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POPULAR AND DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ALGERIA MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

UNIVERSITY OF TLEMCEN FACULTY OF LETTERS AND LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES SECTION OF ENGLISH

Teaching Specialized Business Vocabulary through the Communicative Approach The Case Study of the Tlemcen “Gulf Bank” Employees.

DissertationSubmitted to the Department of Foreign Languages as a Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement of theMagister Degreein “ESP”.

Presented by:

Supervised by:

Mrs. BENAMAR-KHERROUSSarah

Pr. BENMOUSSAT Smail

Jury Members: Pr.HAMZAOUIHafida

(MC ‘A’) President

(University of Tlemcen)

Pr.BENMOUSSATSmail

(Professor) Supervisor

(University of Tlemcen)

Dr.BAICH Ali

(MC ‘A’) Internal Examiner

(University of Tlemcen)

Dr.MELLOUK Mohammed

(MC ‘A’) External Examiner

(University of S. Belabbes)

Dr. MERBOUH Zouaoui

(MC ‘A’) External Examiner

(University of S. Belabbes)

Academic Year: 2013 – 2014

To the memory of my dear father; To my mother; To my husband; To my dears YahiaYacouband Selma Serine; and to all my relatives.

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Acknowledgements

First and foremost, my utmost gratitude goes to ALLAH for his help, guidance and bless. I am also indebted to my country which has provided us with the possible conditions that help us in our studies. I would like to extend an acknowledgement of my sincere appreciation and gratitude to my supervisor, Pr BENMOUSSAT Smail for his expertise, time and patience while working with me. I would also like to offer my thanks to the examination committee members: Dr HAMZAOUI Hafida,Dr. BAICHE Ali, Dr. MELLOUK Mohamed, and Dr. MERBOUH Zouaoui who accepted to read, examine and evaluate my work. Many thanks go to my colleagues and my teachers during the theoretical year,as I also thank Miss BENMOSTEFA Nawel, Miss. BENABDALLAH Aouicha, Miss. YAHIAOUI Nadjiaand Mrs. BENABDELKADER Farah for their help and support. My gratitude extends further to the “Algeria Gulf Bank” staff in “Tlemcen” who accepted to contribute to my research. I am also much grateful to the ESP teachers in the CCI “Tafna” and the head of the department who was very kind and helpful. Special thanks go to my husband who did not stop to support me both morally and financially, without his motivation and guidance I would not have been shined in the same way. Last but not least, I wish to thank a much cherished person for being supporting of me throughout my schooling, for his pieces of advice, wisdom and everything he provided for me in my life, thank you my father.

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Abstract Business professionals in nowadays’ economy need the English language in order todo their business operations and transactions. It is worthy to know that multilingual workers are more competitive than bilingual ones. Algerian professionals working in business need to learn English in order to complete their job tasks such as: dealing with administrative documents written in English, answering e-mails, and speaking with foreigner partners. Employees should be aware that they do not only need to know English, butalso requiredeveloping a range of communicative language competencies to cope with the demands of internal and external markets. Thus, the present work is a case study of the “Algeria Gulf Bank” employees in Tlemcen. It aims to show the situation of English in the bank on the one hand, and the importance to acquire special business vocabulary on the other hand. To do so, three data instruments have been used in orderto answer the questions and test the hypotheses, they are as follow: analysis of AGB administrative documents,a semistructured interview addressed tothe AGB employees’and ESP teachers’ questionnaire. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to analyse the data. The research is divided into four chapters. Chapter one is devoted to a literature review about teaching English for occupational purposes and teaching Business English. Chapter two deals with the research design and procedures. Chapter three is concerned with data collection and analysis. Based on the results obtained, chapter four is dealt to give some suggestions and recommendations. Results show thatthe employees lack knowledge ofbusiness vocabulary. This lack may cause a handicap for them when communicating in the target language. Thus, suggestions have been made accordingly. It is recommended to apply the Communicative Language Teaching as a method of teaching specialized business vocabulary; this idea is followed by the design of a sample communicative syllabus. The syllabus focuses on developing communicative competencies through developing the productive skills without neglecting the receptive ones. Acquisition of specialized vocabulary is highly emphasised. iii

Table ofContents Dedication ...................................................................................................................... i Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................... ii Abstract ........................................................................................................................ iii Table of Contents ......................................................................................................... iv List of Tables.................................................................................................................ix List of Figures.................................................................................................................x List of Acronyms...........................................................................................................iv General Introduction ................................................................................................... 1 Chapter One: Literature Review. 1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………....7 1.2 Definition of EOP……………………………………………………………….…..7 1.2.1 Situating EOP………………………………………………………………...9 1.2.2 Development of EOP…………………………………..................................11 1.2.3 EOP vs EAP………………………………………………………………....13 1.3 English for Business Purposes (EBP) ………………………….…….....................15 1.3.1 Subdivisions of EBP………………………………………………………....16 1.3.2 Characteristics of Business English……………………………………........18 1.3.2.1 Business English Learner…………………………………………..18 1.3.2.2 Business English Course…………………………………………...19 1.3.2.3 Business English Teacher…………………………….…………….21 iv

1.4 EBP Teaching/ Learning Process in Relation to ESP……………………………...23 1.5 Variables in ESP Teaching Operation………………………………………….….23 1.5.1 Needs Analysis………………………………………………………….…...24 1.5.1.1 Mumby’s Communicative Needs Processor (CNP)……………….25 1.5.1.2 CNP parameters……………………………………………….…....25 1.5.1.3 Setting Goals and Objectives ………………………………….…...27 1.5.2 Syllabus Design……………………………………………………………....27 1.5.2.1 Criteria of Syllabus Design………………………………………...28 1.5.2.2 Types of Syllabuses………………………………………………..30 1.5.2.3 ESP syllabus design………………………………………………..32 1.5.3 Production of Materials……………………………………...………….…...32 1.5.4 Teaching………………………………….……………………………….….34 1.5.5 Evaluation/ Assessment…..............................................................................35 1.5.5.1 Learners’ Assessment………….………………………………...…36 1.5.5.2 Course Evaluation……………………………………………….....36 1.6 Vocabulary in ESP…………………………….…………………………………...36 1.6.1 Teaching Vocabulary in ESP……………..………………………………….38 1.6.2 Business Vocabulary……………………….………………………………..39 1.7 Conclusion………………………………………….……….……………………...40 Chapter Two: Research Methodology and Procedures. 2.1 Introduction……………………………….…………………………………….…43 2.2 Research Questions and Hypotheses……………………………………………...43 2.3 Research Design and Procedures…………………………………………...…….43 v

2.4 Case Study …………………………………………………………......................45 2.5 Participants and Setting………………………………………………………...…48 2.5.1. Participants…………………………………………………………………49 2.5.2. Research Setting……………………………………………………………51 2.6 Instrumentation……………………………………………………………………50 2.6.1 Documentary Research……………………………………………………..53 2.6.2 Semi-Structured Interview……………...……………………………..……54 2.6.3 Questionnaire ………………………………………………………………59 2.7Procedures…………………………...…………………………...……………..…61 2.8 Data Analysis...........................................................................................................63 2.8.1 Qualitative Analysis ……………………………………………………......63 2.8.2 Quantitative Analysis……………………………………………………….64 2.8.3 Triangulation………………………………………………………………..65 2.9 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………...66 Chapter Three: Needs Identification and Analysis 3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………...…..69 3.2 Algeria Gulf Bank………...……………………………………............……...…69 3.3 The Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI)Tlemcen....................................70 3.4 The Importance of English for Algerian Professionals……………………..........71 3.5 Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………....…....72 3.5.1 Documentary Analysis……………………………………………...….......72 3.5.1.1 Analysis of Document Sheet One………………………....……...73 vi

3.5.1.2 Analysis of Document Sheet Two………………………..……....76 3.5.1.3 Analysis of Document Sheet Tree………………………..……....76 3.5.1.4 Interpretation of Results…………………………………....….....79 3.5.2 Analysis of Employees’ Interview……………………………….…….......79 3.5.2.1 Summary of the Results………………………….…………….....97 3.5.3 Analysis of ESP Teachers’ Questionnaire………………………………....98 3.5.3.1 Summary of the Results……………………….………….……...101 3.6 Interpretation and Discussion of the Main Results……......…………………....102 3.7 Conclusion…………………………………………………..……………….….105 Chapter 4: Suggestions and Recommendations. 4.1 Introduction……………………………………………….…………...............107 4.2 General Recommendations…………………………….……………………....107 4.3 The Application of CLT in Teaching Specialized Business Vocabulary…........108 4.3.1 Communicative Approach………………………………………….........108 4.3.1.1 Communicative Competence…………………………….….….110 4.3.1.2 Communicative Activities……………………………………...110 4.3.1.3 Characteristics and Principles of CLT…………...…..................112 4.4 Developing the Productive Skills……………………………....………...…....112 4.4.1 Speaking skill……………………………………………………...….....112 4.4.2 Writing Skill……………………………………………………………..113 4.5 Promote the Receptive Skills………………………………………………......114 4.5.1 Listening and Reading skills………………………………………….…114 4.6 Suggesting Business Teaching Materials…………...………………………....115 vii

4.7 Suggesting a Syllabus through CLT……………………………………..….....116 4.8 TheProposed Syllabus………...…………………………………………….....119 4.8.1 Sample Syllabus…………………………………………………….…...120 4.9 Conclusion…………………………………….……………………………….130 General Conclusion……………………………..………………………………...132 Bibliography………………………………….………………………………...…136 Appendices………………………………...……………………………………….154 Appendix 01: Administrative Documents of AGB..…..….......................................156 Appendix02: AGB Employees’ Semi-Structured Interview....................................163 Appendix 03 : ESP Teachers’ Questionnaire of CCI « Tafna »................................167

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List of Tables Table1.1: Differences between EGBP and ESBP………………………………….....17 Table 1.2: Key Variables in Business English Courses………………………....….…20 Table 2.1: Strengths and Weaknesses of Case study Sources of Evidence……….…..52 Table 2.2: Research Design……………………………………………………....…....65 Table3.1: Bio Data of AGB Employees……………………………………….....…...80 Table 3.2: Necessity of English in the Workplace……………….………...………….83 Table 3.3: Necessity of Learning English for the Respondents’ Careers......................84 Table3.4: Employees’ Attempts to Enhance their Language Level………………….85 Table3.5: Necessity of English Training Programmes……………………………….86 Table 3.6: Employees’ Attitude towards Attendance of Training Programme………..87 Table 3.7: Employees’ Needs…………………………………………………………..88 Table 3.8: Classification of the Employees’ Lacks in Using Business English……....91 Table3.9: Importance of Specialized Business Vocabulary………………………….92 Table 3.10: Frequency Use of Business Vocabulary………………………………….93 Table 3.11: Employees’ Comprehension of Business Vocabulary…………………...94 Table 3.12:Employees’ Ways of Learning Business Vocabulary……………………95 Table 3.13:Usefulness of Communicative Activities…………………………...……96

ix

List of Figures Figure 1.1: From the “Tree of ELT”…………………………………………………..10 Figure 1.2: ESP Classification by Professional Area……..…………………………...11 Figure 3.1: Necessity of English inthe Workplace…………………………....………83 Figure3.2: Necessity of Learning English for the Respondents’ Careers......................84 Figure3.3: Employees’ attempts to enhance their language level………………….....85 Figure 3.4: Necessity of English Training Programmes……………………...…….....86 Figure 3.5: Employees’ Attitude towards Attendance of Training Programmes……....87 Figure 3.6:Employee’s Needs……………...………………………………...……......89 Figure 3.7: Importance of Specialized Business Vocabulary……………………...….92 Figure 3.8: Frequency Use of Business Vocabulary…………………………………..93 Figure 3.9: Employees’ Comprehension of Business Vocabulary……………………94 Figure 3.10: Employees’ Ways of Learning Business Vocabulary…………………...95 Figure 3.11: Usefulness of Communicative Activities…………………….....……….96

x

List of Acronyms AGB: Algeria Gulf Bank. BE: BusinessEnglish. CCI: Chambre du Commerce et d’Industrie. CLT: Communicative Language Teaching. CNP: Communicative Needs Processor. EAOP:English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. EAP: English for Academic Purposes. EBE: English for Business and Economics. EBP: English for Business Purposes. EGBP: English for General Business Purposes. ELT: English Language Teaching. EOP: English for Occupational Purposes. EPP: English for Professional Purposes. ERL: English as a Restricted Language. ESBP: English for Specific Business Purposes. ESL: English as a Second Language. ESP: English for Specific Purposes. ESS: English for Social Sciences. EST: English for Science and Technology. FL: Foreign Language. xi

GE: General English. KIPCO: Kuwait Investment Project Company MBA: Master and Business Administration. PSA: Present Situation Analysis. SONATRACH : Société Nationale de Transport et de Traitement des Hydrocarbures TSA: Target Situation Analysis. WTO: World Trade Organization.

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General Introduction

General Introduction

Language as a means of communication plays an important role among people at national and international level. English is considered to become the language most accessible pass to the international community, this language has become widely used in many fields such as science, technology, politics, and international business affairs. In Algeria, English is one of the compulsory subjects taught in the educational programme.The Arabic language is the first national language then Tamazight. Arabic is the official language used in administration and as a medium of instruction from primary school to university. French is recognized as the second language included in most Algerian educational sectors and administrations, whereas, English is taught as a foreign language. Recently, Algeria has witnessed an expansion in its economy seeing this by international relationships and transactions with many foreign countries like USA, the European Union, Iran, Mali, China, Turkey,etc. Algerian professionalsworking in either public or private companies should be aware of the fact that multilingual workers may be more attractive than bilingual ones; for only one reason, that multilingual workers may have more chance to be acceptedin the workforce of both national and multinational companies. Algeria, like the other developing countries, has to think how best prepare for the demands of the global society. This interest has resulted to take more responsibility of business training programmes offered to the working population. These programmes aim at providing more learning opportunities which may help the business learners and business professionals cope with the demands of the business world and international negotiations. Teaching Business English in the case of EOP should be somehow different from teaching EAP; for instance, differences lies on the category of learners who receive these courses in addition to the type of vocabulary presented to them. In a post1

General Introduction experienced level, teaching English is directed to learners who have knowledge of the subject content, on the one hand, and a job experience on the other hand. Thus, courses at this point should be designed according to the learners’ job needs and requirements. Teachers in this case should be aware ofthe characteristics that are related to EOP teaching,as they have also to take into accountthe level of their students and their English language background. The role of teacher in this caseis very important since he/she has to be able to set students’ needs andinterests; in addition, he/she has to seek for the appropriate methods and teaching materials that motivate them when learning English. In this study the researcher tries to explain how it is important to emphasize on specialized business vocabulary when teaching business English. The aim of such an interest is to avoiddifficulty in communication due to the lack of finding suitable words. Thus, studying language cannot be separated from studying its vocabulary which is very essential in improving the four skills. By learning vocabulary the learner will be able to communicate in English and avoid breakdowns and misunderstanding in communication. There are several methods used in teachingEnglish to professionals. Communicative language Teaching can be one of the suitable methods that may help learners achieve the aim of communicating efficiently in a business context. By using CLT in teaching Business English, it is hoped that teachers will be able to facilitate the teaching/ learning process, by providing appropriate communicative activities that could include similar situations as their working tasks. This latter may also help teachersreach a high degree of motivation, and enable them manipulate the classroom successfully with business adult learners whose main aim is toachievecommunication purposes in business. This topic has been chosen for the reason thatteaching Business English becomesvery demanded in recent years. Teaching this type of English is not an easy task to do, since itrequires more creativity and experience in work. Teaching English to Business professionals in Algeriais newly employed;it is taking new dimensions in 2

General Introduction recent

years

seeing

this

through

the

employment

demands

offered

by

Algeriancompanies which require workers withmore than one foreign language. Teaching Business English is full of activities and if it is taught interestingly it will motivate the learners to learn.Vocabulary items are also essential to improve language learning.So, it is important to findout more stimulating situations to make learners interested in improving their vocabularyrepertoire. Communicative activities developed by CLT may help Business English trainersprovide as much as possible of communicative business situations according to the employees’ needs. Business English learnershave a problem in mastering business vocabulary in both general and specialized field. In order to get the study objectives, systematically the following questions have been raised:

Why do employees in the “Algeria Gulf bank” in Tlemcen need to learn English? Do they face problems in communication due to the lack of business vocabulary? And if they need to learn business vocabulary: What might be the adequate method to teach specialized business vocabulary in this case? From the above questions the following hypotheses have been stated: AGB Employees may need to learn English because they are confronted by the use of English written documents in their occupation. Professionals may lack business vocabulary knowledge which may be a handicap when communicating in the target language. Thus, they need to learnbusiness vocabulary in order to avoid problems in communication. To achieve communication goals, using the communicative approachmightbe an adequate method to teach business vocabulary within business contexts. Consequently,the research comprises four chapters. Chapter one provides a theoretical overview about what EOP is, its origins and its development. Following 3

General Introduction this, a full explanation has been givento the area of teaching English for Business Purposes in relation to ESP.In addition to that, the theory of teachingvocabulary within ESP contexthas been also emphasized. The second chapter provides a description of the methods and procedures used in this investigation. To do so; three sources of evidence are used. In the first step,the researcherhas optedfor a documentary analysisinstrument. This latter has been used to analyse the AGB official administrative documents written in English.The aim of this instrument isto show the situation of English in AGB administration.After that, AGB professionalsare requiredtoanswer a semi-structured interview, give their opinions about the importance of this language for them, and the usefulness of learning special vocabularyto succeed in their occupation. Finally, in order to get an educational point of view, a questionnaire has been administered to ESP teachers in the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Tlemcen. The questionnaire aims at providing the research with more ideas about the situation of teaching ESP in Algeria, in addition to the teachers’ view about applying the communicative method in teaching specialized business vocabulary. Accordingly, the third chapter is devoted to a needs analysiswhere both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to analyse the data collected.Besides, brief definitions about the researchsettingshave been presented in the beginning of the chapter, in addition to a description of the importance of English for Algerian professionals. Therefore, on the basis of the resultsobtained, the fourth chapter provides some related suggestions and recommendations. They are concerned developing the four skills focusing on the productive ones and business teaching materials. Finally, the chapter has includedthe designof a sample syllabus using Communicative Language Teachingas a method of teaching specialized business vocabulary.

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Chapter One: Literature Review. 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definition of EOP 1.2.1 Situating EOP 1.2.2 Development of EOP 1.2.3 EOP vs EAP 1.3 English for Business Purposes (EBP) 1.3.1 Subdivisions of EBP 1.3.2 Characteristics of Business English 1.3.2.1 Business English Learner 1.3.2.2 Business English Course 1.3.2.3 Business English Teacher 1.4 EBP Teaching Learning Process in Relation to ESP 1.5 Variables in ESP Teaching Operation 1.5.1 Needs Analysis 1.5.1.1 Mumby’s Communicative Needs Processor (CNP) 1.5.1.2 CNP parameters 1.5.1.3 Setting Goals and Objectives 1.5.2 Syllabus Design 1.5.2.1 Criteria of Syllabus Design 1.5.2.2 Types of Syllabuses 1.5.2.3 ESP syllabus design

1.5.3 Production of Materials 1.5.4 Teaching 1.5.5 Evaluation/ Assessment 1.5.5.1 Learners’ Assessment 1.5.5.2 Course Evaluation 1.6 Vocabulary in ESP 1.6.1 Teaching Vocabulary in ESP 1.6.2 Business Vocabulary 1.7 Conclusion

Chapter One

Literature Review

1.1 Introduction Business professionals become well aware of the fact that knowing more than one foreign language is a key for them to findor succeed in their jobs. However, mastering the English language becomes an important factor for them to cope with business environment of their occupations at the national and international scale. In addition, the unfamiliarity with business vocabulary may present a handicap for them to succeed in their careers, since it may cause problems when communicating with other partners in their professions. Thus, the present chapter is devoted to give an overview of what EOP is, its origins, development and difference between EAP and EOP. Then, the researcher tackles one of its prominent categories namely, English for Business Purposes (EBP). First, the investigator defines this category, speaking about its major division, characteristics and finally the EBP teaching learning process within ESP operation. Secondly, the researcher moves on to define vocabulary teaching in ESPtaking the category of business vocabulary as one of the prominent interests of business learners that should be developed in order to communicatesuccessfully in a business context.

1.2 Definition of EOP It is beyond dispute that the use of the English language has probably become the most accessible pass to the international community, it is the most efficient mode of communication among international professionals (Bruthiaux, 2002). In other words,English is now the world’s means of international communication in all domains such as science and technology, politics, economics, industry and workforce interactions. Besides, the importance of this language has risen to become as a necessary tool to obtain a job, get promoted and perform effectively in the world of work. This demand has generated the spread of a new linguistic branch in the field of ESP, namely, English for Occupational Purposes, (EOP).(Dominguez &Rokowski, 2005).

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Chapter One

Literature Review

For the reason to meet the requirements and demands of the actual society’s services at an international scale, professionals and future professionals should be able to use English adequately in the labour world such as hotel staff, military, business operations, law and administration. From this point of view, the teaching of English has taken a new dimension from simply being taught academically to professionallyoriented teaching, or “occupation-oriented” (Benyelles, 2009). This new area of English teaching is mainly concerned with job situations where the main aim of learners is to learn how to better practise English in their professional environments under the umbrella term “EOP”.In this vein, Dudley Evans &St John (1998:07) state that: The term EOP refers to English that is not for academic purposes; it includes professional purposes in administration, medicine, law, and business, and vocational purposes for non-professionals in work or pre-work situations. Besides, vocational English for non-professional may include language of training for specific trades or occupations, and pre-work situation, on one hand, may be concerned with finding a job and interview skills,on the other hand. English for Occupational Purposes is usually known as English for Vocational Purposes in the United States due to the distinction made between courses for managers and those for specific occupations (Crandall, 1984) (cited in Dudley Evans & St John, 1996). Moreover, the language needed in EOP is restricted to a particular environment of profession in which all language forms and functions are taught accordingly. For example, in a work system, air-traffic controllers may use the language with a specific vocabulary which has to be understood and followed according to the work situation; tourist guides also face the need to understand the specific vocabulary as well as language interactions in the field of tourist industry, etc (Harmer, 1983). For instance, EOP learners who are newly employed personnel, have already been taught general English from previous studies at university or other similar educational institutions, but they still have the lack of communication skills in using English 8

Chapter One

Literature Review

appropriately in job related situations. In such situations, workers are required to express their ideas verbally in English, or give presentations and write reports in English speak fluently and have a good command in English grammar and specialized vocabulary. In this respect, Gatehouse (2001) speaks about these requirements asEOP values in three points in which the learner will have the ability: • To successfully communicate in the workplace using occupationally specific jargon/terminology. • To communicate through writing correspondence, conducting research or responding to emails/memos. • To use the informal English/slang of the everyday workplace. Finally, EOP is the type of languagewhere learners may use it to meet specific occupational needs at their workplace andfor their future careers. For more clarifications about EOP, the next title will give the situation of EOP within ESP branch, thus the following question rises: where does EOP stand? 1.2.1 Situating EOP Many classifications have been made in the field of English for Specific Purposes. According to ESP researchers (Carter, 1983;Hutchinson and Waters, 1987; Dudley Evans & St John, 1998) there are two or three major divisions of ESP in which EOP is sometimes considered as a branch of ESP and other times as a sub-branch of it. Carter (1983) gives a division of ESP in which EOP is included under the same category within EAP. Carter (1983) divides ESP is as follows: a: English as Restricted Language (ERL): an example of this kind is the language used in international aviation. b:English for Academic and Occupational Purposes (EAOP): it includes English for Science and Technology (EST), English for Business and Economics (EBE), and English for Social Studies (ESS).

