” Ethiopia still had an ongoing structural food deficit and remained one of the least developed and poorest countries in the world. At the same time, though, Ms. Berber was © Esther Havens

“changed and uplifted” by the realization that she could, and would, do something to help.



IN COUNTRY—Since Donna Berber first started visiting Ethiopia 15 years ago, she and her husband have touched the lives of millions of people.

VISITING THE COUNTRY In 1999, Ms. Berber started to plan a $250,000 project in Ethiopia—the seed of what would become A Glimmer of Hope. She wanted to set up an orphanage, and she arranged to go to Washington to speak to the Director of NGOs at the Ethiopian embassy. It was from him that she received the best advice.

LOOKING FOR SYSTEMIC CHANGE In 2000, Mr. Berber sold his company to Charles Schwab for dotcom millions, and the Berbers formally set up A Glimmer of Hope as a family foundation, endowed with $100 million of Schwab stock. Their mission expanded—and not just as a result of the increased capital available to fund their philanthropic work. The Berbers had decided to focus on systemic development work in Ethiopia, rather than a single project or area.

DONNA AND PHILIP BERBER 17

8 10 OUT OF

© Esther Havens

ETHIOPIANS LIVE IN POVERTY1

“Our philosophy was to go and listen to what

have learned is that the deeper you go into

people wanted. We tuned in to what they needed,”

a community, the greater the opportunity

says Ms. Berber. “If they needed a school, we

for life to change and to be sustained across

brought the bricks, and the community helped

the generations.”

build it.” Their first project was a school in Dembi Dollo, a rural village in the southwestern region

Though Ethiopia’s needs remain acute,

of the country.

progress has been made. There is, actually, a glimmer of hope.

The Berbers work in four areas—education, health, water and microfinance—which Ms. Berber describes as having the best chance of lifting communities out of poverty. To date, A Glimmer of Hope has invested approximately $85 million in Ethiopia, including supporting more than 9,000 development projects and distributing 44,000 microfinance loans. The Berbers continue to partner with small, local organizations. “We are working with communities of 25,000 to 50,000 people at any one time,” says Ms. Berber. “What we

1

http://aglimmerofhope.org.

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MAKING A PROMISE TO DONORS To maximize the organization’s impact, Glimmer developed the 100% promise: All money donated to the foundation supports programmatic work, while the Berbers’ original endowment supports the foundation’s operating and administrative costs. The foundation has a staff of 30, split between Austin, Texas, where the foundation is headquartered, and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capital.

Given Mr. Berber’s technology background, it is

transformed communities and sparked systemic

not surprising that the Berbers have also been

change in the country’s infrastructure. The effort

pioneers of digital fundraising and multimedia

has become a full-time job for Ms. Berber, who

feedback on projects.

stepped into the role of president of Glimmer in 2014. Two of the Berbers’ three young-adult

Mr. Berber believes donors value this level of

children have joined the foundation board, and

engagement, which has helped increase private

are very committed to Glimmer’s work in Ethiopia.

donations to $9 million in 2014. With overhead at $2.5 million, this means the Berbers achieved more

“This has been our life’s work,” says Ms. Berber.

than three-and-a-half times the leverage: For every

“But, given the size of the population in

$1 of overhead invested, another $3.50 of donors’

Ethiopia and the scale of problems, it is work

money went directly to projects in Ethiopia.

that must continue.”

Additional leverage is generated between local villages, adds Ms. Berber. Once one village sees what another has achieved, they are inspired to create change for themselves, she says. It has been 15 years since the Berbers first touched down in Ethiopia and devoted themselves to helping the country’s people.

• A holistic, systemic approach takes on multiple issues rather than focusing on select projects

© Esther Havens

They have had an impact on millions of lives,

• Development work in remote, rural communities requires close interaction with the local people to listen to, learn and understand their needs



S EE FOR YOURSELF—Philip Berber (left), and his wife, Donna Berber, visit Ethiopia to gain a truer understanding of life there. Ms. Berber (right) visits students at a local school.

DONNA AND PHILIP BERBER 19

Helping women and girls helps the world

YANN BORGSTEDT Womanity Foundation SWITZ E R LAND • Yann Borgstedt is a Swiss-born

In 2004, Yann Borgstedt had an epiphany: How can we expect humankind to thrive if almost half of the world’s population is unable to reach its potential?

internet entrepreneur from the dotcom boom. He co-founded the web design firm Netarchitects, which was sold in 1999 • Since 1999, Mr. Borgstedt has been actively engaged as a real estate developer • He founded the Womanity Foundation to empower women and girls to achieve their potential (2005) • In addition to his Womanity work,

This insight came when Mr. Borgstedt met Sanna during a trip to Morocco. The young woman had been sent to work for a family of strangers in one of Morocco’s big cities. Sanna’s parents simply could not afford to feed and educate both her and her brother. When Mr. Borgstedt met Sanna, she was at a refuge for single mothers, prostitutes and street girls. He learned that many of these young women had been sent to work as “little maids.” Many landed on the streets after being beaten and abused.

Mr. Borgstedt has invested in a number of startups that also have a social impact • He is a member of Ashoka Support Network, a worldwide network of social entrepreneurs that provides startup financing, professional support services and networking • He also is a member of the Economic Development and Disadvantaged Kids Network with the Young Presidents’ Organization, a group that connects

This trip to Morocco was part field trip and part vacation for Mr. Borgstedt. Having sold Netarchitects, his successful internet design business, to Altran Technologies in 1999, he was now working on other business ventures. He also started giving to different charities, but in his own words, he was looking to be inspired. “I was financially successful at a young age; I felt the need to do something different than just focus on making more money, but I was not clear what,” he says.

chief executives in a global peer network

20

When he met Sanna, he found his cause.

As a man, Mr. Borgstedt was struck by the

Afghanistan, Brazil, Haiti, India, Israel, Morocco

injustice facing these young women simply for

and the Palestinian territories.

being born female. As an entrepreneur, he wanted to understand how investing in solving the difficulties faced by women and girls could benefit society. Through research, he became convinced that gender justice, considered by some to be a niche area, actually has the potential to change the world. For example, the cost to society among the 65 countries around the world that do not invest in the education of girls to the same level as boys is estimated at $92 billion. In GDP terms, research has also shown that when an additional 10% of

FORCE MULTIPLIER The work of his foundation, Womanity, is guided by two principles: innovative models and partnership. “If you focus, you get a better understanding of the issues and the ecosystem,” Mr. Borgstedt says. Working in a niche area also is an advantage if you are an individual philanthropist running a modestly sized foundation. The Womanity Foundation has an annual budget of just over $1.8 million, which combines personal donations

girls go to school, GDP rises on average by 3%.1

from Mr. Borgstedt, who is now in his 40s, as

This is how Mr. Borgstedt—a successful Swiss

Mr. Borgstedt also covers the operating costs

technology and real estate businessman—

of the foundation.

well as donations and sponsorship from others.

became a champion for women’s rights in

GIRLS’ EDUCATION

IMPACTS COUNTRIES’ ECONOMIES THE COST

THE BENEFIT

FAILING TO EDUCATE GIRLS TO THE SAME LEVEL AS BOYS IN

WHEN AN ADDITIONAL

65 COUNTRIES COSTS A COMBINED ESTIMATE OF

$92 BILLION 1

10% OF GIRLS GO TO SCHOOL

A COUNTRY EXPERIENCES ON AVERAGE A

3% RISE IN GDP

w  ww.basiced.org/key-issues/enhancing-economic-growth; www.youtube.com/watch?v=4gpW9haB5nE; www.globalpovertyproject.com/infobank/women. YANN BORGSTEDT 21

He describes one such partnership in

A single focus on women and girls has given Womanity a fast track to credibility and access to a network of experts and decision makers, Mr. Borgstedt believes.

Afghanistan, where Womanity is seeking to improve education for girls across the country. The starting point was a pilot program with the country’s largest girls’ school, Al Fatah. Under Taliban rule, education for girls was banned. Since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, increasing numbers of girls have been

With this budget, the foundation reached

seeking education, but in the early days, schools

200,000 women and girls in 2013 through

that had been shut down were in disrepair and

education initiatives, broadcasting and

poorly resourced. Al Fatah was a case in point.

social entrepreneurship. In 2007, the Womanity Foundation sought to He believes this single focus on women

make Al Fatah a flagship project. Using three core

and girls has given Womanity a fast track

building blocks of improving school infrastructure

to credibility and, by extension, access to

and teacher training, student counseling, and

the network of experts and decision makers

community outreach, the program moved Al Fatah

in that field. His foundation has been able

from a state of neglect to becoming the only

to build partnerships with leaders working

girls’ school among the top-five schools ranked

in the same field. “Our goal is not to be

by Afghanistan’s Ministry of Higher Education.

the biggest, but the most innovative,”

These building blocks were developed in

Mr. Borgstedt says.

partnership with the Afghan government



 ADIO NISAA—Womanity’s most innovative program to date has been the creation of a radio station R run by women (“nisaa” means “women” in Arabic) that was launched in 2009 in Palestine and is being replicated across the Middle East.

22

WHO’S BEING EDUCATED IN

AFGHANISTAN:

38 GIRLS IN HIGH SCHOOL FOR EVERY 100 BOYS2

© Horizons WWP/Alamy

Photo by Farazana Wahidy

THERE ARE ONLY

and Cherie Blair (British barrister and the wife

Mr. Borgstedt is now looking to apply the

of former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair), as well

experience from Afghanistan to India, with

as with other NGOs working in the field. The

the goal of reaching 15,000 schools.

rollout also has government and NGO backing. “My resource is not my money, it is my This approach is now being rolled out to

willingness to take risks and push the

11 other girls’ schools in Afghanistan through a

boundaries,” he says.

program entitled School in a Box. Mr. Borgstedt hopes it will be adopted even more widely if its success continues. “I see myself as part of an ecosystem,” says Mr. Borgstedt. He brings his business mindset to a project by seeking partners to both challenge him and help him deliver projects at scale. “You can never think that you are the one with the answer,” he says. “You might have resources, but you might not be the best guy to deliver the project.”

• A single-minded focus on one issue—for example, gender justice—helps increase philanthropic impact • Pilot projects, developed in partnership with local governments and NGOs, create the opportunity to test and then launch national programs • A business mindset brings a specific approach to a problem, but a wide range of partners is needed to make a sustainable difference • Have the wherewithal to take risks and to fail

2

O  xfam International. YANN BORGSTEDT 23

Finding a way to make good on

the promise of opportunity for all KATHERINE BRITTAIN BRADLEY CityBridge Foundation

Katherine Brittain Bradley’s decision to become an education

UNITED STAT E S

activist was carefully considered. “I wanted to take on a challenge

• T ogether with her husband built the Advisory Board Company and the

worthy of several decades of commitment,” she explains.

Corporate Executive Board, which went

Mrs. Bradley and her husband—entrepreneur and magazine

public in 2001 and 1999, respectively

publisher David G. Bradley1—knew they wanted to focus on

• C o-founded her family’s private foundation, CityBridge Foundation,

solutions to multigenerational poverty. They were just unsure of what to do.

formerly the Advisory Board Foundation (1994) • Established CityBridge’s focus

Their search for an effective approach began in 2000. Mrs. Bradley’s moment of clarity came several years later

on solutions to the challenges of

when she met Geoffrey Canada, the founder of the Harlem

multigenerational poverty through

Children’s Zone (HCZ), which offers social services to all children

education (2000)

living within a set number of streets in Upper Manhattan.2

• L aunched CityBridge’s first education project, the Early Years Education

“Geoff said that you could address every single problem in a

Initiative (2006)

neighborhood, but if you didn’t fix the schools at the center

• E xpanded CityBridge’s focus beyond

of the neighborhood, at the center of the family, and at the

early childhood education to broader

center of a child’s life, then you would still fail,” recounts

K–12 education reform in Washington,

Mrs. Bradley.

D.C. (2007) • C o-chaired Washington, D.C. Mayor Vincent Gray’s education transition team (2010–2011) • C urrently chairs the Washington, D.C. regional board of Teach For America, and serves on the boards of the KIPP Foundation, the District of Columbia College Access Program and Princeton University

24

Mr. Bradley owns the Atlantic Media Company, publisher of several prominent media outlets, including The Atlantic and National Journal magazines. 2 Geoffrey Canada has helped inspire a national movement in urban education and has become the public face of the Harlem Children’s Zone, which by June 2014 encompassed 97 blocks and 12,000 children in Upper Manhattan. HCZ is also well known for its Promise Academy charter schools, which were created in 2004 and 2005. Mr. Canada is featured in the 2010 documentary, Waiting for Superman. 1

CITYBRIDGE’S BREAKTHROUGH SCHOOLS: D.C. IS INVESTING

$6 MILLION

TO OPEN AND REDESIGN

© mdgn/Shutterstock

18 PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN WASHINGTON, D.C.

This insight helped frame the current CityBridge

Mrs. Bradley has become a leader in the U.S.

mission: to help create a system of transformational

education reform movement through the

schools in Washington, D.C. “The missing inventory

CityBridge Foundation, which she founded

of great schools is significant,” says Mrs. Bradley.

with her husband in 1994.

“About half our children in D.C. are not getting the education they need.”

“Education reform is a major piece of social change,” says Mrs. Bradley. “We are seeking to make good on the promise of opportunity for all.”

“Education reform is a major piece of social change.” Across America, philanthropists are working to identify, implement and scale reforms in the public education system. Many have been galvanized by U.S. students’ poor performance on international tests and by the growing “achievement gap” between low-income, minority students and their more advantaged peers.3

3 4

RESEARCH DRIVING CHANGE The Bradleys launched their first education program in 2006, committing $8 million to an interlocking set of interventions to build out highest-quality programs in the early-childhood sector in Washington, D.C. Those investments included establishing early-childhood and elementary divisions of two high-performing charter schools; programs that today serve 2,300 elementary students.4 They also invested in teacher training, high-impact tutoring and the Pre-K for All initiative.

www.politico.com/story/2013/12/education-international-test-results-100575.html. Charter schools are public schools that operate with freedom from many of the local and state regulations that apply to traditional public schools. http://www2.ed.gov/parents/schools/choice/definitions.html. KATHERINE BRITTAIN BRADLEY 25



 UALITY EDUCATION—The Bradleys are Q striving to transform 100 struggling schools in Washington, D.C.

CityBridge relies heavily on the methodology

CityBridge examined successful schools across the

the foundation inherited from the firms that the

United States to identify strategies that could help

Bradleys had previously owned and founded: the

turn around existing D.C. schools. The foundation

Advisory Board Company and the Corporate

also encourages strong charter school networks to

Executive Board Company. Both firms built a

consider opening schools in D.C.

reputation for identifying and building on the proven successful practices of the world’s best companies. That “best practices DNA” informs the way CityBridge Foundation approaches the issues involved in public education. “The solutions probably exist; we just have to find and scale them,” says Mrs. Bradley.

“The transformational schools we seek to replicate do whatever it takes to provide highest-quality teaching and learning.”

It has been natural for the Bradleys to put research at the center of their foundation’s

“Schools are often overwhelmed with the

strategy to “find, incubate, and invest in the

problems of poverty, and it is technically difficult

most promising practices in public education.”

to deliver an excellent education and at the same

For example, its Tools to 100 Schools research

time address multiple poverty-related barriers to

concluded that to provide every child in D.C.

learning,” says Mrs. Bradley. “The transformational

with a quality education, the city needed to

schools we seek to replicate do whatever it takes

transform 100 struggling public schools.

to provide highest-quality teaching and learning

CityBridge then created a 10-year roadmap

alongside supports to remove such barriers.”

to illustrate how to accomplish that goal.

26

STRENGTHENING STAKEHOLDERS CityBridge’s staff—15 strong—helps the Bradleys conduct a multidimensional campaign to empower teachers, school leaders and other stakeholders, including:

team in 2010. And Tools to 100 Schools has become a model for how to roadmap citywide education change. Mrs. Bradley is also active in a number of national education nonprofits. While her work is not overtly political, reforming

• The Education Innovation Fellowship, which

public education and launching charter schools

identifies and supports teachers to become

inevitably “bumps up against politics,” which

classroom leaders and drive personalized

“is not always comfortable,” Mrs. Bradley says.

learning within their schools. To date, there have been 54 Education Innovation Fellows,

“But if you are going to enter into the space of

all of them D.C. public school teachers5

actively attacking major social problems, you have to get out of your comfort zone,” she says.

• The Breakthrough Schools: D.C. initiative,

“Transformational results for students in D.C.

a competitive grant program for teachers

will shake up our normal way of doing things.

and school leaders to design and launch

There’s just no way around that, but the results

whole-school learning models to personalize

are worth it: What could be better than seeing

learning for students

a new generation of D.C. students succeed?”

• Seminars and convenings of thought leaders to share knowledge and experience with partners, parents, educators, civic and business leaders, and philanthropists “Progress in education is extremely fragile, so we have made it our job to create an army of stewards who can ensure lasting success for the current reform initiatives,” explains Mrs. Bradley.

RIPPLE EFFECT The Bradleys’ message has been embraced in D.C. and across the country. Mrs. Bradley served as co-chair of the D.C. mayor’s education transition

5

• If you want to see transformational change, find a challenge that matches the time, effort and resources you can offer • S ystemic change is more likely to happen through collaboration: The solutions often already exist; you just need to find them • S eeking major social change will take you out of your comfort zone •U  se all the tools in your toolbox—time, talent, ties and treasure

The Education Innovation Fellowship has such partners and supporters as Microsoft Corporation and NewSchools Venture Fund. KATHERINE BRITTAIN BRADLEY 27

To help humanity is

a joy, a privilege and a family legacy RONNIE C. CHAN Morningside Foundation CHINA •R  onnie Chan joined the Hang Lung Group (1972) and became chairman (1991) •R  onnie Chan and his brother, Gerald, founded Morningside Group, a private investment firm (1986), and set up the Morningside Foundation (1996) to coordinate their family giving • The Morningside Foundation has supported gifted young musicians (since 1996); founded a triennial international mathematics award and

“Philanthropy’s true value is the meaningful change it brings to humankind, by enriching life and helping people to achieve their full potential,” says Ronnie C. Chan. “Money is just the start,” he adds. “Yet the heart that you put into projects is equally, if not more, meaningful.” By way of example, Mr. Chan points to five projects in his family’s vast resume of philanthropic activities: • 18 years spearheading the reconstruction of Jianfu Palace Garden and the Hall of Rectitude in Beijing’s Forbidden City, which were devastated by fire in 1923

conference (since 1998); endowed professorships at several universities in Hong Kong, as well as at the University of Southern California and Harvard University; established a new college called Morningside College at

• 1 0,000 students supported through musical, mathematical and science programs in Hong Kong, Mainland China and Canada • Mr. Chan’s co-chairmanship of the Asia Society, a nonprofit

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

that has fostered cross-cultural collaboration between the

(2006); and donated $350 million to

Asia-Pacific region and the rest of the world since 1956

endow the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health • Ronnie Chan and his wife, Barbara,

• $20 million donated to endow the University of Southern California Mrs. T.H. Chan Division of Occupational Science

donated $20 million to endow the

and Occupational Therapy, and to establish an international

University of Southern California

program that plans to bring occupational therapy to China

Mrs. T.H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, the first naming gift in occupational

• $350 million donated to the School of Public Health at

therapy, and the largest ever made

Harvard University to help fund its work in four areas:

in the history of this field

pandemics, failing health systems, humanitarian crises and harmful environments

28

As for the family’s scholarship programs, “Many of the students have gone on to have successful careers, and have in turn enriched and contributed to society in many ways,” says Mr. Chan, adding: “These are the stories that will warm my heart for the rest of my life.” And so, Mr. Chan asks, “How can anyone say which of these acts is more meaningful

© Big Cheese Photo/Corbis

than the others?”



 ERITAGE PROJECT—The reconstruction of the Jianfu H Palace Garden is an example of partnership between the private and public sectors.

Considerable global media attention has been paid to the last of these, as it is the largest donation that Harvard University has received in its 378-year history. But the Chan family also poured their hearts, as well as substantial funding, into the Jianfu Palace Garden project. The project had experienced some serious setbacks, yet successfully coping with these challenges has set examples for both private-public partnerships and heritage projects across China. The Garden will stand as a testament to Mr. Chan’s painstaking commitment to the detailed restoration

FAMILY VALUES Mr. Chan, 65, is chairman of the Hang Lung Group—one of Hong Kong’s largest real estate developers. The Hang Lung Group is valued at approximately $6.8 billion.1 Mr. Chan and his brother, Dr. Gerald L. Chan, also co-founded the family’s private investment firm, the Morningside Group.

RECOGNITION Ronnie C. Chan has received: • T he Asia Society Leadership Award for strengthening economic, cultural and political ties between China and the United States, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Southeast Asia (2004) • T he Outstanding Persons Award for the Preservation of Chinese Cultural Relics (2009) • T he Asa V. Call Alumni Achievement Award, the highest alumni award bestowed by the University of Southern California (2009) • The  US-Asia Institute Award for International Public Service and Philanthropy (2014)

and preservation of China’s rich civilization.

1

As of May 2014, www.forbes.com/companies/hang-lung-group/. RONNIE C. CHAN 29

© Joseph Sohm/Corbis 

 ARVARD UNIVERSITY—The Chan family belief that wealth should benefit humankind was the driving force behind their gift to the H School of Public Health.

But what may be even more impressive is that

Drew Gilpin Faust, Harvard’s president, has

Mr. Chan says 99% of his family’s private wealth

said that the Chans’ gift will have a profound

benefits charitable causes.

effect on the School of Public Health, giving it a stable financial base, the ability to provide more

This level of commitment to philanthropy is

financial aid to students and an opportunity

a family legacy established by his late father,

to expand programs.2

Tseng-Hsi Chan, who founded the Hang Lung Group in 1960.

The school will be renamed the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in honor of Mr. Chan’s late

The family believes that its wealth should be

father—who was proud to visit the school where

applied to the benefit of humankind, on an

his younger son Gerald earned a master’s degree

individual as well as institutional level. This belief

in Medical Radiological Physics and a Doctor of

is embodied in the Chans’ gift to the School of

Science in Radiation Biology.

Public Health at Harvard University. As Mr. Chan says, public health impacts everyone. “Doctors

Still, says Mr. Chan, their father should be most

usually address the needs of their patients one

remembered for the fact “that he left nothing to

at a time,” he says, but with this gift, “we are

his children.” Instead of piling up an inheritance,

treating the whole of society.”

Mr. Chan says, his father believed in providing each son with “the opportunity for a normal life as a hard-working member of society.”

2

www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/magazine/harvards-public-health-moment/.

30

“My greatest fortune has been being born into

He describes, for example, introducing other

a family where wealth was, and is, not given to

international businesspeople and academics to the

the children,” adds Mr. Chan. “Instead, we were

Asia Society, an organization he co-chairs, which

given the opportunity to learn both how to make

resulted in millions of dollars of grant funding.

money and how to give it away effectively.” “I have been a beggar in the highest sense of Mr. Chan, who has two sons, says philanthropy

the word,” jokes Mr. Chan. Indeed, Mr. Chan has

has been a great source of fulfillment for him

founded or is an active member of numerous

and his entire family.

organizations that encourage civic and cultural development in Hong Kong and Mainland China, as well as international collaboration and

“You can only encourage others to give, first by providing an example, and then by asking them, in a proper way, to give to causes that you believe are meaningful.”

economic development. He, his brother and their mother have continued T.H. Chan’s giving to causes linked to education and medical sciences. The sons also expanded the family’s philanthropic mission to include their passion for culture and classical music. “I don’t know where our next major gift will be,”

PHILANTHROPY IN CHINA A growing number of wealthy Chinese people are recognizing the benefits of philanthropy for family and society, Mr. Chan says. Many, he says, are setting up foundations and collaborating to develop China’s social sector.

says Mr. Chan, but, he promises, “there will be more—as long as we invest the family wealth and grow the business wisely.”

“I know of no other economy at this young stage of development that has produced so many wealthy people who are giving away so much of their wealth,” he says. Still, Mr. Chan does not believe anyone should feel compelled to give. “You can only encourage others to give, first by providing an example, and then by asking them, in a proper way, to give to

• Giving back to society gives meaning to life and to financial success. The role of philanthropy is to enable individuals to lead healthy and productive lives • Philanthropy should support humankind, enlarge our knowledge and enrich society • The value of philanthropy cannot be truly measured in monetary terms; it can only be measured in terms of the meaningful change it creates

causes that you believe are meaningful.”

