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A Latin Translation Notes Or "at will", "at one's pleasure". This phrase, and its "from one who has Italian (beneplacito) and Spanish (beneplácito) ...

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A Latin


Notes Or "at will", "at one's pleasure". This phrase, and its "from one who has Italian (beneplacito) and Spanish (beneplácito) a bene placito been pleased well" derivatives, are synonymous with the more common ad libitum ("at pleasure"). abusus non tollit "abuse does not usum preclude proper use" Or "from heaven all the way to the center of the a caelo usque ad "from the sky to the earth". In law, can refer to the obsolete cuius est solum centrum center" eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos maxim of property ownership. From top to bottom; all the way through. Equally a a capite ad calcem "from head to heel" pedibus usque ad caput. Equivalent to "on the contrary" or "au contraire". An argumentum a contrario is an "argument from the a contrario "from the opposite" contrary", an argument or proof by contrast or direct opposite. a Deucalione "since Deucalion" A long time ago. From Gaius Lucilius (Satires, 6, 284) Loosely, "even more so" or "with even stronger a fortiori "from the stronger" reason". Often used to lead from a less certain proposition to a more evident corollary. From Psalm 72:8, "Et dominabitur a mari usque ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos terrae" (KJV: a mari usque ad "from sea to sea" "He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and mare from the river unto the ends of the earth"). National motto of Canada. Completely. Similar to the English expressions "from a pedibus usque ad "from feet to head" tip to toe" or "from top to toe". Equally a capite ad caput calcem. See also ab ovo usque ad mala. "from being able to "From possibility to actuality" or "from being possible a posse ad esse being" to being actual" Based on observation (i.e., empirical knowledge), the reverse of a priori. Used in mathematics and logic to a posteriori "from the latter" denote something that is known after a proof has been carried out. In philosophy, used to denote something that can be known from empirical experience. Presupposed, the reverse of a posteriori. Used in mathematics and logic to denote something that is known or postulated before a proof has been carried a priori "from the former" out. In philosophy, used to denote something that can be known without empirical experience. In everyday speech, it denotes something occurring or being known before the event.

ab absurdo

ab abusu ad usum non valet consequentia ab aeterno ab antiquo ab epistulis ab extra ab hinc ab imo pectore

ab inconvenienti

ab incunabulis ab initio

Said of an argument that seeks to prove a statement's validity by pointing out the absurdity of an opponent's position (cf. appeal to ridicule) or that an assertion is "from the absurd" false because of its absurdity. Not to be confused with a reductio ad absurdum, which is usually a valid logical argument. "a consequence Inferences regarding something's use from its misuse from an abuse to a are invalid. Rights abused are still rights (cf. abusus use is not valid" non tollit usum). Literally, "from the everlasting" or "from eternity". Thus, "from time immemorial", "since the beginning "from the eternal" of time" or "from an infinitely remote time in the past". In theology, often indicates something, such as the universe, that was created outside of time. "from the ancient" From ancient times. "from the letter" Or, having to do with correspondence. A legal term meaning "from without". From external "from beyond" sources, rather than from the self or the mind (ab intra). Often rendered abhinc (which in Latin means simply "from here on" "since" or "ago"). More literally, "from the deepest chest". Attributed to "from the bottom of Julius Caesar. Can mean "with deepest affection" or my heart" "sincerely". New Latin for "based on unsuitability", "from inconvenience" or "from hardship". An argumentum ab inconvenienti is one based on the difficulties "from an involved in pursuing a line of reasoning, and is thus a inconvenient thing" form of appeal to consequences; it refers to a rule in law that an argument from inconvenience has great weight. Thus, "from the beginning" or "from infancy". Incunabula is commonly used in English to refer to "from the cradle" the earliest stage or origin of something, and especially to copies of books that predate the spread of the printing press around AD 1500. "from the "At the outset", referring to an inquiry or beginning" investigation. In literature, refers to a story told from the beginning rather than in medias res (from the middle). In law, refers to something being the case from the start or from the instant of the act, rather than from when the court declared it so. A judicial declaration of the invalidity of a marriage ab initio is a nullity. In science, refers to the first principles. In other contexts, often refers to beginner or training