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Chapter One

Literature Review

c: English with Specific Topics : the emphasis here changes from purpose to topic, it is only concerned with future English needs, for example for scientists who need English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences, etc. Carter(1983)classifies EOP under the same category within EAP for the reasonthat the end purpose of both EAP and EOP is the same, employment. Furthermore, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) have developed the “Tree of ELT” in which EAP and EOP derived from three major ESP areas: English for Science and Technology (EST), English for Business and Economics (EBE), and English for Social Sciences (ESS), an example of EAP in the branch of EBE is “English for Economics” and of EOP is“English for Secretaries”. This can be well illustrated in the following diagram: English for Medical Studies

English for Technician

EAP

EOP

English for Economics

English for Secretaries

English for Psychology

EOP

EAP

English for Teaching

EOP

EAP

EST

ESS EBE

ESP

Figure 1.1: From the “Tree of ELT” by Hutchinson and waters (1987). The diagram below presents another taxonomy given by Dudley Evans &St John(1998) sets EOP and EAP as direct branches of ESP according to the disciplines and professional area they belong to. In this respect Dudley Evans &St John (1998:5) say: “ESP has traditionally been divided into two main areas: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP)”. a:English for Academic Purposes: with courses in study programs mainly for the areas of science and technology, law, medicine, and business.

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Chapter One

Literature Review

b: English for Occupational Purposes: with courses for professionals, vocational, and pre-work purposes. English for Specific Purposes

English for Academic Purposes English forEnglish for English for (Academic) (Academic) (Academic) Science and

Medical

Legal

English for

English for

Management,

English for

professional Purposes

Vocational Purposes

Finance and

Technology.Purposes.Purposes.Economics. English for Medical Purposes business

English for Occupational Purposes

Vocational

English for

Pre-

Vocational

English

PurposesEnglish

Figure 1.2:ESP Classification by Professional Area (Adapted from Dudley Evans & St John, 1998:6) Many researches have been done at the level of ESP taxonomies seeking to better give the precise place of EOP, knowing that this could not be achieved without seeking its origins and, and this is what will be clarified in the next title. 1.2.2 Development of EOP. The teaching of English for Specific Purposes has been rapidly developed in recent years; the reason after this development is the rising importance of the English language as an international language for the workforce.Historically, ESP has been dominated by the teaching of English for Academic Purposes under the field of English for Science and Technology (EST)(Swales, 1988). This dominance is, therefore, due to the fact that most published materials at that time were carried out in the area of EAP (Jordan, 1977). In this respect Kirsten (1995) gives the example of some published materials in this field such as: Ewer &Lattore’s “Course in Basic Scientific English” (1969), Bates& Dudley Evans “Nucleus Series” (1976) based on scientific notions or concepts, and a course called “The Interface” designed by

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Chapter One

Literature Review

Hutchinson & Waters(1984) for a group of technical learners preparing to study in Britain. Moreover, in the 1990s the academic study shifted little to focus more on the teaching of business, accounting, banking, and management. As a result, Business English began to assume greater importance in EAP especially with Master and Business Administration (MBA) courses (Dudley Evans& St John, 1996). The expansion of business and industry has increased business interactions between people throughout the world who need to communicate in their professional world through the medium of the English Language. As a result, the growing value of occupational English has expedited the growth of a new approach in ESP namely EOP which concentrates more on the preparation of the learners with the language requirements for their actual or future occupations. In this vein, Kirsten (1995:619) states: “EAP began as the dominant branch but with the increased interest of business English, EOP has become increasingly important.” Consequently, the English language has become important not only at the academic level but also at the professional one under the umbrella term, EOP, and under this rubric by the teaching of Business English (BE) or English for Business Purposes (EBP). This later has also witnessed the publication of a good number of English business volumes which have emerged from teaching situations to meet interests in professional English. This may include some books such as: Business Reports in English (Comfort et al, 1984); Writing for Business (1987);In at the Deep End (Holett, 1989); Business English (Wilberg& Lewis, 1990); Build Your Business Vocabulary (Flower, 1990); English for International Banking (Corbett, 1990); The Complete Business English Course Generator (Nelson, 1994). Finally, from that time EOP becomesof paramount importance in the field of ESP and differentiates from EAP in the learners and their reasons for learning the language beit academic or professional. So, it has become worthy to make a distinction between EAP and EOP.

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2.3 EOP Vs EAP A major distinction is often drawn betweenEOP, it mainly concentrates on the teaching of English for work related needs and professional purposes (see 1.1.) and EAP, English for Academic Purposes, which in turns involves learning English for academic study purposes. However, English for Academic Purposes according to Brown (2007:142): “…is related to advanced level of academic program and is very broadly applied to any course, module of workshop in which students are taught to deal with”, i.e. it contributes to English needed in educational contexts in universities, schools or similar academic institutions. This may include some disciplines such as engineering, biology, medicine, economics, physics, and so on. Hutchinson & Waters (1987:16) state that there is not a clear-cut distinction between EAP and EOP arguing that: people can work and study simultaneously it is also likely that in many cases the language learnt for immediate use in study environment will be used later when the students take up, or return to, a job. This view may bring to the final idea that the purpose of both EAP and EOP is the same “employment” even though the ways leading to this purpose are different. In contrast, Cummins (1979) views that these two strands are broadly different in terms of “focus”, since the first is concerned with academic and educational needs whereas the later is designed for workforce interactions and strictly job-related situations. Dudley Evans & St John (1998) consider these distinctions as very important since they affect the degree to which extent the course is specific. As far as the learner is concerned, both EAPand EOP learners are interested in learning English in order to establish a successful communication not necessarily as native speakers do but to be more communicative in their field of specialism be it academic or professional (Dominguez &Rokovski, 2005). However, it is possible to distinguish between economics students, for example, who may need English to read articles, texts, books, write essays, and short reports, these are EAP need. Whereas, business executives who are already in the domain of 13

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work may have different needs such as reading specialist articles, prepare papers and slide presentations for meetings, answering emails, writing business letters, and talking to foreigner colleagues, these are EOP needs. Henceforth, one may say that EAP is concerned with education whereas EOP is training programs (Ellis & Johnson 1994). Furthermore, Anthony (1997:56) states: “EOP programs focus on developing communicative competence in a specific field such as aviation, business or tourism”, this means thatEOP programs aims at preparing the learner to achieve a certain level in English in order to communicate effectively within an occupational framework and in an occupational setting. One of the main characteristics of EOP programs is that teaching is either in a one to one situation or in small groups. Dudley Evans & St John (1998) give the example of the case of English for SpecificBusiness Purposes (ESBP) where the courses are geared for job-experience learners. These courses focus only on one or two language skills and specified business communicative events. The groups are small from six to eight as maximum, and there may be a one to one tuition for senior staff. The duration of the courses is limited i.e. intensive courses. On the other side, Jordan (1997) describes EAP courses under two categories: -

Pre-sessional courses: held before an academic course starts and usually fulltime.

-

In-sessional courses: held during an academic term or semester, and usually part-time. In the same vein, Jordan (1997) adds that EAP courses may be attended by the

students at the same time when studying their main-stream subjects. The duration of EAP courses may be “short” from 4-6 weeks, or “long” from 6-12 months or even “longer”. Through the above comparison, one may conclude that in spite of the distinctions made between EAP and EOP the end purpose still concernsthe ESP teaching/learning process; whereas, the major difference lies on whether the learner wants this language for study purposes or for job-related ones. By the development of EOP, there was the

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appearance of a new and great area of research namely English for Business Purposes (EBP).So, what is EBP?

1.3 English for Business Purposes (EBP) or Business English (BE) English is now the language of international trade; it is the international language of business (Dudley Evans& St John, 1998). In other words it is the language the most widely used between non-native speakers of English in order to effectively communicate in a professional business environment. Business English has witnessed a growing demand among learners who become clear about what they need English for. In this vein Harmer (1983:10) notes: An enormous growth area in English language teaching has been in the area of Business English because many students perceive the need for the kind of language which will allow them operate in the world of English medium commerce. Business English (BE) or English for Business Purposes (EBP) is one of the most current areas of growth in ESP (Ellis & Johnson, 1994). It is an approach to teaching English to those people whose main interest is to improve their language level in many specific areas of business such as management, marketing, banking, finance, manufacturing, and business services, etc. Thus, Business English is concerned with specific language corpora and focuses on more particular types of communication according to the specific areas of use it deals with. In contrast to general English, in Business English there is a specific vocabulary and language events (presenting to colleagues, the language of contracts, etc.) which are vitally important for business students and so teachers find themselves training classes in such procedures as the art of negotiating, the correct use of the phones and e-mails or the reading of business reports Harmer (1983). Similar to, Harmer (1983), Brieger (1997) (Cited in Nelson, 2000) recapitulates the idea of Business English as consisting of two main aspects: language knowledge 15

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(grammar, vocabulary, register, pronunciation…) and communication skills (meeting, negotiation, telephoning…). On the other side, Ellis & Jonson (1994) refer to Business English as consisting of three most important characteristics: • Sense of purpose: every exchange in the area of business meetings, telephone calls, and discussion is a “sense of purpose.” • Social Aspects: company employees have a need to contact other foreigner partners with different languages and different cultures. So that there is a need for an internationally accepted way of communicating with one another. • Clear communication: Information has to be conveyed with minimum risk of miss understanding and the time of the processing by both the speaker and the learner. English for Business Purposes becomes an important area of study in ESP worthy of research and investigations due the demand of many companies and organizations for business courses for their staffs where the expectations from these courses may differ according to the learners’ different levels. As a result, it is worthwhile to deal with EBP branches that may affect the nature of the courses designed. 1.3.1 Subdivisions of EBP Business English is broader than the other varieties of ESP as claimed by Ellis & Johnson (1994). Therefore Dudley Evans & St John (1998) propose a further subdivision to EBP namely, English for General Business Purposes (EGBP) and English for Specific Business Purposes (ESBP). • English for General Business Purposes (EGBP): is concerned with preexperience learners or those at very early stages in their careers. Learning is similar to EFL and takes place in language schools with groups formed on the basis of language level rather than job. • English for Specific Business Purposes (ESBP): is concerned with jobexperienced learners who are already in work, and learning here is more specific with small groups from the same company or external staff. The

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following table of Dudley Evans & St John (1998) gives an explanation of these divisions: EGBP

ESBP

Participants Pre-experience learners Focus

-presentation

Job-experienced learners through -deep end approach.

listening/reading.

-fluency activity.

-more practice on grammar and -development of one or two vocabulary.

language skills only.

-activities are core EFL focusing -materials are selected from specific professional business

more on the four skills. -materials

base

on

business context.

context. Teacher

-develops relationship over time.

-establishes instant relationships.

-becomes familiar with materials.

-uses different materials each

-has regular patterns to lessons.

time. -has no pattern to lesson.

Language

-needs regular intakes.

-block weeks of time.

school

-uses class sets of books.

-needs wide range of resources.

manager

-organizes the taking of public.

-needs more staff planning time.

Table1.1:Differences between EGBP and ESBP (Adapted from Dudley Evans & St John, 1998) The most important reason in differing between these two branches is due to the learners’ specified needs and expectations and more precisely to the course geared for each of them. So, when speaking about Business English one might not deny the need to speak about the Business English learner, the Business English course as well as the Business English teacher. And this will be explained in the next title.

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1.3.2 Characteristics of Business English Business English has imposed itself in the field of ESP and drawn its own characteristics upon time which differ it from other subfields. One of these characteristics is the specificity of the business English learner. 1.3.2.1 Business English Learner. The ESP learner is an individual who has recognized the need to learn English with different experiences, values and goals to be achieved. In EBP, the purpose is not focused on the learner as an individual but as a member of the world transactions community, where the main aim is to exchange goods and services between partners from different countries in a more understandable way. Therefore, with the spread of international trade, learners become aware that the English is notonly used to read, write, listen or speak, but it is also required to communicate more efficiently in a way that should be recognized and appreciated by their employers as well as foreigner partners. Business English learner is a learner working or preparing to work in a business area, who is always confronted with the use of English ina professional context. These learners differ from school language learners since they are generally older, more experienced and more responsible for their studies, and they are often busy as they have job responsibilities. These distinctions are highlighted by Rubin (1975) in her description of “the good language learner”, adult learners are generally high motivated to succeed, good risk takers, aware of the need to improve their language skills to obtain an occupation and promotion and make all their best to show their seriousness to their teachers. In other words, adult learners seem to have a definite idea about what they want to learn according to the different contexts they are dealing with. Furthermore Ellis & Johnson (1994) present three categories of EBP learners: • Pre-experience learners: are undergraduate or post-graduate students learning at business schools, they are generally open-minded than those who are already in work. They are required to receive more general business learning and the

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learner is restricted in choice since it is constrained by the syllabus, the course and quality of support. • Low-experience learners: are junior company members who are not fixed in their occupations. Learning in this area is somehow similar to pre-experience learners. • Job-experienced learners: are employees who need business in order to achieve precise objectives. For example, an employee in the bank may deal with other banks throughout the world, its foreigner exchange dealers, its personnel, and its own managers as he/she may come into contact with people speaking English. This category of learners seems to need more specific Business English, and the learner’s choice of institutions will depend on what funds are available, and what is offered by the company. To sum up, it is evident that pre-experience learners and job-experienced learners differ in terms of the category of special language they belong to, and this latter may highly affect the kind of the courses which will be designed accordingly. 1.3.2.2 Business English Course. Designing business English course is one of the difficult types of ESP courses, whichare supposed to meet the specified needs of business learners who are interested in improving their language level in different areas of Business English such as banking, finance, accounting,etc. Likewise EBP is divided into EGBP and ESBP (see 1.3.1) Business English courses are also divided into two categories. EGBP courses are designed for pre-experience learners who are at the beginning of their careers. Therefore, this type of courses works on the four skills in addition to the development of grammar and vocabulary by focusing on presentation through listening or/and reading. English in this area is taught in a business context and EGBP is different from GE one but activities are core EFL,whereas ESBP courses are offered to jobexperienced learners who are in real business context and who bring the business knowledge to the learning context (Dudley Evans & St John, 1998). According to Ellis & Johnson (2002), business English courses focus on preparing learners to use their language skills in a business environment. It teaches business vocabulary, financial 19

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terms, and formal speaking and writing skills. Unlike general English, Business English puts more emphasis on specialized business vocabulary and necessary terms. Moreover, business English courses are carefully geared, and they mainly focus on one or two language skills and specific communicative business events such as socializing, meetings, memos, e-mails. A deep-end approach is followed in these courses tackling first fluency activities then moving to language and work based on fluency development (Dudley Evans & St John, 1998). In this case the content is strictly taken from the learners’ own business context.The following tablesuggested by Dudley Evans & St John (1998) explains the variables and factors that may influence business English courses. VariablesFactors to be considered course duration

Is it intensive or extensive?

participants

Are they all from the same company or is it

an open registration course? group size

Is it one-to-one or a small group?

location

Is it in-house, in company or overseas;

residential or non-residential? mode of learning

Is it class teaching, telephone teaching,

self study? trainers

Are they company employees or outsiders? Table 1.2 Key Variables in Business English Courses. (Adopted fromDudley Evans & St John, 1998: 57)

Business English courses are characterized by the teaching of the English language to business workers who need it in their occupation in a minimum amount of time with a maximum feedback. These courses are presented in through language training programmes which offer the opportunity to work and learn simultaneously with either individual training (one-to-one tuition) or with a group workshop (homogeneous 20

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business population). This homogeneity also enhances BE programmes since the topics discussed are usually in business and may create a business discussion among the trainees. Training programmes conduct a needs analysis around a group of learners or only one learners (senior staff) and try to develop courses according to those needs taking into account each learner with his/her weaknesses and strengths.Training programmes courses focus directly on developing the learners’ exact needs in which a largervariety of learning objectives will be placed upon developing the needed business tasks such as: -Carrying outmeetings and focusing onpresentations; -Social English conversations; - Introducing and discussing business topics; -Business presentation skills; - Build up business negotiation skills; - Dealing with business communication and business writing To sum up, the purpose of such training programmes is to prepare specialists in the field to cooperate effectively with other participants and to also enable the learners select the subject due to their interests and needs. In this case it is the responsibility of the teacher to provide appropriate learning environment, from this principle the question about the business English teacher rises. Who is the business English teacher? 1.3.2.3 Business English Teacher The role of the teacher is to help students learn by transmitting knowledge to them and by setting up a situation in which they can learn in an efficient way. Swales (1985) prefers the term “practitioner” rather than “teacher” in the ESP context, whereas in BE, it is the term “trainer” which is likely to be used. BE trainers are language teachers who have trained themselves in the field of business, they have to perform many functions such as organizer, controller, participants, prompter as well as knowledge resource. The main interest of the 21

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Business English trainer is to understand the “interface” between the business principles and language (John, 1996). However, Business English trainer is required to do more responsibilities when teaching business English in order to perform different business tasks. Dudley-Evans and St John (1998) refer to three criteria of the business trainer: personality, knowledge and experience. • Personality: personal contact is an important factor in teaching Business English because the teaching learning process happens with either a one to one situation or within a small group. However, “personal contact is a key factor and training need to be outgoing, tactful and genuinely interested in business” (Ellis and Johnson, 1994:27). It is preferable for a business trainer to have an outgoing personality to be interested in interactions with people of a wide variety be flexible and adaptable to any situation. • Knowledge: Business English trainers need to be curious about and interested in all aspects of business in order to best work with the learners to raise their motivation. They are required to have knowledge about how companies work, problem solving, financial planning and so on. In short, they have to be aware of their learners’ business goals. • Experience: most ESP teachers have a language background but do not have an experience of the subject content. Unlike EAP teachers who have already studied in an EAP environment, BE trainers are not experienced in the business context since they cannot speak about budget settings, meetings or sales negotiations. Like any ESP teacher, BE trainer should be capable to identify the actual language level of his/her trainees, select appropriate materials and design tasks and activities suitable for their level as well as context. Thus, to make a course more successful and beneficial it is necessary to go through a series of stages that any ESP course should follow

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1.4 EBP Teaching Learning Process in Relation to ESP. The ESP teaching /learning process is not different in kind from any other form of language teaching, in that it should be based in first instance on principles of effective teaching (Hutchinson and waters, 2002). ESP teaching /learning process emphasizes on the central importance of the learning. In this aspect (Hutchinson and waters, 1987:8) write: Learners were seen to have different needs and interestswhich would have an important influence on theirmotivation to learn and therefore on the effectiveness of their learning. As a result, they argue that everything in the teaching process should aim at helping learners use their learning strategies in order to meet their goals. In other words, the learner is considered as more central to the learning process. Furthermore,in ESP, learners are more involved in theteaching/learning operation rather than the teacher; this latter is known as ‘learner-centered approach’. By making ESP learner-centered, learners are able to perceive positive learning and take more responsibility for their own learning. Therefore, they feel motivated and participate more effectively in class. By the fact of involving learners in the learning process, much attention has to be paid to the design of ESP courses that can best serve learners’ interest and needs. Designing such a course is an obstacle for many teachers; therefore, they have to identify certain variables that may influence the teachingsituation. These variables have not to be taken in isolation;each phase has to be considered according to the other (Candlin et al 1976).