RONNIE C. CHAN 31

Believe in your goal and

strive for excellence; others will join you JAGDISH MITHU CHANRAI Mission for Vision and Tulsi Chanrai Foundation

Growing up in India, Jagdish Mithu Chanrai was deeply moved

I NDIA

by the inequality that existed between the rich and poor, and

• Graduated  from Mumbai University with a degree in Commerce and took over the family’s business in Nigeria • The  Chanrai family established the Tulsi Chanrai Foundation in Nigeria

this formed his great desire to try and reduce this gap. He first met Mother Teresa in the 1980s when he was a young man searching for a way to help India’s poor. Accompanying her as she visited her projects, he was struck by her unswerving

to provide clean water and primary

belief that “the Lord would provide the funds to help the poor.”

healthcare (1992)

He saw Mother Teresa tend to the poor and sick, prayed with

• Mr.  Chanrai founded Mission for Vision in India to expand globally the mission of

her, and learned that—with love, faith and discipline—it is possible to overcome incredible odds to achieve social change.

the Tulsi Trust, established by his family in 1975 and focused on the eradication

These experiences, among others, helped shape Mr. Chanrai’s

of avoidable blindness (2000)

approach to philanthropy, and so too has his family’s long history

• Heads the Chanrai Summit Group

in business.

with his brothers Sunder Chanrai and Subodh Chanrai • Serves  as trustee of the Jaslok Hospital

The Chanrais have been actively engaging in business across India and West Africa since the 1860s, when the family patriarch,

and Research Center in Mumbai—one of

Mr. Chanrai Uttamchand, established the family business and

the first multispecialty hospitals in India

based it out of Hyderabad, Sind, in what was then undivided India.

(established by the Chanrai family in

The family moved to Bombay in 1947 during the partition, and the

1973). He is also a trustee of several other trusts in India, the United Kingdom and Nigeria

businesses spread to other countries in Asia, Europe and West Africa. Currently, the Chanrai Summit Group, representing the business interests of one of the patriarch’s descendants, the late Mr. Mithu Tulsidas Chanrai, is run by his three sons.

32

TODAY, MISSION FOR VISION PARTNERS WITH

19 HOSPITALS ACROSS INDIA AND SUPPORTS

170,000

FREE EYE SURGERIES EVERY YEAR

FOR THE COUNTRY’S POOR

Jagdish Mithu Chanrai, 68, the eldest son, in addition to leading the business, now heads the family’s philanthropic efforts based on a philosophy he describes as “Caring Capitalism.” It is a company’s obligation, he says, to give a substantial portion

“We want to give the gift of vision to every human being regardless of nationality, status or religion.”

of generated wealth to the communities in which it does business. In pursuit of this objective, the Chanrais have conceived and built large social development initiatives in India and Nigeria, primarily in eye health, primary health and water and sanitation—Mission for Vision (MFV) in India and the Tulsi Chanrai Foundation (TCF) in Nigeria.

He later initiated an eye health project in 1990 and soon was joined by some of his close friends and business associates, and thus was the genesis of MFV in 2000. MFV aspires to eradicate avoidable blindness, initially in India and Nigeria, with the ambitious goal to spread the effort around the world. Today, MFV partners with 19 hospitals in

IN INDIA After meeting Mother Teresa and being highly influenced by her commitment to the cause of the sick and poor, the late Mr. Mithu Tulsidas Chanrai funded the construction of Shanti Daan, a shelter for the homeless in Mumbai to house 250 destitute men and boys, in humble tribute to Mother Teresa’s Order, the Missionaries of Charity.

13 states of India, reaching out to over 800,000 people from the most vulnerable communities, among whom over 170,000 free eye surgeries have been carried out. “We want to give the gift of vision to every human being regardless of nationality, status or religion,” Mr. Jagdish Chanrai says. Restoring sight to those who are needlessly visually impaired not only

JAGDISH MITHU CHANRAI 33

improves their quality of life, but also helps them lift themselves and their families out of poverty. While the cost of each surgery is as low as $50, the impact on the quality of life of the beneficiary is immediate and very high. In addition, if even 75% of the beneficiaries were to engage in economic activities post-surgery, the potential impact on the economy could be as high as $500 million per annum. The hospitals, or “temples of service” as Mr. Chanrai calls them, provide such high-quality care that even those who can afford to pay for healthcare services choose them. As a result, 20% to 40% of patients pay in full for an eye surgery, which helps subsidize the free surgeries. The culture that MFV encourages at the hospitals with which it partners is also critical to its success. All patients are treated as guests. This combination of compassion and respect encourages the poor to visit the hospitals for free treatment with confidence. “If you want to make a difference, you have to believe in what you are doing. You have to believe



 INTERESTS IN NIGERIA—The Chanrai family not only does business in the country, but also invests considerable charitable resources to help provide Nigerians with quality healthcare and clean drinking water.

that miracles are possible,” says Mr. Chanrai, who personally contributes substantial finances

To date, this foundation has provided support

annually to support the work of MFV.

to 2 million Nigerians, including bringing safe water to 1.4 million as well as maternal and

IN NIGERIA In addition to curable blindness, Mr. Chanrai is focused on providing quality healthcare services and access to safe drinking water in Nigeria through the work of TCF, for which he serves as managing trustee.

child healthcare, immunization and HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention programs. Moreover, in partnership with the Cross River State Government, TCF currently operates the largest primary healthcare program in the country, catering to more than 3 million people through 1,100 health posts/clinics. The foundation has become one of Nigeria’s leading medical NGOs.

34

In acknowledgment of its efforts, the Nigerian government has accorded TCF the NGO diplomatic status, which permits it to bring in experts and import medicines and other materials without restriction.

“If you want to make a difference, you have to believe in what you are doing. You have to believe that miracles are possible.”

“As a family, we have enjoyed the hospitality of the Nigerian people for over 140 years; we have a responsibility to give back to this

GUIDING PRINCIPLES Now experienced in both philanthropy and business, Mr. Chanrai has spent time reflecting on the relationship between the two. Among his principles:

VISION Mr. Chanrai certainly thinks big. He believes that MFV will one day eliminate avoidable blindness. But he is just as certain that his organization will not accomplish this important goal alone. Rather, this “miracle” will happen through partnerships with fellow entrepreneurs, philanthropists, doctors, hospitals and governments.

•P  rofit maximization should never be at the

As Mother Teresa showed him, “so long as

country,” Mr. Chanrai explains.

expense of people or the environment

you have the right intentions and strive for excellence,” he says, “others will join you, and

• Business can fund philanthropy, which supports the community, which in turn helps create the

if the essence comes from your heart, the forces of nature will be with you.”

landscape where business has the opportunity to thrive. “If we take care of the community, if people feel secure, your business will go much farther” • It is important not to mix business and philanthropy, but they can support each other. So, “what you learn from business, in terms of high standards of service and good governance, can be applied to philanthropy” • Entrepreneurial confidence can serve as a powerful driver of social change. “Most entrepreneurs think big. They want to make a big impact, and they want their dollars to go a long way. If you get 10 entrepreneurs together,

• Don’t be afraid to think big: If you believe in your goal, strive for excellence, and demonstrate a pure philanthropic motive, others will be inspired to join you • Giving back to the communities where your businesses are active will reduce social tension, creating a better environment for all • Lessons learned from business (good governance, quality customer service, etc.) can be incorporated into your philanthropy, but the two should remain separate to ensure each achieves its full potential

they can be quite a force for good” JAGDISH MITHU CHANRAI 35

Building bridges

across Asia RONALD KEE-YOUNG CHAO Bai Xian Education Foundation Limited

Ronald Kee-Young Chao has a vision: a more harmonious Asia—built on the goodwill of the young and supported by their elders.

HO NG KO NG • Graduated from the University of

So, starting in 2009, he began helping Chinese students to

Tokyo with a degree in Mechanical

study in Japan and vice versa. And, in 2014, he established

Engineering (1962)

a foundation whose main mission is to support the Bai Xian

• Received a master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from the

Asia Institute, which runs the Asian Future Leaders Scholarship Program (AFLSP).

University of Illinois (1964) • Began  funding Asian Youth Centers for

This program—inspired by the success of the Rhodes

students at five mainland Chinese

Scholarship program—sends Asian students to study at

universities (2009)

leading universities in mainland China, Hong Kong and

• Established  the Bai Xian Education Foundation Limited (2014) • Has  served as vice chair of the family

Taiwan, as well as Japan and Korea. The effort already is on target to give 100 scholarships a year.

firm, Novel Enterprises Limited (NEL),

When establishing the foundation, Mr. Chao very deliberately

since 1996 (previously served as

decided against using his family name. The Chao family is well

NEL managing director)

known as the owner of Novel Enterprises Limited, one of the world’s leading vertically integrated textile and apparel manufacturers. He named his philanthropic enterprise the Bai Xian Education Foundation. In Chinese, “bai xian” means “100 wise people.” “We don’t want to be limited by a family name,” Mr. Chao explains.

36

INSPIRATION

But as he reached his 70th birthday in 2009, he

It was Mr. Chao’s five years studying in Japan

felt too little had changed between China and

at the University of Tokyo that inspired him to

Japan since he was a student. Indeed, it might

create a pan-Asian scholarship program.

even be said that relations have gone backwards. He felt it was time for him to act, and that it

Mr. Chao graduated in 1962, not that long

would be much more productive to learn from

after the end of World War II. Still, Mr. Chao

the past and rebuild positively—especially as

says, in the dormitory that he shared with his

Japan and China have so much in common.

fellow Japanese students, there “was no time for antagonism.” Indeed, the friendships that

“With age, you become concerned about doing

Mr. Chao forged 50 years ago remain strong

more with the time you have left,” says Mr. Chao.

today, and many of his fellow students have

“This is my ‘crunch’ time.”

gone on to have successful careers in government, business, finance and education.

And, given his own experiences as a student, it was a natural choice to fund education as a

After graduation, Mr. Chao returned to Hong Kong

driver of cross-cultural dialogue.

to join the family business, where he serves today as vice chairman.

SENDING ASIAN STUDENTS

TO ASIAN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN THEIR OWN AT

6 ANCHOR UNIVERSITIES

KYOTO UNIVERSITY

HITOTSUBASHI UNIVERSITY

AS WELL AS 10 PARTICIPATING UNIVERSITIES

PEKING UNIVERSITY

WASEDA UNIVERSITY

ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY

HONG KONG UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

RONALD KEE-YOUNG CHAO 37

© Christian Kober/JAI/Corbis

“It will be a ripple effect. Growing firm friendships among the young...will benefit not only the Asia-Pacific region, but also the whole world.”

“Most of our brightest Asian students, if they have the means, go to study in the United States or Europe. We are trying to encourage Asian students to study in Asia,” says Mr. Chao. It is Mr. Chao himself who likens the program to the Rhodes Scholarship program, which

ACTION

funds postgraduate study at the University of

The Asian Future Leaders Scholarship Program

Oxford in the United Kingdom. The goal of the

supports students from Asia to study at a university

Rhodes Scholarship is to promote international

in another Asian country. There are currently six

understanding by broadening the minds of

anchor universities in China and Japan, as well as

scholars academically and personally.

10 participating universities. The institute plans to further its endeavor by deepening relationships

Mr. Chao’s Asian variation on this theme is

in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan and

gaining traction, especially with universities

Korea in an effort to provide a common platform

and corporations in his region.

for its anchor and participating universities. Universities want to expand their number of Anchor universities are Kyoto University,

international students.

Hitotsubashi University and Waseda University in Japan, the Hong Kong University of Science

Also, Mr. Chao says, “Asian business owners

and Technology, and the Peking University and

find it attractive to hire graduates who know

Zhejiang University in China.

how to do business in other countries because they speak the language of that country and understand its culture and customs.”

38

The Asian Future Leaders Scholarship Program

“The more scholarships we can provide, the

requires its students to join a summer program

greater the impact,” says Mr. Chao.

held every year in August by the Bai Xian Asia Institute. The summer program’s main goal is to allow scholars from different universities to spend three weeks together learning from each other, sharing views on common topics, and building relationships based on respect and

To this end, the Bai Xian Asia Institute has added business leaders from Hong Kong, China, Japan and the United States to its advisory council. These council members contribute their time, advice and expertise to help raise awareness of

understanding.

the initiative.

As Mr. Chao says: “This is about building their

Mr. Chao’s daughter also works for the institute,

minds. Given the diversity of culture in the Asia-Pacific region, having students from across the region at a university adds to the richness of debate.” By rewarding leadership qualities in the scholars, he hopes to empower students who have the capacity to transform the perspectives of their fellow students, then later their companies, their cities and their countries.

alongside a young professional staff. Their job is to collaborate with the universities and students to ensure quality of experience, build alumni and friendship networks, and encourage other philanthropists to join the effort. The institute is a public organization, says Mr. Chao, “so anyone who has similar beliefs and supports the idea can work with us and share resources.”

“It will be a ripple effect,” says Mr. Chao. “Growing firm friendships among the young...will benefit not only the Asia-Pacific region, but also the whole world.”

CALL TO ACTION The Bai Xian Asia Institute has invited other private and corporate philanthropists to

•Changing the cultural attitudes that underpin tensions in Asia is a long-term goal that requires collaboration across the region and among business owners, corporate entities and educators •Cultural change occurs when you broaden the minds of tomorrow’s leaders

collaborate in these efforts in the hopes of extending the program.

RONALD KEE-YOUNG CHAO 39

We need this revolution because

SIR RONALD COHEN

we cannot afford to write off human capital

UNITED K I NGD OM •B  orn in Egypt to a British mother. Following the Suez Crisis, his family of origin fled Egypt for England (1957) • E arned a degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Exeter College, Oxford University, and an M.B.A. at Harvard

Sir Ronald Cohen says he is not engaging in philanthropy. Rather, he is taking what he learned from rethinking the financing of startup companies and applying that to reimagine the world’s approach to solving humankind’s most intractable social problems.

• C o-founded the firm that became Apax Partners, one of Europe’s first and now one of its largest private equity funds • Knighted (2000) • F ounded such social impact investment efforts as The Portland Trust (to develop

These monumental innovations have earned the 69-year-old Sir Ronald two monikers: “father of venture capital” and “father of social investment”—not to mention a British title. His first effort in venture capital and private equity was hugely

the Palestinian private sector), Bridges

successful. At age 26 in 1972, Sir Ronald started a company

Ventures (for innovative sustainable

with two classmates from Harvard Business School. Their firm

growth) and Social Finance (an advisory

became Apax Partners—and one of the world’s leading

seeking to develop the UK market in social finance) • Chair of the UK-based Big Society Capital, the world’s first social investment bank; the UK’s Social Investment Task Force (2000–2010) and

private equity firms. Sir Ronald left Apax on his 60th birthday in 2005, after co-founding Bridges Ventures in 2002 and The Portland Trust in 2003. Bridges Ventures is an investment firm seeking

its Commission on Unclaimed Assets

to deliver social and environmental benefits as well as

(2005–2007); and the G8’s Social Impact

financial returns; it has raised six successful funds to date

Investment Task Force (2013–2014)

and delivered market rates of return, currently managing

•M  arried to Sharon Harel, film producer

more than £500 million.1

whose credits include Gosford Park, and daughter of the commander of the Holocaust survivors’ ship Exodus. The couple has two children 1

40

As of September 1, 2014; http://bridgesventures.com.

The Portland Trust works out of offices in

“We have defined something new [that] has

London, Tel Aviv and Ramallah to encourage

turned into a movement,” says Sir Ronald.

business and social entrepreneurship in order

“I think it will have a momentous impact.”

to relieve poverty in Israel and develop the private sector in Palestine. These two entities are a testimony to Sir Ronald’s new mission—social impact investing. Although still a work in progress, the concept of social impact investing—and enthusiasm for it—has already started to spread across the globe.

CREATING AND QUANTIFYING Sir Ronald’s involvement in this movement began in 2000, when he was appointed chair of the UK government’s Social Investment Task Force “to unleash new sources of private and institutional investment” into the social sector. Since then, Sir Ronald has co-founded and

In 2013, the UK government reported that social

chaired the world’s first social investment bank,

impact investing had grown into a $36 billion

the UK-based Big Society Capital, capitalized with

market since the inception of its foundational

£600 million from unclaimed assets left dormant

term “impact investment” in 2007. J.P. Morgan

in bank accounts to help speed the growth of the

has estimated that by 2020, the global social

social impact investment market.

impact market could potentially reach $400 billion to $1 trillion in invested capital, and $183 billion to $667 billion in profit.2

Of course, one of the best ways to grow this market is to quantify and prove its impact and return.

IMPACT INVESTMENTS © Cristina Muraca/Shutterstock

INVESTMENTS MADE WITH THE INTENTION TO GENERATE BOTH

2

MEASURABLE SOCIAL/ ENVIRONMENTAL RETURNS FOR SOCIETY

+

FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE INVESTOR

“Perspectives on Progress,” Global Impact Investing Network, accessed May 19, 2013; http://www.thegiin.org/cgi-bin/iowa/resources/ research/489.html. SIR RONALD COHEN 41

Business involvement is essential because history has shown that neither governments nor the third sector alone can solve key social challenges. While “we have to invest in people for themselves © Eyal Nahmias/Alamy

and for society,” says Sir Ronald, “for every social issue, in many countries, there will be a published cost of intervention, and estimated savings that government can derive from it.” This will become the basis for a thriving market in achieving 

 GREAT RETURNS—Invest in people, for their own and society’s sake.

Sir Ronald chairs the G8’s Social Impact Investment Task Force, which published its compelling report in September 2014, defining the potential trajectory of impact investment and, among other important contributions to the field, creating guidelines to help measure impact.3 If we can accurately measure social returns so that they can be financially rewarded on a pay-per-outcome basis, Sir Ronald states, then impact investments can be fairly judged against traditional investments by investors, thus opening up the social impact market to mainstream investors and effectively giving social entrepreneurs the key to the capital markets.

3

social improvement.

ATTRACTING ENTREPRENEURS There are direct parallels between the current innovation taking place in impact investing and the birth of venture capital and private equity, says Sir Ronald. In the 1970s, many companies employed large numbers of people and were heavily funded, but highly inefficient. Then the government made legal and regulatory changes necessary to open the market to entrepreneurs and private capital. “As soon as entrepreneurial people realized that money had become easily available, they left jobs and tried to get their hands on this money. Investors wanted to have higher returns, and funded them and the innovation they brought,” he says.

“Impact Investment: The Invisible Heart of Markets—Harnessing the Power of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Capital for Public Good,” Report of the Social Impact Investment Task Force, G8, September 2014; www.socialimpactinvestment.org.

42

Just as venture capital and private equity

has said, “No single country, no matter how

provided the fuel to help Europe’s economies

rich or powerful, can solve global challenges

take off and create much-needed jobs in the

on its own.”4

1980s and 1990s, says Sir Ronald, conditions today are ripe for social impact investment

But each sector has an important function, and

to unleash the forces of entrepreneurship,

together, Sir Ronald says, real progress might be

innovation and capital markets to solve

made. Philanthropists’ important role, he suggests,

humankind’s problems.

is to help seed, test and refine the impact investment model and to help take it to scale.

Providing support to the vulnerable by targeting a combination of social and financial returns,

“We need new approaches that bring

says Sir Ronald, is to bring the “invisible heart

change at scale,” says Sir Ronald. “That is the

of markets” to guide their invisible hand.

revolutionary aspect of social impact investment. Psychologically, we get a lot of pleasure simply from being generous, but we need to focus on

CAPITALISM AS PART OF THE CURE Business involvement is essential because history has shown that neither governments nor the third sector alone can solve key social challenges, according to Sir Ronald.

how to best achieve real change if we are to improve numerous people’s lives.”

“Before the 1930s, philanthropists thought they could solve our social problems, but eventually had to throw up their hands at the size of the challenges. Then governments tried. Now, they too are throwing up their hands,” Sir Ronald observes. For the social sector, unpredictable grant funding hinders it from delivering efficiently at scale. For governments across the world, the challenge is how to stimulate innovation and

• Impact investment offers the potential to bring the resources of the global capital markets to social challenges • Philanthropists can help seed, test and refine the impact investment model and help take it to scale • Effective measurement techniques will mean investors can be paid their returns out of savings to society. This combined social and financial return will put impact investments on par with traditional investments

attract new flows of capital and entrepreneurial talent. As U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon

4

“Every Woman Every Child Taking Action Summit,” 2013, J.P. Morgan conference. SIR RONALD COHEN 43

Saying “thank you” to one’s

LESTER CROWN Crown Family Philanthropies UNITED STAT E S

country, community, people—and the organizations that serve them

• 1919—Sol, Henry and Irving Crown establish the Material Service Corporation, which acquires a controlling stake in General

For Lester Crown and his family, giving is an expression of their

Dynamics in 1959

hearts, identities and profound gratitude. It is also an obligation—

• Lester  Crown succeeds his father as

in the noblest sense of the word.

chairman of the Executive Committee of General Dynamics and as president of Henry Crown & Co., the family’s holding company (1986) • James  Crown succeeds Lester in both these positions (2003) • Lester  Crown is awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Philosophy from Tel Aviv University (2008) • After  60 years of family giving under the name Arie and Ida Crown Memorial Foundation, the family reorganizes its giving as Crown Family

HEART For the Crowns, who give to as many as 1,000 organizations every year, choosing “core” grantees can be difficult. They believe there are many ways to make a difference. But their “portfolio approach” does look at elements for potential success. Key among them: effective leaders. “The post-audit that you do in business is not the same as in philanthropy,” says Mr. Crown, who actively engages with groups dedicated to many causes. (See “Time well spent,” page 44.)

Philanthropies (2009) • The  Crown family is awarded the Andrew Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy (2011)

With philanthropy, Mr. Crown says, “if the outcome is good, that is all that you need to know.” Mr. Crown says he inherited this approach from his father and uncles. By way of explanation, the 89-year-old shares a story that he says, “I have remembered all my life.”

44

© FiledIMAGE/Shutterstock 

© Aaron Horowitz/Corbis

“TZEDAKAH” THE OBLIGATION TO DO WHAT IS RIGHT L ester Crown says he gives in the Jewish tradition of tzedakah.

In 1948, his father, Henry Crown, hosted a group of about 10 men in his Chicago home to discuss fundraising for the newly founded state of Israel. One of the men said he had just spent two weeks in Israel, and a great deal of the donated money

ROOTS To understand the Crown family’s giving, it is also important to know their family history, a classic tale of Jewish immigration to the United States in the late 19th century and the American promise.

was being wasted. “We have been fortunate to live in this country at Lester Crown recalls: “Dad asked, how much

this time,” says Mr. Crown. “If my father had been

of the money did the man feel was wasted?

three times as smart but lived in Europe in the

The man said, ‘perhaps 50%.’”

Middle Ages, he would have died behind a plough at 32 and that would be it.”

Henry Crown was quick to answer: “I am so glad you were there and told us. Clearly, now everybody

Instead, at the end of the 19th century, Lester’s

has to double their contribution to be effective.”

grandparents, Arie and Ida Crown, emigrated from Russia. The couple settled in Chicago, where Arie

In other words: There is only so much you can

worked in sweatshops.

control. Stay focused on the cause, and do whatever you can to ensure its success.

In 1919, three of their seven sons, Sol, Henry and Irving, borrowed $10,000 and founded Material Service Corporation (MSC) to sell gravel and sand to builders in the Chicago area.

LESTER CROWN 45

MSC was a $100 million company when it merged with General Dynamics in 1959. The Crowns gained a controlling interest in the resulting business. Lester joined the family’s businesses in the 1950s,

“Most organizations merit support, and giving is a way of saying ‘thank you.’”

and ultimately served as vice president and chair of the Executive Committee of General Dynamics from 1986 until 2003. He also served as president of Henry Crown & Co., the family’s holding company. Today, Lester’s son, James, is president of Henry Crown & Co.

TIME WELL SPENT Lester Crown’s interests include, but are not limited to, education, medicine and the support of Jewish causes and Israel. As a result, he has worked closely with a wide variety of nonprofit organizations, including serving as: • Director of the Lurie Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago • Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Lyric Opera of Chicago

The Crowns’ philanthropy is deeply rooted in this identity and love of a country that allowed their family to thrive—especially as their experience contrasted so starkly with what happened to Jews in Europe during World War II and the Holocaust.

PHILANTHROPY For 60 years, the Crowns have been a powerful force behind many of the world’s most important Jewish institutions and programs in the United States and Israel, including Hebrew University and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. They are also contributors to Birthright Israel, which provides young Jewish adults in the United States with free 10-day trips to Israel.

• Chairman of the Civic Committee of the Commercial Club of Chicago

At the same time, the Crowns have given so

• Vice chairman of the Aspen Institute

and human services, the environment, education,

• Director of the Jerusalem Foundation • Life trustee of Northwestern University • Governor of Tel Aviv University • Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

generously in the Chicago-area—for healthcare civic affairs, the arts and culture—that a fellow philanthropist described Mr. Crown as the “reigning patriarch of philanthropy in Chicago.”1 Mr. Crown and his family shy away from such acclaim. “Why should you be praised for what you owe?” asks Mr. Crown. He gives, he explains, to observe the Jewish tradition of tzedakah. That is the Hebrew word

1

www.chicagolife.net/articles/show/342.

46



T HE CROWN FAMILY—Patriarch Lester Crown encourages his family to give to causes that are meaningful to them.

commonly used to describe the obligation to

The 75 adult family members are asked to put

do what is right and just by giving to others

aside a portion of their incomes for charitable

and not attracting attention to oneself.

giving and to get involved in causes that interest them. “You need to give them freedom to make

As far as the Crowns’ support of many

their own philanthropic choices,” says Mr. Crown.

organizations beyond their primary 100, that is simply how his family expresses appreciation

But the most important lesson, he says, is to lead

for the good work done in their community, says

by example. “Children have to see what you do as

Mr. Crown. “Most organizations merit support,

early as possible.”

and giving is a way of saying ‘thank you.’”