1.5 Variables in ESP Teaching Operation Hutchinson and waters (1987) describe an ESP teaching operations as consisting of five essential and interrelated phases, namely: • The identification of needs. 23

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• Syllabus design. • The production of materials. • Teaching. • Evaluating/Testing. These variables have a tremendous importance in designing any ESP course. Each phase is related to the other. Hence, planning and designing an appropriate course that suits target ESP groups is based on comprehensive needs analysis. 1.5.1 Needs Analysis. The first step in any ESP course design is the conduction of a Needs Identification and Analysis which acts as a guide to design any ESP course that suit the learners needs and interests. If needs are clear, the learning aim can be easily expressed and the language course can become motivating (Mackey &Mountfourd 1978). In addition, Dudley Evans (2001) points that needs analysis serves a preliminary foundation for an ESP course in attempt to locate the objectives of the course and to prepare the appropriate teaching activities and materials. Furthermore, needs analysis is considered as an important component to establish the specification and preparation of ESP, EBP, and ESBP courses as well. Briegger (1997:88-83) (cited in Dudley-Evans & St John, 1998: 58) states Needs analysis for Business English courses will set out to identify the range of general and specialist language knowledge required together with general and professional communication skills For instance, needs analysis is considered to be a helpful device for business course designers to identify the gap between the actual level of the learners and the requirement of their jobs. The former is identified by a proficiency test, whereas, the latter is identified by analysing the job situation. The first analysis is happened at the level of job tasks needed by the learners (employees, company staff), and the second analysis is about identifying linguistic skills related to each task, for example, develop business writing to better deal with business reports, e-mails and memos or enhance 24

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the speaking skill to communicate clearly with foreigner partners. In the same vein, Pilbeam (1979) (Cited in Dudley-Evans & St John, 1998: 58) suggests that needs analysis should be established according to both: • Target Situational Analysis (TSA): it includes the target profile of language skills which sets down the actual activities that the participants have to carry out. • Present Situational Analysis (PSA): it concerns the profile of personal ability in which the participants’ proficiency in these activities is evaluated. Moreover, the analysis of the target situation has taken more details in Munby’s (1978) model of Communicative Needs Processor. This model is first developed for the sake of discovering the target situation,it is based on analyzing communication in the target situation to provide communicative needs profile for a special group of learners. 1.5.1.1Mumby’s Communicative Needs Processor (CNP) Mumby’s (1978) Communicative Needs Processor has been developed to present valid and concrete results about the specific skills and linguistic forms required in the specific target situation. Hutchinson & Waters (1987:54) say: With the development of the CNP it seemed as if ESP had come of age. The machinery for identifying the needs of any group of learners had been provided: all the course designers had to do was to operate it. From the above clarification one may say that CNP is necessary for the conduction of any ESP course since it is considered as a guide for ESP course designers. West (1997) adds that CNP establishes the place of needs analysis as central to ESP and as a necessary starting point in material or course design. 1.5.1.2 CNP parameters According to Munby (1978) the Communicative Needs Processor consists of nine important components and each component serves to find answers about the use of the target language in order to identify learners’ real world communicative requirements. 25

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These components are believed to be vital for ESP courses as well as Business English training programmes. The components are as follows: • Purposive domain: this category establishes the type of ESP, and then the purpose in which the target language will be used for at the end of the course. • Setting: the physical setting specifying the special and temporal aspects of the situation where English will be used, and the psychological setting specifying the different environment in which English will be used. • Interaction: identifies the learner’s interlocutors and predict relationship between them. • Instrumentality: specifies the medium, i.e. whether the language to be used is in the form of monologue or dialogue or any other, and channel of communication, i.e. whether it is face to face, radio or any other. • Dialect: dialects learners will have to understand or produce in terms of their special, temporal or social aspect. • Communicative event: states what the participants will have to do productively or receptively. • Communicative key: the manner in which the participants will have to do the activities comprising an event, e.g. politely or impolitely. • Target level: level of linguistic proficiency at the end of the ESP course which might be different for different skills. The rationale behind using CNP is to identify as much as possible the linguistic forms that will fulfil the learners’ needs in the target working environment in other words, what the learner needs to know in order to function effectively in the target situation. (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987) Like any other model of analysis Munby’s (1978) model has been criticized in many works (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987; West, 1994; Dudley Evans & St John, 1998) for some weaknesses like making the model more time consuming, the data were collected about the learners and not from the learners by neglecting their learning needs, and the most important is his failure to provide a syllabus according to the learners profile. 26

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1.5.1.3 Setting Goals and Objectives The fact of seeking for goals and objectives in any ESP course will set a clear image of what the course is going to be about. Graves (1996) defines goals as general statements or the final destination about the level that students are required to achieve. Objectives stand for the ways of how to achieve these goals. In other words, they explain stepsthat teaching must go through to form the essence of the course. A good understanding of these two phenomena makes a clear vision about the type of teaching materials that the teacher should select and when and how they should be taught. Nunan (1988) gives a description of how one should identify objectives depending on what is desired. Objectives may be as follows: Students will learn that…… Students will be aware……. Students will develop……... To sum up, the analysis of the target needs and the present proficiency, and setting goals and objectives are considered to be of paramount importance in establishing the businesscourse; taking into account the suitable amount of hours needed for language tuition, in order to coveras much as possible of the trainees topics that may help to promote their awareness about the field dealing with the required tasks to fulfill their job requirements. As a next step the teacher seeks to employ the results of analyzing the needs to perform a syllabus. 1.5.2 Syllabus Design Once the learners’ needs are identified and analysed, the next step is to apply the results of this finding to perform a syllabus accordingly. Before dealing with further details in the syllabus design, one should first give a definition of what a syllabus is? Many definitions have been given to the term syllabus; someauthors call it a statement, others call it a document or a plan. According to Lee (1980:180) a syllabus is “a statement of what should be taught”; for Breen (1984:47) it stands for “a plan of what should be achieved through teaching and learning”, Hutchinson & Waters (1987:80) define it as “a document which says what will (or at least what should) be learnt”. As a 27

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result, the syllabus is a combination of different elements linked to one another in a coherent way to form the content of what should be learnt in order to achieve the course objectives. Therefore, the syllabus design is concerned with the selection of items to be learnt and the grading of those items into an appropriate sequence (Nunan, 1998). As a matter of fact, grading through these items is not an easy task to do; since the syllabus is determined according to different criteria that may differentiate between its types. So, what are the principles that a syllabus can be based on, and what are the possible restrictions that can influence its effectiveness? 1.5.2.1 Criteria of Syllabus Design. Like any other variable in the teaching learning operation, the syllabus design has its own and unique principles that should be followed by any course designer. Harmer (2001: 295) states that “any syllabus needs to be developed on the basis of some criteria”. These criteria have been defined by Judit.S, et al (2006) as follows: • Learnability: means that teaching begins with easier things first, and then increase the level of difficulty as students’ language level rises. • Frequency: would make sense at the beginning levels to include items which are more frequent in the language, than one that are only used occasionally by native speakers. • Coverage: means the scope for use, some words and structures have greater coverage than others. Teachers may decide on the basis of overage whether to introduce a language structure before another one or not. • Usefulness: gives the reason why certain words are highly recommended by the learner in a situation and not another one. Moreover, there are some other factors that can influence the development of the syllabus; these factors may differentiate from social, cultural to political. Benyelles (2009) cites the most important restrictions that can influence the syllabus design as follows: -

The language setting which concerns the role of the language in the community; 28

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The area of language use in society (how and where it is used.);

-

The role of the language in the political life taking into account the countries’ economy and technology (Ashworth,1985);

-

The attitudes of groups and individuals toward the language. This is determined by the degree of their awareness of the language (Van Leir,1995) (Benyelles, 2009:85-59)

After determining the criteria and factors that may to a certain level have a vital importance in influencing the effectiveness of syllabi, it is time to provide the course designer with an appropriate modal which contains the most important elements that can a syllabus include; this model as developed by Judit, et al (2006:112) should contain: -

The general aims and specific objectives of the course (in terms of student learning);

-

The organization of the course; a: the number of hours per week, the total number of lessons. b: interrelationship with other course components.

-

The outline of content, the topic headings covered weekly;

-

Methodology used (general indication of balance of lecture/ class activity/ amount of students/ participation)

-

Teaching materials a: main course books followed. b: supplementary readings. c: worksheets, audio-visual material.

-

Students’ assessment. a: requirements students are to meet. b: assignments and test papers during the course. c: end-of-the-course test or exam.

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1.5.2.2 Types of Syllabuses As any field of research, syllabus design has witnessed an obvious change shifting from focusing on knowledge and the four basic language skills to functional movements (Breen, 2001). This change gave birth to other approaches in designingsyllabuses and this led for the appearance of new and different types of syllabi. Judit,et al. (2006: 113-115) mentions these types as follows: • Grammar syllabus: It is considered as the commonest type of syllabuses. It is formed under a list of grammatical structure knowledge leading to an understanding of the grammatical system. This type of syllabuses provides the learners with a very good system of language structures and a good basis of cognitive skills but they lack the harmony between linguistic forms and meanings and speech intentions (Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). • The lexical syllabus: it is organized on the basis of vocabulary related topics, word formation, word grammar triggers, compound lexical items, connecting and linking words, semi fixed expressions, connotations and metaphors (Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). • The situational syllabus: it offers the possibility of selecting and sequencing different real-life situations rather than different grammatical items, vocabulary topics or functions.Sections would be headed by names of situations or locations, such as: in the street, at the supermarket, at the restaurant, etc.(Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). • The topic-based syllabus: another framework around which to organise language is that of different topics, such as the weather, health, generation gaps, clothes, etc. Topics provide an organising principle in which students will be interested in the headings indicated a fairly clear set of vocabulary items which may be specified. Topics are most relevant to students’ communicative needs though they may differ from what they want. (Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). • The functional-notional syllabus: language functions are things you can do with language, such as inviting, promising and offering. A functional-notional syllabus might look like the following: 30

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1. Requesting 2. Offering 3. Inviting 4. Agreeing and disagreeing 5. etc. (Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). • The notional syllabus (Wilkins, 1976) - Notions are concepts that language can express. General notions may include ‘number’, ‘time’, ‘place’, ‘colour’. Specific notions look more like vocabulary items: ‘man’, ‘woman’, ‘afternoon’.(Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). • The task-based syllabus: this type is concerned with more purposeful activities which learners might be expected in real-life situations. As Ellis (2003) points out, this type of syllabus also puts emphasis on meaning and communication, where students are primarily “users” rather than “learners” of the language. Skehan’s (1996:50) defines it as “an activity in which: meaning is primary; there is some relationship to the real-world”. It makes the leaning experiential in real life needs. • Activity-based syllabus: this type of syllabus develops the students’ language competences according to certain language skills, e.g. writing, formal letters can be the focus of a special course organized for secretaries (Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). • The mixed or multi strand syllabus: it is the common solution to the competing claims of the different syllabus types. Modern syllabuses are combining different aspects in order to be maximally comprehensive and helpful to teachers and learners. In such topics you may find specification of topics, tasks, functions and notion as well as grammar and vocabulary (Harmer, 2003;Kurtán, 2001). To summarize, the development in syllabus design has shifted from distinctive approaches to mixed and multi-dimensional approaches with the goal of best adapting to particular learning/teaching situations and aims (Breen, 2001). This change has 31

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affected the decision upon the type of syllabus that course designers should base on. The syllabus has to take into consideration learners’ needs and requirements within a specific group,this criteria is the fundamental in designing ESP courses. 1.5.2.3 ESP syllabus design One of the main criteria of ESP is the interests with developing courses to specific learners and with specific language context. Syllabus design plays an important role in ESP operation since it is the “core component” of an ESP course as Feez& Joyce(1998) call it. It does not concern only the specificity of the course, but it also provides a framework of what the learning process should follow. ESP syllabuses are designed according to specific language themes and topics involved in the learners’ specialist area e.g. chemistry tourism, business, agriculture, nursing, etc. At this level, most designers are language teachers who may face difficulties in understanding the subject knowledge as well as using technical vocabularies appropriately. ESP is an approach based on developing the specific needs of the learners in order to communicate effectively either in an academic or an occupational context. For instance, ESP syllabus is the process of converting the needs of a specific group of learners into communicative competence (Jordan, 1997). As far as, teaching Business English is concerned, EBP as a sub branch of ESP can go through the same methodology of ESP course design. However, BE syllabus design is not easy to perform as well as ESBP syllabus which has always been a “complex procedure” Breen (2001) in designing specialized business courses for business training programmes where aims, content, methodology, and evaluation should be covered. 1.5.3 Production of Materials In this phase,ESP course designers shift attention to look for the appropriate materials that can best help to achieve the course aims and objectives. Graves (1996:27) defines teaching materials as: “tools that can be figuratively cut up into component pieces and then rearranged to suit the needs, abilities and interests of the students in the course”. Teaching materials differs in ESP according to the situations where learning is taking place i.e. materials can be geared for reading specialized texts, listening to dialogues, writing specific reports or , reading special articles about specific disciplines . 32

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Developing ESP teaching materials is a huge undertaking; this is why the teacher is highly aware that a good selection of teaching materials can to a certain extent contribute in the effectiveness of the course and vice versa. For instance, he/she is considered as the responsible of providing as much as possible appropriate materials to familiarize the learners with the specific context they are dealing with. In this vein Hutchinson & Waters (1987:107) claim that “materials provide a stimulus to learning, good materials do not teach but they encourage learners to learn” In terms of materials presentation, using only one material in teaching is not enough.So, the teacher has to vary in materials use in order to promote learners’ motivation towards the courses presented to them. Tang & Austin (2009) maintain that technologies are facilitating teaching mainly by means of projectors, PowerPoint, videos, internet and lectures. Furthermore, it is also recommended to select materials which are available for both teachers and the learners themselves. For example, teachers cannot design teaching business skills to business learners using internet while this latter is not available at the level of the learning setting. Besides, Graves (1996) proposes some key issues to be taken when selecting materials: • Effectiveness in achieving the course purpose; • Appropriateness of the materials, so that the students will feel comfortable. This means that the material will be relevant to their interests and language level; • Feasibility, so that the material will be in accordance with the students capabilities and the course will not prove too difficult for them. Consequently, what is appropriate teaching materials and how to teach is undertaking changes and subject to modification all time (Crosling& Ward, 2002). Concerning the selection of business materials, it is a crucial component in BE training programmes, it has been rapidly developed from general published materials to more specific in each business fields (finance, marketing, law, human resources). There are also DVDs, CDs, business dictionaries, magazines and newspaper articles in addition to some business English teaching websites.Finally, this multimedia use of materials can motivate the learners and at the same time enhance the teaching/learning process. 1.5.4 Teaching 33

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Traditionally, the aim of linguistic had been to describe the rules of English language; however, the new studies shifted attention away from defining the formal features of language usage to discovering the ways in which language is actually used in real communication (Widdowson, 1978). This development in educational psychology contributes to the rise of ESP; this latter has been a matter of strong debate to whether ESP methodology is different or typical to EFL Teaching. In fact, Robinson (1991) claims that ESP teaching methodologies will probably differ from that of General English teaching, since ESP methodology is characterized with the use of tasks and activities reflecting the students’ specialist areas. As far as the methods used is concerned, Strevens (1980) mentions notional, functional, and communicative methods as being the most relevant to ESP. However, he adds that ESP does not focus on only one particular method, technique or material. In fact, he views “the freedom to innovate” as one of the major attractions of ESP (Ibid, 1980:120). Another characteristic that makes ESP different from the other areas in English teaching is the “learner-centred” approach (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987; Nunan, 1998; Dudley Evans & St John, 1998). In this case, the focus is more on the learner than on the teacher in “teacher centred model” in which knowledge is transmitted from the teacher to the learners. Whereas, in the former approach, learners are responsible of their learning as they discuss some aspects of the course design; so they are more motivated since they are directly involvedin their learning and often they seem to participate more effectively in class. EBP has also gone through different methods in business. In ESBP course design, the methods used should suit the learners’ proficiency to adopt the learners with learning context. Therefore, many researches have been done in this domain such as task-based approach (Zeng, 2003); contentbased approach (Brinton et al, 1989); case study methodology (Boyd, 1991; Esteban & Perez Canado, 2004; Jackson, 2004), discourse and genre analysis methodology (LouhialaSolminen, 2002; Pinto dos Santos, 2002). Besides, ESBP teaching must also provide the learners with “the opportunities to role

play,

discuss

business

cases,

and

participate

in

business

situation”

(Schleppegrell& Royster, 1990:12).This means that the learner will have the 34

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opportunity to practise language in purely business functions such as meeting, socializing, negotiating, telephoning, e-mails writing, etc. In addition to these functions, business learners may also need more special language related to their occupation. For example, if the learner is working in a bank he/she will need to know specific words related to this field, like the word “outstanding” which means “excellent” in general English and in business English it means “unpaid”

and words like “credit card”, “withdraw”, “loans”, “account”,

“cashier's check”, “overdraft”, “portfolio”, etc. These words are unlikely to be found of interest to other business people from other business areas,but for these students they are importantsince they use them with their customers. Therefore, it is useful to select the important words and make them part of the ESBP course. Teaching is also characterized by focusing on one or two specific skills at least, in accordance to specific work related tasks such as writing business reports and speaking with foreigner partners (focus is on speaking and writing skills). To sum up, Business English teaching like any other category of ESPis primarily concerned with teaching English; so that, the main aim of both teacher and learner is to reach good feedback in this language. Indeed, it is the step of “evaluation” that can determine whether this aim has been achieved or not. 1.5.5 Evaluation/ Assessment. The final stage in ESP course design is concerned with the results about the previous stages. It is necessary for both teachers and learners to determine whether their aims and objectives were met or not. This stage is known as evaluation/ assessment. This latter also shows the learners’ progress and to what extent the course was effective. It can determine the inadequacies that were not successfully covered in the learning situation. Hutchinson & Waters (1987) propose two levels of evaluation mainly: “learners’ assessment” and “course evaluation”. 1.5.5.1 Learners’ Assessment.

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It is claimed that learners’ assessment serves to measure both the current knowledge and feedback of the learners. Assessing learners is used to examine the degree to which learners have learned what have been taught. Dudley Evans & St John (1998) consider that learners in ESP should be assessed on their performance when using English in their target situation. Furthermore, the results of this operation serve to inform the teacher about the individual learners’ achievement of the learners’ objectives as well as provide them with the effectiveness and quality of the course (Brown, 1996). To do so, tests seem to be a good way through which the teacher will be able to tackle new information and employ the language appropriately in target situations. For this purpose, Graves (2001) argues that students can be requested to reflect upon how well they use the target language to fulfil tasks, and identify what they are not able to do. 1.5.5.2 Course Evaluation This situation is used to help the teacher sees if the course aims and objectives are met or not, it is also used to show if the course was really suitable to the actual situation that was designed for. However, course evaluation involves every feature that has a relation with it. According to Hutchinson & Waters (1987:156): “course evaluation aims to find out whether the objectives of the course are being fulfilled in accordance with its design”. Therefore, this procedure is tackled for the purposes bellow and what remains just a matter of time for the teacher to assess his/her learners since there is no precise time, but things depend on the course and individual situation.

1.6 Vocabulary in ESP Teaching English for specific purposes has come with the aspect of teachingEnglish according to the learners’ special needs. Thus, the increased specialism in ESP has affected the language aspects taught which have to be specialized too. The focus will be on one or two aspects at least such as pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, etc.Specific domains are also emphasized; courses are designed according to the specific context. For example, in business there are many fields like: banking, 36

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management, accounting, etc. So, each discipline has its learning characteristics, required skills and specific vocabulary. Thesedifferences may to a certain extent be different from the other ones. As far as learning vocabulary is concerned, this latter has witnessed a great demand in ESP studies among learners in different disciplines. From a general perspective, vocabulary teaching seems to be important to convey meaning in both receptive (listening/reading) and productive (writing/speaking) skills. Harmer (1983: 153) defines its importance saying that “if language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flush”.Besides, vocabulary is important in teaching since it helps in achieving the meaning to be conveyed by using the convenient words according to the context it deals with. Baker (1988:91) defines vocabulary in terms of two categories: a) Vocabulary that is used in general language but has a higher frequency of occurrence in specific and technical description and discussion (semi-technical vocabulary). b) Vocabulary that has specialized and restricted meanings in certain disciplines and which may vary in meaning across disciplines. (technical vocabulary)

This definition is not merely interested with general vocabulary but rather specific one which is a characteristic of ESP teaching. This latter is divided into semi-technical and technical vocabulary. Vocabulary is an important part in ESP and EBP as well. Learners need to develop their own vocabulary and increase their knowledge of new concepts and terms in a structured and systematic way. Entering the business world make you face unfamiliar words since every job has its own lexicon or specialized set as well as its jargon. Gatehouse (2001) considers the ability to deal with a particular jargon in particular realm as a successful way for professional accomplishment, it also enables learners acquire new specialized vocabulary which helps them understand particular professional concepts described in this context. Many concepts have been given to this term, it is “terms” or “terminology” for Bećka(1972); “specialist vocabulary” for Kennedy and Bolitho (1984); technical terms for Yang (1986); specialized lexis for Baker (1988); technical words for Farrell 37

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(1990); and “specialized vocabulary” forDudley Evans and St John (1998). A more precise definition has been given by Salager (1985:6) in a medical context says that specialized vocabulary consists of “those highly-frequency, context-bound or topicdependent, terms particular to a given medical specialty”. From this definition, one may notice that specialized or technical terms are those words which belong to a particular category or field of study and these words may appear with a high frequency in one field as they may be absent or appear with low frequency in other fields. Nation (2001:198) argues that “specialized vocabulary or technical words are recognizably specific to a particular topic, field or discipline”, it seems that both definitions agree that specialized vocabulary is related to specific areas of academic or occupations studies. Indeed, when learning is goal-oriented within a particular context, it is likely to be characterized by a heavy load of specialized vocabulary that corresponds to this context; and knowledge of these words will present a remarkable importance for learning aptitude. Business learners may face the problem of unfamiliarity with business terms. This problem may induce the learners’ anxiety as it may cause some difficulties in practicing the language for professional information which may break their ability to communicate when they need to tackle business duties with foreigner partners. 1.6.1 Teaching Vocabulary in ESP. Teaching vocabulary in ESP is now widely accepted (Swales, 1983), one of the major characteristics that increases demand on vocabulary teaching in ESP lies on the different types of vocabulary needed for each area. Words with more than one meaning may differ in use from one situation to another and from one discipline to another. Teaching vocabulary in ESP does not differ from EGP, they follow the same principles as stated by Dudley Evans and St John (1998). They also see that when teaching vocabulary one should notice for what purpose this vocabulary is needed in terms of “comprehension” or “production”. On the one hand, vocabulary needed for comprehension may follow some particular methods such as “deducing meaning” from the context and the structure of the word (ibid, 1998). On the other hand, if the purpose 38

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is “production” in this case “storage” and “retrieval” tend to be good methods for learning (ibid:1998). Nattinger (1988) suggests the use of words association, mnemonic-devices and leci which means using visual aids to remember words as useful for vocabulary learning. Teaching vocabulary has also known a crucial demand with the increasing of its importance in various disciplines leading to further research for its acquisition. Metaphor is seen as a central issue in ESP vocabulary teaching. It provides insight to particular ways of thinking in relation to the development of technical and semi technical registers (Boers, 2000), using metaphor in teaching vocabulary can help learners bridge the gap between literal and figurative meaning. Henderson (1982) shows the importance of metaphor use in his example “wild horse” for describing inflation in economics which can mean “out of control”, “run-away inflation” and “galloping inflation” (cited in Dudley Evans and St John, 1998: 84). In addition to that, another issue helps to increase the demand of vocabulary teaching in ESP, it is corpora development. This latter provides opportunity to draw key important lexical items either in EAP or EOP and also in specific disciplines (Scot and John, 1995). Vocabulary emphasizes also on including “lexical phrases” in teaching vocabulary in ESP. Dudley Evans and St John (1998) believe that the idea of ( Peters, 1983; Nattinger& De-Carrio, 1992) that learners do not store vocabulary as individual words but as chunks of language which are referred to as “lexical phrases”. In ESP context these phrases may be as “the table suggest”, “as shown in the diagram”, “sells fell sharply”(Dudley Evans and St John, 1998). Accordingly, these phrases can help learners employ them in their studies or occupations. They serve for a good information, presentation and description like in writing academic essays, in presenting business reports or in describing business activities. 1.6.2 Business Vocabulary In a business context, vocabulary is taught with a close relation to the specific business field of the learner. This latter is developed through performing different business tasks such as: giving presentation, dealing with negotiation, participating in meetings, understanding job related concepts, writing in business, etc.

39

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While Business English has its own vocabulary which is known as “core business vocabulary”Dudley Evans and St John (1998:80), specialized areas of business have their own vocabulary as well. So, the type vocabulary used in marketing will differ from that used in banking, while the former speaks about sales and products the latter interests in loans, budgets, and money exchange. Thus vocabulary used in this category is likely to be “technical” or “specialized”. According to Dudley Evans and St John (1998) in ESBP, understanding technical vocabulary is crucial in this situation and language teacher are required to know their learners’ feedback whether they have understood related terms or not. In this case the use of technical dictionaries or such sources is highly recommended and “in certain specific context it may be the duty of the ESP teacher to check that learners have understood technical vocabulary appearing as carrier content for an exercise” (ibid: 81). Because of the heavy role of the ESP/BE trainer, it has become clear that instead of teaching the language itself a knowledge of special subject is also introduced. Therefore, the ESP teacher in this case should be careful when presenting new concepts in the field taking into consideration that cooperation with subject specialist is useful to better master the language in its appropriate way. To sum up, one should not deny that the work on vocabulary is worthy of efforts and investigation in the field of ESP and EBP for its usefulness to make the purpose clearer and more definite in which the aim is not only looking for words definition or presenting lists, but rather to look for these words use in real and appropriate contexts.

1.7 Conclusion In this chapter, the researcher has first given an overview about EOP, its branches and development; in addition to a distinction made between EAP and EOP. Secondly, the researcher moves on to define one of the prominent areas in EOPnamely, EBP.This part includes the common division and characteristics of Business English, in addition to the ESP teaching operation that may be as a useful source for EBP course design. Finally, brief definitionshave been given about teaching vocabulary in ESP, on one hand, and business vocabulary on the other hand. BEvocabulary is taught 40

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according to the learners’ needs whether, it can be general or specific. This latter, is the inquiry of the present research where the researcher tries to show the importance of teaching specialized vocabulary to business learners in a job-experienced level. Theory cannot be proved without practice. Thus, it is turn to methodological research to speak about itself. The next chapter will present a framework of how this research has been undertaken, taking the“Algeria Gulf Bank” employees as sample population

of

learning

business

41

vocabulary

for

job

purposes.

Chapter Two: Research Methodology and Procedures. 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Research Questions and Hypotheses 2.3 Research Design and Procedures 2.4 Case Study 2.5 Participants and Setting 2.5.1. Participants 2.5.2. Research Setting 2.6 Instrumentation 2.6.1 Documentary Research 2.6.2 Semi-structured Interview 2.6.3 Questionnaire 2.7 Procedures 2.8 Data Analysis 2.8.1 Qualitative Analysis 2.8.2 Quantitative Analysis 2.8.3 Triangulation 2.9 Conclusion

Chapter Two

Research Methodology and Procedures

2.1 Introduction. The present research aims to investigate the need of AGB employees in Tlemcen to learn business vocabulary in order to communicate successfully in their field of work. Thus, to achieve these objectives, the presentchapter provides a fulldescription of the research questions and hypotheses, research method and the population involved. In order to answer the questions and confirm the hypotheses, three data instruments have been used: documentary analysis, a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. Finally, the combination of both qualitative and quantitative analysis is also justified for its choice.

2.2 Research Questions and Hypotheses. As a developing country, Algeria has recognized the urgent need to cope with the demand of global society which is manipulated by international and multinational companies where the medium of communication is English. Once Algeria opened its doors for international businesses, trade has flourished in comparison to the past years and workforce transactions have also increased.This latter has created a mass of people wanting to communicate to oneanother in order to complete their work duties. As a result, Algerian professionals should be very aware of the fact that a good mastery of the English language can help them succeed and improve their status at national and international scales. Mastering a language is mastering its vocabulary as well, the more the situation is specific the more the words become specialized. Thus, learners at this level are more concerned with using the correct English in specific contexts.For this challenging situation the researcher has prepared the following questions taking the employees in the “Algeria Gulf Bank” as a sample population of her research: Why do employees in the “Algeria Gulf bank” in Tlemcen need to learn English?

43

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Do they face problems in communication due to the lack of business vocabulary?And if they need to learn business vocabulary: What might be the adequate method to teach specialized business vocabulary in this case? From the above questions, the following hypotheses have been stated: Employees may need to learn English because they are confronted with the use of English documents in their occupation. Professionals may lack business vocabulary knowledge which may be a handicap when communicating in the target language. Thus, they need to learn business vocabulary in order to avoid problems in communication. To achieve communication goals, using the communicative approachmightbe an adequate method to teach business vocabulary within business contexts. The above hypotheses are the focus of this research which will be studied through the following research plan.

2.3 Research Design and Procedures. The research design is a plan the researcher follows to get resultsand answers to the problems guiding the research. Burns & Grove (2001:223) state that Designing a study helps researchers to plan and implement the study in a way that will help them obtain the intended results, thus increasing the chances of obtaining information that could be associated with the real situation. For instance the present research is a needs analysis in an Algerian occupational context. It is tackled to seek the vitality of understanding special business vocabularies for professionals in order to best communicate in a business context. When conducting a needs analysis many methods are to be used. To do so, Robinson (1991) lists different methods; questionnaires, interviews, case studies, tests, and authentic data 44

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collection. Moreover, Jordan (1997) adds to these methods advanced documentation e.g. (educational background, previously attended courses, etc.), language tests at home, self-assessment, class progress tests, direct monitoring, structured interviews, learners dairies, previous research comparison, and follow up investigation. Generally speaking, needs analysis is a rich approach in terms of the methods used, but West (1994) includes case studies interviews, and questionnaires as the most widely used methods in such an approach. Jordan (1997) states that there is no unique approach to indicate in needs analysis since every research has its own and different circumstances that influence the choice of the methods that can best serve for achieving the study goals, To obtain good and clear results, the investigator should think of a suitable method for her research. Thus, in this study,she believes that a descriptive case studywould be more adequate for the reason to sake the actual and immediate state of the participants in using English as part of their daily life occupation. This method is also believed to be helpful for identifying their needs to enhance their English language level.

2.4 Case Study. The case study is one of the common methods used in social science research. This type of research methods is used for in-depth exploration and investigation of real –life phenomena. The case study method becomes very useful where one need to understand some particular problems or situations in great-depth and where one can identify cases rich in information (Patton, 1987). To define it, Yin (1984:23) posits that: Case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident and in which multiple sources of evidence are used. According to Yin’s (1984) definition the case study is more appropriate when the investigation is concerned with complex real-life situations where many details are 45

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needed with limited conditions. Moreover, Bromley (1990:302) defines case studies as:“a systematic inquiry into an event or a set of related events which aims to describe and explain the phenomenon of interest”.In other words, case studies are considered to be best used when the researcher aims to reveal and portraya phenomenon in its real context within a specific population. Moreover,the researcher has no control over this study but just reports and explains things as they occur by the participants involved. For instance, one may say that both definitions argue that carrying this inquiry enablesthe researcher studies a real-life phenomenon, and sees how it is influenced by its context. Case study also allows for the exploration of new theories and concepts that may lead for new and further studies. To facilitate the way to the research, it is better to give the main purposes behind using case studies. Burns (2000) suggests the following purposes: -

Case studies are valuable as preliminaries to major investigations since they are so intensive and generate data they may bring to light variables, phenomena, processes and relationships that deserve more intensiveinvestigation;

-

Case studies may provide anecdotal evidence that illustrates more general findings;

-

Case studies may refute a universal generalization;

-

A case study is preferred when the relevant behaviours cannot be manipulated.

Accordingly, the aim of choosing the case study in this research falls under the first and last purposes. This means that the present case serves as a preliminary to a more investigation within AGB employees where the researcher cannot manipulate their behaviours but just describesdata in their real states. In addition, this research may be as a preface for seeking the needs of Algerian professionals to learn English. This may be as a stimulus for Algerian ESP teachers and researchers to work on the elaboration ofmore English training programmes. Besides, the case study method may also be used for exploratory, descriptive or explanatory purposes. These categories are clearly defined by Yin (1994) as follows:

46

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• Exploratory case study: sets to explore any phenomenon in the data which serves as a point of interest to the researcher. The researcher may ask general questions that may open the door for further examination of the phenomenon observed. • Descriptive case study: sets to describe the natural phenomena which occur within the data in question. For instance, the goal of the researcher is to describe the data as they occur. • Explanatory case study: examines the data closely both at a surface and deep level in order to explain the phenomenon in the data. For instance the researcher may ask the reason as to why a student need to learn a specific skill in learning a language and on the basis of these data the researcher may then form a theory and set to test this theory. However, the present study is a combination of both descriptive and explanatory case study.First,the researcher tries to describe the situation where English is used in the occupational settings in general. Then, she deals with the importance of learning business vocabulary for AGB employees. As it has been mentioned before,the actual case study has been chosen for the reason to enable the researcher understands the complex real-life situations thatthe AGB employees may face when dealing with English. To reach this objective, the researcher may use multiple sources of data which will be discussed latter.According to Stenhouse (1988:49) the case study method involves “the collection and recording of data about the case or cases and the preparation of the report or a presentation of the case”. For instance the present case study is a single case study in which data are collected and reported concerning only one group which is the group of AGB employees in Tlemcen. As any type of research case study has its own advantages and disadvantages which can be summarized in the following notes: Advantages of the case study method: • Provide context-dependent (practical) knowledge as opposed to contextindependent (theoretical) knowledge which social sciences have difficulty with.

47

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• Less restrictive than other methods (a degree of openness or freedom of movement in the beginning) • Narrative easily retrained Provides a “qualitative leap” in the learning process (second only to practical experience) • Emphasis on “learning” vs. “proof”. Flyvbierg (2006) Disadvantages of the case study method: • Data is often unique to the study event or process. • Difficult to establish validity or reliability (although a high degree of conceptual validity is one of the strengths of case studies) • Case selection bias • Conclusions are highly subjective. • Generally not predictive. George& Bennett (2004) Hence,it is worthy to notice that no method is perfect; each method has its own strengths and weaknesses that could affect the research. Another important element in the case study research is the nature of the population under investigation and the setting where the research takes place. These two elements will be dealt with in the next title.

2.5 Participants and Setting. Taking into consideration the fact that in a case study research the researcher has to include the unit of analysis of his/her research which means the sample population from which the data are gathered from a particular setting, and then analysed to answer the research questions.

48

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2.5.1. Participants Sampling is the process of selecting the participants that will take part in the research and who will present the whole category. However, results obtained from the study are not always generalized to the total population; they sometimes represent only the category studied. According to Busha and Harter (1980: 56) “the concept of population to be surveyed is fundamental to research and refers to the group of persons or objects from which the research plans to draw inferences”. The researcher is responsible of selecting the population that corresponds to his/her research inquiry. For the main purpose of the current study which is identifying the occupational needs for acquiring specialized business vocabulary to better communicate in business contexts, the selection of the participants has been purposefully chosen based upon some criteria that relate to the study’s goal and objectives. Accordingly, in qualitative research the sample is small and not chosen randomly, rather than the choice of sample is purposeful (Patton, 1996). To do so, a group of Algerian business employees working in the “Algeria Gulf Bank” in Tlemcen has been taken as a source of information. The reason behind this choice is that the bank uses Englishin its transactions either at the national or international scale. Also, the AGB employees need to learn English in order to improve their abilities when communicating in the target language, since the bank is interested in the satisfaction of global markets. Moreover, participants working in the domain are seen to be as a very useful source of information since they are experienced in this domain. Consequently,Long (2005: 157) posits “if only one source is to be used in a NA, domain experts should be that source, rather than students, scholars, company representatives or applied linguists”.In addition to that, domain experts are regarded as the most reliable source of the target domain by providing the insiders’ view (Gilbert, 2005).This category of participants has been purposefully selected,in quest of enriching the research with an experienced view that can be taken from the real world where the subjects under study are facing the need to use English intheir daily occupational life. AGB workers are involved in the conversation to express their views and opinions,which may help to a certain 49

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extent for the exploration of new ideas, feelings and thoughts about the phenomena under study. Their views are somehow helpful in speaking about the importance of EOP training for the Algerian workforce, especially when workers are aware of what they really need English for. Furthermore, the social actors of a domain can provide useful information about the kind of tasks carried out within the domain, as well as, about the language needs they have, it was domain experts who provided the most accurate and reliable information (Gilbert, 2005). In addition to this, and to enrich the research with an educational view, a group of ESP teachers working in the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI) in Tlemcen has also been addressed to fill in the questionnaire. These teachers are responsible of teaching special Englishor what they call “technical English” to professionals from the Algerian companies either in the public or private sector. They have some experiences in EOP teaching and the most important one is a training programme offered to the group of air traffic control at“MESSALI El HADJ Airport” in Tlemcen. These informers are “outsiders or non-experts” (Long, 2005) who may have good language knowledge but still lack the content knowledge as opposed to domain experts who are aware of the subject area they are working in, but still have problems in using English properlyandappropriately according to their occupational requirements. Questioning this category of teachers would hopefully provide “useful insights” (Chaudron et al, 2005) about the learners’ aptitude to use English in its appropriate ways. For this reason, the researcher wants to share with them the idea of applying the communicative approach as a suitable method for teaching specialized vocabulary to AGB learners, in order to enable them overcome their communication problems and deficiencies.

2.5.2. Research Setting. 50

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The research setting refers to the place where the researcher has collected data for his/her research. Pope and Mays (1995) state that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings in an effort to discover the meanings seen by those who are being researched (subjects). As Johnson and Morrow (1981:6) point out “…By looking at the situation in which our students will want to use English…we shall be able to decide which function and notion (and which language forms associated with each) will be useful to teach”.In fact, when the course designer is aware of the setting where the teaching/learning operation will take place, he/she will be able to set teaching materials according the conditions available in this setting. Accordingly, this research involves two places, the “Algeria Gulf Bank” andthe “Chamber of Commerce and Industry” both of them are situated in Tlemcen.

2.6 Instrumentation According to Yin (1994), there are six possible sources of evidence for case studies: documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation, and physical artifacts.Yin(1994: 80) gives full details about the strength and weaknesses of each method in the following table: Source of Evidence Documentation

Strengths

Weaknesses

stable - repeated review

retrievability - difficult

unobtrusive - exist prior to biased selectivity case study reporting bias - reflects author bias exact - names etc. access - may be blocked broad coverage - extended time span Archival Records

Interviews

Same as above

Same as above

precise and quantitative

privacy might inhibit access

targeted - focuses on case bias due to poor questions

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study topic

response bias

insightful provides incomplete recollection perceived causal inferences reflexivity - interviewee expresses what interviewer wants to hear Direct Observation reality - covers events in real time-consuming time selectivity - might miss facts contextual - covers event reflexivity - observer's presence context might cause change cost - observers need time Participant Observation

Same as above

Same as above

insightful into interpersonal bias due to investigator's actions behavior

Physical Artifacts insightful features insightful operations

into

cultural selectivity availability

into

technical

Table2.1 Strengths and Weaknesses of Case study Sources of Evidence. (Adopted from Yin, 1994:89) In the present study, the investigator chooses three common instruments.First, official administrative documents of the “Algeria Gulf Bank”, these documentsare analysedin order to show the situation of English in the bank, and then confirm the hypothesis concerning the use of English in the Algerian administration. Second, a semistructured interview has been addressed to the sample population working in this bank.Concerning this instrument, it has been chosen to involve the AGB employees in the research. Thus, they will be able to identify their needs,their language capability in understandingEnglish business words related to their field “banking”, and then give their views and opinions concerning the method of learning. Finally, a questionnaire is submitted to ESP teachers in the chamber of commerce who are required to teach this 52

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group of learners. This category of teachers will answer questions from a specialist and educational point of view at the same time. This will help the researcher to depict the real situation of ESP teaching in the Algerian context. 2.6.1 Documentary Research Documentary research is one of the methods used in social research sciences. It refers to the analysis of documents that contain information about the phenomenon we wish to study (Bailey, 1994). The use of this method is further described by Payne and Payne (2004) as the techniques used to categorise, investigate, interpret and identify the limitation of physical sources, most commonly written documents in the private or public domains. Scott (1990) is interested in using documents in relation to specific issues in social and historical research. However, these documents may include government publications, newspapers articles, administrative documents, etc. In the same token, he gives more attention to the use of administrative papers produced by the government and private agencies which are considered as “the single most important category of documentary sources used in social research” (ibid, 1990:59). For this reason, he formulates some criteria when dealing

with

documentary

research

which

are:

authenticity,

credibility,

representativeness, and meaning, they are defined as follows: 1. Authenticity: refers to whether the evidence is genuine and from impeccablesources, and of reliable and dependable origin. Platt (1981) puts forward some circumstances that necessitate a close scrutiny of a document. Such circumstances include the following points: • When the document does not make sense or has obvious errors; • When there are internal inconsistencies in terms of style content and so on; • When there are different versions of the same document; • When the version available is derived from a dubious, suspicious, or unreliable secondary source; and • When the document has been in the hands of a person or persons with vested interest in a particular reading of text. 53

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2. Credibility: refers to whether the evidence is typical to its kind which means free from errors and distortion. The question of credibility should concern the extent to which an observer is sincere in the choice of a point of view and in the attempt to record an accurate account from that chosen standpoint. 3. Representativeness:

refers

to

whether

the

documents

consulted

are

representative of the totality of the relevant documents. 4. Meaning: refers to whether the evidence is clear and comprehensible. The ultimate purpose of examining documents is to arrive at an understanding of the meaning and significance of what the document contains. (Scott, 1990:1-2) In this sense, one should bear in mind that no social research method is limited from other methods, and depends only on its own results. But in fact to enhance the reliability and validity of the research it is the role of the researcher to combine between other different methods that can be suitable for his/her research inquiry. 2.6.2 Semi-Structured Interview The interview is recognized as a form of systematic conversations in which the interviewer is concerned with gathering data that address the research questions and objectives by involving the interviewees in the conversation to speak about their views and opinions. This latter can be well explained by Kvale (1996:14) who defines it as “an interchange of views between two or more people on a topic of mutual interest, sees the centrality of human

interaction

for

knowledge

production

and

emphasizes the social situatedness of research data.” The purpose of any research instrument is to obtain knowledge required for the study from the individuals under investigation; this is why, the researcher has to select the more adequate instruments that serve to the aims of the research questions. There are three common types of interviews: structured interviews, semi-structured and unstructured interviews. To address the needs of the research questions and to 54

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achieve the underlying goals and objectives the researcher has opted for a semistructured interview as the an appropriate type for her research, since it is feasible for smaller groups and allows more consistency across responses to be obtained (Richards, 2001). Various definitions have been given to explain this type;Corbetta (2003:270) posits that: The order in which the various topics are dealt with and the wording of the questions are left to the interviewer’s discretion. Within each topic, the interviewer is free to conduct the conversation as he thinks fit, to ask the questions he deems appropriate in the words he considers best, to give explanation and ask for clarification if the answer is not clear, to prompt the respondent to elucidate further if necessary, and to establish his own style of conversation. In addition to that, semi-structured interviews are best used when the interviewer has no more than one chance to interview the participants (Bernard, 1988). Indeed, it is the same thing for the present research since the employees in the bank are always busy and they do not have free hours to relax. Thus, having more than one time to see them seems somehowimpossible. In semi-structured interviews, the researcher asks questions froma listcalled the interview guide; it should includeclearquestions in order to avoid ambiguity. In semistructured interviews, the researcher is able to change the order of the questions as he/she may add or omit some questions when needed depending on the interview direction. The researcher has chosen the semi-structured interview as a tool to study the target needs as well as the learning needs of her population in “the Algeria Gulf Bank”. To do so, she follows the model of needs analysis questions offered by Hutchinson and Waters (1987:59) starting first with the framework concerned with the information gathered for the analysis of target needs which is as follows: Why is the language needed? 55

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- for study; - for work; - for training; - for a combination of these; - for some other purpose, e.g. status, examination, promotion. How will the language be used? - medium: speaking, writing, reading etc.; - channel: e.g. telephone, face to face; - types of text or discourse: e.g. academic texts, lectures, informal conversations, technical manuals, catalogues. What will the content areas be? - subjects: e.g. medicine, biology, architecture, shipping, commerce, engineering; - level: e.g. technicians, craftsman, postgraduate, secondary school. Who will the learner use the language with? - native speakers or non-native; - level of knowledge of receiver: e.g. expert, layman, students; - relationship: e.g. colleague, teacher, customer, superior, subordinate. Where will the language be used? - physical setting: e.g. office, lecture theatre, hotel, workshop, library; - human context: e.g. alone, meetings, demonstrations, on telephone; - linguistic context: e.g. in own country, abroad. Hutchinson and Waters (1987:62-63) give another framework that concerns the analysis of learning needs in which the content of the questions is as follow: Why are the learners taking the course? -

compulsory or optional;

-

apparent need or not; 56

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-

Are status, money, promotion involved?

-

What do learners think they will achieve?

-

What is their attitude towards the ESP course? Do they want to improve their English or do they resent the time they have to spend on it?

How do the learners learn? -

What is their learning background?

-

What is their concept of teaching and learning?

-

What methodology will appeal to them?

-

What sort of techniques bore/alienate them?

What sources are available? -

number and professional competence of teachers;

-

attitudes of teachers to ESP;

-

teachers’ knowledge of and attitude to subject content;

-

materials;

-

aids;

-

opportunities for out-of-class activities.

Who are the learners? -

age/sex/nationality;

-

What do they know already about English?

-

What subject knowledge do they have?

-

What are their interests?

-

What is their socio-cultural background?

-

What teaching styles are they used to?

-

What is their attitude to English or to the cultures of the English speaking world?

Where will the ESP course take place? -

are the surroundings pleasant, dull, noisy, cold etc? 57

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When will the ESP course take place? -

time of the day;

-

everyday/ once a week;

-

full-time/part-time;

-

concurrent with need or pre-need.

By conducting a needs analysis, the researcher is able to identify the participants’ needs both in the present and the targetsituation as well as the leaning needs. Hence, the researcher tends to usea series of questions of about eighteen questions for the development of a semi- structured interview to the AGB employees in“Tlemcen”. The questions are emphasizing on the following issues: (See appendix 02) Questions from 1 to 4:seeks to gather bio data concerning the participants interviewed (age, job experience, job position, and finally the participants’ qualification) Question 5: seeks to know whether theyhave studied English at university or not. Questions from 6 to 9 are respectively about: -

The use of English at work;

-

Its necessity for the participants’ occupation;

-

Its usefulness for them to graduate in their work;

-

And finally, their attempts to enhance their English language level.

Questions 10and 11: are about the participants’ viewstowards training programmes and the attendance to those programmes. Question 12: the participants are asked to classify their needs according to their occupation, from 1 most to 6 least. Questions 13: the participants are asked to cross from the list their lacks in English. Questions 14, 15 and 16: are respectively about -

The importance of business vocabulary;

-

The frequency use of business vocabulary in their work; 58

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And finally their ability to understand these words.

Question 17: participants are given some suggestions to choose the suitable way or ways they prefer to learn business vocabulary. Questions 18: the participants are asked if they see communicative activities as good device to learn vocabulary. The interview has been conducted in the French to be at ease with the participants in order to avoid anxiety, and make sure that all the participants have understood the message. Finally, the choice of this technique is not unique since the researcher knows that it cannot ensure the research objectives in itself with reference to its strengths and weaknesses. For this reason another technique has been chosen in order to gain the view of the English language teacher about the phenomenon under study. 2.6.3 Questionnaire The questionnaire is one of the common data collection instruments used in social research sciences, it is a list of questions presented to the respondents to answer them. Questionnaires are used to gather reliable and valid data relatively in a short time and efforts it is not only easy to administer but it is also useful especially when the data collected could not be observed (introspection), data which reflect the respondents’ insider view of the investigated problem (Bartels: 2005). The questionnaire may contain three forms of questions: closed-ended, open-ended, or a combination of both. Closed-ended questions: the respondent in this case is directed to choose among the answers provided by the researcher such as true or false, various choices or questions about scales. Open-ended questions: the respondents is free to write what he/shelikes, but this type takes more time to answer and answers are too long to analyse.