FUTURE FOCUSED All this activity is organized under the umbrella of the Crown Family Philanthropies and is staffed by a small team of professionals, but contributions are determined by the family. Over the years, the family’s philanthropy has expanded in line with its business success. Now, “only a few people within the family are deeply involved in the business,” says Mr. Crown. But, he says, they all can and are encouraged to be

• Most organizations merit support; engaging with many is a way of showing your gratitude for their work in the community • Allowing for wide-ranging philanthropic engagement empowers the next generations to become involved with causes that interest them • Too much focus on measuring effectiveness and results can detract from the opportunities to do good in society

involved in the family philanthropy.

LESTER CROWN 47

Innovate to achieve

GURURAJ “DESH” DESHPANDE

real-world solutions to real-world problems

Deshpande Foundation UNITED STAT E S • Co-founded  Coral Networks (1988�1989) • Founded Cascade Communications (1990)

Early in his career, Gururaj “Desh” Deshpande believed that entrepreneurs’ passion for problem solving could find answers to social challenges, and he shaped his philanthropy accordingly.

• Set  up the Deshpande Foundation with his wife (1995) • Launched Sycamore Networks (1998);

But over time, he came to appreciate that to find truly sustainable solutions in economically challenged communities, intended

subsequently became founding investor

beneficiaries must be deeply involved at all stages. As a result,

and chairman of Tejas Networks,

he has dramatically changed his giving model.

A123Systems, Airvana and Cimaron • Founded  the MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation (2002) • Launched  the Social Entrepreneurship Sandbox in Hubli, India, and later replicated it in the United States • Founding  grant to MassChallenge (2009) • Appointed by President Barack Obama to

Mr. Deshpande’s initial complete faith in entrepreneurs is understandable. One of the world’s most successful entrepreneurs and venture capitalists, he has created several successful businesses, primarily by transferring ideas from universities to businesses, or, as he puts it: “connecting thinkers and doers.” Among Mr. Deshpande’s accomplishments: Two of the companies

co-chair the National Advisory Council on

he founded, Cascade Communications and Sycamore Networks,

Innovation and Entrepreneurship (2010)

Massachusetts-based internet equipment manufacturers, went

• Launched  the Pond-Deshpande Centre

public in 1994 and 1999. They played a key role in helping form

for Innovation and Entrepreneurship at

the backbone for the internet.

the University of New Brunswick in Canada (2011) • Founding  grant to NSF Innovation Corps (ICorps) Program (2011) • Launched  EforAll (2014)

48

“In technology, big ideas were being developed in the universities,” Mr. Deshpande explains. “But, to make a difference, the big ideas have to be relevant to the world, and you need entrepreneurs to take those ideas to the market.”

EARLY MODEL It followed naturally that Mr. Deshpande initially focused solely on cultivating entrepreneurs, and he made traditional grants to major universities to accomplish that goal. Originally from India, Mr. Deshpande and his wife, Jashiree, felt they could have more of an impact on peoples’ lives in their native country by encouraging the next generation of entrepreneurs.

© Jorge Salcedol/Shutterstock

“In technology, big ideas were being developed in the universities. But, to make a difference, the big ideas have to be relevant to the world, and you need entrepreneurs to take those ideas to the market.”



IDEA GENERATOR—At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Deshpandes’ funding helped create a center for technological innovation.

The center encourages collaboration, awards research grants, and helps coach researchers whose work shows the potential to benefit society, transform markets and industries, and improve the quality of life for people across the globe.

The couple’s first philanthropic gift, $250,000 in

To date, technologies developed in the Deshpande

1995, was made to the couple’s alma mater, the

Center have led to more than 30 funded ventures,

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Madras, to

with more than $350 million in external funding.

launch IIT’s Alumni Network.

The current portfolio includes the application

They used a similar approach in the United States. One of the most significant gifts Mr. Deshpande’s

of nanotechnologies to water desalination and new drug therapies for oral cancer.

family foundation has made was its 2002 grant of $20 million to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to create the Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation. The Deshpande Center’s goal is to help MIT researchers develop innovative technologies and bring them to market in the form of breakthrough products and new companies.

AWARDS RECEIVED • Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship • The Adolf F. Monosson Prize for Entrepreneurship Mentoring at MIT • 2013 TiE Award for Best Organization Promoting Entrepreneurship

GURURAJ “DESH” DESHPANDE 49

“If you want to help people, don’t send in smart

“If you want to help people, don’t send in smart people. They bring their ideas to the field, which is the wrong way round. You have to start with relevance.”

people,” he says. “They bring their ideas to the field, which is the wrong way round. You have to start with relevance.” This was the motivation behind the Deshpandes’ breakthrough project: the Hubli Social Entrepreneurship Sandbox. The Hubli Sandbox was founded by the

A NEW MODEL Today, the Deshpandes are taking a new approach to philanthropy. While entrepreneurs succeed in business by innovating first and later finding a way to make the product practical in the real world, Mr. Deshpande now believes that many solutions to social challenges fail because they impose too much innovation.

Deshpandes in India in 2007, and combines two elements: a geographical area identified for change and the Center for Social Entrepreneurship, which provides space and financial resources for social entrepreneurs to test and scale innovative ideas and ventures that support the local community. Experience has taught them that relevance and success can be achieved if they focus on funding local entrepreneurs and programs that encourage entrepreneurship among students. For example, one student invested in nail clippers and set up a clinic in a poor neighborhood to teach children how to cut their nails and keep their hands clean. The project had the immediate impact of decreasing childhood sickness in that village. Through the Sandbox, the Deshpandes also became involved in bringing nutritious meals to children in India. They supported and mentored an organization in the Sandbox that brought together advanced engineering, procurement, logistics, accounting and food science experts.



J UST ASK—Potential recipients know best what their communities need.

50

THROUGH THE SANDBOX, THE DESHPANDES SUPPORT A PROGRAM SUPPLYING

1.4 MILLION CHILDREN IN INDIA WITH HOT MEALS EVERY DAY

© Werli Francois/omimages

AT A COST OF JUST

12 CENTS PER CHILD

online platform to connect families and the elderly with caregivers, and Edible Land Design, which designs, builds and maintains fruit and vegetable gardens. Some of them have already started serving thousands and hiring several employees. This organization provides 1.4 million children in India with hot meals every day at a cost

Mr. Deshpande continues to experiment with

of 12 cents per child, making it one of the

his new philanthropic model, but he says he

most cost-efficient school lunch programs

is convinced that we can best address social

in the world. The goal is to reach five million

problems by sparking “entrepreneurship for all.”

children by 2020. Using their success in India as a model, the

It is a powerful message from a man who left India in 1973 with just $8 in his pocket.

Deshpandes have again brought their giving back to the United States. In 2010, they created the Merrimack Valley Sandbox within the Center of Innovation and Entrepreneurship at the University of Massachusetts Lowell.1 The Merrimack Valley Sandbox offers workshops, pitch contests and mentorship to help test and scale social innovation. In 2014, 27 projects received support, including Meetcaregivers, an

1

• Connect thinkers and doers • Empower people to envision problems as opportunities for finding solutions • Start with the problem, not the solution: Social change requires solutions that are relevant first, and innovative second

Now rebranded as Entrepreneurship for All (EforAll). GURURAJ “DESH” DESHPANDE 51

Education is the key to creating social equality

MARCO FERRARA Fundación Vicente Ferrara

Marco Ferrara has dedicated himself to the proposition that a simple idea, executed with steadfast commitment, has the

M E XICO

potential to change a country’s culture and alter its history.

• Great-grandson  of steel and banking

Mr. Ferrara’s thinking on the matter began when he was

magnate Vicente Ferrara Ferrigno • Trained  in Hospitality and Tourism, and

just 16 years old and studying in the United States as part of an international summer exchange program. One of his

worked for some years in that industry

assignments was to write an essay on a problem in his

in Switzerland

home country. A fellow student suggested he look at social

• Returned  to Mexico to help provide

inequality in Mexico.

others with educational opportunities, ultimately lifting communities out of poverty and benefiting the entire country

Until that moment, as a young man growing up in Mexico’s privileged suburb of San Pedro Garza García, Mr. Ferrara simply had not considered the magnitude of poverty in his country. In his words, he had lived life “in a bubble.” The moment he did look at this reality in Mexico, Mr. Ferrara’s journey began. He went on to become one of his country’s most prominent advocates for social equality through education. “Once you understand the reality of your country, there’s no turning back,” he explains.

52

VISION In 2005, at age 25, Mr. Ferrara focused on tackling the root cause of his country’s poverty. The real solution, he began to see, was to provide people in Mexico with the skills necessary to become self-sufficient.

ROOTS Working through the Fundación Vicente Ferrara (which bears the name of his great-grandfather), Marco Ferrara started by focusing on developing quality vocational training based on local business needs so that Mexico’s poor could move into readily available employment or entrepreneurship.

He discovered that the roots of income and social inequality are ineffective educational systems

In many ways, he is continuing his

and government assistance programs that aim

great-grandfather’s approach. Starting in

at subsistence rather than independence. “Ours

1890, Vicente Ferrara Ferrigno built successful

has been a culture of charitable gifts, and not

banking, mining and steel businesses such

education,” he says.

as Compañía Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, the first steel and iron company in

He created a different model of philanthropy,

Latin America. Mr. Ferrara Ferrigno maintained

one that leads to improved social and economic

a strong social contract with his employees,

conditions.

becoming known for taking a strong interest in

“Philanthropy is not just about giving—it is also about empowering,” he says.

employees’ well-being and for helping ensure their children were educated. “Businessmen in those days saw the success of their companies reflected in the quality of life of their workers,” Mr. Ferrara says.

INCOME INEQUALITY—Some improvements in Mexico’s poverty have been made since 2000—thought largely to be a result of improved education. Today, 60 million of the country’s 120 million people live in poverty. Two million are classified as unemployed, and 30 million are classified as informally employed.

© 2/Adalberto Rios Szalay/Sexto Sol/Ocean/Corbis



MARCO FERRARA 53

THE MESSAGE SENT VIA PUBLICITY CAMPAIGNS AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING

IS THE SOLUTION TO MEXICAN POVERTY

“EN NUESTRAS MANOS” © Andrew Aitchison/Alamy

(IN OUR HANDS)

Mexico, he believes, needs to rediscover these

He also began forging links with businesses

values and encourage more partnerships

and government, and establishing microcredit

between public and private entities geared

programs to help graduates launch their own

toward tackling its huge poverty divide.

businesses or obtain additional skills to secure work.

ACTION Mr. Ferrara’s first big project was construction of the first Integral Training Center (Centro de Capacitación Integral, known as CAI), launched in 2009. The CAI Monterrey is built on the site of a former landfill at the center of the poverty-stricken San Bernabé neighborhood in Monterrey.

“It is not enough to train a person for a particular

At a cost of more than $5 million, the center

In Mexico, he has created a civil movement

offers 12-month vocational training to 2,000 men

mobilizing businesses, government and popular

and women 16 to 50 years old. Training is in a

support behind En Nuestras Manos (In Our Hands).

variety of trades (e.g., construction, electrical,

This trademarked social responsibility campaign,

beauty, programming and media) and life skills

also run by the Fundación Vicente Ferrara, seeks

(e.g., money management, physical fitness,

to encourage individuals, companies and

health, performing arts, human development,

government bodies to commit to helping fellow

happiness and forgiveness).

Mexicans lift themselves out of poverty.

54

job,” says Mr. Ferrara, “we must train them for life.”

NATIONAL MOVEMENT Even before the CAI Monterrey opened in 2013, Mr. Ferrara had plans to expand.

contacted by policy researchers and philanthropists

“We must create a more dynamic culture of social responsibility in which we do not simply create wealth for the sake of creating wealth, but also to generate a social legacy.” Through television documentaries, celebrity support and high-profile interviews in lifestyle magazines, Mr. Ferrara has put the media spotlight on poverty in Mexico by adopting the simple message that the solution is “in our hands.” The launch of a range of colorful bracelets, available as a gift for donations at bank branches and stores across Mexico, has enabled the public to back the campaign and raise funds. In return for corporate funding or direct support for CAI graduates, businesses display the En Nuestras Manos logo. “For something as hugely problematic as poverty

in Guatemala and Honduras as well as Bangladesh and India.

CULTURAL CHANGE But for Mr. Ferrara, the real work of En Nuestras Manos is cultural change. “We must create a more dynamic culture of social responsibility in which we do not simply create wealth for the sake of creating wealth, but also to generate a social legacy,” he says. “The only way to leave a better Mexico for all is to become more involved.” Moreover, he adds, “we all can be engaged in philanthropy” simply by “adopting a story to change someone’s life.” “If everyone would choose to help just one person in their lifetime, really make a difference in a pay-it-forward kind of a way,” says Mr. Ferrara, “there is the potential for permanent positive change in our world’s story.”

in our country, we need to roll up our sleeves and join hands,” Mr. Ferrara says. The foundation has sites in Mexico City, Monterrey, Puebla and Taxco. To take the program nationwide, it is working with local leaders around the country. “Our goal is to create training centers in the 2,457 counties, because unfortunately poverty is present in all of them,” he says. Mr. Ferrara also is exploring opportunities to establish this model of social intervention in other developing countries. He has been

• F ight the causes of poverty, rather than its symptoms • E quip individuals to help themselves through training and skills development •G  et everyone involved; build a movement of citizens, thought leaders and government officials to help the disadvantaged in a country • E ngage with a cause and make it part of your life, not just an annual task MARCO FERRARA 55

Working with a powerful partner for reach and impact

STEFAN FINDEL The Child and Tree Fund GERMAN Y

The most striking feature of the philanthropy that Stefan Findel and his wife, Susan Cummings-Findel, practice is their

• S tefan Findel was born into the Findel-Mast family, which privately owns and personally manages a business, Mast-Jägermeister SE. His

close partnership with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

wife, Susan Cummings-Findel, lived in

Some donors may hesitate to get involved with big nonprofit

a South Korean orphanage until she

organizations. The Findels have partnered so actively with one of

was adopted by an American couple

the world’s biggest, UNICEF, that they have become the largest

•M  r. Findel works as a photographer;

single private donor in that organization’s 68-year history.

Ms. Cummings-Findel is an interior designer • The couple’s approach to philanthropy

“It takes years to establish this kind of relationship”—but it is well worth the effort, says Mr. Findel. Large not-for-profit

has been forged through 50 years of

organizations are complex and often fragmented, particularly

charitable activity. Today, by giving

those working globally. It is only when you understand the

directly and through their foundation,

relationships between the fundraising teams, the project

The Child and Tree Fund, the Findels are UNICEF’s largest funders

managers and frontline staff that you can appreciate and participate in the incredible work they accomplish, he says.

• The couple also makes major contributions to the Carter Center (founded by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and his wife, Rosalynn), Human Rights Watch and several other organizations • The  Findels have no children and plan to spend down their foundation and fortune in the next 30 years

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FINDING THEIR PATH This assessment is based on a lifetime of giving experience. Mr. Findel was born into the Findel-Mast family, which privately owns and personally manages a business, Mast-Jägermeister SE, headquartered in Wolfenbüttel, a town in Germany’s Lower Saxony. The company, founded in 1878, has as its signature product an herb-flavored liqueur called Jägermeister, which was first brought to market in 1935, and last year reportedly generated $81 million in sales.1

© UNICEF Afghanistan/2013/Alistair Gretarsson 

CONNECTIONS—Susan Cummings-Findel and her husband, Stefan Findel, see firsthand the positive impact UNICEF has.

Mr. Findel says he was born into, but never

Together, they wanted to practice hands-on

comfortable with, the privilege this kind of family

philanthropy, but their experience in Madagascar

wealth affords. When young, he volunteered to

quickly taught them the challenges of going it

rattle collection boxes in his town. He gave to

alone. “Looking back, that was probably one of

charities and later established a foundation

our biggest mistakes,” says Mr. Findel.

(Stiftung) in Germany. The effort took far more of their time than After he and his wife met, the couple embarked

anticipated, and required so much travel that

on a philanthropic project focused on education

it became unsustainable for two individuals with

and environmental issues in Madagascar, a

full-time careers. They also were shocked by the

country previously known to his wife, who had

costs. Mr. Findel says, “A small local outfit has

volunteered there on a scientific project.

relatively huge overheads, because you need to create the infrastructure: a car, an office and staff.”

Susan Cummings-Findel’s upbringing was very different from her husband’s. She grew up in a

At that point, the couple hadn’t had any major

South Korean orphanage until she was adopted

engagement with large NGOs, but that was about

and was brought to the United States, where she

to change. “I started by giving small amounts

studied art and became an interior designer.

1

 evin Leonard, “Successful Marketing: Fireball Whisky: Selling a Brand, Shot by Shot,” Bloomberg Businessweek, Companies & Industries, D April 2014, www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-04-24/fireball-whisky-gains-on-jagermeister-via-social-media-bar-sales. STEFAN FINDEL 57

create educational opportunities for children in © UNICEF Afghanistan/Alistair Gretarsson

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal. Naturally, UNICEF is in the driver’s seat. However, the couple are at the table to learn and debate options. “If you come with a lot of money and an idea that is in line with what UNICEF is already doing, you can have a lot of input,” Mr. Findel says. “We can say what we want to do, and UNICEF gives us advice on how to achieve that with them.”

“UNICEF has good relationships with governments—at both a national and local level—so we can learn directly about the issues.”

Working with UNICEF enables the Findels to gain access to global infrastructure and to engage. They get close to the beneficiaries, talk with local staff about the challenges, see infrastructure needs and meet local officials. “UNICEF has good relationships with governments—

regularly,” says Mr. Findel. “It was probably 10 years before I went on a field trip with UNICEF—to North Korea, no less.” It was during that trip when he gained invaluable insight into the impact large

at both a national and local level—so we can learn directly about the issues,” says Mr. Findel. “Watching videos or reading reports while sitting comfortably and safely at home just isn’t the same.”

NGOs can have.

HOW THEY ENGAGE The partnership with UNICEF has grown over 20 years, and the Findels’ donations to UNICEF (made through their foundation, The Child and Tree Fund) now total about $36 million. They have supported an array of programs. The most substantial commitment (approximately $26.5 million) has been to a new educational initiative called “Let Us Learn,” which seeks to

LOOKING AHEAD There are two items on the couple’s philanthropic agenda. Perhaps the most striking is the Findels’ decision to give away their entire fortune during their lifetimes. “We don’t have children, so we asked ourselves, ‘Why do we need to have all this money left when we are gone?’” Now in his 60s, Mr. Findel estimates that he has 30 years to live, so he and his wife are giving with that time limit in mind. Before the German law was reformed in 2014, the country did not permit a

58

LET US LEARN, AN EDUCATIONAL INITIATIVE, HAS HELPED OVER

895,000 CHILDREN TO DATE

with their work. But Mr. Findel believes that wealthy people, particularly those in Northern Europe, would be willing to give more if they understood the conditions and challenges faced by children, families and whole communities in © Sebastian Rich/Corbis

less wealthy economies. And he feels he has an obligation to share what he has seen and learned. “If you go to the ghettos in Liberia and meet a family of 10 people who live in a hut of 10-square meters with no electricity or water, you start to realize that all of us who have wealth should give foundation to spend down as the Findels had envisioned, so the couple set up another foundation in the United States, where they live now.

away sizeable chunks of money,” he says. “It is our debt because we have the greatest perk of all—which is that we live in a developed, stable and rich economy. Our lives, in a material sense, are the best in the world.”

The second momentous decision for the Findels has been to go public about their philanthropy in the hopes of encouraging others who are wealthy, particularly in Mr. Findel’s native Germany, to give more. The Findels are featured in various UNICEF publicity campaigns and give interviews to the German press. This is a big step for the low-profile pair, who prefer not to attend fundraising events and won’t have the Findel name on buildings associated

• Partner with non-governmental organizations, which can provide access, knowledge and experience that a philanthropist cannot achieve working alone • Individuals who benefit from living in stable economies should consider giving more to people who are struggling in developing countries

STEFAN FINDEL 59

There are many ways to effect change, but

passion is always the best driver JESSE AND BETSY FINK Betsy and Jesse Fink Foundation and MissionPoint Partners

Betsy and Jesse Fink have always been interested in the

UNITED STAT E S

environment. They met while undergraduates studying

• J esse Fink co-founds Priceline.com with Jay Walker (1997) •P  riceline.com is one of the hottest Internet IPOs of 1999

environmental science and forestry. Their big questions have been less about “what” and more about “how?” How could they define their agenda? And how could they be effective?

• T he Finks establish the Betsy and Jesse Fink Foundation (2001) • J esse Fink co-founds MissionPoint

To help answer these questions, the Finks have employed catalytic philanthropy, social impact investing and a strategic

Capital Partners to capitalize “on

process they call “pathfinder” that combines both nonprofit

high-growth investment opportunities

and for-profit investments. At the core is a desire to innovate

created by the accelerating demand for

and to spur entrepreneurship to effect systemic change.

clean, secure energy and large-scale transition to a low-carbon economy” (2006) • T he Finks seed fund Wholesome Wave (2008)

This approach is not surprising. After all, Mr. Fink co-founded Priceline.com, and Ms. Fink established Millstone Farm in Wilton, Connecticut, to incubate solutions for community-based food systems.

• MissionPoint Capital Partners enables Hannon Armstrong to become the first

Less obvious but equally inspiring is how much the Finks’ work

listed REIT (Real Estate Investment

has evolved, and continues to evolve, from the time they had

Trust) investing in environmental infrastructure projects (2013) •M  issionPoint Partners is formed to combine the couple’s philanthropic and social investing (2014)

60

what they refer to as their “wealth event,” Priceline’s IPO in 1999.

The couple has continuously iterated to

Then, in 1999, at the height of the dotcom

discover what works, both in the marketplace

boom, Priceline went public, and the Finks were

and for them, because for the Finks, “giving

able to more actively pursue their passion for

back” is a very personal investment of time,

environmental causes. Still, it would take them

resources and hope.

almost two years to find their way. “All of a sudden you have this money, everybody is

MISSION: EARTH Both Finks grew up with a passion for the outdoors. Mr. Fink spent some of his teenage summers volunteering with a conservation group in national parks. The couple also not only attended the State University of New York’s College of Environmental Science and Forestry, but also intended to have careers in these fields.

coming after you, and it is hard to say no,” recalls Mr. Fink. “Early on, we were funding other people’s agendas.” This despite the fact that they had assembled what they called a “wisdom council”: a variety of individuals to advise them on wealth and family issues, including philanthropy. Then the Finks began to apply what they knew— finance and entrepreneurship—to their social

Ms. Fink’s graduate studies were in Land

mission, and their approach took shape.

Reclamation; Mr. Fink went for an M.B.A. and felt he could not effectively combine business and environmental work at that time. Both wound up working in corporate ventures.

CATALYTIC APPROACH The Finks use whatever lever helps them achieve their goals. “Financial resources are the smallest part of it,” says Ms. Fink. “You also have to put your heart and soul into it.” They therefore combine traditional grant making, use of their balance sheet, and advice to help social entrepreneurs succeed.

© Bernd Vogel/Offset.com



 ETURNING TO THEIR ROOTS—The Finks’ philanthropy focuses on the environment, which is not surprising, given that R they met as undergrads studying Environmental Science and Forestry. JESSE AND BETSY FINK 61

THE FINKS’ SEED FUNDING HELPED

MAKE FOOD STAMPS WORTH DOUBLE AT

300 FARMERS’ MARKETS © sunlover/Shutterstock

IN 24 STATES



HANDS ON—Betsy Fink at her Millstone Farm shows a baby chick to students from Harlem Grown.

This catalytic approach under the strategic

One mentee has been Michel Nischan, a chef and

leadership of Mark Cirilli, co-founder and

restaurateur who became the co-founder and CEO

managing director of MissionPoint Partners,

of the Wholesome Wave Foundation.

involves: One of Wholesome Wave’s programs is based on •M  entoring to help these individuals to identify

the idea that if people are incentivized to spend

the best of their ideas and to facilitate their

their food stamps at farmers’ markets, it could

approach, process and/or organization

encourage healthier lifestyles in underprivileged urban communities, cut food miles and improve

•P  roviding first and critical capital or helping the

income for farming communities.

organization lower the cost of obtaining capital In 2008, Wholesome Wave’s Double Value Coupon • S taying involved over the long haul • L ooking for ways to encourage other donors and/or investors to participate in enterprises •A  cting as a vocal advocate for the cause in the larger political and social arenas There are usually about five CEOs at a time with whom the Finks have this intense relationship.

62

Program launched in 12 farmers’ markets across three states. The incentive was simple: Government food stamps would have double their face value at these farmers’ markets. In addition to providing a $50,000 grant to test the concept in five markets, the Finks spent considerable time advising Mr. Nischan on how to allocate his time and energy. “Like many entrepreneurs, he had a lot of things going on,”

says Ms. Fink. Their support paid off: In the last six years, Wholesome Wave has rolled out the program with government support in 24 states to more than 300 farmers’ markets. Another example of the Finks’ catalytic approach

In their “Pathfinder” exercise, they ask: “What is the problem we’re trying to solve?” Then they look at all the paths to reach the desired goal.

is the help that their team provided to Hannon Armstrong, a leading sustainable energy financing company. The team helped the company become a

The first issue their Pathfinder addressed was

REIT (which has great tax advantages for investors),

food waste, an issue that Ms. Fink has been

go public in 2013 and raise $167 million.

focused on for 10 years. “If you are interested in climate change or food justice, you should

Hannon Armstrong was then able to tap into a pool

be interested in food waste,” explains Ms. Fink,

of relatively low-cost capital from small investors,

noting that the United States wastes about

and to arrange financing for additional projects.