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Questionnaires are the most widely used by researcher as they are easyto administer, and the respondents are free to answer them at the research settings or at home, as they also may be sent through e-mails. Mackey and Bosquet (1981) argue that the questionnaires require less effort by the researcher since they are easy to prepare and allow for open-ended questions to be included. However, questionnaires are not without their weaknesses, they may include some misunderstood questions where there is no chance to check the respondents comprehension of the questions (Smith, 1990). In addition to that, not all the population may return the papers as they may refuse to give their answers. The present questionnaire is designed with the purpose of gaining further insight into the situation of teaching business English for occupational reasons in an Algeria. Three ESP teachers would be given the questionnaire to answer it, and then report their answers. The questionnaire focuses on applying the communicative approach as a method for teaching specialized business vocabulary in order to achieve business communicative goals. It hopes also to identify some suggestions about the situation of ESP teaching in Algeria. Questions conducted in the questionnaires are from some previous works and thesis in the field of ESP, in addition to the researcher’s attempts.Thecontent of the questionnaire isas follows: Question 1 to 3: job data(the participants’ degree, status at university and then their experience in teaching English.) Questions 4 and 5: are about ESP trainingand teachers’ experience in EBP teaching. Question 6: is about the difficulties that any ESP teacher may face when teaching EOP. Question 7: is about teachers’ attempts to improve their knowledge of the subject content. Question 8: tries to discover the kinds of materials used in teaching.

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Question 9: asks forthe teachers’ view about the importanceof teachingbusiness vocabulary in order to reach business communication goals. Question 10: seeks to know whether ESP teachers use CLT in their teaching. Question 11: seeks to know if communicative activities willhelp learners to successfully acquire business vocabulary. Question 12: asks whether communicative activities willmotivate business learners or not. Question 13: teachers are asked to give their suggestions to make the ESP/EOP course more efficient in Algeria.

2.7 Procedures. The researcher began first by a visit to “the Algeria Gulf Bank” in order to gather some information about the use of the English language in the bank administration. The employees affirmed that they use English especially in payment procedures by the AGB and another foreigner bankseither for import or export operations. Payment proceduresarecompleted trougha document called the “Credoc”. In order to have an example of this document, the researcher asked for the permission of one of the AGB clients. After having this permission, she could geta copy. The client is trading with a Spanish company,transactions and payment procedures happen between the AGB and another Spanish bank where the medium of communication is “English”. The researchernotice that the document is written in English; as a result, she could confirm that the bank uses English in its commercial transactions. Thus, the AGB employees may not understand all the language they face, they may need to learn more English that is related to their specific field of workwhich is business. But, the question here is: Are they aware of the necessity of learning Business English in relation to their profession?

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After analysing the documents, the researcher moved to the next step which is asking for the AGB’s director permission to conduct an interview with the personnel working there. The interview in this case is a semi-structured interview which aims to gather some information about the AGB staff as far as their awareness about the importance of learning English for their occupation. To do so, and after many drafts the researcher prepared the final copy of the semi-structured interview, it is composed of a series of both closed-ended and open-ended questions in order to have a detailed description about the necessity of learning the English language in this context. As it has already been said, the content of the questions of the interview guide are taken from Hutchinson and Waters’ (1987) analysis framework. The first rendez-vous was taken with four employees, but for some work commitments the interview was held only with three of them. One of them proposed to postpone it to another day and make the appointment after 5 p.m. the reason for such a decision is that the employees have no pause at midday. The researcher was obliged to correspond to theirworking conditions. This operation has been repeated twice; the first time happened with three employees then the second time was with the director of the bank. The interview has been conducted in the French language in order to make the ideas obvious for the interviewees. The researcher recorded information through a recording machine; these data would be later transcribed into words.AGB workers were very helpful as they welcomed the idea of learning English for occupational purposes and the necessity of acquiring specific terms that are related to their particular occupation. Once the interview began the researcher hastried to explain every question when necessary in order to ensure mutual understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The second instrument used in this research is the questionnaire; it is addressed to a group of teachers working in the Chamber of Commerce and Industry “Tafna” in Tlemcen. The reason behindsuch a choice is that the AGB employees are required to receive training programmes from the CCI “Tafna”. The researcher went to the CCI “Tafna” and met the head of the department; she explained the research aims and objectives to him and then asked for his permission to distribute the questionnaire. 62

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Teachers concerned are only three and about the others, they are in charge of teaching general English courses. As a result, they were not concerned with the research aims. The headof the department has taken in charge the distribution and collection of the questionnaires,since the teachers were not present all the times there as they work generally in the evening.

2.8 Data Analysis Like in any research design, after the data have been collected the next step is the analysis of the findings. To do so, there are two common methods for data analysis, namely qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis or a mixture between them, but sometimes combining these two methods do not seem to be a good choice since they are contrasted and should not be combined in educational research according to Smith and Heshusius’ (1986) view.There is a considerable amount of works that have mixed between these methods in many ways such as Bryman, 1988; Datta, 1994; Green et al, 1989; Niglas, 1999. For instance, quantitative and qualitative approaches are usually seen as different ways of studying the same phenomenon and able to answer the same research questions (Bryman 1988).Accordingly, Muijs (2004:10) states that “qualitative and quantitative research can be usefully combined in mixed methods designs, which often produce a lot of information”.Following this statement, the researcher believes that a combination of the qualitative and the quantitative methods would facilitate the interpretation of relationships between variablesand give more generalizability to the findings. 2.8.1 Qualitative analysis Qualitative research is concerned withthe analysis of data which is not numeric and where there is no need to quantify or count the findings of the research. In this type, the researcher has no control over variables but only reports what is happening during the research, her main interest is to focusmore on the human behaviours (knowledge, attitudes,thinking, fears, beliefs, experience, views, etc.). The qualitative approach is described as a mode of systematic inquiry concerned with understanding human 63

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beings and the nature of their transactions with themselves and with their understandings (Benoliel, 1985).The numerous advantages of the qualitative research provide a deep understanding about the behaviour of the employees in the AGB, their opinions toward the importance of the English language in their work, their experiences with using this language, and finally their attitudes towards learning it in addition to their work responsibilities. The analysis of the results helps the researcher describe the situation in which English is used in an Algerian context. The results of the research help the researcher make a clear vision about what the situation is, and what are the needs of the employees. This latter will lead the researcher to speak about the necessary suggestions and recommendations to overcome the needs of the employees.In the present research the AGB administrative documents and the teachers’ questionnaires will beanalysed qualitatively whereas the employees’ interviews will beanlysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. 2.8.2 Quantitative Analysis The quantitative method is an objective, formal, systematic process in which numerical data are used to quantify or measure phenomena and produce findings. It describes tests and examines cause and effect relationships (Burns and Grove, 1987). Furthermore, this method is an inquiry which is concerned with the objective study of a theory, quantified with numbers and analysed using statistical techniques. The researcher in a quantitative method asksdirect questions and the respondents give their answers either with “yes” or “no”, this makes the method rigid as compared to the qualitative one.The main purpose of the quantitative analysis is to determine whether the findings of the investigated phenomena can be generalized or not. This method is also helpful especially when there is a large sample population; it facilitates the analysis of the results with the help of computer assisted programmes that may easily convert data into numerical indices. This method brings more science, precision, exactness and rigour to the social sciences.The quantitative data of the present research was coded and analysed manually and then presented in tables and graphs.

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To give a clear image about what have been previously said the research design will be illustrated in the following table:

THE RESEARCH DESIGN INSTRUMENRTS -Administrative Documents

- “Credoc” document

DATA ANALYSIS Qualitative

Semi- - The AGB Employees’ Qualitative & Quantitative.

-Employees’ structured Interview. -ESP

DATA

Answers.

Teacher’s - Teachers’ answers.

Qualitative.

Questionnaire.

Table2.2 Research Design. 2.8.3 Triangulation. The researcher adopts a data triangulation technique in her research by using a combination of three data sources they are: official administrative documents, semistructured interview and a questionnaire.Triangulation refers to the use of more than one research methodology to investigate the same phenomenon under study; the use of triangulation appeared first in social sciences is originated from the work of (Campbell & Fiske, 1959) through the idea of “multiple operationism” towards validating the research results. The combination oftwo or three different methods leads to overcome the weaknesses and biases of the results. Webb,et al. (1966:03) suggest that: Once a proposition has been confirmed by two or more independent measurement processes, the uncertainty of its interpretation is greatly reduced. The most persuasive evidence comes through a triangulation of measurement processes. The main purpose of triangulation is to enhance the credibility and validity of the research findings. The use of multiple methods is important,since each method has its 65

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limitation and need to be completed by other methods in order to have a broader and richer understanding about the phenomenon under study. Moreover, triangulation is used when the researcher seeks to use it to improve the reliability and convergent validity of measurement related to a variable (Adami&kiger, 2005). By combining several methodologies the researcher can reach the weaknesses and problems that come from using only one method in a research. Speaking about the types of triangulation Denzin(1970) differentiates four types, they are as follows: • Data triangulation: multiple data sources are used in the research such as different times, social situation and the use of different variety of people. • Investigator triangulation: it means employing multiple observers for the same study. • Theory triangulation:means using different theories in the same study for the interpretation of data. • Methodological triangulation: it refers to the use of more than one method for gathering the data. This type is the most common used in social research sciences. To increase credibility of this research, the investigator has employed triangulation by using three different methods of data sources which are: official administrative documents, a semi structured interview and a questionnaire in order to improve internal consistency and generalizability; in addition, when multiple data sources are used the strengths and weaknesses of each method are compensated by the other ones.The researcher has employed both quantitative and qualitative methods to analysethe data collected.

2.9 Conclusion This chapter has described the details about the research design and methodology used to accomplish the study objectives; it includes the information gathering techniques by first presenting the research questions and hypotheses which have been studied throughthe case study method. This latter is also identified for its useas a 66

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research strategy. Secondly, detailed description has been provided about the population of the study, data collection instruments, in addition to the main procedures the researcher has passed through. Finally, the chapter will end by presenting the methods used for data analysis in this study andthe triangulation technique. As it is known, any ESP situation is concerned with the developing courses that suit the learners’ needs. As far as AGB employees are concerned, developing a sample business syllabus is the main interest of the investigator. As a result, to achieve the underlying objectivesa needs identification and analysis of the target and learning situation will be discussed in the next chapter.

67

Chapter Three: Need Identification and Analysis 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The Algeria Gulf Bank 3.3 The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Tlemcen (CCI) 3.4 The Importance of English for Algerian Professionals 3.5 Data Analysis 3.5.1 Documentary Analysis 3.5.1.1 Analysis of Document Sheet One 3.5.1.2 Analysis of Document Sheet Two 3.5.1.3 Analysis of Document Sheet Tree 3.5.1.4 Interpretation of Results 3.5.2 Analysis of Employees’ Interview 3.5.2.1 Summary of the Results 3.5.3 Analysis of ESP Teachers’ Questionnaire 3.5.3.1 Summary of the Results 3.6 Interpretation and Discussion of the Main Results 3.7 Conclusion

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

3.1 Introduction In order to investigate the situation of the English language for the AGB workforce and the importance to learn special vocabulary to better communicate in a business context, the present chapter will give full details by presenting and analysing the data gathered through the research instruments used. First of all, brief introductions have been given about the places from where data have been collected, after that the researcher has tried to introduce the importance of English for Algerian workforce. Secondly, the data collected before should be analysed, AGB administrative documents will be analysed qualitatively in order to show the situation of English in the Algerian administration. Semi-structured interview’s questions will be analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. This gives the employees the opportunity to share their problems, views and expectations with the researcher. Finally, and to enrich the research with an educational and specialist point of view, the last analysis will be about the questionnaire administered with ESP teachers working in the CCI in Tlemcen. Finally, the information obtained through these instruments will be analysed and discussed with the aim to develop a set of goals and objectives in order to reach the design of anEBE syllabus that may suit the AGB employees’ needs and expectations as well as to decide on the methodology and teaching materials suitable for such courses.

3.2 The Algeria Gulf Bank TheAlgeria Gulf Bank is an Algerian statutory commercial bank created on December 15th, 2003, through the contribution of three banks, all leaders in their own market belonging to the KIPCO group. Ever since its creation AGB declared its mission to contribute to the economic and financial development of Algeria, by offering companies and professionals

69

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diversified top quality services and products, coupling conventional bank financing with an offer of financial solutions in conformity with the ruling of Islam. The AGB works for the enhancement, improvement and development of individuals and the outside world, for the greatest satisfaction of its clients. When we speak about bank, we talk about money, when we talk about money; we talk about currency to reward our efforts and a means to achieve the project of our lifetime. It is because AGB wishes to make a lifelong commitment with its internal and external clients that it chooses quality, security, and stability with the promise of constancy and permanence of its activities. AGB is attentive to make the best tool for satisfaction, for both, its internal and external clients, that is why each and every member in the bank is committed to being attentive to the others and their environment in order to always offer the best response. The president of the bank Mr.Abdelkrim A. Alkabariti declared to the clients that their main aim is to make the bank “…stand out more and more as the “dynamic” bank attentive to the needs of the market”. This claim is due to the advent of the complementary Finance Law of July, 2009. That year witnessed deep changes in the economic and banking panorama. In effect, the bill brought two major changes to the banking activity: the ban of loans to private individuals (apart from housing loans) and the obligation to use the letter of credit as the executive means of payment at the international level. (Adapted from the Annual Report of AGB, 2009. http://www.ag-bank.com)

3.3 The Chamber of Commerce and Industry ofTlemcen (CCI) The Chamber of Commerce and Industry known as the CCI “Tafna” is a public establishment with commercial and industrial features. It links the company with the local administration since it offers supports to companies working in industry, commerce and services by interfering in the legal, social, taxes, commercial and international domains. 70

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

The CCI “Tafna” works in the domains of economic animation and the promotion of commercial exchanges, it is responsible of organizing all economic manifestations (fairs, seminars, exhibitions, etc.) as it seeks to develop the industrial, commercial, and services activities. In addition to that, the CCI “Tafna” is concerned with many other missions; it aims at developing the elaboration of partnership conventions with EuroMediterranean CCIs in the domain of professional formation with the aim to transfer the “know-how”. At the educational level the CCI “Tafna” is working with “AbouBekrBelkaid” University of Tlemcen in order to develop the domains such as biology, biotechnology, new materials of construction, agriculture, renewable energy, economics and tourism, etc. So, AGB employees are seen to receive a training programme in the English language from this establishment, and this latter will set up the conditions and principles of the teaching learning operation.

3.4 The Importance of English for Algerian Professionals. Algeria, as a developing country emerged with the vision to open its markets for international trade and emphasizes on the evolution of its local economy and labour force at the same time. Since entering office in 1999, President AbedelazizBouteflika has championed economic diversity by steering the country away from an overreliance on oil production and by attracting foreign trade and investment (Omar Mohammedi, 2010). Therefore, the Algerian government made many efforts to appeal foreign investors and businesses.To do so, many institutional reforms have been implemented at this level so that to encourage more international trade and foreign investment in other domains outside the hydrocarbons such as (military, industry, energy exploration, water system, etc.) As a result, the Algerian professionals found themselves facing the need to be in contact with other partners from other countries such as Italy, France, Turkey, Canada, China, Germany, Belgium, and USA. Languages used in the Algerian administration are mainly Arabic and French. Arabic is the mother tongue and French is the second 71

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language which has imposed itself due to historical factors. The accession of Algeria in the World Trade Organization (WTO) gave Algeria the ability to have access to the global markets which are dominated by the multinational companies where the English language is the primary medium of communication. For instance, many Algerian companies such as (SONATRACH, Algerian banks, National Company for Rail Transport, Air Express Algeria,BioPharm, Smart Link Communication,etc) use documents in the English language when transacting with other foreign companies. In nowadays, using English in the Algerian administration is neither a choice nor a pleasure but it becomes a necessity of use required by the global markets. This is why Algerian professionals should be aware of the importance of this language in their careers in order to cope with the demands of the dominating world which is the world of the global system. Thus, the aim of this research is to take the AGB employeesin Tlemcen as a sample population to study this phenomenon and try to see whether Algerian professionals are aware of this importance or not. This can be achieved through the analysis of their needs.

3.5 Data Analysis In order to obtain results to the research questions, the researcher should analyse the results of the data collected instruments used in the current research methodology. In the first step she has dealt with the analysis of the three administrative documents of the Algeria Gulf Bank, next a focus has been paid to the analysis of the semistructured interview and the questionnaire.

3.5.1 Documentary Analysis In this phase,the analysis is about an administrative document called the “Credoc”. Aletter of credit is a document that a financial institution or similar party issues to a seller of goods or services which provides that the issuer will pay the seller for goods or services the seller delivers to a third-party buyer. The seller then seeks reimbursement from the buyer or from the buyer's bank. The document serves 72

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essentially as a guarantee to the seller that it will be paid by the issuer of the letter of credit regardless of whether the buyer ultimately fails to pay.(Wikipedia, 2012). This kindof letters of credit is used when transactions happen at an international scale between partners from two different countries and in this case the bank is responsible of payment procedures. In recent years Algeria has opted for this strategy for its international trade. The present document is an example of one of the letters of credit used in Algerian companies; this document is used in order to confirm the use of the English language in Algerian administration with a particular look on the Algeria Gulf Bank (AGB) in Tlemcen. The document will be analysed qualitatively in the following way:

3.5.1.1Analysis of Document Sheet One This document sheet is a “DOCUMENTARY CREDIT”, it is an opening to the letter of credit; it is written in English and translated into Spanish because the bank is working with a Spanish bank. The title is written in English “DOCUMENTARY CREDIT”. The document contains many other sentences written in English taking many forms such as explaining, informing, forbidding, confirming, requesting, greeting, counting, giving instructions and remarks, etc. Sentence One.

“We enclose the following documents relating to the credit under reference, by first and/or second mail, as stated by us in the attached specification” this sentence is a form of “anopeningpoint”for the other following information. Sentence Two We did not take up documents owing to the following discrepancies: Invoice: 1)-Amount is not according to L/C terms 2)-Tolerance 10 PCT is not allowed -Beneficiary certificate not issued as per L/C terms This is a negative sentence with the function of giving remarks and observation that could be in the legal part that the partner has to avoid

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Sentence Three “You may only avail yourselves of these documents, after having authorized us to take up documents at sight” This is an affirmativesentence;its purpose is to explain an instruction to the client in order to follow the order deposited by the company. Structures of sentences used are formal, the use of modals such as “may” and some formal words such as “avail” and phrasal verbs such as “take up”.

Sentence Four “We do not assume any responsibility for the correctness, validity or genuineness of the documents received under this credit, nor for the description, quality, quantity or delivery of the goods purporting to be represented thereby.” In the present sentence one may notice the use of multiple words such as “correctness”, “responsibility”,“validity”, and “description”, etc. Employees may understand their meanings since they are like in French and sometimes they are obliged to check dictionaries for more explanations to be able to employ them in the appropriate context. Moreover, the researcher noticed also the use of some words (prepositions) such “or”, “nor”, “under”, “thereby” that the employees may not be familiar with either at the level of understanding the meaning (vocabulary) or at the level of their correct use in a sentence (grammar). The researcher has also noticed the use of number to speak about amount of money. The numbers are written in the following way “13.362, 240”, “30, 050”, “90,155”, “55,851” in this way numbers arenot written in English which means that English in not used correctly. This may result the need to in clud number writing in the courses designed. Finally, the letter is finished by the word “yours faithfully” one of the element in writing letters; so, this may show the need to implement writing letters and business letters in particular as one of the subject taught for this group of workers.

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3.5.1.2Analysis of Document Sheet Two The second document sheet is an“ORIGINAL BILL OF LADING”; this sheet is concerned with sending the merchandise by ships. This latter is also writtenin English;it contains the steps of loading goods from a foreigner port to a national one which indicate that English is not only used at the level of the bank but also at the level of Algerian ports too. This sheet contains many specific words such as “place of receipt”, “freight to be paid”, “bills of lading”, “port of loading”, “port of discharge”, “place of delivery”, “container and seals”, “description of packages and goods”, “shippers load”“stow and count”, “brass fittings”. These words are all concerned with money, payment and shipping goods which is one of the characteristics of special language use in special contexts. Another remark is writing the date e.g. 11 Mars 2012 which is not written in English, however, the researcher can take this remark to include it in the subjects to be taught for this group.

3) Analysis of Document Sheet Three

The third document is a “CERTIFICATE OF CONFORMITY” this latter is also written in English and it is concerned with the confirmation that goods are manufactured according to the standard laws of the company.This certificate is a professional letter where one may notice the norms of writingletters. This also may give an idea to provide the designed syllabus with such a topic

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3.5.1.4Interpretation of Results

The collected data from the present research tool show the use of English in the Algeria Gulf Bank. Thus, from this result one may deduce to what extent the English language is important for AGB employees in particular and Algerian professional in general to complete their work responsibilities. The collecteddocuments have been analysed at the level of the English language use from where the researcher could identify some language requirements for the staff, and try to include them in designingcourses in thesuggested syllabus. These requirements could be analysed by focusing on teaching some language functions (requesting, apologizing, giving formal orders, informing, etc). Teaching specific vocabulary and its appropriate use according to the specific context where it is used, teaching grammar (related tenses, express negation e.g. using neither...nor, dealing with preposition and phrasal verbs). In addition, the researcher has noticed the utility to remind them with English numbers and their spelling rules, and finally the researcher suggested the importance to emphasize on dealing with business letters writing. After confirming the importance and utility of the English language in Algerian administrations the researcher now moves to analyse the results obtained from the next research tool concerned with the target population of this study.

3.5.2 Analysis of Employees’ Interview The collected data from the employees’ interviewenable the researcher to determine the professional needs (target and learning needs) to learn English in order to find some remedies. The number of persons was seven and all of them have participated in the interview. Questions from 1 to 4: are about bio data (the employees’ age, their job experience,the status in the bank and finally their qualification). The answers will be illustrated in the following table.

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Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Position in the bank

Age

Years of job

Qualification

experience 27

5

Boss

Licence in International Commerce

Commercial

44

11

customer advisor

Licence in Commercial Sciences

Particular customer

28

5

advisor

Licence in Management and economics

Controller

29

1

Magister in Marketing and International Commerce

Cashier

35

Secondary third year

Cashier

30

8

Accounting Technician

Conveyor

38

2

Secondary level

Table3.1 Bio Data of AGB Employees The answers from the table could be summarized as follow: Question 1: Employees’ Age Employees’ age is more than twenty five years old which means that these learners are adults and mature who know what they really need to learn for their occupations. A characteristic of job-experienced learners described by Rubin (1975)see (1.3.2.1.) 80

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Question 2: Job Experience The working experience differs from one person to another, ranging from one to eleven years. This means that there are newly employed in AGB buthave worked in other companies. Question 3: Employees’ Position in the Bank As stated in the table above, the employees hold different positions they are respectively as follows: the director of the bank, a commercial customer advisor, a particular customer advisor, one controller,two cashiers and a conveyer. In addition there are two vacancies. Question 4: Employees’ Qualification Different qualifications have been declared,licence degree in international commerce, commercial sciences, and management and economics. One informant states that she holds a magister degree in marketing and international commerce. The three others add that they do not hold any university qualification. For instance, one of them holds a diploma of accounting and taxation and theother one has a third year secondary level; whereas, the last has stopped learning in the secondary (conveyor). Question 5: Employees’ Background in English This question seeks information about the employees’ previous English studies.Their answersare as follow: four of the informants say that the last courses they have received were at university, two othersreplythat they have only a background from thesecondary school. The director of the bank declares that he has done some extra training in a private school in Oran. He was interested to improve his level;this in fact, helps him to be more competent than the other employees in the bank and take more responsibility to deal with the operation in English such as speak with English speaking partners, writing business reports, answering e-mails. The others are not fluent for the reason that they have stopped learning English for a period of time either after university or after the 81

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

secondary school which causes to them a lack in the communicative competence. Some of the employees state that the courses they have received from university were not enough, since they do not respond to all what they really need. Question 6: English Use at Work. About the use of English, different answers have been noted. The director claims that he is always confronted with English in his occupation; he is responsible of answering the phone, speaking with English speaking partners or managers from international companies, directors of foreigner banks that they work with. The director is also confronted with the use of English in many international operations such as the distribution of mails and bank swifts to the other services, validation ofcredits documentary “CREDOC” letters of credits, validation of payment authorization (free transfers, cons-handed documentary), validation of all correspondence and swift with general directorate and the Algeria bank in addition to answering e-mails and writing business reports, etc. However, the other employees such as the commercial customer adviser and particular customer adviser claim that they use English but in some cases such as treatingcredits documentary and bank swifts and other written documents, operate pre-financing of export credits for international export, issuance of international credit cards, the use of this language still at the level of writing skill and they are rarely confronted with speaking English; the two cashiers state that theyalso use English in their work but in infrequent situations as they need it to speak to some foreigner partners and clients; the controller who is newly employed stated that she has not used English till now and it is possible to use it in the future; only the conveyor states that he does not use English in his work.

Question 7: Employees’ Views about the Necessity of English. This question is about English necessity in their occupation, the results obtained from these answers can be assumed in this table: 82

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Answers

Absolute frequency

Relative frequency

Yes

06

85.71%

No

01

14.28%

Table 3.2 Necessity of English in the Workplace

14.28%

Yes

85.71%

No

Figure 3.1 Necessity of English inthe Workplace orkplace The majority of the employees see that English is necessary for them in their daily life occupation. Only the conveyor states that he does not use English and he does not really need it. Question 8: Employees’ Awareness of the Necessity N of English for their Professional Carriers. This question seeks information about the importance of English in order to graduate in their occupations. ions. The results claimthat the majority of employees are aware that they need this language in order to graduate in their occupations and cope with the global market. Theyknow heyknow very well that this language becomes an important tool to communicate at the international level since it is used in many domains such as science, technology international trade, trade military, economics, etc. Only the conveyor

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stated the opposite since English for him is not really necessary for the reason that his occupation does not really necessitate the use of this language. Answers

Absolute frequency

Relative frequency

Yes

06

85.71%

No

01

14.28%

Table 3.3 Necessity of Learning L English glish for the Respondents’ Career.

14.28% Yes

85.71%

No

Figure 3.2 Necessity of Learning English for f the Respondents’ Career. Career

Question 9: Employees’ Attempts ttempts to Enhance their Language Level In this question the researcher wants to know if these employees are doing anything to improve their language level. The following table will illustrate the results of these answers. Answers

Absolute frequency

Relative frequency

Yes

02

28.57%

No

05

71.42%

Table3.4 Employees’ mployees’ Attempts A to Enhance their Language Level L 84

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

28.57% Yes

71.42%

No

mployees’Attemptsto to Enhance their Language Level L Figure3.3 Employees’ The respondents answerdifferently. answer Five of them(71.42%) say that they do not do anything in order to enhance their language level. level They hey depend on their previous knowledge. They add that confronting nfronting the same documents makes them remember words and understanding becomes less difficult than the first time. time Two of the employees (28.57%) %) answer with yes but but their motivation in learning differs. For instance, the director who is highly motivatedsays that he does his best in order to improve his level of English, he did some extra English training programmes in a private school; in addition to that, that he sometimes tries to learn English by reading magazines, business articles, listen to English music, reading books, books, using internet. The second one who is the “particular customer advisor” is not really motivated as the first one butshe does some limited activities such as listening to English songs, using internet and read idioms. Question 10: Employees’ View about the Necessity ecessity of the English Training Programme Thisquestionis about the employees’ employees opinions about receiving English training programmes in their workplace. The findings of these questions are in the following table 85

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Absolute frequency Relative frequency

Answers Necessary

4

57.14%

Useful

2

28.57%

Not necessary

1

14.28%

Table3.5.. Necessity N of English Training Programmes rogrammes

4 N° of employees (07) Percentage %

2 1 57.14% Necessary

28.57% Useful

14.28% Not Necessary

Figure 3.4Necessity Necessity of English Training Programmes Programmes. The answers of this question questio are treated differently, four (57.14%) ( of the personnel state that such type of training programmes is necessary for them since they can help them to better etter enhance their level and be more motivated in learning after a long period of break. Two others (28.57%) ( are with the idea that this programme could be just useful for them as they may not bring great results especially after a long day of work. Only one case (14.28%) is not interested with this type of teaching and the training programmes still not necessary for this person. Question 11: Attendance of English Courses. C In this case, the employees are asked if attendance of this progamme suits suit them according to their working time to see if they will able to combine between learning and their work commitments. mmitments. Most of them answer that timing will surely be after 86

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

work and this will tired them. Two of the informants (28.57)) answered that they are not prepared to attend such courses especially after finishing their work. work Five employees (71.42) said that it is not easy since they are busy all the day, but because it is important they will support and try to benefit from it. The table will show their answers: Answers

Absolute frequency

Relative frequency

Yes

05

71.42%

No

02

28.57%

Table3.6. Employees’ Attitude towards Attendance A of Training Programme P

28.57% 71.42%

Yes No

Figure 3.5 Employees’ Attitude towards Attendance A e of Training Programmes. P

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Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Question 12: The employees’ Needs to use English in Real-Life Business Situations. The aim of the present question is to know the AGB employees’ needs to learn English for specific business purposes. Each member in the company has his/her own needs according to his/her position in the bank; the following table tries to present their appropriate choices in this view: Employees Needs

Absolute

Relative

frequency

frequency

Writing business reports 4

57.14%

6

85.71%

3

42.85%

3

42.85%

1

14.28%

6

85.71%

Answering e-mails, faxes, outlooks…

Attending international conferences

Participating in meetings with foreigner partners

Listening to business news in English

Speaking to foreigner partners

Table: 3.7 Employees’ Needs

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Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

4

6

6 3

3

1 57.14% 85.71% 42.85% 42.85% 14.28% 85.71%

N° of employees (07) Percentage %

Figure 3.6 Employees’ Needs At this level, the researcher has identified that needs vary from one person to another and this is due to the employees position in the bank and their occupation demands, each one has a specific aim to use this languagefor language in different contexts using different skills. For instance, instance the boss

is faced to more complicated

situationsthan sthan the other personnel, personnel as it has been declared before,he he is always in front of foreigner partners, speak with them give explanations. explanation The otherss mentionthat their main needs are summarized in i speaking in English, writing e- mails, business reports, business letters, and also some of them mention the need of attending meetings and conferences. Question 13: Classification of Lacks Lack The aim of this question was to identify and classify the employees’ lacks when whe using English for business purposes(from purposes 1 most to 6 least).. The findings show that the majority (85.71%) lacks the fluency of speaking English and they classify it as the most important lack.The second most important lack is summarized ed under finding the suitable business vocabulary (specialized business vocabulary),in ,in fact this lack causes usually breakdowns in communicationespecially communicationespecially in business situations.Moreover, situations 42.85% 2.85% of the employees mention the lack of writing skills in business busine contexts in the 89

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

third position of complexity and difficulty which is important to be developed. The same percentage is put to the fourth category which is concerned with communicating in a business context, and in the fifth position, 28.58% of the employees lack understanding general words meanings and others lack skills of communicating in business. Finally, the less complex lack is the lack of knowing grammar rules and their correct use. In spite of its classification as the less difficult, it still means that they do not only lack specific English but also general one which has the priority to be developed at first then move to more specific things.

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Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Classification of the employees’ lacks 1

The employees’ needs

2

3

N° of

Percenta

N° of

Percenta

N° of

informa

ge

informa

ge

informa

nts

nts

6

85.71%

/

/

/

Lack

words

/

/

1

14.28%

1

Lack of finding suitable business

/

/

5

71.42%

/

/

/

1

14.28%

/

/

understanding

5

6

Percenta

N° of

Percenta

N° of

Percentag

N° of

Percent

ge

inform

ge

inform

e

infor

age

nts

Lack of fluency when speaking

of

4

ants

ants

mants

1

14.28%

/

/

/

14.28%

1

14.28%

2

28.58%

2

28.58%

1

14.28%

/

/

1

14.28%

/

/

/

3

42.85%

2

28.58%

1

14.28%

1

14.28%

/

/

1

14.28%

3

42.85%

2

28.58%

/

1

14.28%

1

14.28%

/

/

1

14.28%

4

meanings

vocabulary Lack of writing skills in business contexts (letters, memos, Cvs…) Lack of communicating in Business English

Lack of grammar rules and the correct use of tenses.

Table 3.8 Classification of the employees’ lacks in using Business English 91

57.14%

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Question 14: The Importance of Specialized Business Vocabulary to Communicate C in Business English It iss about the importance of acquiring business vocabulary that may be useful for communicating in Business English. English Four (57.14%) of the respondents reply with a positive profile, saying that acquiring this component will probably help them avoid many constraints in communication. communication When the employees aree faced fa with critical situation, finding the correct and appropriate meaning is important and of crucial role. The three (42.85%) others are are negative and they said that such type is not really necessary for them; these informants are the two cashiers and the the conveyor. convey Thus, this may be clear that their type of work does not really necessitate something specific in the domain of banking but no one disagree with the importance of such device in communicating in Business English. English The following table will present nt the results of this question. Answers

N° of employees Percentage

Yes

4

57.14%

No

3

42.85%

Table3.9 Importance rtance of Specialized Business Vocabulary. V

42.85%

57.14% Yes No

Impo of Specialized Business Vocabulary. ocabulary. Figure 3.7 Importance 92

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Question 15: The Frequency Use of Specialized Business Vocabulary V ry It iss about the frequency of business vocabulary appearance in their work. Four (57.14%) %) of the informants say that they are always faced with business vocabulary in their daily job life. Two others (28.57%) (28 say that they are sometimes faced withthisvocabulary; while the last one answer that heis rarely facedd with this type of vocabulary. which hich means that the majority of the employeesare confronted to specific business words. Frequency

N° of employees Percentage

Always

4

57.14%

Sometimes

2

28.57%

Rarely

1

14.28%

Table 3.10 Frequency Use of Business Vocabulary ocabulary.

4 3,5 3

4

2,5 N° of employees (07)

2

Percentage %

1,5

2

1 0,5

1 % 57,14%

28,57%

14,28%

0 Always

Sometimes

Rarely

Figure 3.8 Frequency Use of Business B Vocabulary. ocabulary.

Question 16:Comprehension omprehension of Business Vocabulary When specific termsoccur occur in work situation,six (85.71%)) of the respondents answer that they do not understand all the words they face but there are some som 93

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

familiarwords that they can understand and others seem to be difficult. One of the respondents (14.28%) who is the director of the bank answer that he does not face a great difficulty in such situation. situation Answers

N° employees

Percentage

Yes

1

14.28%

No

6

85.71%

Table 3.11 Employees’ Employe Comprehension of Business Vocabulary ocabulary

0 14,28%

Yes No

85,71%

Figure 3.9 Employees’ Comprehension of Business Vocabulary Vocabulary. Question 17: Employees’’ View about the Appropriate Way Way to learn business vocabulary. In this question, the informants are a required to select from om the available choices of the appropriate way they prefer to learn business vocabulary. Different views have been suggested sted by the informants about this phenomenon. The majority ma of them (85.71%)notice that practicing words in real-life communication ommunication seem to be helpful to remember words meaning since they will be able to know w the different ways that words can take when they are employed in different sentences and in different 94

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

contexts. In addition to this, this both translation and words explanation through reading seemed to be also interesting for them to learn and remember business vocabulary with a percentage of (57.14%).. Leaning words from dictionaries does not take a great importance only (28.57%) of them see it beneficial cial during a training programme progr whereas the others prefer to be more active and more communicative. Ways of vocabulary learning

N° employees

Percentage

Learn it by heart from dictionaries

2

28.57%

Read texts then explain difficult words.

4

57.14%

Practice it through communicative activities

6

85.71%

4

57.14

such as dialogues and conversations Translate the words then remember its explanation Table 3.12Employees’ Employees’ Ways of Learning Business Vocabulary. ocabulary.

6 4

4 N° of employees (07) Percentage %

2 28.57% Learn it by heart from dictionaries

85.71%

57.14% Read texts then explain difficult words.

Practice it through communicative activities such as dialogues and conversations

57.14% Translate the words then remember their explanations

Figure 3.10 Employees’ Ways of Learning Business Vocabulary. ocabulary. 95

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Question 18: Usefulness of Communicative Activities A At this level, the attention is on whether communicative activities ctivities use is suitable for the he employees in learning business vocabulary. vocabulary After giving some examples about abou the type of such activities, six (85.71%) of the respondents say that this type of activities will be useful in the present phenomenon since they will help them practice English in situations similar to their business contexts. whereas onee (14.28%) of the informants has negatively answered adding that he does not feel himself comfortable especially when speaking in front of the others. The following table will illustrate ill the results of the findings. Communicative activities

Absolute frequency Relative frequency

Suitable

6

85.71 85.71%

Not suitable

1

14.28 14.28%

Table3.13 3.13 Usefulness of communicative activities

14.28%

Suitable

85.71%

Figure 3.11 Usefulness of Communicative Activities ctivities.

96

Not suitable

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

3.5.2.1 Summary of the Results Results obtained from the present research tool show that the majority of the AGB employees in Tlemcenneed to learn English in order to use it properly in their occupational context. AGBworkers who keep an important position in the bank claim that the use of this language is important for them. This claim has confirmed the informants’ awareness of the importance of English for their work in particular and the Algerian professionals in general. In spite of the fact that these managers are highly aware of the importance of this language, a small number of them are doing personal efforts to improve their language level. Furthermore, the quantitative data show that a considerable amount of the respondents are motivated to receive English training programmes and are prepared to attend thesecoursesin addition to their work commitments. The results obtained demonstrate different occupational needs of the informants that could be summarized as follow: the fluency of speaking in English, writing e-mails, business reports, business letters, participate in meetings, organize study days, attend conferences and share business ideas and views with others. However, achieving these needs is not an easy task since AGB staff still faces some lacks that couldbe somehow related to these needs.A high percentage is directed to the lack of speaking ability, then the lack of either understanding or producing specialized business vocabulary, andwriting and communicating in a business context. Finally, the lack of grammar knowledge is placed in the final position. This means that either the employees may still have grammar knowledge from previous studies or they do not give much importance to this item to be developed as opposed to the other items. By the way, the researcher takes it into consideration some grammar rules in order to be included in the course design. It is worth mentioning that specialized vocabulary learning takes an important place in the informants’ learning objectives, they are well aware of its importance. They have also mentioned some learning needs from which the results show that the majority of the informants prefer to be involved in activities that couldhelp them to be 97

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

communicatively competent and also they put emphasis on using translation activities as well. 3.5.3 Analysis of ESP Teachers’ Questionnaire As it has already been mentioned in the previous chapter,the aim of this questionnaire is to seek information about the efficiency of using the communicative method

in

teaching

specialized

business

vocabulary

to

achieve

business

communication. (See appendix 03) Question 1 and 2: Teachers’ Qualification and Status at University. Teachers involved in this situation are three; two of them hold aMagister Degree and work as full-time teachers at the university,the third one holds aLicence qualification and works as a part-time teacher. The three teachers work at both university and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Tlemcen.Thus, they may have experienced teaching special English which will enable them to answer the following questions. Question 3: Teachers’ Experience in Teaching English. All teachers claim that they have both the experience in teaching general English and specific one. They are more experienced in teaching general English, but specific experience is not too long. Two teachers claim that their important experience in this domain is recent, they taught a group of air traffic control learners at“Messali El Hadj Airport”in Tlemcen, and the last oneclaims that she is in charge of teaching English for psychology at the University of Tlemcen Question 4: Teachers Training in ESP. All teachers claim that they did not receive any ESP training during their teaching experience. They teachgeneral English easily but when it comes to specific teaching they are not well equipped in this domain, in terms of the content and the type of terminology used.

Question 5: Teachers’ Experience in Teaching Business English. 98

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

Only one teacher answer with “yes”, he taught this type for only one year, and the two others answer with “no”. Question 6: Teacher’s difficulties in explaining the special subject. All the teachers reply positively, one of them says that he finds difficulties in teaching grammar and vocabulary. The second one says that the type of English she knows is general.She can teach literature or linguistics without any difficulty but when it comes to teaching special language, like in psychology, things become somehow difficult and this is due to the lack of training in this domain. The third teacheradded that it is difficult to teach English for specific purposes, such as aeronautics, for many reasons that could be summarized as follow: topics are limited, the teacher has a poor knowledge in this field, there are specific terms for each discipline, in addition to the learners’ level that could be low even in general English. Question 7: Teachers’ Attempts’ to Improve their Knowledge in the Subject Field. The first teacher says that he does not do anything in order to improve his knowledge in the subject field,the two others answer with “yes”. The second teacher says that she reads some pdf documents in the field of psychology, makes more researches that help herprovide the suitable teaching material, and asks her colleagues for more information. The third one posits that in addition to internet researches, he tries to provide the course with the activities that motivate the learners. Question 8: Kinds of Materials Used in Teaching ESP. Teachers answer that there is no specific source of materials in this kind of teaching, and it is up to the teacher to select his/her own materials such as: using specialized readings, extract sources from the internet, and provides activities related to the learners’ field.

Question 9: Teachers’ Points of View about the Importance of Teaching Business Vocabulary for Professionals. 99

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

All the teachers claimthat teaching business vocabulary is necessary for professionals to succeed in their careers. Acquiring a large set of vocabularies may help them achieve business communication goals. Question 10: CLT Use in ESPteaching. All the teachers answer that they follow the communicative approach in teaching ESP, sincethey always include activities which have the purpose of communication. Question 11: Teachers’ Point of View about the Neccessity of Communicative Activities for Successful Business Vocabulary Acquisition. The first teacher says that it is necessary. The second says that it is important since it can help students to be more motivated. The third teacher says that communicative approach helps students interact in the classroom especially when dealing with the appropriate activities in the course. Question 12: Teachers’ Point of View about Using the Communicative Activities in Learning BE Vocabulary. All the teachers answer with “yes”.The first teacher claims that most learners are willing to have relations with other English speaking people. The second says that it is important especially when the activities are on-line and the learners can be in touch with other foreigner learners. Thus, they will try to make more efforts to understand them and be understood at the same time which will create motivation. The third teacher says that communicative activities help students interact in the classroom as they involve them to be in real-life situations when dealing with dialogues and conversations. Question 13: Teachers’ Suggestions to EnhanceEBP Teaching in Algeria Different suggestions have been made in this level. First, one of the informants says that it is the responsibility of both teacher and learners to reach the course aims and objectives. Thus, they should work in collaboration and make more efforts in this domain. The second one says that the most important thing is to teach them general 100

Chapter Three Need Identification and Analysis

English then move to specific one.Learners cannot engage in a business conversation while they have low levelgeneral English. Moreover, learners should be able to update their knowledgeabout what is happening in the global world. Create discussions about business and make comparison in different business situations either at the national or international scale.Also, the government should supply the CCIs in Algeria with more specialist English teachers in the domain of Business English. The third teacher says that BE teaching is poor in our country which has to be taken into consideration by opening more specialized centres for ESP teaching, help teachers to do more training in ESP and prepare them be able to elaborate the suitable materials as well as courses for teaching in this domain. 3.5.3.1 Summaryof the Results Questioning ESP teachers in the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI) aims at analyzing the results from a specialist point of view.The number of teachers involved in this questionnaire is three, all of them have experienced teaching special English but only one of them has dealt with Business English. From the description of the respondents’ questions, it has been noticed that they have received no training before to help them deal with specific situations, they depend only on their personal efforts to solve their problems in ESP teaching in terms of materials selection, course elaborationand the syllabusdesign. For instance the absence of training experience cause to them difficulties when explaining the course in the target language and especially in the subject content in addition to the unfamiliarity with the special jargon used for each discipline. Moreover, as to the question concerned with the importance of learning business vocabulary, no teacher denied this need adding that the main and crucial point that differ the disciplines is the type vocabulary used for each of them. As a method for teaching business vocabulary, the investigator proposed the communicative approach. This idea has received a positive view from the opinion of ESP teachers. They claimed that they also use this kind of methods. The aim behind using such type of activities is 101

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to motivate learners and push them be more communicatively competent as well as create more language practice in various related contexts. Furthermore, the ESP teachers gave some suggestions that could be taken into consideration, they first put emphasis on improving the learners’ level in general English then move to the specific one. Another interest is to form ESP teachers and open more ESP centres that can work collaboratively with the university in designing courses, providing suitable materials, and elaborating syllabuses and training programmes.