40% of all food it produces, depleting natural

One year after the IPO, the company had

resources, exacerbating global climate change

completed nearly $1 billion in transactions.

and squandering opportunities to address food insecurity.

PATHFINDER The Finks’ latest innovation is taking them beyond what they see as their “opportunistic” phase of social entrepreneurship to a more strategic level.

And yet, Mr. Fink adds, “few people are actually funding food waste” programs. Of course, if the Finks’ track record is any predictor, that is about to change.

They have removed barriers among their foundation, family office, investing arm and Millstone Farm. Now, says Mr. Fink, they all sit around one table—their foundation’s grant-making expert, the family office CFO responsible for structuring the couple’s socially responsible investing, and the research analysts and commercial investors from their investing arm. Together, they go through a six-month “pathfinder” exercise: first, asking, “What is the problem we’re trying to solve?” and then looking at all the paths possible to reach the desired goal.

• Ask: “What is the problem I am trying to solve?” Then explore and deploy the many tools with which your goal can be achieved, from traditional grants to social impact investing • Your vocal advocacy, knowledge and advice, along with your patient, long-term attention, are extremely valuable to causes, organizations and social entrepreneurs

JESSE AND BETSY FINK 63

Commit to a cause—

and identify ways to create impact JON AND MINDY GRAY The Basser Center for BRCA at the University of Pennsylvania Harlem Village Academies in New York UNITED STAT E S • The Grays graduate from the

When Mindy Gray lost her older sister, Faith Basser, to ovarian cancer in 2002, she became actively involved in the fight against cancer and joined the board of the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund.

University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Gray

“It was an unthinkable loss,” says Ms. Gray, who became

joins Blackstone (1992)

determined to spare others.

• The couple marries (1995) • Ms. Gray is 32 when her sister, Faith Basser, dies of ovarian cancer at age 44 (2002)

Once she gained experience in the field, Ms. Gray—with her husband, Jon Gray, global head of real estate and a board director at Blackstone—set the ambitious goal of eliminating cancers linked to mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

• Ms. Gray joins the board of the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund (2004) • Mr. Gray joins the board of Harlem Village Academies (2007), becomes

Research suggests that women with these mutations have up to a 45% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer and up to an 80% risk of developing breast cancer.

chairman (2012) • Basser Center for BRCA is launched at

“The mutations are cruel,” says Ms. Gray. “They allow you to

the University of Pennsylvania with a

survive into your 40s. They let you have children. Then they

$25 million gift from Mr. and Ms. Gray

click in.” When Ms. Gray’s sister, Faith, passed away, she was

(2012) and $5 million added for

44 years old and the mother of a four-year-old.

external BRCA-related grants (2013)

After almost a decade of giving under the radar, the Grays in 2012 chose to significantly augment their giving and become more public about their areas of interest: cancer and education. And they looked for ways they could move the needle most.

64

CREATING A MEDICAL HUB In the fight against cancer, the Grays’ approach has been unusual in that they helped build a new paradigm for research.

In addition to research, the Basser Center facilitates ongoing learning and networking opportunities for experts through seminars, conferences and an annual symposium. As part of a medical facility, it offers patient care, access

“There were different places doing different

to clinical trials, genetic counseling, information

kinds of research, but there wasn’t a central hub,”

and support.

Ms. Gray explains. As links between BRCA genetic mutations and cancer became better understood,

To date, the Grays have contributed $30 million

Ms. Gray felt it was time for coordinated research.

to the Basser Center’s work. This includes a $5 million gift the Grays gave in 2013 to fund

The Grays turned to the University of Pennsylvania

external grants around the globe. The Grays

and proposed what ultimately became the Basser

want the Basser Center to act as a beacon,

Center for BRCA, named after Ms. Gray’s sister

attracting the best talent to the best facilities,

and focused exclusively on BRCA1- and BRCA2-

where research can be extended and findings

related cancers.

can be put directly into clinical practice. This

RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT

UP TO 45% OF WOMEN

WITH BRCA1 AND BRCA2 MUTATIONS MAY DEVELOP

OVARIAN CANCER;

UP TO 80% MAY DEVELOP

BREAST CANCER



” HOMOLOGOUS HOPE”—A 15-foot sculpture by artist Mara G. Haseltine hangs outside the Basser Center and shows how a healthy cell repairs DNA.

JON AND MINDY GRAY 65

approach, Mr. Gray believes, reflects new patterns in both philanthropy and the fight against cancer: •C  ancer—“Genetic science is providing insights

“You really want to be smart and strategic about your partners, your goals and your mission.”

into the causes of cancer and requiring increased research specialization,” he says. “Because specialist facilities are expensive, large donations by individual philanthropists are critical” •P  hilanthropy—Donors are increasingly hands-on

Their own commitment will surely be tested. One challenge faced by those investing in scientific research is that results can be hard to measure, and a major breakthrough can take years to achieve. But, say the Grays,

with the organizations they fund. The Grays

a breakthrough in the fight against cancer is

helped select Dr. Susan Domchek to lead the

a prize worth waiting for.

Basser Center. She is an expert in the field of genetic cancers affecting women, a breast cancer oncologist, and the Basser Professor in Oncology at Penn Medicine’s Abramson Cancer Center. “You really want to be smart and strategic about your partners, your goals and your mission,” says Ms. Gray, who chairs the Basser Center’s Leadership Council and has launched a new capital campaign The Grays’ two key learnings from their work with the Basser Center are that philanthropists should: 1. Identify a clear mission 2. Find partners who share their vision and can deliver it day-to-day “We want to be engaged, but we don’t want to micromanage,” says Mr. Gray. “Dr. Domchek is the leader, and she has absolute commitment to the mission.”

66



EDUCATION—The Grays help support a network of five charter schools in New York City.

In 2012, the Grays donated $10 million to buy a building on West 124th Street to house a new HVA elementary school for 515 pupils. They helped raise another $15 million to refurbish the property. The Grays’ passion for education stems from their parents and is something they want to pass on to their children. “My father would have sold the shirt off his back to get his kids a great education. There is no better gift in life; it brings employment opportunities, independence and 

 OLUNTEERING—A woman gives her time to the Harlem Village V Academies.

health,” Ms. Gray says. Time spent volunteering with their daughters has been valuable family time, Mr. Gray adds,

INVESTING IN EDUCATION “It is arguably easier to monitor the impact of philanthropic dollars in education, where the number of students, test scores and college enrollment are all good indicators of progress,” says Mr. Gray.

especially as his career has been so demanding. “In our lives and as a family, our highest return on investment has been in charitable activities,” says Mr. Gray. “The more you can be engaged as a couple and get your children engaged, the more rewarding your giving is. We want to make

Mr. Gray is chairman of the board of Harlem

a difference, and it is a huge part of our lives.”

Village Academies (HVA), a network of five charter schools, where Ms. Gray mentors high school students. The Grays became involved because they wanted all children growing up in Manhattan to have similar opportunities to their own children.

• Having a clear mission helps you to identify partners and work together toward a shared goal

“You find things you really believe in and then

• Hands-on giving and volunteering are personally rewarding and create valuable family experiences

you dig deeply, you dive in really deeply where you’re not just a financial contributor, but you’re also actively involved in helping to shape the mission,” says Mr. Gray.

• Impact can be hard to measure in some fields, but that shouldn’t detract from working toward achieving your goal

JON AND MINDY GRAY 67

A foundation isn’t always needed to

pursue common philanthropic goals KUEHNER FAMILY UNITED STAT E S • Carl Kuehner, Sr., founds Building and Land Technology in Connecticut (1982) • Carl Kuehner, Jr., and Paul Kuehner start

Many families strive to work together toward philanthropic goals. The Kuehners have a unique twist on family philanthropy. They believe having independent philanthropic outlets strengthens their core.

working for their father’s business while still in college (1983) • Carl Sr. and his wife, JoAnne, visit Haiti with AmeriCares (1989) • Carl Sr. and JoAnne move to Florida and found Hope for Haiti (1989) • Opening of the Carl J. Kuehner Community Center for the Immokalee Housing and Family Services organization in Florida (2008) • Carl Jr. donates $5 million of real estate to relocate the Waterside School in Connecticut (2010)

“We tried to set up a family structure,” says patriarch Carl Kuehner, Sr. “But what we have found is that individual involvement is more efficient.” The actively philanthropic Kuehners now span three generations, with seven adults: In addition to Carl Sr., there is his wife, JoAnne; their four children, Carl Jr., Paul, Kurt and Kimberly; and the younger Carl’s daughter, Tiffany. Each sits on different boards and works with different nonprofits. But what they learn, they share. And when they pull together, the Kuehners are a force.

• Paul joins the board of AmeriCares (2010) • The Kuehner family mobilizes $30 million of aid to Haiti (2010) • Tiffany Kuehner takes over as president and CEO of Hope for Haiti (2011)

ALL FOR HAITI When an earthquake devastated Haiti in January 2010, for example, the Kuehners sprang into action. The family has strong ties to Haiti. In 1989, matriarch JoAnne Kuehner founded Hope for Haiti after she and her husband, Carl Sr., first visited the country on a trip organized by AmeriCares (a global health organization for which she was serving as a board member).

68

RAPID RESPONSE TO EARTHQUAKE DEVASTATION: WITHIN

6 MONTHS

THE KUEHNERS SHIPPED ABOUT

$30 MILLION OF EMERGENCY AID TO HAITI



 OPE FOR HAITI— H Tiffany Kuehner with a young Haitian girl.

Immediately after the earthquake, Carl Jr. secured

founded Building and Land Technology in

access to two Boeing 757 jets, the family filled the

Stamford, Connecticut, just 12 years earlier

planes with emergency supplies, and the jets flew

in 1982.

into Haiti with Carl Jr. and his daughter, Tiffany, on board. Tiffany’s husband, Mike, was already on the

The family came together again more recently

ground in Haiti organizing trucks to move the

when hurricanes threatened one of the Hope

supplies where needed. In six months, they shipped

for Haiti communities as a river bank eroded.

over $30 million of emergency aid to the island.

Tiffany Kuehner, now president and CEO of the organization, tried to relocate the school and other local buildings. However, with quotes

“We are independent in business, in life and in philanthropy, but we can also come together to leverage our different skills.”

coming in at more than $500,000, the project was untenable. Tiffany’s uncles stepped in with a plan to divert the river at a cost of just $25,000. “We have a problem-solving mentality,” explains Carl Jr. “Everyone is a strong entrepreneur. We are independent in business, in life and in

It was also in 1990 that the elder Kuehners’

philanthropy, but we can also come together

sons Carl Jr. and Paul took over the family’s

to leverage our different skills.”

real estate development business. Carl Sr. had

KUEHNER FAMILY 69

SEPARATELY TOGETHER When the Kuehners are not working together on a specific project, their philanthropic interests span a variety of areas.

At the heart of the neighborhood is the Carl J. Kuehner Community Center, which opened its doors in 2008. Paul sits on the board of AmeriCares. His

Under JoAnne’s leadership, Hope for Haiti

brother, Carl Jr., has been involved in a

grew to serve 500,000 children and their

number of community building projects in

families each year, providing education, basic

Connecticut, notably donating $5 million to

healthcare and nutrition. Tiffany has now

provide the Waterside School with a permanent

taken over that work and is driving a range

school building.

of sustainable development initiatives. “Our parents raised us to understand that Meanwhile, Carl Sr. actively supports the

to those to whom much is given, much is

Immokalee Housing and Family Services

expected,” says Paul. “Mother has the passion

organization, providing affordable housing

and father is the engineer. It is a very powerful

to farm families in Immokalee, Florida.

combination.”



70

F ATHER’S FOCUS—After moving to Florida, Carl Kuehner, Sr., became very involved in providing affordable housing to farm families in Immokalee, which means “my home” in Seminole.

IN 2011, THE KUEHNERS HELD A

“BIG GIVE” FAMILY EVENT, DIVIDING 20 FAMILY MEMBERS IN TWO TEAMS, EACH WITH

$5,000 TO GIVE AWAY IN A SINGLE DAY IN SCRANTON, PENNSYLVANIA

“BIG GIVE” FAMILY EVENT Passing on that passion and capacity for philanthropy to the next generation—as well as to the extended family—has also become something of a Kuehner family mission. For this challenge, they may not have a formal structure, but they certainly have fun.

“It was goofy, but it got everybody engaged,” Paul says. “You have to lead by example; you cannot just philosophize,” adds his father. “Go and do the work and make the family aware of it. Seeing that you are doing it is more important than any philosophy.”

In 2011, they organized a “Big Give” family event. Twenty family members divided into two teams, each with a minibus and $5,000 to give away in a single day in the community of Scranton, Pennsylvania, where JoAnne and Carl Sr. grew up. The race took family members into the heart of the community, where they gave small gifts to those who looked in need of a helping hand, or where there was some family significance to the gift. The event brightened the day for senior

• If families share a passion for philanthropy, they don’t necessarily need a formal structure to enable them to give together • Families can learn from different organizations and share their experiences • Leading by example—and having fun—helps to get each generation engaged

citizens, volunteer fundraisers, golfers and shoppers alike.

KUEHNER FAMILY 71

Supporting young leaders

to make the world a better place

LAURA LAUDER Laura and Gary Lauder Family Venture Philanthropy Fund

In 1986, a young executive named Laura Heller made her first gift

UNITED STAT E S

of $5,000 to the UJA-Federation, a Jewish relief organization. It

•M  ade her first gift of $5,000 to the UJA-Federation, an organization that cares for Jewish people in need (1986) • E stablished her own donor-advised fund at the Jewish Community Endowment Fund (1991) • J oined Lauder Partners, the Lauder family venture capital firm (1992)

was 10% of her net earnings as a software sales representative and marked the start of her philanthropic career. Ms. Heller had grown up with the Jewish tradition of tzedakah, the Jewish law requiring individuals to dedicate one-tenth of their incomes to promoting social justice. Her grandfather, Paul Heller, was president of the Jewish Welfare Society in their hometown in Ohio, and had petitioned American Jews to support the creation of a Jewish state during World War II.

• Married Gary Lauder (1994) • C o-founded the Laura and Gary Lauder Philanthropic Fund (1995) • C o-founded the Socrates Society at the Aspen Institute (1996)

In 1991, she met Gary Lauder, a grandson of Estée Lauder, the famous American businesswoman. A year later, Ms. Heller joined Gary at Lauder Partners, a venture capital operation focused on technology investing in Silicon Valley. In 1994, she and Gary married.

• Co-founded DeLeT, a Jewish teacher-training program (2002) •H  ired an organizational consultant to

Gary Lauder’s family was also steeped in the Jewish philanthropic tradition. His father, Leonard Lauder, ran the family’s company for

review previous 10 years of giving,

nearly 55 years, and is now chairman emeritus. Leonard Lauder

which resulted in an increased focus

also chairs the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation and serves

on high-impact activities (2005) • S erves on 13 boards, including the Aspen Institute and the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, and is vice chair of the $2 billion Jewish Community Endowment Fund of San Francisco

72

as trustee of the Aspen Institute, a Washington, D.C.–based policy and research organization. Gary’s late mother, Evelyn Lauder, co-founded the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.

A year after marrying, the Lauders established the

“To catalyze progress, start with networking young

Laura and Gary Lauder Philanthropic Fund and

leaders who are determined to change the world,”

embarked on their own mission of tikkun olam.

says Ms. Lauder. That’s the purpose of the Socrates

This Hebrew phrase describes the Jewish belief

Program—over 5,000 young leaders aged 25–45

that it is humanity’s shared responsibility to

have participated in these seminars that focus on

heal, repair and transform the world.

the most compelling issues of the day.

“Our faith encourages us to repair the world

Over time, Ms. Lauder has refined her philanthropy,

by helping others,” explains Ms. Lauder,

using more venture capital techniques.

adding: “Bringing innovative, transformative philanthropy to intractable problems demands

In 2001, Ms. Lauder saw that Teach For America

great leadership. Jewish values provide fertile

was growing and attracting bright college

soil for great leaders to grow.”

graduates. The Lauders’ children attended Jewish schools in California’s Palo Alto area, and Ms. Lauder saw a significant shortage of great

VENTURE CAPITALISTS, VENTURE PHILANTHROPISTS The couple aimed to strengthen the fabric of society by initiating projects that developed strong leaders in the Jewish and general communities. The Lauders' first project together was the Socrates Program at the Aspen Institute, which they founded in 1996 to develop young minds.

teacher-leaders in the U.S. Jewish day schools.

“To catalyze progress, start with networking young leaders who are determined to change the world.”

THE SOCRATES PROGRAM HAS PROVIDED A FORUM FOR OVER

5,000 YOUNG LEADERS (AGED 25–45)

TO EXPLORE CONTEMPORARY ISSUES © Matej Kastelic/Shutterstock

LAURA LAUDER 73

“Our mistake was that we were giving small amounts to many; the total was millions of dollars, but those grants weren’t having an impact.” This strategy of seed funding a program, engaging like-minded philanthropists to bring it to scale and ensuring an “exit strategy” so she can move on to develop other programs, has been key to Ms. Lauder’s work. She is currently using this model to expand two programs: • The Jewish Teen Foundation Board Incubator, based on giving circles, is a national initiative 

T O BE EFFECTIVE—Laura Lauder has refined her strategies and the number of initiatives/organizations she supports.

where Ms. Lauder has partnered with the Maimonides Fund to roll out the program in major cities in the United States and Australia.

Having funded initial research to determine how

• The Franklin Project of the Aspen Institute

to develop a successful teacher-training program,

envisions a future in which a year of full-time

she engaged 12 other philanthropists to establish

national service is a cultural expectation,

DeLeT, a Jewish “Teach For America”–type program

common opportunity and civic rite of passage

at two universities.

for every young American.

As in traditional “seed” and “A” rounds, the funding was offered in two, three-year cycles. The first round created, tested and launched the curriculum; the second supported the program while the universities found independent sources to continue the courses.

74

FOCUSED GIVING In 2005, Ms. Lauder sought to further increase her philanthropic impact with another important refinement: She dramatically reduced the number of organizations she supported from 400 to just 40.

This shift was particularly challenging for a

When their children became bar/bat mitzvah at

philanthropist whose giving was so community

age 13, the Lauders requested that, in lieu of

driven. But in 2005, an accounting showed of the

gifts, friends and family consider making a small

1,100 grants the Lauders had made since their

donation to help nonprofits that the children

fund’s inception, 70% were in amounts less than

would select through their own philanthropic

$1,000. “Our mistake was that we were giving

funds; then, over the ensuing five years, the

small amounts to many; the total was millions

family would match the children’s contributions

of dollars, but those grants weren’t having an

to a family pool. Using a “venture philanthropy

impact,” says Ms. Lauder.

process,” the children would then make the decisions to allocate the funds to four to six

Instead, Ms. Lauder initiated an extensive

nonprofits focused on a specific issue-area.

strategic planning process that resulted in defining a clear theory of change and a specific mission

The aim, Ms. Lauder says, was to help their

statement to focus her giving. Today, 70% of her

children find their own philanthropic passions,

philanthropy goes to the five key initiatives she

and that everyone must find their unique approach.

started or to the seven organizations on whose

For some, this will be a full-time commitment to

boards she serves. For special occasions and to

innovate and create new ventures; others will be

respond to friends’ requests, she also created a

supporters and funders. Ms. Lauder’s approach is

“relationship bucket” to continue making smaller

a combination of the two.

gifts, representing 10% of her total annual giving. “I applaud all approaches,” says Ms. Lauder. “To make the world a better place, we each have to find

CONTINUING THE TRADITION For all the application of modern business practices to their philanthropy, the Lauders are raising their two children, Josh and Eliana, in the tradition of tzedakah, or charitable giving. Ms. Lauder, a working mother, devotes half her time to philanthropic activities, setting an important example for her children of tikkun olam in action. “We cannot just write checks, because we also need to teach our children that the responsibility of our good fortune is to actively help others,” she says.

a way to make philanthropy part of our daily lives.”

• The pressing issues of today require leadership and social cohesion • Everyone should find a way to fit philanthropy into their lives—every amount makes a difference • Giving strengthens the values of communities, which in turn strengthen wider society

LAURA LAUDER 75

To achieve change, all engines—

LAURENCE LIEN Lien Foundation SIN GAPO R E

NGOs, government and the private sector—need to be firing

• Started his 14-year career in the Singapore Administrative Service, including roles as director of both Economic Programmes and

Laurence Lien is a philosopher, practitioner and promoter of

Governance & Investment at the

what he calls “radical philanthropy”—tackling social problems

Ministry of Finance, and the director

by empowering NGOs and encouraging governments to adopt

of Family Policy and Strategic Policy

new ways to change the status quo.

and Research at the Ministry of Community Development (1994–2008) •A  ppointed to the board of the Lien Foundation (2002). Appointed as chairman of the Lien Foundation (2009) • C EO of the National Volunteer &

His ideas developed during years spent in senior policy positions with the Singapore Administrative Service. Exposed there to new thinking about social entrepreneurship and venture philanthropy, Mr. Lien says he was “excited” about how to apply these innovations in Singapore.

Philanthropy Centre (2008–2014) •A  warded an Eisenhower Fellowship, a

One challenge, he felt, is that the Singaporean government

program in support of young leaders

is the main change agent for social issues, and, he notes,

promoting global dialogue and

“No matter how forward-looking any government may be, it

collaboration (2011)

often does not take the risks necessary to find new, more

•A  ppointed as nominated member of

effective solutions.”

parliament in Singapore (2012–2014)

Moreover, the government’s dominance as a funder meant NGOs were accustomed to simply carrying out orders. “If you are a vendor, you are simply delivering services; you are not devising better ways to tackle the underlying problem,” Mr. Lien says.

76

CAMPAIGN APPROACH TO SPOTLIGHT

KEY ISSUES

TO RALLY SUPPORT, ATTENTION, FUNDING AND ACTION

EDUCATION

WATER

SANITATION

© artcomedy/Shutterstock

© View Stock/Offset.com (left) © avarand/Shutterstock (middle)

LAURENCE LIEN HAS DEVELOPED A

Asia’s giving culture presented yet another

Lien Ying Chow made this request one year after

challenge, he says. “There is a view that your

his Overseas Union Bank merged with another

role as a philanthropist is to write checks,

major Chinese bank in a $7.8 billion deal. Lien

that asking too many questions would not

Ying Chow also was the co-founder of Nanyang

be appreciated by charities.”

University in Singapore and a civic leader with close government ties.

Singapore needed a new model, Mr. Lien concluded, one in which private philanthropists

“When your grandfather asks you to do something,

piloted social innovations, thereby providing

you don’t say ‘no,’” jokes the younger Mr. Lien.1

government with new solutions and different ways to tackle longstanding challenges. So, when

The first step Mr. Lien took to implement radical

the opportunity presented itself, Mr. Lien put

philanthropy was to convince fellow board

what he calls his foundation’s theory of “radical

members to concentrate the foundation’s giving

philanthropy” into practice.

in key areas: education, care of the elderly, and the environment—all areas of specific need in Singapore and in the region.

TAKING THE REINS In 2002, at age 32, Mr. Lien was asked to join the board of his family’s foundation by its founder—his grandfather and the family patriarch, Lien Ying Chow.

1

Next, he looked for local NGOs with whom to partner. His foundation wrote to 40, asking for grant applications. Only 15 responded, and several said they didn’t need funding.

In 2004, Mr. Lien’s grandfather passed away. In 2009, Mr. Lien became chairman of the family foundation. LAURENCE LIEN 77

“If you really want results, you should bet heavily on the initiatives about which you feel convinced. Work on a larger scale and think about how best to be a change maker.”

CAMPAIGNING In 2006, the foundation launched the “Life before Death Campaign” to create public awareness about elderly care issues in Singapore. By 2010, the campaign had become a global multimedia effort, complete with art, photography and social media. More than 730 international artists created designer “Happy Coffins,” which were put

“Something is very wrong when NGOs have no

on display in public places to challenge

interest in money being offered, for today or the

social taboos surrounding death.

future,” says Mr. Lien. The response reinforced his view that NGOs in Singapore were lacking in

The foundation also funded the Economist

ambition and mission-orientation, or had neither

Intelligence Unit to produce a global Quality

the time nor the capacity to receive strategic gifts.

of Death Index, examining the quality of care for the elderly in 40 countries.

In 2005, Mr. Lien took another major step: “We were the first grantmaking foundation in

This campaigning strategy has since been

Singapore to hire professional program staff.

repeated for pre-school education, water and

This made a world of difference, particularly

sanitation, helping to make the foundation a

as we were fortunate to have a very talented

point of contact for NGOs seeking a strategic

first hire.”

partner and advocate in these areas.