3.6 Interpretation and Discussion of the Main Results. The present research started with the hypothesis that AGB employees may need to learn English in order to complete work documents. Indeed, the analysis of theadministrative documents brought from the AGBproved the use of this language in the AGB administration; the port also receives documents written in English concerned with.This means that English is used in many Algerian companies either in the private or public sectors. This result showed that Algeria is now competing in the global world of business trying to develop itself by bringing other trades from other foreigner countries in order to flourish its economy. The analysis of these documents helped the researcher to have an idea about what sort of requirements can the employees have when they are not aware of them. In fact, she could identify some of these requirements and try to emphasise on their importance to implement them when designing the training programme courses. After showing the situation of the English in the “Algeria Gulf Bank” the researcher moved to the analysis of theother instruments: the employees’ interviewand the ESP teachers’ questionnairein the CCI in order to confirm or inform the other hypotheses interested respectively with the lack of business vocabulary that may cause problems in communication, and the last hypothesis which is concerned with the use 102

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of the communicative approach as an adequate method to teach business vocabulary to AGB workers. The semi-structured interview sought forexploringthe target as well as the learning needs of the AGB employees when using English. In fact, the analysis of the target language needs revealed that the majority of the informants, especially those who hold an important position in the bank, are conscious about the importance of this language claiming that the use of English is essential in their occupation. After proving the importance of this language, the researcher tried then to verify the second hypothesis. This latter is about the problems of communication that the employees could encounter due to the lack of business vocabulary. Many questions have been planned for this purpose, the results obtained confirmed the idea that the employees need to know business vocabulary but they have first to develop a range of general English. Although, business vocabulary is important AGB employees still lack some knowledge background in the English language. Thus, the programme should include some related items in general English. Other AGB workers prefer to develop other skills then developspecialized business vocabulary. Moreover, the researcher has to emphasize not only on developing specialized vocabulary. Shehas to find a way to develop it through the tasks that fulfil the employees’ needs in the domain of their business. Finally, the employees were asked about the appropriate way or ways that can suit them when learning this type of vocabulary taking into account some factors that mayaffect their learning needs such as their age, their work commitments, and the setting where the programme will take place. The researcher wanted to know whether communicative activities can suit them in their learningor not. For this reason she suggested some choices that could be available in the Algeria. Results showed that the majority of the informants preferred to be involved in activities that can help them be communicatively competent in addition to using translation activities as well. Moreover, for the third hypothesis, the researcher has conducted a questionnaire with the target language teachers at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in 103

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Tlemcen, in order to get results from a pedagogical perspective and gain more information about materials used in this domain. Theresults obtained from this analysis were negative at first.

ESP teachers were unsatisfied with their attitudes when

teaching special English and this is due to the lack of ESP training. This latter is very important, sinceit could help them solve their problems in teaching such as: knowledge of the subject content, identifying learners’ needs and designing appropriatecourses as well as selecting the suitable materials. As it has been previously mentioned, ESP teachers emphasisedon the necessity of the communicative approach as well as communicative activities in teaching specific business vocabulary arguing that the learners’ aim behind leaning this language is to communicate effectively in this language with other English speaking people. Furthermore, one of the ESP teachers emphasises on the importance of including technology to these activities by bringing learners to do communicative activities on line in order to be in touch with other people and createhigh motivation through dialogues and conversations. To sum up,the findings of needs analysis brought the researcher to denote some significant remarks and observationsabout the needs and expectations of the AGB workforce in order to from an English training programme that latter could be a sample of business training programmes in Algeria. NIA outcomes were summarized under their need to develop specific English without denying the need to develop general Englishat first, they also need to learn how to write business letters, business reports, in addition to develop skills in doing meetings and conferences without neglecting the importance to emphasize on specific vocabularies they may face in their professional career. As to teaching materials, the focus was put on the use of technology to be up to date, using dictionaries is helpfulin translation activities that may enhance learners to be more motivated and thus they can achieve their expectations from learning English.

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In this chapter the investigator aimed at analysing and interpreting the results drawn from the present research tools which included the analysis of AGB administrative documents, AGB employees’ interview, and the ESP teacher questionnaire in the CCI “Tafna”. Important findings were identified in terms of students’ needs, lacks, expectations, and objectives as well teachers’ knowledge, teaching difficulties andlack of materials. Thus, suggestions and recommendations would be fulfilled accordingly in the following chapter. Both AGB employees and ESP teachers could not deny the utility and importance of English for the Algerian workforce, to better manipulate occupational needs and be able to cope with the global markets. Now, company managers become well aware of this fact; for this reason, Algeria has to make its best in order to help their employees deal with these demands and necessities. The next chapter is about making some suggestionsand recommendations about this phenomenon in addition to designing a communicative syllabus that may suit the needs of AGB learners.

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Chapter 4: Suggestions and Recommendations. 4.1 Introduction 4.2 General Recommendations 4.3 The Application of CLT in Teaching Specialized Business Vocabulary 4.3.1 Communicative Approach 4.3.1.1 Communicative Competence 4.3.1.2 Communicative Activities 4.3.1.3 Characteristics and Principles of CLT 4.4 Developing the Productive Skills 4.4.1 Speaking skill 4.4.2 Writing Skill 4.6 Promote the Receptive Skills 4.5.1 Listening and Reading skills 4.6 Suggesting Business Teaching Materials 4.7 Suggesting a Syllabus through CLT 4.8 The Proposed Syllabus 4.8.1 Sample Syllabus 4.9 Conclusion

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4.1 Introduction Through the interpretation of the informants’ needs, results show that AGB employees, like any other company professionals, are well aware of the importance of the English language used in their workplace and the importance to implement courses that help them communicate effectively in the target situation. To reach the underlinedobjectives, the current chapter has dealt with some suggestions and recommendations. Moreover,the design of a sample syllabus has been provided. It is interested in teaching specialized business to AGB employees based on communicative language teaching.

4.2 General Recommendations The level of English proficiency has become with no discussion an important factor in the Algerian economy. Thus a good mastery of this language reveals a necessity by Algerian professionals working in national, foreign or multinational companies to be competent and efficient when communicating in English in order to submit to the norms of the global markets. AGB employees like any other company executive, need to acquire this language in order to fill in some job requirements. Successfulteaching may be better achieved when trainers are aware of their learners’ needs and preferences. In fact, employees are aware of the importance of the English language for their occupation and the researcher could point some English language requirements that could be summarized under the following points: • Good mastery of the English language in general. • Good mastery of the professional language knowledge (specialized vocabulary) • Good mastery of business communication skills (especially productive skills). • Practical awareness of the target culture. For the above stated reasons, it is worthy to state some suggestions for the improvement of EOP teaching in Algeria which is still in its infancy. Unfortunately, this approach is not rich in Algeria, trainers encounter difficulties when they come to decide the important points to be included in the course design, especially when they are teaching job-experienced learners. Teachers are not well preparedto teach 107

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inspecific situations because of the lack of subject knowledge as well as the specific jargon used in addition to the lack of suitable materials. Thus, it is highly recommended to open more spaces for ESP teachers and give them more opportunities to be trained in teaching ESP. It is also recommended to open more special laboratories for language research, enhance the collaborative work between language teachers and subject specialists when designing ESP courses For the present study,the results show the need of AGB employees to learn English in order to communicate effectively in job related-situations, by developing specialized vocabulary needed in accordance to their professional requirements.Results also show that they also need to develop the four skills with more emphasis on the productive ones. From the findings, the investigator suggests the communicative syllabus as model for achieving professional communicative purposes. The aim of the syllabus is to help learnersdevelop language skills required for business communication with a link to the required grammar rules, specialized vocabulary is highly recommended to be included in the content units. Besides, some teaching materials are recommended to be used such as the use of technology through videos, CDs, DVDs, internet, the use of authentic texts, and enjoyable activities. Translation activities are also important for developing communication.

4.3The Application of CLT in Teaching Specialized Business Vocabulary. The communicativeapproachis one of the common methods in EFL teaching. It has also been applied in some ESP situation. In fact, this title has dealt with its characteristics and principles to help BE teacher recognize whether these principles can be applicable in the situation of teaching business vocabulary or not. 4.3.1 Communicative Approach The communicative approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the umbrella term of approach which aims to help language learners practice Englishin a communicative way. CLT has faced a remarkable success in teaching methodologies 108

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from 1970s (Habermas, 1970; Jackobovists, 1970, Hymes, 1971; Savignon, 1972). It was first introduced in ESL contexts where it knew an important expansion, and then it has been implemented in EFL contexts to improve students’ abilities to communicate fluently and appropriately in different real-life contexts. (Littlewoods, 2007) Traditionally, previous teaching methodologies have been concerned more with the knowledge of the English language, whereas, the communicative approach focuses more on the actual use of this language for communication purposes in a given situation. Speaking about the nature of its importance,Candlin (1981:51) notes that: The importance of the Communicative Language Teaching and Learning derives in great part from the opportunity it offers of linking language learning to everyday life and interest of learners and their future communicative needs. However, the growing interest in international business, technology, tourism and industry make students face the need to use English for communicative purposes. For this, Widdowson (1990) says: “people learn to communicate by communicating rather than by learning about the language system.” This clarifies the importance of including communication in teaching foreign languages in general and English in particular where the acquisition of communicative abilities will be at the same time as linguistic skills. Brown (2007:241) offers four major characteristic that can well define the Communicative Approach: -

Classroom goals are focused on all of the components of the communicative competence and not restricted to grammatical or linguistic competence.

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Language techniques are designed to engage learners in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of language for meaningful purposes. Organizational language forms are not the central focus, but rather, aspects of language that enable the learner to accomplish those purposes.

-

Fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary principles underlying communicative techniques. At times fluency may have to take on more

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importance than accuracy in order to keep learners meaningfully engaged in language used. In the communicative classrooms students, ultimately have to use the language productively in unrehearsed context. 4.3.1.1Communicative Competence One of the main objectives of ESP is usually developing communicative competence which enables the learners use the language appropriately to a given social context.By the 1970s communicative competence has gained popularity among language learning in the world. The term communicative competence was first proposed by Hymes (1972) who relates the use of language to the social world where it is used; he defines it as what a speaker needs in order to communicate in a speech community. For example, the speaker is not only expected to produce grammatical sentences but also should be able to pay attention to the situation or context in which the statement is taking place. It is also defined as knowledge and skills necessary for communication and the ability to use the language according to the socio-cultural context and effectively pass information to the partner including the ability to use communication strategies to solve the problems that have arisen in the communication process (Canal & Swain, 1980). When the learners need to improve their language level, they will try to do their best in order to understand and be understood and however participate enthusiastically. For instance communicative competence involves the appropriate principles that enable the learners use relevant strategies to cope with certain language situations. To do so, role-playing, simulations, and real-life interactions should be used to provide as much as possible for students to develop communicative competence while practicing linguistic competence (Zhenhul, 1999). 4.3.1.2Communicative Activities As far as activities are concerned, CLT approach as its name refers is characterized by the use of communicative activities which are designed according to 110

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the communicative purpose they will serve. A good description of communicative activities is given by Marrow in (Johnson and Marrow, 1981) taking three features as the most common ones: 1) Information gap: happens when the sender (speaker/ writer) of the information (written/ oral) knows something that the receiver (listener/ reader) does not. 2) Choice: in a communicative situation the speaker has the choice of what to say, but if sentences and structures are prescribed by the teacher there is no free choice and the receiver is supposed to react to the situation. 3) Feedback: the reaction of the listener or reader is a feedback of the pieces of learning. Furthermore, in a communicative teaching context, the teacher is believed to be the responsible of the teaching learning process in general and the ESP course design in particular.He/she has to be able of designing communicative activitiesto enable his/her learners be more communicative and therefore give a high feedback.Accordingly, Harmer (1983:85) describes activities as follows:

Non-communicative activities

Communicative activities

no communicative desire

a desire to communicate

no communicative purpose

a communicative purpose

form not content

content not form

one language item only

variety of language

teacher intervention

no teacher intervention

materials control

no material control

The communication continuum

From what have been said above, CLT remains as an approach that changes the way of the previous approaches in teaching methodologies for its own characteristics and principles that make of it a unique and different approach.

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4.3.1.3 Characteristics and Principles of CLT To attain the underlying goals and objectives of learning the English language, the communicative method is based upon some well-defined characteristics and principles, they can be a good guide for EFL teachers in general and ESP in particular, following these principles will help the teacher achieve the goal of communication. Nunan (1991) views that Communicative Language Teaching is characterized by: 1) An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2) The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. 3) The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the Learning Management Process. 4) An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning. 5) An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom. These features are essential to be known by ESP practitioners as course designers to show their interest with the needs and desires of their learners to learn the language and how they link between language taught in the classroom and its use in real situations outside the classroom. For instance, the next title will deal with an important need that the AGB employees have to develop during their English training programme.

4.4 Developing the Productive Skills. WhenanalyzingtheAGB employees language needs, results showed that there is a need to integrate the four skills in the syllabus design with more emphasis on the productive skills (speaking and writing). 4.4.1 Speaking skill Through the practice of speaking skill, the learner will deal with phonological units like stress, accent, style, pause, degree of delivery, turn taking, frequency of 112

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expressions. Learners should also be given adequate practice to improve their speaking skill. When dealing with the speaking skill the learners need to understand when to take a pause, when to take a turn in speech, how can they convince the listener. There are a variety of activities that could be included in teaching speaking skill; the teacher should include more interactional activities. The findings of NIA about the employees communication needs revealed that they need to practice the following activities: peaking to foreigner partners, answering the phone, chatting with English speakers, dealing with conversations and small talks, introducing one self, conducting meeting, group discussions. Working in pairs and groups may help the learners to realize themselves about their level of participation and performance. Learners should also take part in speaking activities such as greeting, presenting on any topic of interest, engaging in informal chatting, participating in interviews, presenting a business paper, thinking logically and critically about a business issues, describing graphs, power point presentations. Consequently, developing the speaking skill in a business context is fundamental since it helps learners communicate more clearly and concisely in the workplace, it also helps for understanding the language and convention of the different types of the speaking skill. 4.4.2 Writing Skill. Developing the writing skill will help learners communicate more clearly in a business context. Activities concerning the writing skill should introduce the learners to gain an understanding of the different types of business writing styles and common areas of miscommunication. This kind of skills should also be improved by providing tasks that promote writing compositions, letters and reports, learners should have the ability to practice writing activities, think and organize their ideas in a logical way, how to use discourse markers, punctuation and write with a good spelling. Writing activities should also include making the distinction between formal and informal letters, correspondence on any administrative letter, business mails and reports writing. In addition, activities should include ways of writing official letters, memoranda, then learners should be given the opportunity to adequate training on 113

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orders placing, complaining on any issue, asking for clarifications, explanations, instructions, giving suggestions, seeking for recommendations, writing letters of applications, CVs, writing summaries about statistical operations, interpret symbol results about a business description into words using simple as well as complicated sentences.

4.5 Promote the Receptive Skills Developing the receptive skills is essential too since no single skill can be developed independently from the others. 4.5.1 Listening and Reading skills. Within listening activities, the trainer may use cassettes CDs, DVDs from which the learners could listen then check what they have understood. For more explanation the teacher can repeat what has been said from the listening task by reading aloud or telling the listened text to give learners the ability understand it better, thus they can successfully complete the task and be motivated and more confident with the listening skill. In this step, the trainer may include the introduction of some specific terms such as introductory words for the content topics, students are asked to complete the missing information, give more chance to write answers (practice the writing skill) As far as reading is concerned, developing this skill is not an easy task. Designing activities that promote this skill should include some points that are related to specific business readings such as providing authentic texts and articles from magazines and newspapers or internet if not available in order to make learnersexperience reading for information purposes rather than comprehension ones. Through the use of this technique the learner will work on grasping the general meaning instead of spending time on reading the whole article and depicting the meaning of each word and idea in isolation. In addition, the trainer may also use more special figures, graphs and other statistical symbols that characterize the business texts and it is the role of the teacher to simplify these tasks for the learners. 114

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Finally, by integrating more specific readings from the learners’ real world, their knowledge will be updated with the ongoing business world activities and; thus, they will be able to develop a great deal of general as well as specialized vocabulary to feel more confident enough to practice these words in their real contexts.

4.6 SuggestingBusiness Teaching Materials. In an ESP situation, selecting materials is considered as an important step in course design and when it comes to more specific situation, material selection at this stage should reflect the job-related common situations where the learners aim to effectively communicate in their work-place using special jargon. As a result the selecting business material should be according the communicative skills needed by the employees. Ellis and Johnson (1994:117) suggest inquiries for Business English material: - What business skills are taught by which the teacher comes to target specific language skills to learn? - Which content is taught: it is the sphere in which lie all language and target-field skills. Selecting authentic and relevant materials is of crucial importance to gain learners motivation and develop positive attitudes towards the presented courses. The use of authentic materials is considered as one of the key elements to business English communication teaching. Thus, it is highly recommended to adapt the authentic materials based on the learners language needs. Authentic materials are defined as “any material which has not been specifically produced for the purpose of language teaching” (Nunan, 1989:54). These materials have to be taken from the real world with no attention of creating them for the purpose of language teaching (Ellis & Johnson, 2002) in order to provide the business teaching learning process with more authentic activities available to the learners’ needs. Moreover, St John (1996) discusses many types of business English teaching materials, some are verbal like textbooks, and others are non-verbal: case studies, simulations, diagrams including charts for comprehension tasks, word building charts, publications providing models for written documents as letters and reports. Besides of 115

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these, the BE trainer could also include some other supplementary materials sources such as the integration of technological tools such as: software applications,CDs, DVDs, videos and Internet which allow easy access to virtual job situations. Besides, teachers may also use other authentic materials likeadvertisement illustration, financial product brochures, bankers activity sheets, commercial documents, and diagrams in order to demonstrate business concepts, articles and experts from newspapers, magazines, and business English journals such as: Business Today, the Times, the Economists…etc. The purpose is to get the learners dealing with all the terms related to their professional activities in their workplace. Business teaching will be successfully practiced when classes are equipped with technological tools such as LCD projectors, PCs and laptops, and WIFI connection to make access to internet easierby consulting websites like Business.com, Longman Business English and Onestopenglish.com. By implementing Information Communication Technology(ICT) into the teaching of business communication learners will be exposed to other different types of materials as they can bring the outside world into the classroom.

4.7 Suggesting a Syllabus through CLT. After analyzing the target needs and the learning needs of the AGB employees, many results have been identified and prioritized according to their relative importance. From this point of view the researcher gets the idea of putting a syllabus that fit the employees’ communicative needs in their workplace. The learners’ primary need is to communicate effectively in the target language by developing the productive skills as a fundamental basis for their work commitment. For this reason, the researcher tries to provide a syllabus that could achieve goals of making the staff originally productive and communicative in their professional environment. This may be achieved through emphasizing on the acquisition of specific-related vocabularies in the field of banking. As a result the syllabus will focus on activities that aim to develop the ability of speaking and writing skills through real performance of the employees where they will be given an important amount of 116

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activities that aim to improve their specific vocabulary in addition to some grammar related activities. According to Munby (1984) syllabus design is seen as a matter of specifying the content that needs to be taught and then organizing it into teaching syllabus with appropriate learning units. The present case was examined and needs were indentified and prioritized in terms of the AGB employees relative importance of using the language which revealed a crucial awareness about the fact of learning English in order to be more productive and communicative in their work. As a matter of fact the communicative approach can be a good servant for the present case where the language is more specific and time for learning is somehow limited because of some external factors that could be summarized under work commitments and responsibilities,yet, the aim is more focused and the task is more difficult. Consequently, following the communicative approach in designing a syllabus is a broad way to language teaching that focuses on communication as the organizing principle for teaching rather than a focus on the mastery of the grammatical system of the language (Richards, 2001), in other words, through this approach learners are supposed to be able to express their intentions which means that they must learn only the meanings that are important for them (Brown,1995) and this approach has gained more interests with the coming of ESP where needs analysis was the core of course design. Designing a syllabus through the communicative approachimposes the designer to put emphasis on tasks and activities that enable the learners use the language communicatively. Learners may reach communication goals by participating actively in pairs and groups; interact freely with each other without any fear of making errors. Learners should develop the required skills by focusing more on the meaning rather than the form. CLT focuses also on learner-centredness in which the learner is the centre of consideration with an active role in the decision making process and in the designing of course parameters.

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Consequently, Yalden (1987) emphasizes on including communication requirements, personal needs, motivation and characteristics of learning, classroom needs, learners’ desire and wants when designing a course in order to make the learners able to know how to use the language for communicative purposes. Language learners are supposed to acquire language through communicative activities such as practicing conversations and dialogues with pair or group work, through the practice of these activities they will be able to use the language related to the parameters of possibility, feasibility, appropriacy and performance (Brumfit and Johnson, 1987). Communicativeactivities help also understanding the target culture at the same time, because language is a tool for communication between different people. BE trainers are supposed to deliver themes and topics that have a close relation with the course goals and objectives. They should also incorporate the required functions for the learning process. Functions are the communicative purposes for use of language (Nunan, 1988); thus, providing BE courses with the necessary functions will give a sense to language topics and activities.Likewise, the communicative syllabus emphasizes more on functions rather than structure, grammar is naturally and implicitly supposed to be acquired by the students (Krashen, 1981). In other words, the present syllabuses stresses on meaning rather than on the forms; while, the needed vocabulary is included in the suggested topics.Learners in this stage are supposed to learn new words and deduce their meanings of in their real contexts. As far as tasks are concerned they also should be motivating and stimulating,Candlin (1987) (Cited in Nunan, 1988) suggests that tasks should promote the attention to meaning, purpose and negotiation, draw objectives from communicative needs. Thus, it will be challenging for course designers to provide the course with appropriate use of language by providing opportunities for the learners to practice problem solving, share information and insure effectiveness of useful communication in pairs and groups. Tasks in this case may include every business related interest of the AGB employees such as describing graphs, diagrams, pictures, providing discussions or explanations on a given business situation, providing missing parts in dialogues and 118

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conversations (specialized vocabulary use), problem solutions, finding the main ideas, describing tables, discovering specific information about specific problems in work transactions, role playing, judging business situations as true or false, discussing work related issues, business writing, participate in meetings, money transfer, account system, making loans and advances,etc.

4.8 The Proposed Syllabus. The AGB employees are required to have an adequate knowledge of English to prove a big challenge in their occupation. To achieve the underlined expectations, a sample syllabus has been proposed trying to focus on the most common business situations the employees may face in their work focusing on special business vocabulary practice. The present syllabus is a form of business situationspresented in the form of units, these units are generally introduced through listening activities or discussions of some business topics such as graphs, advertisements, and reading short articles. The teacher can use these activities as an introductory phase to link what the learner already knows to what will be taught about business topics. Language patterns are emphasized according to the learners needs. The trainer emphasizes on including much more specialized vocabulary to be acquired through different skills presented in the course. Accordingly, grammar is related to the productive skills that any ESP learner is supposed to use when communicating. Dudley Evans & St John (1998) suggest when teaching grammar to link between meaning and the form,and pay more attention to instruct the different patterns within grammar and apply them in specific tasks. For instance, learners are required to practice grammar forms related to their real practice in professional situations. The employees’ grammar needs have been summarized under some patterns such as: the use of numbers, comparative and superlatives, use of appropriate tenses, preposition.

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Finally, pronunciation and some related business idiomatic expressions and some etiquettes are supposed to take part in the in the syllabus as supportive tools for the development of cultural awareness. 4.8.1Sample Syllabus After conducting a needs analysis with AGB employees, analyzing their work documents and analyzing ESP teachers’ questionnaires, the results contributed to the design of the following sample syllabus. The syllabus is written from the findings of the communicative needs of the employees in their business workplace. The content is a form of business lessons that focuses on developing the essential communicative skills more precisely through developing the speaking and writing skills. The sample syllabus is a form of eight units designed for the AGB employees in particular and Business English learners in general. The syllabus is described in the following way:the first unit is called “Introducing Banking”, it is planned as an introductory phasein order to get the learners familiar with banking concepts and vocabularies. Lessons are first presented through reading a range of business related texts; learners will practice reading to discover information rather than to comprehend the whole texts or passages presented to them (reading for information rather for comprehension). They will also be faced to read some of these passages to correct their pronunciation mistakes and therefore enhance their oral skill. Secondly, units two and three are first designed to “Business Writing” this unit focuses on writing in different business styles such as business letters, memoranda, short business reports and how to answer e-mails and faxes. All these styles are supposed to be dealt with through the emphasis on more specialized words that could appear in such specific situations. In unit three, topics are about “Business Communication” in which the learners will deal with oral communicative tasks such as telephoning (calling, answering calls, answering a machine), listening to oral dialogues then participate in formal and informal conversations. Learners would to able communicate fluently and confidently, using the appropriate terms that could be related to each specific situation.Cultural differences have also been taken into consideration.

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After training learners to write and speak in a business context, unit four which is untitled “Describing Business Activities” is supposed to train learners use these competencies in describing a business activity or problem. Learners at this level should be aware of how to better use the appropriate language and wordspassing from written to oral information when describing and presenting in a given business context. Unit five is about “Outsourcing in Business” this unit aims at making learners able to speak about themselves, their company and business activities. Learners should be trained to use the appropriate language skills when advising clients, presenting a product or a service. At the same time learners will also be trained touse previous information to write business reports and summaries. Unit six which is about “Hosting in Business” aims to enable learners communicate and discuss fluently and spontaneously with business people dealing with cultural attitudes. Topics may include greeting, introducing, and discussing means of hosting business people. The last two units are about “Business Meetings”and “Business Negotiations”;they aim to help learners practice language to participate in business meetings exercising the appropriate functions in role plays and simulations. Learners will be trained to open a meeting, present the layout and exchange ideas using the convenient words and tenses. In terms of negotiation, learners will be trained to negotiate in business such as negotiating a product or a service using different functions such as agreeing and disagreeing, asking for clarification and giving suggestions, accepting and refusing things.

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Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit One: Introduction to Banking

Course Objectives: -

Get learners familiar with banking concepts.

-

Make students able to read for information rather for comprehension.

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Read and understand a range of business related texts and vocabularies.

Unit Component: Introduction to Banking

-

Develop information through reading texts (from known to unknown information).

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Dealing with pronunciation (correct learners errors in pronunciation through reading aloud).

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Practice comprehension and topic discussions e.g. different banking systems, describing changes and discussing causes, describing your job and your company.

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Recognizing preposition use.

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Writing summaries about a company.

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Practicing vocabulary quizzes: use of words translation through sentences and texts, fill in written activities with the appropriate words, in pair work practice these activities through dialogues and conversations to enhance the oral skill.

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Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit Two: Business Writing.

Course Objectives: -

Improve business writing skills (letters, emails, memos…)

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Develop specialized vocabulary use.

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Write effective business reports and summaries.

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Use link words and pronunciation.

Unit Components: Business Writing

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Writing different business styles (memos, emails, faxes, short reports, etc.)

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Dealing with business letters (letters of application, complaints, inquiry, CVs.)

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Logical link words between sentences and paragraphs.

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Using techniques in writing business reports about companies’ activities.

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Expressing functions (apologizing, asking for and giving information, ability, obligation and absence of obligation).

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Emphasize on specialized vocabulary in written activities.

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Emphasize on spelling rules and punctuation markers.

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Translate business articles and texts from English into French or Arabic. (Translation activities)

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Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit Three: Business Communication.

Course Objectives: -

Do effective telephone skills.

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Listen and comprehend excerpts of conversation and speeches.

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Use appropriate vocabularies in specific situations.

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Engage in formal and informal conversations.

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Communicate fluently and confidently.

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Introduce cultural awareness.

Course components: Business Communication

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Dealing with phrases of telephoning and telephoning skills e.g. answering a call, transferring calls, ending a call.

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Using formal language (make a polite request, an arrangement, an offer, expressing conditions, dealing with complaints).

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Dealing with pronunciation: spelling names, addresses and the pronunciation of final sounds: /s/ and, /z/, /ed/, /d/ and /t/.

-

Practice specialized vocabulary through dialogues and conversations.

-

Role-play dialogues for practical telephoning e.g. leaving a message on an answering machine.

-

Use of modals: could I, would you like to

-

Communicate in international context including intercultural understandings.

124

Chapter Four

Suggestions and Recommendations

Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit Four: Describing Business Activities.

Course Objectives: -

To make better presentations and use language effectively and persuasively.

-

Use of specialized vocabulary in business description.

-

To be able to interpret information from non-verbal to verbal information.

-

To be able to recognize grammar rules.

-

To have sufficient range of language ideas or solutions to a problem.

Course components: Describing Business Activities.

-

Describing a business activity e.g. making debts, asking for loans, income.

-

Practice business simulations through conversations and dialogues e.g. how to open an account, how to use credit cards, take out mortgages.

-

Do follow up activities to open conversations to practice speaking skill.

-

Presenting graphs, charts and figures describing situations from non-verbal to verbal information (transfer information into written texts).

-

Use of passive voice to present actions.

-

Dealing with numbers in English (American and British form).

125

Chapter Four

Suggestions and Recommendations

Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit Five: Outsourcing in Business.

Course Objectives: -

Make learners able to talk about their company.

-

Talk about business activities.

-

To be able to use the appropriate language skills.

-

Advising clients and explaining portfolios.

Course components: Outsourcing in Business.

-

Introducing oneself.

-

Representing a company.

-

Making comparisons between different choices (contrast, express and defend an opinion about a product or a service).

-

Placing business orders

-

Discover grammar: comparative and superlative.

-

Special vocabulary practice through activities.

-

Case studies and discussions on analyzing a company’s financial strengths and weaknesses.

-

Use previous information to write business reports/ summaries about the studied situations.

126

Chapter Four

Suggestions and Recommendations

Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit Six: Hosting in Business. Course Objectives: -

To be able to use principles of opening a discussion with business people.

-

To be able interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity with English speakers.

-

To be able to understand culture attitudes differences.

-

Socialize and network with greater confidence.

Course components: Hosting in Business.

-

Phrases of greeting, introduction, parting.

-

Levels of formality.

-

Introducing and discussing business topics: aims of business visits.

-

Writing invitation cards.

-

Discussing means of hosting business people: organizing receptions, writing the layout of the business visit.

-

Opening a topic of interest.

-

Dealing with business visitors (showing interests, talk about hobbies, impressing important people)

-

Entertaining customers.

-

Dealing with tasks of cultural awareness.

127

Chapter Four

Suggestions and Recommendations

Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit Seven: Business Meetings

Course Objectives: -

Speak more accurately and fluently.

-

Manage effective meetings.

-

Exchange ideas through using appropriate functions.

-

Structure grammatically correct sentences and use of appropriate words.

-

Be adapted with power point presentation and technology use.

Course components: “Business Meetings” -

Carrying out meetings: opening, chairing, changing ideas and closing a meeting.

-

Vocabulary for carrying out meetings (minutes, secretary, chair, etc)

-

Dealing with functions: stating aims, agreeing and disagreeing, giving opinions, dealing with interruption and asking for clarification.

-

Using videos to show examples from British and American doing business meetings.

-

Using power point presentations to explain the meeting points.

-

Give oral summaries about the meeting results.

128

Chapter Four

Suggestions and Recommendations

Communicative Syllabus for BE Learners Unit eight: Business Negotiations

Course Objectives:

-

Be able to become effective negotiators.

-

Be able to handle business negotiations.

-

Using different functions in order to negotiate different tasks.

-

Be accustomed with special vocabulary use.

-

Structure grammatically correct sentences

Course components:

Business Negotiations -

Build up real business negotiations (choose between two bank representatives and work on negotiating a product or a service then discover factors affecting this negotiation).

-

Language use in negotiation (opening and closing a negotiation).

-

Using different functions ( agreeing and disagreeing, giving suggestions, expressing opinions, asking for clarification, bargaining, making offers, accepting and refusing)

-

Grammar rules: use of conditional to express condition.

-

Emphasize on special vocabulary use.

129

Chapter Four

Suggestions and Recommendations

4.9 Conclusion It appears to be generally accepted that ESP and BE courses should be designed and geared precisely in accordance to students’ needs and preferences. This means that any ESP course has to be adapted or rewritten for each specific group of learners in a specific area of learning. According to the results of the analysis, the teacher has chosen the communicative approach as suitable method to teach business vocabulary through different communicative tasks. Finally, it is hoped that some other suggestions will be useful for BE teachers when teaching business learners. Suggestions are about using authentic materials and a design of a sample syllabus that could be an example for teaching English for business purposes.

130

General Conclusion

General Conclusion

General Conclusion EOP learners face difficulties when learning English, especially job-experienced learners who may not be prepared to receive language courses as they have stopped learning for a period of time in addition to their job responsibilities. As far as teaching Business English is concerned, each field of business requires specific skills to be acquired (management, marketing, banking, accounting, etc). Teaching business requires the use of special language, special content, special structures and special vocabulary use in order to deliver special functions required for each discipline of business. The aim of this research was to examine and demonstrate the importance of the English language in the Algerian administration taking the Algeria Gulf Bank employees in Tlemcenas a sample population of this study. The researcher started her investigation by reporting some related theoretical backgrounds about EOP in a literature review in the first chapter. First, she dealt with EOP definitions as well as its development and branches. Secondly, she dealt with one of its common branches namely EBE, including the ESP teaching operation that could any ESP/EBE course follow in order to design courses. Finally, the researcher tried to speak about vocabulary teaching in EBE. In chapter two, the researcher gave a description about theresearch method, participants, instruments, and procedures used in this study.The research inquiries led the researcher opt for a case study method since it allowed her describe, present and represent the phenomenon and propose solutions to the findings of the study. In order to answer these inquiries she selected some research instruments to be used in order to help her achieve the study intention. The instruments were documentary analysis, semi-structured interview and a questionnaire which were used in combination under the triangulation process. The aim of triangulating data was to have large information that could be undertaken from different angles in order to complement each other. After selecting the informants a question has been raised,do really AGB employees use the English language in their workplace? This was the inquiry of the first hypothesis from which the answers were analysed through the use of 132

General Conclusion “documentary analysis” instrument. In fact, the results obtained from the data collected through this instrument showed that AGB employees employ the English language as a medium of communication with other foreigner partners from other banks (Arab or European banks), deal with different business operations at the national and international scale, perform some job tasks such as payment contracts, writing business letters and opening credit documentaries, etc. The second instrument was addressed to the AGB employees; the aim of this latter was to identify the target as well as the learning needs of these employees towards learning English. The qualitative and quantitative results from this instrument showed that AGB employees need to learn English in order to communicate effectively.Language courses should be based on communicative tasks and activities that may help them practise the language in real-life business situation.Accordingly, acquiring specialized terms related to their field has also been emphasized. Finally, to reach an educational and specialist point of view, a questionnaire was administered to the ESP teacher in the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Tlemcen. This category of teachers was chosen with the aim of giving their opinions and views from the real situation in Algeria. The questionnaire touched different elements and the results obtained from this instrument revealed two important things: first, the lack of ESP training offered to these teachers that could help them deal with special teaching and course design in addition to the lack of suitable and adequate teaching materials. Second, the importance of including the CLT approach in teaching business English and business vocabulary in order to foster the learner proficiency in the English language in a minimum of time with maximum results. The data were collected and then analysed in chapter threeand on the basis of the results obtained, chapter four was devoted to present some suggestions and recommendations for AGB employees according to the language they need. The learners’ needs were identified and the results showed that they do not only need specific English but they also lack general one. As a result,the investigator suggested anappropriate syllabus which should link the teaching language content and developing related skills. The syllabus is composed of eight units presented according 133

General Conclusion to the special needs of the AGB employees, they aim to enable them develop a great amount

of

special

terms.

The

syllabus

is

designed

according

to

the

communicativeapproach; it aims to develop this type of specialized vocabulary while learning business communicative competencies. The aim of implementing CLT in BE teaching was to create more interaction activities that enhance communication between learners, as it would improve the quality of the courses presented.Learners would be involved in the design of the course parameters under the learner-centred approach, this latter makes learners partner of the teaching/learning process by proposing their ideas, views and opinions. These characteristics encouraged the trainer to create more motivating tasks about language skills. It has been shown that the employees need to develop first speaking and writing followed by listening and reading which were used as introductory activities in the courses presented. Moreover, the underlined objectives could not be reached only through the presented syllabus, teaching business English requires a flexible teacher that could manage the learning atmospheres. In addition, when learners are aware of their objectives they will positively be involved in the teaching/learning situation by raising their motivation and learning outcomes.These ideas could be the inquiries to open the doors for other further researches in the future in the domain of teaching business English in Algeria. Questions may be as follow: To what extent communicative activities help learners overcome business vocabulary weaknesses? Are the available teaching business materials in Algeria helpful for effective business Englishteaching? Are Algerian job-experienced learners motivated when learning English? Do private Language centres in Algeria really offer adequate programmes in Business English? Does the financial factor play a role in restricting language programmes offeredin Algerian companies? What are the effective strategies for teaching business writing? 134

General Conclusion Is cultural awareness important to be included in English training programmes? To sum up, the aim of this investigation was to demonstrate the idea of implementing the communicative approach to teach specialized business vocabulary in an occupational context. Action research is more suitable to affirm this idea since it will help the trainerrecognize the learners’ capacity to learn English through CLT. In the present case it was not possible to do so because nothing was confirmed with the CCI to start the programme.

135

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136

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152

Appendices

APPENDICES

153

Appendices

APPENDIX: 01 Administrative Documents of The Algeria Gulf Bank

154

Appendices

155

Appendices

156

Appendices

157

Appendices

APPENDIX 02: Algeria Gulf Bank Employees’ Interview

158

Appendices The semi structured interview to the ‘Algeria Gulf Bank’ employees. Of Tlemcen As it is declared by the responsible of the bank you are going to receive special English training programme which will take place in parallel as your working times. The present interview will seek for your needs to develop business vocabulary to succeed in your career. I would be highly appreciated if you could answer my questions 1- Age 2- Your job experience 3- What is your position in the bank? ……………………………………………………… 4- What is your qualification? ………………………………………………………… 5- Did you have English courses at university? Yes

No

6- Do you use English at work? Yes

No

7- Is English necessary for your occupation? Yes

No

8- Do you think that knowledge of English helps you to graduate in your occupation? Yes

No

9- Are you doing anything in order to enhance your English level? Yes

No

If yes, specify please……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………. 10- The bank is preparing to offer you courses in English. Do you see this kind of English training programme as? Necessary

Useful

159

Not necessary

Appendices 11- Are you prepared to attend these courses in addition to your work commitments? Yes

No

12- Classify these needs according to their presence in your real life business work. Writing business reports. Answering e-mails, faxes, Outlook. Attending international conferences. Participating in meetings with foreigner partners using English. Listening to business news in English. For speaking to foreigner partners 13- What are your lacks when using English in a business context? Lack of fluency when speaking Lack of understanding words meanings. Lack of finding suitable business vocabulary. Lack of writing skills in business contexts (writing letters, memos, Cvs…) Lack of communicating in Business English. Lack of grammar rules and correct use of tenses.

14- Do you consider business vocabulary as an important language ability to communicate in business English? Yes

No

15- How often do you face business vocabulary in your daily work? Always

sometimes

rarely

16- Do you understand every word you face? Yes

No

160

Appendices 17- What is the suitable way in your opinion to learn this type of vocabulary? Learn it by heart from dictionaries. Read texts then explain difficult words. Practice it through communicative activities such as dialogues and conversations. Translate the words then remember its explanation. 18- Do you see using communicative activities to learn business vocabulary as? Suitable

Not suitable

Thank you very much for your kind help.

161

Appendices

APPENDIX 02: Algeria Gulf Bank Employees’ Interview (French Version)

162

Appendices

L’interview des employés de la banque « AGB » de Tlemcen. Le responsable de la banque a déclaré la nécessité de poursuivre un programme de la langue Anglaise pour les employés de la banque par rapport à son importance dans le domaine des affaires. La présente interview est désignée pour une analyse des besoins dont le but est de connaitre l’importance de développer le vocabulaire spécifique pour réussir dans le domaine du business. 1- Age 2- Votre expérience dans ce domaine 3- Votre position dans la banque? ……………………………………………………… 4- Votre diplôme universitaire? ………………………………………………………… 5- Avez-vous étudié la langue Anglaise à l’université? OuiNon 6- Utilisez-vous l’Anglais dans votre profession? OuiNon 7- Considérez-vous que la langueAnglaisesoit nécessaire dans votre occupation? Oui Non 8- Pensez-vous que la connaissance de l’Anglais vous aide à graduer dans votre poste? Oui

Non

9- Suivez-vous des formations pour améliorer votre niveau d’Anglais ? Oui

Non

Si oui, spécifiez svp……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………. 10- Quelle est votre vision envers la formation d’Anglais préparé par votre banque? Nécessaire

Utile

Inutile

163

Appendices 11- Etes-vous prêt (e) d’assister à ces cours en plus de vos heures de travail? OuiNon 12- Classez ces besoins par rapport à vos activités quotidiennes. (Pourquoi vous avez besoin de cette langue) - Ecrire les rapports de business en Anglais - Répondre aux e-mails, faxes, Outlook. - Assister aux conférences et aux colloques internationaux. - Participer aux réunions avec des partenaires étrangers en utilisant l’Anglais - Ecouter les informations des affaires et de l’économie en Anglais. - Pour parler avec des étrangers (partenaires, clients…) 13- Quelles sont vos manques quand vous utilisez l’Anglais? (Cochez les réponses qui vous conviennent par rapport à votre occupation) -

Le manque de parler couramment

-

le manque de comprendre le sens des mots (vocabulaire générale).

-

Le manque de trouver les mots spécifiques qui conviennent. (vocabulaire technique)

-

le manque de savoir écrire dans le domaine de business (lettre de business, memos, CV…) (écriture technique)

-

le manque de communiquer dans le contexte de business.

-

le manque de connaitre les règles grammaticales et l’usage des temps.

14- Considérez-vous que la connaissance du vocabulaire spécifique de business comme un important élément pour communiquer dans votre domaine? Oui

Non

15-Combien de fois vous êtes en face de ce type de vocabulaire dans vos activités? Toujours

Des fois

Rarement

16 comprenez-vous les termes de business qui peuvent apparaitre dans vos activités quotidiennes? Oui

Non

164

Appendices 17- A votre avis quelle est la méthode appropriée pour apprendre ce type de vocabulaire? -

Apprendre les mots par cœur.

-

lire les textes et expliquer les mots difficiles.

-

Pratiquer les mots à travers des activités communicativesex. dialogues, conversations.

-

traduire les mots et se rappeler de leurs explications.

18 Comment vous considérez les activités communicatives pour apprendre le vocabulaire des affaires en Anglais? Appropriées

Non appropriées

Merci d’avoir participer.

165

Appendices

APPENDIX 03: ESP Teachers’ Questionnaire CCI Tafna

166

Appendices

ESP Teacher Questionnaire. I am conducting a research to investigate the business English learners’ needs to develop specialized business vocabulary in their working contexts in order to succeed in their careers using the communicative approach as a method of teaching. As an EFL and ESP teacher your opinion is highly appreciated in this research. 1- What is your degree? Licence

Magister

Doctorate

2- What is your status at the university? Part-time teacher

Full-time teacher

3- Your experience in teaching English (years) : General English

Specific English

4- Did you have any ESP training before? Yes

No

5- Have you taught Business English to occupational learners before: Yes

No

6- Do you find some difficulties when explaining the English course in the specialfield? Yes

No

If yes specify why............................................................................................... …………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………… 7 -Are you doing anything to improve your knowledge in the subject field? Yes

No

If yes identify them……………………….......................................................

167

Appendices

8- What are the kind of materials do you usually use in your teaching? ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................ 9- As an ESP teacher, do you consider teaching business vocabulary as necessary to achieve business communication goals? Yes

No

10-Do you follow the principles of the communicative approach in your teaching? Yes

No

11- To what extent do you see learning business vocabulary through communication will be successful? …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 12- Do you think communicative activities will motivate business learners? Yes

No

If yes say why….………………........................................................... …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 13- As an experienced teacher in this domain what do you suggest to make BE learning more efficient? …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… Thank you for your cooperation!

168

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<‫ل ا‬

,‫ ل‬+,‫راض ا ل و ا‬4, ‫ز‬

‫ ا‬3 ‫ ا‬, $ ‫راض‬4, ‫ز‬ & ‫ ; م ر‬,‫وا;ل‬

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Résumé L’objectif de cette recherche est de refléter l’importance de l’acquisition du vocabulaire spécifique des affaires en Anglais. Ce dernier permet les employés de la Banque du Gulf Algérie à Tlemcen d’éviter les problèmes de communications rencontrées dans leurs domaines de travail. D’après l’identification et l’analyse des besoins les résultats ont montrés que la majorité des employés ont besoins d’étudier l’Anglais des affaires pour améliorer leurs répertoires de vocabulaire spécifique. La présente étude propose quelques suggestions pour améliorer l’enseignement de cette branche en Algérie. Un programme établi sur l’approche communicative a été élaboré pour aider les employés à étudier l’Anglais et acquérir le vocabulaire des affaires en l’employant dans des cas similaires en relation avec leurs occupations. Mots clés: Anglais à but occupationnel, Anglais des affaires, identification et analyse des besoins, vocabulaire spécifique, élaboration d’un programme, l’approche communicative. Abstract The aim of this research is to show the importance of specialized business vocabulary for the Algeria Gulf Banc employees in Tlemcen to avoid misunderstanding and breakdowns when communicating in a business context. From the needs identification and analysis, it has been shown that the majority of the employees need to learn English as they also suffer from the lack of specialized business vocabulary. Accordingly, some suggestions have been proposed in order to improve the teaching of Business English in Algeria. In addition, the design of a sample syllabus based on the communicative approach has been designed. Its aim is to enable AGB employees learn English communicatively and acquire specialized business vocabulary by employing it in different situations similar to their occupations. Key words: EOP, BE, needs identification and analysis, specialized business vocabulary, syllabus design, communicative approach.