He had his foundation take the lead by spotlighting issues he wanted to support. The results have been dramatic. TO FILL A GAP, MR. LIEN HELPED FUND SINGAPORE’S FIRST RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

CENTER FOR SPECIALIZED CARE IN 2008

MEDICINE 78

To help pre-schoolers, the Lien Foundation has partnered with such groups as the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), the Young Women's Muslim Association (YWMA), KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, PAP Community Foundation and the Ngee Ann Polytechnic. Projects have

SPREADING THE WORD “If you really want results,” says Mr. Lien, “you should bet heavily on the initiatives about which you feel convinced. Work on a larger scale, collaborate intensively and think about how best to be a change maker.”

included funding programs to: Mr. Lien’s message is getting out. He was • Provide tools that help teachers engage children with technology

rewarded with a presidential appointment to become a nominated member of parliament in 2012. The 2.5-year appointment provided him

• Identify and support children with developmental needs • Help children with learning disabilities enter the mainstream • Encourage teachers to collaborate and learn from each other Where there are gaps in the services local NGOs provide, the foundation looks to create new ventures—not as an operational foundation, but as a funding partner.

with a public platform, and he feels there is now “an appreciation that things need to change in Singapore.” Still, there is much more work to do. He has started the Asia Philanthropy Circle to mobilize philanthropists from around the region to learn, exchange and work together. To fully achieve change, “we need all our engines firing,” says Mr. Lien. “The government needs to be prompted to try new solutions. NGOs need to invest in innovation, and philanthropists should become agents of change.”

For example, the first research and education center in Singapore that focused on specialized medical care was the Lien Centre for Palliative Care, founded in 2008 with the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. To generate greater momentum for its radical philanthropy agenda, the foundation in 2006 created the Lien Centre for Social Innovation with the Singapore Management School to undertake research and promote collaboration among the public, people and private sectors.

• Focus your resources on empowering those with the capacity to make change happen • E ffective philanthropy requires you to focus on fewer areas, dialing up your support as you become convinced of the power of certain projects to change lives • To create that focus, you need to find the intersection between what you are passionate about and what society needs

LAURENCE LIEN 79

Focus where you have knowledge, and

your voice carries weight

KATHERINE LORENZ Cynthia and George Mitchell Foundation

Katherine Lorenz has one of the most challenging—and

UNITED STAT E S

exciting—jobs in philanthropy.

• Began volunteering in Latin America

The 36-year-old’s extended family elected her to head their

(2001)

foundation in 2011. That has meant she is tasked with:

• Co-founded Puente a la Salud Comunitaria in Oaxaca, an organization

• Harmonizing the voices of many family members

focused on food sovereignty to advance the health of rural communities in Mexico (2003) • George Mitchell began to formally involve his 10 children and growing number of grandchildren (2004) in the foundation he established with his wife (1978) • Joined the Institute for Philanthropy as deputy director (2009) • Became president and treasurer of the Cynthia and George Mitchell Foundation (2011)

• Ramping up the foundation, which currently has about $110 million in assets and will soon receive an additional $750 million •A  djusting the foundation to meet the challenges of the 21st century Ms. Lorenz heads the Cynthia and George Mitchell Foundation, established in 1978 by her grandparents. Funding for the Mitchell foundation—long involved in promoting sustainability— comes from the “father of fracking,” George P. Mitchell. In 2011, when Mr. Mitchell died at age 94, The Economist magazine eulogized him as “the unlikely environmental warrior.” “We find ourselves in the middle of debates about the environment, given my grandfather’s history of both funding sustainability issues for 40-plus years and pioneering the technology that is transforming the energy landscape,” says Ms. Lorenz.

Photo credit: Benjamin Norman/ The New York Times/Redux

80

© Peter Adams/Offset.com



LONG-TERM VISION—The Cynthia and George Mitchell Foundation is seeking innovative, sustainable solutions to environmental issues.

But that is exactly where the Mitchell family has

Mr. Mitchell did not shy away from the

decided their foundation should concentrate its

controversy surrounding fracking and the

efforts and the nearly $1 billion Mr. Mitchell’s

challenge of humans and nature coexisting

bequest recently added to it.

in a market-driven economy. The oilman was an early advocate of environmentally

The environment in general and energy in

friendly growth, campaigned for tight

particular, says Ms. Lorenz, “are where we

government regulation of fracking, criticized

have specialized knowledge, our voice carries

the environmental movement for not going

the most weight, and we have the potential

far enough, and deployed his philanthropic

to have the greatest impact.”

dollars to promote science and sustainability.

OILMAN AND ENVIRONMENTALIST Ms. Lorenz’s grandfather, credited as the pioneer of commercial fracking, started Mitchell Energy & Development, an oil and gas company that was sold to Devon Energy in 2002 for $3.5 billion.

Since Cynthia and George Mitchell began giving, both individually and through their foundation, more than $400 million of the Mitchell fortune has gone to charitable causes, including significant gifts to the National Academy of Sciences in 1996 and 2001, both to fund the academic study of sustainability science.

KATHERINE LORENZ 81

quickly as possible.”

SECOND AND THIRD GENERATIONS GET INVOLVED Although Ms. Lorenz is only a few years into her tenure as head of the Mitchell Foundation, she already is helping to prove that a new generation can effectively take over and lead a large private foundation.

Like her grandfather, Ms. Lorenz believes that

In 2004, her grandparents first allowed their

innovation combined with effective regulation

10 children and any grandchildren 25 years or older

is the best way to transition to cleaner energy

to participate in the foundation’s strategic planning

sources. Like him, she also believes that to

process. In 2009, Cynthia Mitchell passed away.

create lasting change, you must focus on the

Four years later, Mr. Mitchell passed as well.

“We feel very strongly that moving from coal to gas is the right move for the world—but that it is only a first step,” says Ms. Lorenz. “We also feel very strongly that we should not get stuck there, that we should use this time to continue to move toward more renewable sources of energy as

system. And, as he did, she promotes initiatives aimed at increasing the scientific understanding

Now the second generation occupies eight

of underlying issues and advocacy.

of the 12 board seats; the third generation, 25 members strong, has four board seats.

But, unlike her grandfather, Ms. Lorenz is talking about climate change. “My grandfather didn’t

The family brought in advisors to help them

think in terms of climate change” because that

refine the foundation’s objectives, which helped

is a relatively new understanding and focus, she

the board decide to increase its focus on

explains. “But he did believe that if you throw

environmental sustainability.

off an environmental system, then it will not be able to support people and lives.”

Now, Ms. Lorenz has the gravitas to lead this effort, in part due to her years of strong experience in the social sector.

ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT

Indeed, she describes her career as coming

Katherine Lorenz is also deeply involved in the greater nonprofit community. She is:

full circle. Ms. Lorenz began in international

•A  board member of the Environmental Defense Fund, the Philanthropy Workshop (chair), National Center for Family Philanthropy, Puente a la Salud Comunitaria, Exponent Philanthropy and the Endowment for Regional Sustainability Science

she co-founded Puente a la Salud Comunitaria,

• A member of the Global Philanthropists Circle of the Synergos Institute

82

development working in Latin America, where an organization focused on food security, nutrition and health issues in Mexico.

“For most of the world’s population, the diet is directly connected to the land—what you can grow is what you can eat. So, if you don’t address climate problems, then people’s lives are at risk.” Her active exploration of the role of philanthropists and philanthropy has continued. Before joining the family foundation, Ms. Lorenz served as deputy 

L ONG-TERM VISION—Katherine Lorenz is committed to learning how to make lasting, positive change through field visits, research, peer discussions and skills-building sessions around the world.

director of the Institute for Philanthropy, which focuses on educating and networking philanthropists in strategic, purpose-driven change. “As a donor, if you focus on a few things and

There, she came to believe that poverty, rural development and climate change are interrelated problems that require a holistic solution. “For most of the world’s population,” she says, “the diet is directly connected to the land—what you can grow is what you can eat.

give it your all—your time, your connections and your financial resources—you learn more and it becomes exciting to feel change happening,” says Ms. Lorenz. “I have seen the power of strategic philanthropy—targeted focus and strategic investment can really change the world.”

So, if you don’t address climate problems, then people’s lives are at risk.” Ms. Lorenz’s work in Mexico also began her investigation into what makes for effective strategic philanthropy. Seeking to solve the larger issues of children’s malnutrition and sustainability, Puente a la Salud Comunitaria started by focusing on the seemingly narrow task of helping rural communities cultivate the highly nutritious grain amaranth.

• The world’s most critical challenges—international development and climate change—are interconnected. Philanthropic efforts need to focus on creating systemic change • As an individual, you need to identify where and how your voice carries the most weight, and focus on those issues • Working in dialogue with other philanthropists helps to connect each focused activity into a system KATHERINE LORENZ 83

A young philanthropist

DANIEL LURIE

engages his peers to fight poverty in the Bay Area

Tipping Point Community UNITED STAT E S •O  n graduating from Duke University, Mr. Lurie went to work for Senator Bill Bradley’s presidential campaign ( 2000) •M  r. Lurie began work at the Robin Hood Foundation in New York City (2001)

Daniel Lurie passionately believes that San Francisco has a proud culture of philanthropy, and he is hard at work helping the Bay Area’s new generation of entrepreneurs to not only perpetuate this tradition of giving, but to reinvent it, as well.

• F ounded Tipping Point Community (2005), where he serves as CEO •W  on the California Prize for Service and

As the stepson of Peter Haas, former CEO and chairman of the iconic jeans brand Levi Strauss & Co.,

the Common Good from the University of

Mr. Lurie grew up with a family that actively practiced

San Francisco (2011)

social responsibility. When the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 devastated the city, Mr. Lurie’s step-great-grandfather and his family kept staff on full pay while the factory was rebuilt. Since then, Mr. Lurie’s step-grandfather, father and uncle have championed civil rights, gay rights and the rights of international factory workers.

84

IN THE BAY AREA,

1.3 MILLION INDIVIDUALS

ARE UNABLE TO MEET THEIR BASIC NEEDS WITHOUT GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES

His stepfather was also involved with multiple

One in five people in the Bay Area—1.3 million

civic and charitable organizations in and around

individuals—are unable to meet their basic

San Francisco. Meanwhile, his father, Brian Lurie,

needs without government subsidies.1

ran the Jewish Community Federation for 17 years. Since 2005, Tipping Point has raised more A product of this upbringing, Mr. Lurie says

than $80 million to help nearly 465,000 people

he wants to help a new generation engage in

graduate from high school, enter the workforce

solving social problems. Business leaders have

with new jobs, receive emergency and transitional

an obligation to give back, the Bay Area is in

housing, and visit health clinics.

the midst of a tech “gold rush,” and “if we don’t get these young technology leaders involved in their community, it would be a missed opportunity,” he says. In 2005, when Mr. Lurie was 28 years old, he founded Tipping Point Community—a fundraising organization with a straightforward mission: to eradicate poverty in the Bay Area.

1

Business leaders have an obligation to give back, the Bay Area is in the midst of a tech “gold rush,” and “if we don’t get these young technology leaders involved in their community, it would be a missed opportunity.”

http://www.selfsufficiencystandard.org/standard.html#whatis. DANIEL LURIE 85

To achieve these benefits, Mr. Lurie, CEO of Tipping Point, employs four key strategies.

1

TIRELESS EFFORTS

Tipping Point is specifically structured so that it faces the same pressure for accountability as other NGOs, despite some very high-powered backing. Its founding board members include Katie Schwab Paige, trustee of the Schwab Family Foundation and daughter of Charles and Helen Schwab; Chris James, founder of the Partner Fund Management hedge fund; and National Football League Hall of Famer Ronnie Lott. The board now counts 23 senior business leaders, including Tony Bates, former CEO of Microsoft. Mr. Lurie and the board fund the operating and fundraising costs of Tipping Point so that 100% of the donations it receives can go directly to frontline organizations. Each year, Mr. Lurie sets a fundraising goal, and each year, the money is spent. “We don’t have an endowment,” Mr. Lurie explains. “Every year, we have to go back to our funders and present the work we have done. We don’t get to rest on our laurels.” With accountability running through the core of Tipping Point and its grantee organizations, it is little wonder that funders are a Who’s Who of the local tech and finance heavyweights.

86

2

PARTNERING FOR IMPACT

Tipping Point acts as a fundraiser and grantmaker. The organization carefully identifies NGOs that are having the greatest impact on poverty in the Bay Area. “Tipping Point’s funders—entrepreneurs, tech leaders, etc.—need to know their dollars are well spent,” says Mr. Lurie. Its portfolio covers four areas: education and youth, employment, family wellness and housing. Across these areas, Tipping Point funded 46 organizations in 2013 with a total budget of $13.7 million. For 2014, Mr. Lurie’s target was $21 million. Funds are raised in one-on-one meetings, group meetings and events. In May 2014, Tipping Point Community’s eighth annual benefit was hosted by Bay Area glitterati on Pier 48 for 1,200 guests. It featured a four-ton robot projecting a light show of the running total of funds pledged, and got the organization well on its way to the year’s goal by raising $12 million.

TIPPING POINT COMMUNITY’S

8TH ANNUAL BENEFIT RAISED

TO HELP BAY AREA PEOPLE IN NEED



© Nina Mingioni/Offset.com

$12 MILLION

RALLYING HIS PEERS—Daniel Lurie addresses attendees at the Tipping Point benefit.

3

PUTTING OUR CAPABILITIES TO WORK

Tipping Point focuses on what NGOs need to make them as efficient and accountable as possible. For example, says Mr. Lurie, many organizations lack the know-how to access cutting-edge technology. That is why Tipping Point mobilizes the local business community’s technology and skills. In 2013, that amounted to more than $2.4 million in technology, infrastructure and professional services. “We are committed to building a data-driven culture at our [recipient] organizations,” Mr. Lurie says. Effective data and client management tools are key for enabling these groups to track people post-intervention. To see whether people are actually being lifted out of poverty, he says, it is critical to know how much they earn in new jobs and whether they keep these jobs.

4

TRUSTING LEADERSHIP

Tipping Point supports unrestricted funding so organizations can spend on what they see as essential infrastructure. “Obviously, you need to do your due diligence and make sure there is oversight and accountability,” says Mr. Lurie, “but there also has to be a partnership.” If you have found a great organization with a great leader, you need to trust his or her judgment to use your dollars wisely, he says, adding: “You wouldn’t invest in Google and say they could only use your money on the search function.”

• There must be a partnership between funders and the organizations they support. Nonprofits need to demonstrate accountability, and funders need to help them maximize their potential • Business leadership and success come with the responsibility to support the wider community. Inequality of income and opportunity is the responsibility of all DANIEL LURIE 87

Enterprises that achieve

a social good can be self-sustaining LETIZIA MORATTI San Patrignano Community I TALY • Co-founder of the San Patrignano

When she served as Italy’s Minister of Education and again as Milan’s mayor, Letizia Moratti was able to see firsthand the gap between sharp social needs and the public purse.

Foundation • Businesswoman who worked in

In the three years since leaving public office, Ms. Moratti

insurance and telecommunications,

has increased the time she devotes to developing new models

becoming president of the Italian state

of social enterprise and innovative ways to channel funding

television company, RAI (1994–1996), and chairwoman of News Corp Europe (1998)

to social causes. On the international and national stage, this has meant:

• Minister of Education, Universities and Research for Italy (2001–2006) • Mayor of Milan (2006–2011) • President of the Ethics Committee of the Guarantors—Microfinance National Institution and San Patrignano Foundation (2012) • Member of the Italian Advisory Board—G8 Social Impact Investment Task Force • Married to Gianmarco Moratti, the Italian oil magnate, and mother of two

88

• S erving as a member of the Italian Advisory Board for the G8 Social Impact Investment Task Force •W  orking with the Italian government to modify the law on social enterprise •P  artnering with Bocconi University School of Economics in Milan, Accenture and Banca Prossima to organize a training program for microcredit providers on how to manage relationships with microcredit beneficiaries

But the particular cause to which Ms. Moratti

Vincenzo Muccioli was bringing drug addicts

has dedicated herself for nearly 40 years is

into his home to help them kick their habits.

San Patrignano—a drug rehabilitation program she and her husband co-founded with Vincenzo

The couple worked with Mr. Muccioli to create

Muccioli in 1978.

a rehabilitation shelter and self-sustaining community situated just outside the Adriatic

This program has become a global beacon of best

seaside town of Rimini. In the early days, this

practices in the treatment of addiction. It takes

meant the Morattis spent most weekends on the

guests who have failed in all other programs and

site in a caravan with their two small children.

reports a success rate of close to 75%. The San Patrignano Community today is home to about 1,300 young men and women

CREATING A SELF-SUSTAINING COMMUNITY Ms. Moratti and her husband, oil magnate Gianmarco Moratti, met Mr. Muccioli in the late 1970s and, Ms. Moratti says, her eyes were opened. “He was a great man with a big heart.”

and, to date, has helped more than 25,000 free of charge. Private donors in Italy tend to shy away from drug rehabilitation, says Ms. Moratti. The Morattis fight this social taboo by trying to deepen the public’s understanding of those who

THE REHABILITATION FOCUSES ON AN EDUCATION PROGRAM TEACHING A RANGE OF SKILLS IN:

TECHNOLOGY CRAFT AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT



SAN PATRIGNANO—The rehabilitation community is about an hour inland from the coastal town of Rimini, on the Adriatic Sea.

LETIZIA MORATTI 89

become addicted to drugs. A typical, rhetorical

Ms. Moratti estimates that the four-year

question she asks: “Do you think drug-addicted

rehabilitation program, by also giving the state

12-year-olds really understand drugs?”

an alternative to incarceration, provided Italy’s taxpayers with direct savings of €32 million

Her current financial strategy for the

in 2013 alone. The community offers, without

community is multifaceted:

charge, accommodations and food for both adults and minors. It has a fully equipped medical

• Prove that rehabilitation saves money

center. Rehabilitation focuses on an education program teaching a range of skills in technology,

• Help all San Patrignano guests to find a

craft, agriculture and the environment.

job, and selectively assist with microfinance those who want to start their enterprises,

As 96% of the rehabilitees go on to find jobs,

thereby helping them stay rehabilitated

Ms. Moratti believes there may be a further €1 million tax boost from these individuals each year.

SAN PATRIGNANO COMMUNITY IS

HOME TO ABOUT 1,300

YOUNG MEN & WOMEN AND

90

TO DATE

© Lora Sutyagina/Shutterstock

© Maria Uspenskaya/Shutterstock

HAS HELPED 25,000+

Future solutions for social problems, Ms. Moratti

96% of the rehabilitees go on to find jobs each year.

says, lie in this kind of approach. When donors invest rather than simply give money away, she says, they become much more

To run the community and its graduates, San Patrignano uses a variety of financing mechanisms, including charity loans, charity bonds, crowdfunding, social entrepreneurship and microfinance—not to mention all the volunteers. While these financial instruments are employed elsewhere in Italy, Ms. Moratti believes that San Patrignano is the only project that deploys them all simultaneously.

involved in achieving results. Their focus then encourages the third sector to become far more efficient. In this way, says Ms. Moratti, society might finally be able to fill the gap between government spending and social need—especially when it comes to the less popular causes. Over 30 years, the needs of the San Patrignano Community have evolved and so too has the

INVESTING IN THE FUTURE Still, Ms. Moratti has even bigger plans: “We want to showcase that it is possible to become self-sustaining.” As part of their therapy, community members

Morattis’ approach to philanthropy. The key ingredient, however, has always been the same: the Morattis’ determination to stand with the vulnerable and dispossessed, and to help them gain the confidence and tools needed to rebuild their lives.

harvest, make and sell a range of products that support roughly 50% of the costs of the community. Ms. Moratti is also studying the viability of a social impact bond and social funds to enhance contributions to the San Patrignano Community.

• Social projects can become self-sustaining • Social finance may serve to bridge the funding gap between government coffers and challenging social issues

LETIZIA MORATTI 91

Embracing tikkun olam—

JUDITH YOVEL RECANATI

the human responsibility to heal the world

NATAL and the Gandyr Foundation I SRAEL •B  orn in Tel Aviv into the Recanati banking family (1951) • T rained in Psychotherapy, Art Therapy and Archaeology. She received an honorary Doctorate of Philosophy from Tel Aviv University (2013) and the IDC Herzliya (2014) in recognition of her dedication to social action in Israel • S erved in the military during the Yom Kippur War • F ounded NATAL with Dr. Yossi Hadar (1998) and the Gandyr Foundation (2004) with her late husband, Dr. Israel Yovel, and their three daughters •H  elped found Sheatufim—The Israel Center for Civil Society •A  ctive member of the Jewish Funders Network, Committed to Give, Lion of Judah Israel, and the Israel Museum board •H  onored with numerous awards, including the President’s Volunteer Award (2008)

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“I remember the feeling of helplessness,” says Judith Yovel Recanati, recalling what it was like to be a young woman living in Israel through the Yom Kippur War in 1973. The sudden attack shocked and terrified Israelis. When the war hit, Ms. Yovel Recanati was 21 and attending university. She returned as an Israel Defense Force volunteer officer and served in a team responsible for hospitalized and injured soldiers. After the war, she studied Archaeology, Art, Art Therapy and Psychotherapy, got her master’s degree, and worked as a therapist in various rehabilitation centers. In 1998, Ms. Yovel Recanati and Dr. Yossi Hadar, the psychiatrist who had been her thesis advisor at Bar-Ilan University, co-founded the non-governmental organization NATAL, Israel’s Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War. Dr. Hadar had suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from his service as a young physician during the Yom Kippur War. He died of leukemia in July 1998, very close to NATAL’s opening. Ms. Yovel Recanati decided to continue and realize their dream.

TO DATE, NATAL

HAS TREATED MORE THAN

(JEWS, MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS)

SUFFERING FROM PTSD

Two years later, September 2000, when the

NATAL is supported by “Friends of NATAL”

Second Intifada began, Ms. Yovel Recanati

in the United States, Switzerland and the United

describes her satisfaction that the Center was

Kingdom. NATAL also currently partners with

fully functioning and ready to support victims

international organizations to help increase the

of the conflict: “It was like magic,” she says.

resilience of veterans suffering from post-trauma.

© Sarawut Aiemsinsuk/Shutterstock

170,000 ISRAELIS

“We started it just on time to be ready when Since NATAL’s inception, Ms. Yovel Recanati has

it was so needed.”

worked as a full-time volunteer. She also personally To date, NATAL has treated more than 170,000

finances 25% of the organization’s ILS14.5 million

Israelis (Jews, Muslims and Christians) who suffer

(about US$3.8 million) annual budget.

from PTSD. Ms. Yovel Recanati firmly believes that anyone who is in need of therapy should have access to it. In fact, part of NATAL’s mission has been to help change Israeli culture so that victims feel free to seek help.



C O-FOUNDER OF NATAL— The late Dr. Yossi Hadar himself experienced PTSD and was dedicated to helping other sufferers.

CONTINUING A FAMILY TRADITION Ms. Yovel Recanati’s grandfather, Leon Recanati, was a leader of the Jewish community in Salonika, Greece, in the early 1930s. Seeing the rise of the Nazis, he led a large group of Jews to Palestine. Once there, Mr. Recanati realized that not one of the existing banks in Israel was run by Sephardim (Jews of Middle Eastern, rather than European, origin). He founded the Palestine Discount Bank.

JUDITH YOVEL RECANATI 93

When the Recanati family sold the IDB investment

This focus, Ms. Yovel Recanati explains, was

company in 2003, Ms. Yovel Recanati and her

chosen with her (now late) husband and their

husband, Dr. Israel Yovel, set up the Gandyr

three daughters, who were in their 20s when the

Foundation to make a positive impact on the

foundation was established. Involving the children

Israeli social arena. This decision was natural,

as equal partners on the board was a way to

says Ms. Yovel Recanati, as the Recanati family

connect them with their parents’ philanthropic

had always integrated philanthropy with business

work and family legacy. Gandyr is an acronym for

and was always involved in Israeli society.

the names of the family members: Gili, Noa, Daria, Judith and Rolly (Israel).

The mission of the Gandyr Foundation is to help young adults (aged 18 to 30) transition more

“If you want your children to join you in

smoothly to adulthood. Gandyr supports a range

philanthropy, you have to convince them you

of projects, including leadership and civil service

really mean it!” Ms. Yovel Recanati says. The

programs. It also funds academic research,

next generation must feel they can bring their

position papers and advocacy.

own ideas and their agenda to the endeavor. Of course, she notes, “it means you will have to share some of your power and influence,”



THE GANDYR FOUNDATION—Promoting young adults aged 18–30 toward their integration into society as contributing beneficial citizens.

94

but it also builds a new kind of relationship

The Gandyr Foundation supports Sheatufim

between the generations. The family not only

(the Israel Center for Civil Society), which aims to

discusses the foundation’s issues at monthly

promote an active Israeli philanthropic community

board meetings, but also at their family

by improving professional management, providing

gatherings.

access to relevant information and fostering inter-sector collaboration.

“You have to talk about what really matters to you, and about what you expect to change and improve around you.”

Ms. Yovel Recanati is also a founding member of Committed to Give, a network of Israeli philanthropists and social investors. The best bottom line, she says, is to make a positive difference in the world. “No matter whether you are a technology innovator or

“You have to talk about what really matters to

someone in the social field, you have to look

you, and about what you expect to change and

inside yourself, find what matters, and activate

improve around you,” says Ms. Yovel Recanati.

it to change and improve people’s lives.”

“This life-changing experience forces you to come out of your comfort zone.”

WIDENING THE CIRCLE This is also the model that Ms. Yovel Recanati believes can be used for a wider collaboration to enhance civil society. Ms. Yovel Recanati and her family are now in the third phase of their philanthropy, seeking to encourage further co-operation between philanthropists and across the third sector.

• It is important to find out what matters to you and to work to make a positive difference • Philanthropy can be learned through the family experience. Parents can involve their children in philanthropy—but only if the parents are willing to share and give up some control • Collaboration among philanthropists is essential to enhance an active civil society

JUDITH YOVEL RECANATI 95

It is about

what we can do for others

BERNARD SABRIER Children Action SIN GAPO R E • Mr. Sabrier took control of Unigestion, a privately owned investment manager (1976), and is now Group chairman and chief executive officer of the firm’s

Bernard Sabrier was initially reluctant to accept donations from friends to support the surgical missions and psychosocial projects he was running via his private Swiss foundation, Children Action. It is easy to see why his friends were keen to help. Children

Singapore operations. Unigestion

Action’s work includes flying leading surgeons and medical

has $18 billion in assets under

experts into Vietnam, Cameroon and Myanmar to operate on

management

children who would not otherwise be treated for conditions

• He took control of Banca della Svizzera Italiana (1988), which

such as orthopaedic and urological malformations, burn injuries and heart defects.

he later sold (1991) • He established Children Action (1994) • He sold the banking arm of Unigestion to Republic National

It is also plain to see why they would trust Mr. Sabrier to handle their donations. Currently chair of a specialist investment group in Geneva, London, Montreal, New York, Paris, Toronto, Zurich and Singapore, Mr. Sabrier has long

Bank (1996), where he served as

been highly regarded in international financial circles, mainly

a director until Republic National

due to his role in closing not one, but two international

Bank was sold to HSBC (1999)

banking deals in the late 1980s and 1990s.

96

Still, deploying other people’s money for

In 2012, a dozen French and African actors,

philanthropic purposes was not what Mr. Sabrier

comedians and singers—led by film star Catherine

had planned when he set up Children Action in

Deneuve—raised $8 million for the foundation and

1994. “If you deploy your own money alongside

its work. In 2013, those funds notably supported

other people’s, you have a fiduciary duty to

38 medical experts who worked with Children

run it like a corporation,” he notes.

Action to conduct 17 surgical missions to Vietnam and Cameroon. They donated 320 days of their

He soon realized that having other financial

time and provided $150,000 worth of medical

stakeholders could benefit his private foundation’s

equipment.

efforts by eliminating the temptation to cut administrative corners as a way to direct more

The cause is compelling. Children Action has

resources to charitable projects. He promised his

a simple mission: to provide practical and

donors that 100% of their contributions would

direct help to children around the world, with

benefit programs and projects on the ground,

the philosophy that “the first human right is

while he alone would fund the foundation’s

the right to a childhood.” The ways in which

administrative costs and some specific projects.

Mr. Sabrier interprets that mission vary, but he generally focuses the foundation’s work

Net result: Mr. Sabrier’s philanthropic work has

in two principal areas: surgical interventions

since attracted the support of many others—

and psychosocial support.

donors, surgeons, doctors and physiotherapists, academics and international celebrities.

MORE THAN

45,000

MEDICAL CONSULTATIONS AND

11,000 OPERATIONS COMPLETED IN VIETNAM HAVE BEEN

© Ann Summa/Corbis

SINCE 1996

BERNARD SABRIER 97

© Mike Tauber/Blend Images/Corbis



HANDS ON Also compelling is the thoughtful way Mr. Sabrier goes about supplying this pragmatic aid. He pays close attention to Children Action’s structure and practices—using a traffic-light system of financial, technical and ethical feasibility to assess each project.

A GOOD CHILDHOOD—Bernard Sabrier’s foundation provides practical and direct assistance to help make this possible for children around the world.

flights, accommodations and visas for the medical teams. The surgeons donate their time, expertise and equipment. More than 45,000 medical consultations and 11,000 operations have been completed in Vietnam since 1996. A week-long mission allows operations on 12 to 25 children, with

“Good philanthropy is about efficiency, humility

each surgery costing $250 to $1,700.

and responding to need,” says Mr. Sabrier. “The actual practice requires focus, which is

The way he has structured his organization

difficult to achieve and do well.” His goal, he

creates “huge leverage,” says Mr. Sabrier, who

says, is to be “ethical, compliant and with the

identifies himself as the money man on the

right competencies.”

foundation’s board; the other board members are principally leading medical practitioners.

With surgical missions, each life-changing

“First, we found the medical professionals,

decision goes before an ethics committee

and they found others.”

composed of leading academics and practitioners. The foundation takes responsibility for liaising

Mr. Sabrier applies a competency-based approach

with in-country hospitals and for organizing

to all of Children Action’s efforts—even those that fall outside of Children Action’s core mission.

98

For example, he hired SGS Consulting Ltd., a global firm, to set the specifications for homes Children Action built for families who were victims of the tsunami in Sri Lanka. This attention to professional

“We are a very small foundation, so we have to be very focused.”

standards meant 374 homes could be built without wasting any material. “We are a very small foundation, so we have to be very focused,” says Mr. Sabrier. In fact, the foundation’s project expenditure was $3 million in 2014, split across 13 projects in eight different countries: Argentina, Cameroon, Myanmar, Peru, Romania, Sri Lanka, Switzerland and Vietnam. However—with all the volunteered services—that $3 million had the impact of about $9 million, says Mr. Sabrier.

FOCUSING ON OTHERS’ NEEDS Monitoring the results of Children Action’s work, says Mr. Sabrier, is relatively easy in the surgical field. It’s more complex in the field of psychiatry. Since 1996, Children Action, in partnership with the University Hospitals of Geneva, has spent more than $13.7 million on an extensive teenage suicide prevention program. Last year, there were no reported teen fatalities in Geneva for the first time in 16 years. However, Mr. Sabrier observes that it is hard to judge how much this is due to the work of the foundation. “For every project, we try to understand what are the markers of success,” says Mr. Sabrier.

“Sometimes it feels like you are putting water into a sponge: You can see the money going in, but you can’t see anything coming out,” he says. In these circumstances, he advises not to be overly judgmental or lose resolve, but instead to be pragmatic. “We all have dreams in philanthropy, but this is not about our dreams. It is about something much simpler: It is about what we can do for others.”

• Successful philanthropy requires good governance and the right competencies. The goal is to ensure the best possible outcomes for beneficiaries and donors, and that those outcomes are delivered efficiently • Private philanthropists should respond to needs on the ground and should avoid trying to impose solutions • Responding to need requires humility and pragmatism in order to recognize what can be achieved in the field, using the resources that are available

But he also cautions other philanthropists not to become too obsessed with targets and measurable results. BERNARD SABRIER 99

It is essential to pay attention to

what makes people truly happy YOUSRIYA LOZA SAWIRIS Sawiris Foundation for Social Development

Now in her 80s, Yousriya Loza Sawiris is a philanthropist,

EGYPT

a businesswoman, an environmental advocate, a one-time

•M  ember of the Egyptian Parliament (1995–2000) • E stablished the Sawiris Foundation (2001)

parliamentarian, and an influential wife and mother. A modest woman, she claims to be neither an academic nor an intellectual. “I have tried many practical recipes for helping the poor and disadvantaged,” she says of herself. “I consider myself mainly a doer and an advocate for those without voice.”

•M  ember of the Consultative Council for Legislative Affairs in the transitional Egyptian government (2011) •A  warded an honorary doctorate in Philosophy by the American University in Cairo in recognition of her dedication to social development in Egypt (2014) •B  oard member of: National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, National Council of Women, Social Fund for

Her achievements are impressive. Character, determination, passion and drive to make a difference can be seen in so much of her work and are the driving force behind her success. When she describes her first foray into philanthropy in 1979, she laughs at the naiveté of her younger self. Having qualified as an accountant after her three sons were born, she decided to help slum families get jobs by teaching them accountancy skills. Visiting the site of her

Development, Egyptian Water and

proposed generosity, she jumped out of a jeep and landed

Waste Water Regulatory Agency

in a heap of garbage, and quickly learned that accountancy

•W  ife of Onsi Sawiris, founder of the Orascom conglomerate

was not a skill the families living on the garbage heaps of Cairo needed. “I was literally baptized in garbage,” she jokes.

100

IMPROVING LIVING STANDARDS THERE IS NOW ZERO WASTE AT A NUMBER OF COLLECTION POINTS

© Louie Psihoyos/Corbis

IN CAIRO’S GARBAGE COLLECTOR DISTRICTS

Ms. Sawiris would go on to become one of Egypt’s

microcredit. The expansion of interest reflects

most prolific private philanthropists, for which she

Ms. Sawiris’s belief that Egypt’s development

earned an honorary doctorate from the American

will succeed only if it is a coordinated response

University in Cairo in 2014.

to human needs. For example, she says, boys and girls who

AMBITIOUS GOALS Married to Onsi Sawiris, who founded the Orascom Group in 1976, Ms. Sawiris set up the Sawiris Foundation for Social Development in 2001 and is the foundation’s secretary general. In the early days, the foundation focused on creating jobs to help lift young people from Egypt’s poorest communities out of poverty. Increasingly, the foundation has become involved in wider social and economic development activities. Today, the foundation runs 27 different projects and initiatives across community development, health, education, employment training and scholarships, and

attend the Sawiris Foundation’s “I the Egyptian” Institute for Children at Risk often return to the slums and the streets because these are the places they are most familiar with. Clearly, providing shelter, relief and education cannot, alone, solve the problem, as it is addressing only one component of a broader development need.

“I consider myself mainly a doer and an advocate for those without voice.”

YOUSRIYA LOZA SAWIRIS 101

“The measure of success for any social initiative is the ability to generate income for the beneficiaries and by the beneficiaries. Gainful and consistent employment is the key to leveraging the poor out of poverty” she says. This highly practical goal has been the hallmark of all her projects. As an example, Ms. Sawiris has long supported the Zabaleen, who reside in the garbage collector

“The measure of success for any social initiative is the ability to generate income for the beneficiaries and by the beneficiaries. Gainful and consistent employment is the key to leveraging the poor out of poverty.”

districts of Cairo, and whose plight is particularly close to her heart. Starting in the 1980s, she took their case to the local government and to the courts to introduce basic services. Funds were raised to install adequate income-generating recycling methods. Today, garbage collection has reached zero waste at a number of collection points. This is now considered best practice and ready for replication throughout the country.

© Richard Splash/Alamy



102

IT’S PERSONAL—Yousriya Loza Sawiris (cutting ribbon) takes an intense interest in improving the lives of those who live in Cairo’s garbage districts. The Association for the Protection of the Environment, of which she is founding president, teaches people to recycle cardboard into souvenirs (top).

Thousands of families living in Zabaleen quarters

the government aims to create 5,000 jobs in

now have vastly improved standards of living.

five slum areas and poor urban neighborhoods through training and microcredit. The government

FORGING AHEAD Other associations of which Ms. Sawiris is a founding and board member have had similar impact and success. For example, the Gouna Nursing Institute is a nursing school designed to motivate poor, young, unemployed women to gain status and skills for this highly employable profession. Along the way, the prejudices of poor families in allowing daughters to work in the public sphere had to be overcome.

has committed to providing basic public services in these areas through cooperation with the ministries of housing and local development.

SIMPLE TEST The most important thing, Ms. Sawiris says, is to find out what makes people truly happy. That is the way to identify genuine needs that need to be addressed. That is also the way philanthropists themselves can find the causes they may best serve.

Ms. Sawiris has also been working with government to improve opportunities for

“If something touches your heart and mind, then

communities to thrive. She believes that if you

do it,” she urges, adding that, if it is a good project,

provide infrastructure, along with education

others will join you and create momentum.

and job creation, these communities have the strength to haul themselves out of poverty. “There are squatter areas that need to be removed because they are hazardous,” she says. “But to the others, we should give water, sewage, electricity and roads.” At the start of 2014, the Sawiris Foundation signed a protocol with Egypt’s Ministry of Social Solidarity marking a step in this direction. At a high level,

• To be successful, philanthropy must respond to a genuine human need and deliver a coordinated response • Don’t be afraid to engage your emotions— particularly happiness—to identify your cause

the joint venture between the foundation and

YOUSRIYA LOZA SAWIRIS 103

Philanthropy is a vocation that can change your life

ANANT SHAH Meghraj Group UNITED K I NGD OM

When Anant Shah was 50 years old, he found his calling—one

•M  r. Shah’s father, M. P. Shah, retired from

based bank he had founded with his brother, Vipin, so that

business to devote himself to building institutions in health and education in Gujarat, India and Kenya (1954). Three years later, the family moved to the

that would ultimately lead him to wind down the Londonhe could focus full-time on philanthropy. “I didn’t realize until then that I had another side,” Mr. Shah says.

United Kingdom •M  r. Shah and his brother, Vipin, set up Meghraj Group, offering private banking, fiduciary and investment services (1973) • T he brothers restructured the Group, shutting the private banking operations, which allowed Mr. Shah to focus full time on philanthropy (1999)

Mr. Shah’s inspiration was his father, Meghji Pethraj Shah. His father’s commitment to the service of humanity was embedded in the family’s values and their faith, Mr. Shah explains. As Jains, his family follows five religious tenets, one of which is aparigraha—often translated as “non-accumulation.” “The idea is that everyone needs enough for a comfortable life, but anything surplus should be used for the community,” Mr. Shah says. “We have a saying: If you have two chappatis on the table, that is enough.”

FAMILY SUPPORT It is easy to see why Mr. Shah would want to follow in his father’s footsteps. M. P. Shah left India for Kenya in 1919, when he was 15 years old, in search of new opportunities. He built a manufacturing, distribution and financial empire before retiring in 1954 and moving to the United Kingdom in 1957.1

1

104

Paul Marrett, Meghji Pethraj Shah: His life and achievements (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay: 2004), www.herenow4u.net/index.php?id=cd4715.

In M. P. Shah’s later, philanthropy-oriented

When Mr. Shah decided to focus on philanthropy

years, he built more than 120 schools, colleges,

in 1999, he and his brother restructured their

hostels, hospitals and clinics in the family’s

operations to accommodate his new role. He

home state of Gujarat in India, as well as in

says the change has brought him and his family

Kenya and the United Kingdom.

great personal happiness—and he feels he has continued to serve his community as a donor,

Mr. Shah was nine years old, and his brother,

social investor, mentor and connector.

Vipin, was 13, when the family moved to the United Kingdom. They were in their 20s when they started Meghraj Group, a financial services firm named after their father and the first private business of Indian origin to receive a banking license in the United Kingdom. “We started the business by talking to friends and relations,” explains Mr. Shah. Trust and referrals in the expat Indian community were a strong basis for building banking relationships. Meghraj Group now manages more than

STARTING “SMALL” Initially, Mr. Shah and his brother continued their father’s philanthropic focus on healthcare and education. They have expanded their range of activities over time. Many of the buildings that M. P. Shah helped construct were aging and needed repair, so the family has recently rebuilt them. The current value of the donations, land and buildings held by the institutions is in excess of $250 million.

$15 billion in client assets.2



2

EMPOWERING THE DISABLED—Mr. Shah provides guidance and funding to organizations such as Scope.

www.meghraj.com/group_home.asp. ANANT SHAH 105

For example, when Mr. Shah was introduced

Philanthropy should help liberate the most vulnerable and voiceless— and that includes animals. From his father, Mr. Shah inherited some important lessons about philanthropy: •A  lign your philanthropy with your knowledge and expertise. First, one should contribute time, skills, relationships, credibility and experience in addition to money so as to achieve

to Sense International, a charity for the deaf and blind, he provided both funding and guidance to help the organization extend its reach into East Africa. At Scope, a charity supporting disabled people, Mr. Shah is tasked with helping to expand the programs that serve the United Kingdom’s Indian and East African ethnic communities. Mr. Shah was also an early investor in the £20 million Scope Bond, which was one of the first charity bonds in the United Kingdom.

greater impact. Second, where needed, one should partner with expertise. When M. P. Shah negotiated with the state authorities in Gujarat, he asked the government to take responsibility for delivering the education and healthcare services • S takeholder engagement is critical. M. P. Shah provided half the funding to kick-start each institution. However, he insisted that the rest of the funds should come from both the government and the communities served by the schools and hospitals so that all involved were committed to achieving the best possible results. He believed in the adage that “you only value what you pay for” As a result, Mr. Shah says he asked himself, “How can I put my contacts, skills and time to good use?” He decided he liked “being in touch with people,” and the style of philanthropy he developed was “a natural extension of that.”

3



 AKING IT REAL—Sense International helps the disabled in M a variety of ways. Here, a vision-impaired young boy is learning through touch.

These include Aavishkaar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, The Brooke, CRY India, Faraja Cancer Support Trust, Global Giving, iPartner India, Scope, Sense International, Shishukunj, Soko and Tamasha.

106



 FAMILY MATTERS—Mr. Shah’s daughter, Meghna, holds Pablo, the cat who sparked Mr. Shah’s empathy for animals—which has led him to help groups supporting working animals.

Their friendship taught Mr. Shah the importance of the relationship between animals and humans. In the developing world, he notes, animals support the livelihoods of whole families. But Mr. Shah also believes that philanthropy should help liberate the most vulnerable and voiceless—

ENGAGING FULLY Today, at 66 years old, Mr. Shah is actively involved with more than a dozen organizations operating in the United Kingdom, India, Kenya and South Africa.3 On this formidable roster are three animal welfare charities. Mr. Shah is a trustee of The Brooke, an international welfare organization for

and that includes animals. “I have become something of a serial philanthropist and really enjoy it,” says Mr. Shah, characteristically downplaying his purposeful support of the wider community. “I would encourage anyone to consider both time and money for the greater good.”

working horses, donkeys and mules. He is also a patron of the Animal Interfaith Alliance and the founder of the Animal Helpline in Gujarat. Characteristically, Mr. Shah’s passion for animal welfare began simply. It was prompted by the insistent reappearance of a stray cat at his home in 1992. At the time, Mr. Shah was building Meghraj Group with his brother. The cat, whom the family named Pablo, kept Mr. Shah company while he worked late. “My giving to animals is straight from the heart; partly because I am a Jain, but really it is because

•P  hilanthropy is a calling; have the courage to let it change your life •G  iving back to those less fortunate can not only benefit your community and society, but also enrich your life •P  hilanthropists who are willing to share their talent and expertise often find deeper engagement and enjoyment in their giving, and can achieve a greater impact •Y  ou can leave a lasting philanthropic legacy by starting simply and building from there

of Pablo,” Mr. Shah confesses. ANANT SHAH 107

Promoting a professional and

SHEN GUOJUN

dynamic culture of philanthropy in China

Yintai Foundation CHINA •B  orn in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province (1962)

Shen Guojun believes in the power of giving for those who

• Graduated  with an M.A. in Economics from Zhongnan University of Economics and Law (1986)

receive and for those who donate.

•H  eld various positions at China Construction Bank (1986–1996); appointed general manager of China Construction Bank’s Hainan Yintai Real Estate (1996–1997)

are enriching yourself—because giving back makes you

• F ounded China Yintai Holdings; appointed chairman of China Yintai Holdings Co., Ltd. (1997)

more involved Mr. Shen became, the more passionate he

•A  ppointed chair of Intime Department Store (Group) Company (2006) •A  warded Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year, partly in recognition for his philanthropy (2007) • L isted Intime Department Store (Group) Company on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (2007) •D  onated CNY5 million to the Ministry of Civil Affairs for repairs in Wenchuan following the devastating earthquake (2008) • Established the Yintai Foundation (2014) • L aunched China’s first master’s degree program for Social Enterprise Management with Peking University and its Guanghua School of Management (2014) 108

“While charity helps those in need, at the same time you deeply happy,” says Mr. Shen. As Mr. Shen explains, “when I found myself with the capacity and time for charity, I decided to do more of it.” And the was about building a strong culture of philanthropy in China, founded on solid business principles. “Charity in contemporary China has a very short history,” says Mr. Shen. Today, although there are more than 330,000 non-governmental organizations in the country, Mr. Shen believes not all of them are successful, sustainable, transparent and credible. Mr. Shen wants a change in China’s philanthropy culture, so he has committed his time and substantial resources to making it happen.

In 1997, Mr. Shen established China Yintai, a diversified national conglomerate. The success of his business has helped fuel his philanthropy. Through his company’s Yintai Foundation, he recently launched a groundbreaking initiative: China’s first-ever master’s degree program for Social Enterprise Management—designed to attract, train and launch a new generation of professional, nonprofit management executives in his home country.

INSPIRATION Mr. Shen’s current, outsized success contrasts dramatically with his humble beginnings. He grew up poor in Ningbo in China’s Zhejiang



 ELPING DISABLED CHILDREN—Two centers collaborate H with doctors and surgeons to provide heart surgery and post-operative care.

Province. He excelled in academics and received a master’s degree in Economics at Zhongnan University of Economics and Law. Throughout his formative years, Mr. Shen was painfully aware that he was given special advantages as the eldest son in a traditional Chinese family. He watched as his two younger brothers, who got better grades, were forced to leave school when his family could no longer afford the few dollars it took to pay their school fees. “I felt helpless,” he says. “I knew that if others who had the capacity could help, my brothers would have had a better chance at success.” After Mr. Shen graduated from university in 1986, he worked at the state-owned China

bank’s real estate division. Only a decade later, he started his company. And almost immediately, he began funding schools and public works projects, such as road repairs, in Zhejiang. His involvement in charitable ventures grew along with his business success. He partnered with the Ai You Foundation to provide heart operations to poor children, and with the Chinese branch of The Nature Conservancy. In all philanthropic endeavors, Mr. Shen believes an entrepreneurial approach is essential to success. “An entrepreneur,” he says, “considers the matter thoroughly from a business perspective, asking: ‘How can I make it good?’ and ensuring that every penny counts.”

Construction Bank, where he rose to head the

SHEN GUOJUN 109

Supporting the Disabled Children Rescue

“China needs to update its laws for charitable organizations regarding review, approval, registration and management, particularly taxation.”

Project—With the Ai You Foundation (of which Mr. Shen is a founding director), the Yintai Foundation supports two care centers in Beijing and Kaifeng. Collaborating with doctors and surgeons, the centers provide congenital heart surgery and post-operative care. To date, more than 20,000 children have been helped. Almost as important, Mr. Shen says, this

THREE FRONTS To organize his philanthropy, in 2013, Mr. Shen created the Yintai Foundation, which now focuses on three areas: Promoting philanthropy in China—Mr. Shen hopes to overhaul China’s approach to philanthropy with the nation’s first Social Enterprise Management master’s degree.

work is helping to spread a culture of caring for people beyond the family circle. By way of an example, he recalls how a young girl in a remote village in China pressed RMB10 (equivalent to $1.50) into his hands, saying: “You helped my brother with heart surgery. Please take my savings from my summer job to help another child.”

He worked directly with Peking University to

Collaborating with The Nature Conservancy

create a two-year program that will recruit

(China)—The Yintai Foundation is working with

students from China and train them to manage

The Nature Conservancy to support the Sichuan

charitable organizations. Classes will begin in

Nature Conservation Foundation, a sanctuary for

September 2015, with scholarships offered to

wild pandas in China’s only privately owned land

help cover the cost per student.

trust reserve. The reserve has hired local people

Mr. Shen also intends to create a circle of philanthropists to collaborate and mobilize in an effort to create positive changes in China. Indeed, he has begun this effort by

who previously hunted and logged in the region to instead protect and patrol the land, and to grow agricultural products that are then sold back to the community.

winning support for his M.B.A. program

Mr. Shen says he hopes to replicate this model

from prominent business figures.

and develop other private land trust reserves under The Nature Conservancy’s leadership to help overcome barriers to conservation.

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S ICHUAN SANCTUARY—The Nature Conservancy in Sichuan serves as a model for the rest of China by effectively sheltering many bird species, golden snub-nosed monkeys, giant pandas, Asian black bears and other animals.

CALL TO ACTION Philanthropy in China must change, from both the top down and the bottom up, says Mr. Shen.

Mr. Shen also encourages his compatriots— potential donors, policymakers and advocates— to seek out and engage with other countries’ media, philanthropists and nonprofit organizations. Long-term “communication and

“China needs to update its laws for charitable

exchange,” he says, are essential to the success

organizations regarding review, approval,

of philanthropy in China.

registration and management, particularly taxation,” says Mr. Shen. Charitable organizations also need to demonstrate better performance to gain more credibility with donors. At the same time, he believes, wealthy families in China should take a more active role. Many Chinese families still tend to focus on passing wealth to male heirs, he says.

• A more rigorous, credible philanthropic industry in China will require changes in legislation, professionalism and cultural attitudes • In China, entrepreneurial approaches to philanthropy are the most likely to succeed

SHEN GUOJUN 111

It is our responsibility

to leave the earth a better place

SHANNON B. AND THEODORE “TED” C. SKOKOS Ted and Shannon Skokos Foundation

Ted Skokos and his wife, Shannon, moved to Dallas from

UNITED STAT E S

spearheading the effort to create the AT&T Performing Arts

• T ed Skokos served as a Lieutenant

Arkansas in 2004. Less than four years later, they were Center and transform Dallas’s downtown.

Colonel in the U.S. Army Reserve (1971–1992) and practiced law (1973–1994) • S hannon Skokos won the title of Miss

“I had never given a dime to the arts before,” says Mr. Skokos. But he felt that Dallas’s lack of a performing arts center meant it was

Arkansas (1992), then went on to receive

missing opportunities for economic growth, as big businesses are

her Juris Doctorate from the University

typically attracted to areas with the widest appeal for employees.

of Arkansas at Little Rock School of Law,

This perspective was rooted in Mr. Skokos’s experiences as an

and, after retiring from the practice of law, she became a published author •M  r. Skokos has been involved in many businesses, including The Flight Department, Aloha Partners, ATS Medical and 3F Therapeutics, plus several cellular telephone companies (since 1988) • T hey established the Ted and Shannon Skokos Foundation (2008) • T he Skokoses were heavily involved in a campaign to build a multivenue performing arts center in Dallas; the center was later named the AT&T Performing Arts Center (2009) • T hey currently sponsor an educational learning lab through the Dallas Theater Center at Booker T. Washington High School for the Visual & Performing Arts, which was recognized with an award from First Lady Michelle Obama and the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities (2014) 112

attorney turned businessman. Ms. Skokos had a more personal understanding of the impact of the arts, having performed ballet for 13 years and been a flutist for 34 years. The Skokoses ultimately committed $12 million to the center through their foundation, and helped draw AT&T to the project through Mr. Skokos’s relationship with the company. The AT&T Performing Arts Center opened in 2009 and was a very public achievement. It cost $374 million to build—93% of the funding came from private sources, many with $1 million gifts. Moreover, other philanthropists looking to improve their communities were encouraged because the center may have

THE DALLAS URBAN ARTS DISTRICT SPANS

69 ACRES IN THE HEART OF DOWNTOWN

helped lure AT&T to Dallas. By 2015, Dallas

Then Pat Riley, owner of an athletic club where

had the largest urban arts district in the

she played tennis, found out about her dilemma

United States, spanning 69 acres in the heart

and not only bought the condo, but also reduced

of downtown.

her rent and said she could buy it from him at the same price when she had the money. All he

But even as the Skokoses see large civic projects

asked in return was that she would help

as the glue that helps bond a community, they also

someone else one day.

engage in more intimate forms of philanthropy. They believe that individuals should help other

“The Riley Rule,” says Ms. Skokos, “means to

individuals directly. “To whom much is given, much

first empower others to achieve their goals, and

is expected,” says Ms. Skokos, who even has a

second, to ask in return that those individuals

name for it: “The Riley Rule”—after someone who

one day help someone else to achieve their

once helped her.

goals. It is a domino effect—and it is how you make a difference.”

CLOSE TO HOME In the middle of studying for law finals, Ms. Skokos learned her landlord was selling her condo and, if she didn’t buy the place, she’d have to move in two weeks. She didn’t have the funds.

Today, the couple pays college tuition for select young people who need financial assistance and who have “great potential for leadership and academic success.” The Skokoses also empower others by funding and/or volunteering in 20 different projects: 18 in Dallas, two in Arkansas.

SHANNON B. AND THEODORE “TED” C. SKOKOS 113

As an example, she describes taking underprivileged

“If there are problems in your community, you can’t criticize if you are not prepared to go in there, understand and make a difference.”

children to meet Dallas’s mayor to learn about city government and voice their concerns about their community. On one occasion, an eight-year-old boy in a group of 8-to-12-year-olds told the mayor he “was tired of seeing dead people on his doorstep in the morning.” Ms. Skokos believes this experience has had a lasting effect not only on the boy, but also the mayor.

This focus on local community has become more pronounced over the years. The Skokoses funded

“I am always telling young people that if you

international projects before they discovered

want to be successful, you must dream big,

that many of the same issues were on their

set realistic goals, work hard and don’t make

own doorstep.

excuses,” says Ms. Skokos. “A brick wall is nothing more than an opportunity to prove

It also reflects the fact that the couple likes

how badly you want something.”

to be hands-on. The Skokoses sit on multiple boards and volunteer on projects they fund. Recent projects include coaching basketball to children in poverty-stricken neighborhoods, rehabilitating girls rescued from sex trafficking, working with disabled orphans and building Habitat for Humanity homes. They also fund a program that enables top theater students at a local performing arts high school to work with the resident acting company of the Dallas Theater Center. “If there are problems in your community, you can’t criticize if you are not prepared to go in there, understand and make a difference,” says Ms. Skokos, adding “Judge not, as you know not the valleys through which another has tread.”

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DRIVE AND DEDICATION This can-do attitude is how the Skokoses approach not only their philanthropy, but also their lives. After practicing law for 21 years, Mr. Skokos retired in 1994 and became involved in a variety of enterprises, including Aloha Partners L.P., which held the largest number of 700 MHz wireless spectrum licenses in the United States and was acquired by AT&T Mobility in February 2008. For her part, Ms. Skokos was a motivational speaker for nine years. She won the Miss Arkansas Scholarship Pageant in 1992 and used the funds



 ETTING INVOLVED—The Skokoses’ many community efforts G include sports coaching for children in transitional homes and volunteering for Habitat for Humanity.

awarded to pay for law school. After practicing law for eight years, she is now a partner in her husband’s business ventures and an active philanthropist. She has also published a book entitled Ask God’s Creatures and They Will Teach You.1 “We don’t wear our faith on our sleeves,” Both Skokoses warn that it is easy to spread

says Mr. Skokos, “but we do believe it is our

oneself too thin. At one time, Ms. Skokos served

responsibility to leave this earth better than

on 13 different boards and 21 different committees.

we found it—whether that is through a small

“I was exhausted!” she says, laughing, yet making

act of kindness or a big change.”

it clear neither she nor her husband is prepared to slow down anytime soon. Little wonder. They are greatly motivated by their Christian faith, seeing both their professional success and their philanthropy as expressions of their religious beliefs and their hope for others to have better lives.

• Philanthropy comes in many forms; practice both civic and personal philanthropy to empower others to realize their dreams • Use your time and financial resources wisely

1

www.askgodscreatures.com/bookstore. SHANNON B. AND THEODORE “TED” C. SKOKOS 115

Nobody can do everything, but

everybody can do something GUNHILD ANKER STORDALEN Stordalen Foundation

It is hard not to be impressed by Gunhild A. Stordalen.

NO RWAY

There is the obvious: a medical degree as well as a

•M  edical doctor and Ph.D.; married to Petter A. Stordalen, Norwegian hotel and property tycoon • C hair of the Stordalen Foundation, co-founded in 2011 with her husband • S erved on the supervisory board of the European Climate Foundation (spring 2014) • Founder and director of the EAT Initiative, founder and chair of GreeNudge, and director of the boards of Nordic Choice Hospitality Group and Home Invest • S erves on the Norwegian Medical Association’s Council for Climate Change, Human Rights and Global Health, as well as on the Norwegian government’s Council on Sustainable City Planning •R  eceived Environmental Hero Award from WWF Sweden in 2014, and selected in 2014 as one of global renewables magazine and news service Recharge’s “Recharge 4040,” a network of energy pioneers under the age of 40 • S erves on the boards of the Zero Emission Resource Organisation and the ECOHZ Renewable Energy Foundation, and on the Stockholm Resilience Centre International Advisory Board •A  ppointed Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum (2015) Photo credit: Isabel Watson

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Ph.D. in Pathology and Orthopaedics. And, at just 35 years old, she already has a long track record as a philanthropic entrepreneur and environmental activist. She co-founded two cutting-edge foundations with her husband, Norway hotel and property tycoon Petter A. Stordalen. She also holds key roles in a number of high-powered third-sector and governmental organizations. Yet what may be most impressive about Dr. Stordalen is how instrumental she has been in reshaping the world’s conversation, understanding and actions around climate change. “Gloomy scenarios of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, drowning polar bears and melting ice do not mobilize engagement and enthusiasm. Hell doesn’t sell. Climate change hasn’t been made real to most people, and even when it is, people don’t know what they might actually do about it,” Dr. Stordalen says.

That is why she is demonstrating that climate change also is a global health crisis and that some of the simplest choices we each make can change our lives—and the planet’s fate. Dr. Stordalen’s holistic solution-seeking does not stop there. She also argues that “responding to global environmental

REAL SOLUTIONS As a physician, Dr. Stordalen understands climate change as a systemic condition affecting every part of the global organism. She stresses that prevention and mitigation save lives and money. She sees great opportunities, particularly in the energy, transportation and food sectors.

challenges is good business. There are cost savings for those who manage to make more with less.” In other words, Dr. Stordalen is working to help both individuals and businesses see that they each have strong reasons, as well as the ability, to make a difference

© Vladimir Melnik/Shutterstock

© Michael Hanson/Aurora Photos/Corbis

in climate change.

“Climate change hasn’t been made real to most people, and even when it is, people don’t know what they might actually do about it.”



 r. Stordalen’s EAT Initiative sends this D empowering message: Each person’s food choices can help save the polar bears— and our planet.

GUNHILD ANKER STORDALEN 117

This is the thinking behind what the doctor describes as her private foundation’s most

ENERGY

A++

ambitious project to date: the EAT Initiative. The EAT message is simple: Our food choices are killing us and the planet. Obesity, chronic lifestyle-related diseases (e.g., heart disease and diabetes), hunger, malnutrition and environmental challenges (e.g., climate change and loss of biodiversity) all can be traced back to what we eat and how we produce it. With the Stockholm Resilience Centre at Stockholm

1L

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54 L

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University, the initiative aims to have academics, NGOs, politicians and businesses from around the world develop strategies that promote healthy, sustainable diets and production practices for climate mitigation, environmental protection and public health benefits.

CREATING TRIPLE WINS Dr. Stordalen is also a strong advocate for the triple-bottom-line philosophy asserting that “wins” can be created simultaneously for people, planet and profit. And she demonstrates how triple wins work. For example, her foundation, GreeNudge, funded a pilot project in six Norway stores, proving that clear labeling about total lifetime costs of appliances encouraged more consumers to purchase tumble dryers with a higher price tag but greater efficiency.

GREEN LABELING FOR DRYERS Dr. Stordalen’s GreeNudge foundation showed how to harness purchasing power: It demonstrated that consumers will make energy-smart choices when labels clearly explain their choices.

It was not long before the electronics retailer rolled out the labeling system across Norway. Another study at buffet restaurants in the Nordic Choice Hospitality Group showed that reducing plate size cut food waste by 20%. The idea is that research can generate pilot programs demonstrating how small but cost-efficient behavioral measures would make a significant environmental impact when implemented at scale.

118

“If you are a philanthropist going for your big

“Your role is to think about the overall objective, to map each sector’s potential concerns and input, then find strategies and initiatives that might make a difference.”

hairy goal,” she says, “your role is to think about the overall objective, to map each sector’s potential concerns and input, then find strategies and initiatives that might make a difference.” Still, it is important to know one’s limits. As a philanthropist, she says, “you can open doors and make connections. You can create the environment for collaboration and aligning resources.” But, she adds, “you can’t do it all.”

ENTICING THE BUSINESS SECTOR Business involvement is critical, says Dr. Stordalen. “If we can identify and highlight corporate opportunities—perhaps instead of corporate and social responsibility—business will come up with the right innovations.” So, for example, her husband’s hotel group aims to reduce the environmental impact through running more sustainable core operations, reducing food waste and investing in energy efficiency. She also is inspired by other companies’ efforts. “Look at what Elon Musk is doing at Tesla,” she says. “He doesn’t sell cars with environmental arguments. Instead, he is showing the world that the solution to our transport problem can be done with exciting, faster, smarter cars.”

• T he goal for philanthropists is to create momentum

and start a domino effect •A  bstract problems need to be reframed and made

relevant to people’s lives to help motivate them to act, and co-benefits need to be identified and quantified •B  ehavioral economics and behavioral psychology

represent a supplementary but potent tool for mitigating climate change. Small, cost-efficient behavioral measures can enable better decision making in consumers’ self-interest in everyday choices such as household energy and diets. Applied at scale, these small changes can add up to substantial, positive changes for the world •G  lobal challenges create opportunities for business,

which can be a positive force for finding good solutions

CATALYTIC PHILANTHROPY “Philanthropists can act as catalysts and facilitators, identifying common objectives that bring together business, government, academia and civil society,” Dr. Stordalen says.

• Philanthropists can open doors, make connections and

identify common objectives that bring business, government, academia and the third sector together

GUNHILD ANKER STORDALEN 119

Creating a post-business career

promoting the art of Catalonia ANTONI VILA CASAS Fundació Vila Casas BARC E LONA , S PAI N

When pharmaceutical entrepreneur Antoni Vila Casas started his philanthropic journey, his motivation was

• F ounded Prodesfarma (1960), which he sold to Laboratorios Almirall (1997) • E stablished his foundation, Fundació

rational and commercially inspired. Over the years, his heart took the lead, and he put his passion for art and his pride in the Catalonian people on display.

Vila Casas (1986) • Diagnosed with lymphoma and chose to

In the 1980s, when Mr. Vila Casas set up his foundation,

dedicate all his time to his foundation

Fundació Vila Casas, he was the founder and owner of

(2004)

Prodesfarma, a fast-growing business that needed to

•H  onored with numerous awards,

establish credibility among physicians amid Spain’s

including high civil honors from both

crowded pharmaceutical industry. “I wanted to give my

the Spanish government (the Gran

business a pedigree,” he says. So his foundation funded

Creu de l’Ordre del Mèrit Civil, 1996)

medical research and projects to improve the public

and the Catalonian government (the Creu de Sant Jordi, 1999)

understanding of health issues. It continues that support to this day. Meanwhile, Mr. Vila Casas privately became one of the world’s most prolific collectors of contemporary Catalan art. Today, through his foundation, Mr. Vila Casas’s art collection—more than 3,000 works—is displayed in five museums and galleries. Each exhibition space is housed

120

CATALONIA HAS BARCELONA AS ITS CAPITAL, AND IS

HOME TO ABOUT

7.5 MILLION PEOPLE,

ROUGHLY 20% OF SPAIN’S POPULATION © anshar/Shutterstock

in historic buildings across Catalonia. All are dedicated to promoting Catalonian art created since the 1960s. This time period coincides with a resurgence of Catalonian identity. In 1979, Catalonia became an autonomous region within the

A PROUD HERITAGE Mr. Vila Casas’s lifelong love of art began as a child. His father, who admired modernist Spanish art, took the young Antoni to exhibitions. Catalonia has continuously produced world-renowned artists, including such 20th-century notables as Salvador Dalí, Antoni Tàpies and Joan Miró.

country. Today, there are approximately 7.5 million Catalans, roughly 20% of Spain’s population. The capital is Barcelona, where 25% of the Catalan population resides, and where Mr. Vila Casas was born and has made his life, his company and the home base for

Mr. Vila Casas privately became one of the world’s most prolific collectors of contemporary Catalan art.

his foundation.

ANTONI VILA CASAS 121

sculptures at the foundation.

LESSONS LEARNED Now, based on three decades of experience, Mr. Vila Casas has two pieces of advice for other philanthropists.

When Mr. Vila Casas sold Prodesfarma in 2005,

First, he advocates the benefits of upfront

his hobby turned into his life’s work. Fundació

planning. “Little by little is not necessarily the

Vila Casas not only runs the exhibition spaces,

best way,” he observes. If he had the chance

it also promotes young Catalan artists to help

again, he says, he would plan ahead and look

raise their profiles on the world stage, offers

for economies of scale, in a joint project.

As Mr. Vila Casas’s business became more successful, he was able to develop an art collection, displaying his pictures and

educational programs to connect children to art, and hosts conferences and events aimed

Second, he believes philanthropists benefit

at promoting Catalan culture.

from thinking carefully about the niche they want to fill. Mr. Vila Casas’s focus on Catalan

ART SPACES MAINTAINED BY

FUNDACIÓ VILA CASAS INCLUDE:

P H OTO GRA P H Y Palau Solterra Museum, opened in 2000, is located in the town of Torroella de Montgrí and showcases contemporary photography by both national and international artists.

H EA D QU ART ER S Casa Felip, a modernist building located in Barcelona, has been home to Fundació Vila Casas since 1998.

SC U LP TU RE

GIRONA BARCELONA

Can Mario Museum in Palafrugell, the foundation’s museum of contemporary sculpture, opened in 2004. Sculpture (left) by Jaume Plensa.



T E M P O R ARY EXHI BI T I ONS Espai Volart 1, the foundation’s first gallery to open to the public in Barcelona, houses temporary exhibitions of artists featured in the collection. Espai Volart 2 holds temporary exhibitions by well-known artists whose work falls into the disciplines of contemporary painting, photography or sculpture.

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PA INTING Can Framis Museum in Barcelona opened in 2009 and is dedicated to contemporary painting. Painting (left) by Lita Cabellut.

© age fotostock/Alamy



 ARCELONA BOUND—You may want to visit B Mr. Vila Casas’s Can Framis Museum (right). Painting by Lita Cabellut (above).

art and culture has enabled him to have a greater

Now in his 80s, Mr. Vila Casas is preparing the

impact than might have otherwise been possible.

foundation for its future. He has no children,

Through Fundació Vila Casas, he has been able

so his goal is to give the foundation a sustainable

to support up-and-coming artists who, without

legacy through income-generating assets and a

his help, would have not received recognition

management structure that will ensure it continues

from the mainstream Spanish art market. Over

as a vital force, helping to shape the continuing

the years, it has also given him the opportunity

story of the culture of Catalonia.

to build one of the leading collections of Catalan art that spans multiple artists and disciplines.

“Little by little is not necessarily the best way,” he observes. If he had the chance again, he says, he would plan ahead and look for economies of scale.

• Plan ahead, if possible, so that you can look for economies of scale • Focusing on less crowded niches will allow you to have greater scope and impact

ANTONI VILA CASAS 123

Transformational philanthropy can start with simple volunteering NANCY YANG Asian Charity Services CHINA

When the business she helped build with her brother, Norbert Chang, sold to Disney in 2007, Nancy Yang knew she

•R  eceived her undergraduate degree from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (1992)

wanted to apply herself to the social sector. Her motivation, Ms. Yang explains, is her Christian faith and the fact that

and her M.B.A. from the J.L. Kellogg

“I have been loved so thoroughly, I want to give back, and

Graduate School of Management at

philanthropy is a wonderful opportunity.”1

Northwestern University (1997) •W  orked as a management consultant at A.T. Kearney (1993–2000) • C o-founded Enorbus Technologies, which sold to Disney (2000–2007)

At first, Ms. Yang was unsure of how best to contribute her time, resources and the skills honed through years as a management consultant and entrepreneur to the not-for-profit world.

• C o-founded Asian Charity Services (2007)

In this respect, Ms. Yang, now in her 40s, came to realize

•B  ecame a board member of Mother’s

that she was like many of her peers in Hong Kong. Those who

Choice (2009) •A  merican Chamber of Commerce 2014 Master in Charity Award

want to give or volunteer are often unaware of their options. Some also may be hesitant to support small organizations that lack the scale to have widespread impact. The social sector is highly fragmented and consists primarily of small NGOs. Indeed, 82% of Hong Kong’s HK$8.77 billion of funding went to just 5% of the region’s 7,000 registered charities in 2013.

1

124

Disney bought the Beijing-based Enorbus for around $20 million; https://gigaom.com/2007/03/19/419-disney-buys-chinese-mobile-contentprovider-enorbus-for-around-20-milli/.

ASIAN CHARITY SERVICES’ INNOVATION TO DEVELOP THE SOCIAL SECTOR IN HONG KONG:

500 CONSULTANTS HAVE VOLUNTEERED AND

© Jasper James/Offset.com

330 NGOs HAVE BEEN HELPED TO DATE

And smaller organizations often get caught in a cycle of under-resourcing: If they do not have the wherewithal to write funding proposals, they cannot access resources that would allow them to grow and achieve scale.

“There is a disconnect between the social sector’s overwhelming needs and the business sector’s talents and resources.”

“There is a disconnect between the social sector’s overwhelming needs and the business sector’s talents and resources,” Ms. Yang realized. And having identified this gap, she formed an organization to bridge it. Together with David Sutherland, former Morgan Stanley Chief Financial Officer in Asia-Pacific, Ms. Yang founded the not-for-profit Asian Charity Services (ACS) in 2007 to help develop Hong Kong’s social sector by offering NGOs management training and consulting services. Ms. Yang now serves as the organization’s chief executive; Mr. Sutherland, as its chair.

MAKING CONNECTIONS The ACS model is simple and already proving effective. The registered charity connects volunteers from the business world with NGOs that are serving Hong Kong’s neediest citizens and communities. To date, 1,100 volunteer consultants from top-tier multinational corporations and investment banks have signed up. Volunteers have an average of 12 years of business experience. In teams of four, they devote 25 hours over a six-week period to a specific project.

NANCY YANG 125



TRAINING SESSION—Volunteer consultants help NGOs learn and adopt best practices.

governance, strategic planning, financial

“We are helping NGOs to do more in the community and are raising a generation of social leaders.”

management, fundraising and human resources functions. In this way, Ms. Yang says, the volunteers are helping build a layer of sustainable nonprofits in

“We often find among our volunteers—who have wonderful careers and have been to wonderful

Hong Kong. This is a critical step in creating lasting social change for Hong Kong, she believes.

universities—that they feel they have been given

To date, ACS has trained more than 1,000 leaders

something and they would like to give back.

from 330 Hong Kong NGOs, representing a broad

There is a strong sense of accountability,”

range of missions, from the arts to the environment

she says.

and from education to human rights.

The volunteers provide business consulting

With ACS’s help, such groups as Friends of

services, training and solutions to high-impact

the Earth, Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Welfare

local charities to help them operate more

Council, Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, and

effectively, better serve their communities and

Helpers for Domestic Helpers have been able to

become more sustainable. Capacity-building

strengthen their resource base, establish new

interventions include providing analysis, research

strategic directions and new governance practices,

and solutions to help with leadership and

and put in place leadership succession plans.

126

“The work we are doing is truly transformational,”

In his white paper, “Vocation: Discerning Your

says Ms. Yang. “We are helping NGOs to do more

Calling,”2 Reverend Keller explains that,

in the community and are raising a generation of social leaders.”

•B  y “affinity,” he means the desire and maturity to help others. “Look at the concrete needs in the community…around you” and ask

VOLUNTEERING Despite Ms. Yang’s impressive achievements in both the business and philanthropic worlds, she insists that her experience shows you do not need a specific calling or even expertise to become a philanthropist and make a difference.

“What needs do you ‘vibrate’ to?” • “Abilities” here refers to the resources or skills one might contribute, as well as a realistic assessment of one’s deficiencies. Ask: “What should you be doing, and what do you need someone else to be doing?”

“Philanthropy is often like dating,” she jokes. “You may not know what you are looking for at the outset, but you do want to get involved.”

• “ Opportunity” is seeing which real needs are not being adequately addressed. “There may be opportunities for us to serve that we have

Ms. Yang’s own philanthropic journey began

never considered, but for which we are

modestly. Sixteen years ago, she began

perfect,” he notes

volunteering at Mother’s Choice, a Hong Kong nonprofit that supports women facing unwanted

Ms. Yang’s own experience in the social sector has

pregnancies or domestic violence, and that cares

shown her that “all are equally wonderful ways to

for children in need of a permanent home. Over

enter into philanthropy.” But, she adds, “You do

time, her involvement grew. Today, Ms. Yang is a

not need to have all three to make a difference.”

board member of this organization. It takes three simple qualities to find one’s way as a philanthropist—affinity, opportunity and abilities, says Ms. Yang, paraphrasing Reverend Tim Keller, founding pastor of the Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City and chairman of Redeemer City to City, an organization that starts new churches

• If you have affinity, availability and a skill or resource to offer, you can support social change • Volunteering your skills can be transformational for smaller organizations that lack the resources to grow

around the world and publishes resources for faith in urban culture.

2

www.gospelinlife.com/vocation-discerning-your-calling.html. NANCY YANG 127

Fully engage by becoming

visible and actively involved NIKLAS AND CATHERINE ZENNSTRÖM Zennström Philanthropies UNITED K I NGD OM • S ince 2000, Niklas Zennström has founded multiple technology businesses,

Niklas Zennström heard Al Gore speak about global warming and made a commitment: He would not be part of the generation that caused irreversible damage to the planet.

the most famous of which is Skype •M  r. Zennström currently runs

A few years later, Mr. Zennström sailed through thick,

Atomico, an international high-tech

dark algae in the Baltic and became deeply concerned at

investment firm

the slow pace of change toward finding and implementing

• C atherine Zennström was in the

environmental solutions.

European telecommunications industry until the couple moved to London,

Since then, he and his wife, Catherine, have been getting

where she started volunteering full-time.

more involved in supporting causes linked to both climate

She worked as a full-time volunteer for Médecins Sans Frontières and Amnesty International in its London office from 2002 to 2006 • T ogether, the Zennströms set up their foundation in 2007 to consolidate and increase their philanthropic activity • C atherine Zennström has long been actively involved in major world philanthropic organizations • In 2013, Niklas Zennström was awarded H.M. The King’s Medal for contributions to Swedish industry and society

128

change and human rights. Mr. Zennström—best known as a co-founder of Skype— grew up in Sweden, a sparsely populated land that is wildly beautiful and where, he says, “one can’t help having a visceral connection to nature.” Ms. Zennström, who built her own career in telecommunications, has been deeply committed to promoting human rights since high school, when she was first inspired by the work of Amnesty International and other campaigning organizations.

to allocate their time, energy, experience, identity,

“A donation is a one-off support moment. An investment means you are engaging.”

influence and money. “When we first started, we were perhaps a little too eager to support any cause or organization we felt was doing well,” says Catherine Zennström.

When Skype was sold to eBay in 2005 for $2.6 billion, the Zennströms realized they had

“We needed to clarify in our heads what sort of changes we wanted to make in the world.”

the opportunity to ramp up their philanthropy.

Now in their 40s, through Zennström

They set up their foundation, Zennström

Philanthropies, they hope to make sustainable

Philanthropies, in 2007 with the goal of making

improvements to “move the needle,” in

their donations count in the areas about which

Ms. Zennström’s words.

they were most passionate. “A donation is a one-off support moment.

SHARPENING FOCUS Both husband and wife were raised in altruistic households, he in Sweden, and she in France. Both have made donations and volunteered throughout their professional careers. But creating Zennström Philanthropies pushed them to a new level by sharpening their focus on how

An investment means you are engaging,” she explains. By “engagement,” she does not simply mean having a clear goal and focus—although both are important. For the Zennströms, it also means being visibly and actively involved.

THE BALTIC SEA IS THREATENED BY

ALGAL BLOOMS CAUSED BY

AGRICULTURAL AND URBAN PRACTICES1

© NASA/Corbis

1

http://www.zennstrom.org/race-for-the-baltic. NIKLAS AND CATHERINE ZENNSTRÖM 129

© 2012 Kyle Knight/Human Rights Watch

“If you add your name to the cause you stand up for, you show support to those who work hard to make change happen; you invest in the organization as a real partner in doing good, backing them, helping them excel in their mission—and yours,” says Ms. Zennström. Ms. Zennström not only runs the couple’s foundation, but also is an active member of the Human Rights Watch board of directors, where she either chairs or takes part in a number of committees. At the same time, she serves as member or as trustee of the International Human Rights Funders Group and Ariadne.



S UPPORTING BASIC RIGHTS—Zennström Philanthropies has a strong focus on human rights work in Europe and Central Asia.

BUILD A STRONG FOUNDATION Mr. Zennström describes the creation of their foundation as a “catalytic” moment in their philanthropy. It helped them clarify what was important to them and what sort of changes they wanted to see in the world. It focused their thoughts on the resources they could bring to the challenge. It also helped them realize they wanted experts on their team to help them remain “on the cutting edge of the issues we work on,” says Mr. Zennström. This enabled the couple to forge networks and tap into the expertise of others working in the same fields. Mr. Zennström also makes the parallel between business and philanthropic investments. He explains that, when investing in businesses,

130

“Start small; make donations until you gain the experience to know how you want to invest your resources.”

START SMALL In addition to her other activities, Ms. Zennström works to encourage and connect to other philanthropists. She is on the steering group of the Global Philanthropy Forum, which seeks to build a community of donors and social investors committed to international causes.

he does the homework on the potential markets.

Yet the Zennströms’ advice to others is: Start small;

He is hands-on, and he backs smart management

make donations until you gain the experience to

teams. He applies these same principles to

know how you want to invest your resources.

philanthropy. They add, however, that it is also important to “Philanthropists, like investors, need to believe

engage your emotions.

in the organizations they support and back them 100%,” he says.

“It’s okay to wake up angry in the morning about why the world is sometimes so badly run today,”

To date, the Zennströms’ foundation has

says Ms. Zennström. “Without feeling ‘angry,’

supported 55 different organizations, of which

annoyed, outraged or passionate, your investment

24 are active grantees. In 2013, they launched

will be minimum.”

the “Race for the Baltic” campaign with their grantees. They brought together stakeholders

She adds that, even if you start small, as you get

affected by Baltic Sea pollution to create a

more deeply engaged with issues and causes, that

multidisciplinary leadership group of NGOs,

motivating “angry feeling” will come.

businesses, politicians and citizens. This group has designed proposals to “Revive, Recover and Restore” the marine area and has delivered them to the environmental ministers in the regions’ capital cities. The group hopes to make this project a pilot for other marine conservation projects.

• It takes experience in giving to better understand the causes that ignite your passion • Once you engage, bring all your resources to bear: time and money, but also networks, influence and identity • Treat your grants as investments: do your homework, back smart management teams and stay involved

NIKLAS AND CATHERINE ZENNSTRÖM 131

INDEX AR E A S OF FOCUS Animal welfare, 105, 108–109 Arts and culture — AT&T Performing Arts Center, Dallas, 110–111 — Building cross-cultural relationships, 26, 34–37 — Catalonian art, 118–121 — Chicago-area, 44 — Chinese heritage, 26–27 — Dallas arts district, 110–111 Children, see also Education, Healthcare

• Influencing governmental policy, 10–12

Environment — Baltic Sea, 127, 129

• Nursing and medicine, 11, 13

— Chicago-area, 44

• Scholarships and internships, 8, 11, 12, 27–28, 34–37, 99, 108, 112

— Climate change, 114–117, 126–129

• School lunch program, 48–49 • Teacher training and support, 20, 23, 25, 70, 72 • Vocational, 8, 10, 11–12, 51–53 — By Location

— Conservation, 59, 108–109, 114–117 — Disaster relief • Haiti earthquake, 66–67 • Sri Lanka tsunami, 97 • Typhoon Yolanda, 8–9

• Afghanistan, 20–21, 56

— Early warning for weather, 9

• Bangladesh, 56

— Food waste, 61, 116

• Chicago-area, 44

— Recycling, 100

— Childcare, 7

• China, 26–27, 29, 75–77, 124

— Musicians, 26

• Egypt, 99, 101

— Sustainable energy, 61, 78–81, 114–117

— Psychosocial support, 94–95, 99

• Ethiopia, 16, 17

— School lunch program, 48–49

• Haiti, 68

— Transition to adulthood, 92

• India, 103–104

Corporate social responsibility

• Italy, 86–88

— Caring Capitalism, 31–33

• Kenya, 103–104

— Generally, 6–9

• Liberia, 56

Education — By Focus • Charter schools, 22-25, 64–65 • College tuition assistance, 111 • Early childhood, 22, 23, 76–77 • Elementary school, 8 • For the hearing and vision impaired, 104

• Mexico, 50–51 • Nepal, 56

Healthcare — Avoidable blindness eradication, 30–33 — BRCA-related cancers, 62–65 — Chicago-area, 44 — Connecting people with caregivers, 49 — Drug rehabilitation, 87–89

• New York City, 64–65

— Education in nursing and medicine, 11, 13

• Pan-Asian, 34–37

— Elder care, 49, 76

• Philippines, 8

— Ethiopia, 16

• San Francisco Bay Area, 84

— Nigeria, 30–33

• Singapore, 75–77

— Post-traumatic stress disorder, 90–91

• Girls, 19, 20–21

• Turkey, 10–13

• Grade K-12 reform, United States, 22–25

• United Kingdom, 103–104

• High school, 8, 11–12, 65, 83, 110, 112

132

• Madagascar, 56

— Water, 16, 30–32, 47, 76, 101

• Washington, D.C., 22–25

— Surgery and post-operative care, 31–32, 94–97, 107–108 — Teen suicide prevention, 97 — Victims of terror and war, 90–91

Housing

Women’s issues

— Farm families, 68

— Gender justice, 18–21

Breast Cancer Research Foundation, 70

— Homeless, 8, 31, 68

— Rescue from sex trafficking, 112

The Brooke, 104, 105

— Transitional, 83–84

— Unwanted pregnancies and domestic violence, 125

Carter Center, 54

— Tsunami victims, 97 Human rights — Europe and Central Asia, 128 Poverty — Dallas, 111–112 — Egypt, 98–101

Center for Social Entrepreneurship, 48

CHARITABLE ORGA NI ZAT I O NS

The Child and Tree Fund, 54, 56

Aboitiz Foundation, 6–9

Children Action, 94–97

— #BangonVisayas campaign, 8–9 Ai You Foundation, 107–108

CityBridge Foundation, 22–25 — Breakthrough Schools: D.C., 23, 25 — Education Innovation Fellowship, 25

— Ethiopia, 14–17

Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation, 70

— India, 30–32, 48–49

AmeriCares, 66

Committed to Give, 90, 93

— Mexico, 50–53, 80–81

Amnesty International, 126

— San Francisco Bay Area, 82–85

Animal Helpline, 105

Council for Climate Change, Human Rights and Global Health, 114

— Washington, D.C., 22–25

Animal Interfaith Alliance, 105

Crown Family Philanthropies, 42, 45

Ariadne, 128

Cynthia and George Mitchell Foundation, 78–81

Public health — Climate change related, 114–116 — Drug rehabilitation, 87–89 — Medical research and public understanding, 118 — Quality of Death Index, 76 — Safe water, 30–32 Social impact investing, 38-41, 42-45, 58–61 Social responsibility, creating awareness, 52–53, 56–57, 76–77, 82-85, 117 Third sector development

Arie and Ida Crown Memorial Foundation, 42-43 Ashoka Support Network, 18 Asia Philanthropy Circle, 77 Asian Charity Services (ACS), 122–125 Aspen Institute, 44, 70, 71, 72 — Franklin Project, 72 — Socrates Society, 70, 71 Bai Xian Asia Institute, 34, 37 — Asian Future Leaders Scholarship Program (AFLSP), 34, 36–37 Bai Xian Education Foundation, 34–37

— Tools to 100 Schools, 24, 25

Dallas Theater Center, 110, 112 Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 46, 47 Deshpande Foundation, 46–49 — Hubli Social Entrepreneurship Sandbox, 46, 48–49 ECOHZ Renewable Energy Foundation, 114 Economic Development and Disadvantaged Kids Network, 18 Education Reform Initiative, 12

— Connecting NGOs with business-world volunteers, 123–125

Basser Center for BRCA at the University of Pennsylvania, 62–64

— S taffing improvements of charitable organizations, 76, 93, 106–108, 123

Betsy and Jesse Fink Foundation, 58–61

— Promoting collaboration among philanthropists, 13, 16, 37, 60, 72, 77, 81, 84, 93, 95, 108–109, 117, 129

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 25

Endowment for Regional Sustainability Science, 80

Birthright Israel, 44

Environmental Defense Fund, 80

— Partnership for Quality in Vocational Education Project, 12 EforAll, 46

European Climate Foundation, 114

INDEX 133

C H A RI TAB L E ORG AN IZATIONS CO NT IN UE D

Jewish Welfare Society, 70

Ovarian Cancer Research Fund, 62, 63

KIPP Foundation, 22

PAP Community Foundation, 77

Exponent Philanthropy, 80

KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 77

Puente a la Salud Comunitaria, 78, 80-81

Laura and Gary Lauder Family Venture Philanthropy Fund, 70-73

Redeemer City to City, 125

Lien Centre for Palliative Care, 77

San Patrignano Foundation, 86–89

Lien Centre for Social Innovation, 77

Sawiris Foundation for Social Development, 98–101

Friends of the Earth, 124 Fundació Vila Casas, 118–121 Gandyr Foundation, 90, 92–93 A Glimmer of Hope Foundation, 14–17 Global Philanthropy Forum, 129 GreeNudge, 114, 116 Habitat for Humanity, 112, 113

Lien Foundation, 74–77 — Life before Death Campaign, 76

Robin Hood Foundation, 82

Schwab Family Foundation, 84 Scope, 104

Harlem Children’s Zone (HCZ), 22

MassChallenge, 46

Harlem Village Academies (HVA), 62, 65

Médicins Sans Frontières, 126 Meetcaregivers, 49

Sense International, 104

Helpers for Domestic Helpers, 124

Meghraj Group, 102–105

Shanti Daan homeless shelter, 31

Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Welfare Council, 124

Sheatufim (The Israel Center for Civil Society), 90, 93

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, 124

Merrimack Valley Sandbox in the Center of Innovation and Entrepreneurship at the University of Massachusetts (Lowell), 49

Hope for Haiti, 66–68

Microfinance National Institution, 86

Social Fund for Development, 98

Human Rights Watch, 54, 128

Miss Arkansas Scholarship Pageant, 112–113

Stockholm Resilience Centre at Stockholm University, 116

Mission for Vision (MFV), 30–33

Stordalen Foundation, 114

Immokalee Housing and Family Services, 66, 68 — Carl J. Kuehner Community Center, 66, 68

Missionaries of Charity, 31

Institute for Philanthropy, 78, 81

Mother’s Choice, 122, 125

Integral Training Center (Centro de Capacitación Integral), 52

NATAL, Israel’s Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War, 90–91

International Human Rights Funders Group, 128

National Academy of Sciences, 79

Jaslok Hospital and Research Center in Mumbai, 30 Jewish Community Endowment Fund, 70 Jewish Community Federation, 83 Jewish Funders Network, 90 Jewish Teen Foundation Board Incubator, 72

134

Morningside Foundation, 26

National Center for Family Philanthropy, 80

— Scope Bond, 104

Sichuan Nature Conservation Foundation, 108, 109

— EAT Initiative, 114, 115, 116 Synergos Institute, 80 Teach For America, 22, 71 Ted and Shannon Skokos Foundation, 110–113 Tipping Point Community, 82–85 Tulsi Chanrai Foundation (TCF), 30–33

National Volunteer & Philanthropy Centre, 74

Tulsi Trust, 30

The Nature Conservancy, 107, 108, 109

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 54–57

Norwegian Medical Association’s Council for Climate Change, Human Rights and Global Health, 114

UJA-Federation, 70

— Let Us Learn, 56, 57

Vehbi Koç Foundation, 10–13 — Vocational Education: A Crucial Matter for the Nation Project (MLMM–Meslek Lisesi Memleket Meselesi), 12 Vicente Ferrara Foundation (Fundación Vicente Ferrara), 50–53 — En Nuestras Manos (In Our Hands), 52–53 Weather Philippines Foundation, 9 Wholesome Wave Foundation, 58, 60–61 — Double Value Coupon Program, 60–61 Womanity Foundation, 18–21 — Radio NISAA, 20

Altran Technologies, 18

HSBC, 94

A.T. Kearney, 122

IDB investment company, 92

AT&T Mobility, 112 Apax Partners, 38

Intime Department Store (Group) Company, 106

Atlantic Media Company, 22

Koç Holding, 10, 11, 12

Atomico, 126

Laboratorios Almirall, 118

ATS Medical, 110

Lauder Partners, 70

Banca della Svizzera Italiana, 94

Levi Strauss & Co., 82

Banca Prossima, 86

Mast-Jägermeister SE, 54

Big Society Capital, 38, 39

Material Service Corporation (MSC), 42, 43

Blackstone, 62 Bridges Ventures, 38 Building and Land Technology, 66, 67 Campañía Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, 51

Meteogroup, 9 Microsoft, 84 MissionPoint Capital Partners, 58, 60 Mitchell Energy & Development, 79

Cascade Communications, 46

Morningside Group, 26, 27

Yintai Foundation, 106–108

Chanrai Summit Group, 30

Netarchitects, 18

Young Presidents’ Organization, 18

Charles Schwab, 14, 15

News Corp Europe, 86

Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), 77

China Construction Bank, 106, 107

Nordic Choice Hospitality Group, 114, 116

Young Women’s Muslim Association (YWMA), 77

Cimaron, 46

Zennström Philanthropies, 126–129 — Race for the Baltic campaign, 129 Zero Emission Resource Organisation, 114 CO M PAN IES 3F Therapeutics, 110 A123Systems, 46 Aboitiz Equity Ventures, Inc. (AEV), 6–8

China Yintai Holdings, 106, 107 Coral Networks, 46 Corporate Executive Board Company, 22, 24

Novel Enterprises Limited (NEL), 34 Orascom Group, 98, 99 Palestine Discount Bank, 91 Partner Fund Management, 84

CyBerCorp, 14

The Portland Trust, 38, 39

Devon Energy, 79

Priceline.com, 58, 59

Disney, 122

Prodesfarma, 118, 120

eBay, 127 Edible Land Design, 49 Enorbus Technologies, 122 The Flight Department, 110

Accenture, 86

General Dynamics, 42, 44

Advisory Board Company, 22, 24

Hang Lung Group, 26, 27, 28

Airvana, 46

Hannon Armstrong, 58, 61

Aloha Partners L.P., 110, 112

Henry Crown & Co., 42, 44 Home Invest, 114

RAI television, 86 Republic National Bank, 94 SGS Consulting Ltd., 97 Skype, 126, 127 Social Finance, 38 Sycamore Networks, 46 Tejas Networks, 46 Tesla, 117 Unigestion, 94

INDEX 135

E D U C ATION AL IN ST IT UTIONS

Mumbai University, 30

University of Pennsylvania, 62, 63

American University in Cairo, 98, 99

Nanyang University, 75

— Basser Center for BRCA, 62–65

Bar-Ilan University, 90

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 77

— The Wharton School, 122

Bocconi University School of Economics, 86

Northwestern University, 44, 122

Booker T. Washington High School for the Visual & Performing Arts, 110 Can Framis Museum, 120, 121 Can Mario Museum, 120 Chinese University of Hong Kong, Morningside College, 26 Duke University, 82 — Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 77 Gouna Nursing Institute, 101 Harvard University, 26, 28, 38 — Business School, 38 — T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 26, 28 Hebrew University, 44

— J.L. Kellogg Graduate School of Management, 122 Palau Solterra Museum, 120 Peking University, 35, 36, 106, 108 — Guanghua School of Management, 106

University of San Francisco, 82 University of Southern California, 26, 27 — Mrs. T.H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, 26 University of Tokyo, 34, 35

Princeton University, 22

Waseda University, 35, 36

Semahat Arsel Nursing Education and Research Center, 10, 11

Zhejiang University, 35, 36

Singapore Management School, 77 State University of New York — College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 59 Stockholm University — Stockholm Resilience Centre, 116

Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, 106, 107 I ND I V I D U A LS Featured philanthropists — By country China • Chan, Ronnie C., 26–29

Hitotsubashi University, 35, 36

Tel Aviv University, 42, 44, 90

• Shen, Guojun, 106–109

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 35, 36

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 44

• Yang, Nancy, 122–125

IDC Herzliya, 90 Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), 47 Israel Museum, 90 Koç University, 11, 13 — School of Medicine, 13 — School of Nursing, 11, 13 Kyoto University, 35, 36 Massachusetts Institute of Technology — Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation, 46, 47

University of Arkansas — Little Rock School of Law, 110 University of Illinois, 34 University of Massachusetts (Lowell) — Center of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Merrimack Valley Sandbox, 49 University of New Brunswick —P  ond-Deshpande Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 46 University of Oxford, 36, 38 — Exeter College, 38

136

Egypt • Sawiris, Yousriya Loza, 98–101 Germany • Findel, Stefan, 54–57 Hong Kong • Chao, Ronald Kee-Young, 34–37 India • Chanrai, Jagdish Mithu, 30–33 Israel • Recanati, Judith Yovel, 90–93

Italy

• Lauder, Laura, 70–73

• Kuehner, Carl, Sr., 66–69

• Moratti, Letizia, 86–89

• Lurie, Daniel, 82–85

• Kuehner, JoAnne, 66, 68, 69

• Fink, Betsy, 58–61

• Kuehner, Paul, 66–69

• Fink, Jesse, 58–61

• Kuehner, Tiffany, 66–68

Mexico • Ferrara, Marco, 50–53

• Kuehner, Carl, Jr., 66, 67, 68

• Lauder, Laura, 70–73

Norway

• Kuehner, Carl, Sr., 66, 67, 68, 69

• Lien, Laurence, 74–77

• Stordalen, Gunhild A., 114–117

• Kuehner, JoAnne, 66, 68, 69

• Lorenz, Katherine, 78–81

Republic of the Philippines

• Kuehner, Paul, 66, 67, 68, 69

• Lurie, Daniel, 82–85

• Aboitiz, Erramon I., 6–9

• Kuehner, Tiffany, 66, 67, 68

• Moratti, Letizia, 86–89

• Lorenz, Katherine, 78–81

• Recanati, Judith Yovel, 90–93

• Skokos, Shannon B., 110–113

• Sabrier, Bernard, 94–97

• Skokos, Theodore “Ted” C., 110–113

• Sawiris, Yousriya Loza, 98–101

Singapore • Lien, Laurence, 74–77 • Sabrier, Bernard, 94–97 Spain, Barcelona

— By name

• Shah, Anant, 102–105 • Shen, Guojun, 106–109

• Vila Casas, Antoni, 118–121

• Aboitiz, Erramon I., 6–9

• Skokos, Shannon B., 110–113

Switzerland

• Arsel, Semahat Sevim, 10–13

• Borgstedt, Yann, 18–21

• Berber, Donna, 14–17

• Skokos, Theodore “Ted” C., 110–113

Turkey • Arsel, Semahat Sevim, 10–13

• Berber, Philip, 14–17 • Borgstedt, Yann, 18–21

• Stordalen, Gunhild A., 114–117 • Vila Casas, Antoni, 118–121 • Yang, Nancy, 122–125

United Kingdom

• Bradley, Katherine Brittain, 22–25

• Cohen, Sir Ronald, 38–41

• Chan, Ronnie C., 26–29

• Shah, Anant, 102–105

• Chanrai, Jagdish Mithu, 30–33

• Zennström, Catherine, 126–129

• Chao, Ronald Kee–Young, 34–37

— Aboitiz, Jon Ramon, 6

• Zennström, Niklas, 126–129

• Cohen, Sir Ronald, 38–41

— Basser, Faith, 62

• Crown, Lester, 42–45

— Bates, Tony, 84

• Deshpande, Gururaj “Desh,” 46–49

— Blair, Cherie, 21

United States • Berber, Donna, 14–17 • Berber, Philip, 14–17 • Bradley, Katherine Brittain, 22–25 • Crown, Lester, 42–45 • Deshpande, Gururaj “Desh,” 46–49

• Ferrara, Marco, 50–53 • Findel, Stefan, 54–57 • Fink, Betsy, 58–61 • Fink, Jesse, 58–61 • Gray, Jon, 62–65

• Gray, Jon, 62–65

• Gray, Mindy, 62–65

• Gray, Mindy, 62–65

• Kuehner, Carl, Jr., 66–68

• Zennström, Catherine, 126–129 • Zennström, Niklas, 126–129 Others

— Bradley, Bill, 82 — Bradley, David G., 22 — Canada, Geoffrey, 22 — Carter, Jimmy, 54 — Carter, Rosalynn, 54 — Chan, Barbara, 26 — Chan, Gerald L., 26–28

INDEX 137

I N D I V I DUALS CO NT IN UE D

— Gray, Vincent, 22

— Moratti, Gianmarco, 86

— Haas, Peter, 82

— Mother Teresa, 30–31, 33

Others

— Hadar, Yossi, 90, 91

— Muccioli, Vincenzo, 87

— Chan, Tseng-Hsi, 28

— Harel, Sharon, 38

— Musk, Elon, 117

— Chang, Norbert, 122

— Haseltine, Mara G., 63

— Nischan, Michel, 60

— Chanrai, Mithu Tulsidas, 30, 31

— Heller, Paul, 70

— Obama, Michelle, 110

— Chanrai, Subodh, 30

— James, Chris, 84

— Paige, Katie Schwab, 84

— Chanrai, Sunder, 30

— Keller, Tim, 125

— Recanati, Daria, 92

— Chanrai, Uttamchand, 30

— Ki-moon, Ban, 41

— Recanati, Gili, 92

— Cirilli, Mark, 60

— Koç, Vehbi, 10, 11

— Recanati, Leon, 91

— Crown, Arie, 43

— Kuehner, Kimberly, 66

— Recanati, Noa, 92

— Crown, Henry, 42, 43

— Kuehner, Kurt, 66

— Recanati, Rolly, 92

— Crown, Ida, 43

— Lauder, Estée, 70

— Riley, Pat, 111

— Crown, Irving, 42, 43

— Lauder, Evelyn, 70

— Sawiris, Onsi, 98, 99

— Crown, James, 42, 44

— Lauder, Gary, 70

— Schwab, Charles, 84

— Crown, Sol, 42, 43

— Lauder, Leonard, 70

— Schwab, Helen, 84

— Cummings-Findel, Susan, 54–57

— Lien, Ying Chow, 75

— Shah, M. P., 102–103, 104

— Deneuve, Catherine, 95

— Lott, Ronnie, 84

— Shah, Meghna, 105

— Deshpande, Jashiree, 47

— Lurie, Brian, 83

— Shah, Vipin, 102, 103

— Domchek, Susan, 64

— Mitchell, Cynthia, 79, 80

— Stordalen, Petter A., 114

— Faust, Drew Gilpin, 28

— Mitchell, George P., 78, 79, 80

— Sutherland, David, 123

— Ferrigno, Vicente Ferrara, 51 — Gore, Al, 126

138

— Yovel, Israel, 90, 92

139

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