courses. Ab initio mundi means "from the beginning of the world". From someone who dies with no legal will (cf. ex ab intestato "from an intestate" testamento). ab intra "from within" From the inside. The opposite of ab extra. By a person who is angry. Used in law to describe a decision or action that is detrimental to those it affects and was made based on hatred or anger, rather than on "from an angry ab irato reason. The form irato is masculine; however, this man" does not mean it applies only to men, rather 'person' is meant, as the phrase probably elides "homo," not "vir." From the origin, beginning, source, or commencement ab origine "from the source" —i.e., "originally". The source of the word aboriginal. From Horace, Satire 1.3. Means "from beginning to end", based on the Roman main meal typically ab ovo usque ad "from the egg to the beginning with an egg dish and ending with fruit (cf. mala apples" the English phrase soup to nuts). Thus, ab ovo means "from the beginning", and can also connote thoroughness. From Virgil's Aeneid. Refers to situations where a ab uno disce omnes "from one, learn all" single example or observation indicates a general or universal truth. Refers to the founding of Rome, which occurred in 753 BC according to Livy's count. Used as a reference "from the founding point in ancient Rome for establishing dates, before ab urbe condita (a.u.c.) of the city" being supplanted by other systems. Also anno urbis conditae (a.u.c.) ("in the year that the city was founded"). ab utili "from utility" Used of an argument. absens haeres non "an absent person In law, refers to the principle that someone who is not erit will not be an heir" present is unlikely to inherit. "with the defendant absente reo (abs. re.) In the absence of the accused. being absent" Expresses the wish that no insult or wrong be "let injury by words conveyed by the speaker's words, i.e., "no offense". absit iniuria verbis be absent" Also rendered absit injuria verbis; see also absit invidia. Although similar to the English expression "no offense", absit invidia is not a mere social gesture to avoid causing offense, but also a way to ward off the "let ill will be absit invidia harm that some people superstitiously believe absent" animosity can cause others. Also extended to absit invidia verbo, meaning "may ill will be absent from the word" (cf. absit iniuria verbis).

In other words, "let there not be an omen here". Expresses the wish that something seemingly illboding does not turn out to be an omen for future events, and calls on divine protection against evil.

absit omen

"let an omen be absent"

absolutum dominium

"absolute dominion" Total power or sovereignty.

absolvo abundans cautela non nocet abusus non tollit usum accusare nemo se debet nisi coram Deo Accipe Hoc acta est fabula plaudite

acta non verba Acta Sanctorum actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea actus reus

ad absurdum adaequatio intellectûs nostri

A legal term said by a judge acquitting a defendant following a trial. Te absolvo or absolvo te, translated, "I acquit" "I forgive you," said by Roman Catholic priests during the Sacrament of Confession prior to Vatican II. "abundant caution Thus, one can never be too careful; even excessive does no harm" precautions don't hurt anyone. An axiom stating that just because something can be, "misuse does not or has been, abused, does not mean that it must be, or remove use" always is. Abuse does not, in itself, justify denial of use A legal maxim denoting that any accused person is "no one ought to entitled to make a plea of not guilty, and also that a accuse himself witness is not obliged to give a response or submit a except in the document that will incriminate himself. A very similar Presence of God" phrase is nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. "Take that" Motto of 848 Naval Air Squadron, Royal Navy. A common ending to ancient Roman comedies, also claimed by Suetonius in Lives of the Twelve Caesars "The play has been to have been Caesar Augustus' last words. Applied by performed; Sibelius to the third movement of his String Quartet applaud!" no. 2 so that his audience would realize it was the last one, as a fourth would normally be expected. Motto of the United States Merchant Marine "actions, not words" Academy. Also used in the singular, Acta Sancti ("Deeds of the "Deeds of the Saint"), preceding a specific Saint's name. A common Saints" title of works in hagiography. "The act is not A legal term outlining the presumption of mens rea in guilty unless the a crime. mind is also guilty." The actual crime that is committed, rather than the intent or thought process leading up to the crime. "guilty act" Thus, the external elements of a crime, as contrasted with mens rea, the internal elements. In logic, to the point of being silly or nonsensical. See "to the absurd" also reductio ad absurdum. Not to be confused with ab absurdo ("from the absurd"). "conformity of our A phrase used in epistemology regarding the nature of minds to the fact" understanding.

cum re ad abundantiam

"to abundance"

ad astra

"to the stars"

ad astra per aspera ad astra per alia porci ad captandum vulgus

ad eundem

ad fontes ad fundum

ad hoc

ad hominem

ad honorem ad infinitum ad interim (ad int)

In legal language, used when providing additional evidence to an already sufficient collection. Also used commonly, as an equivalent of "as if this wasn't enough". Name or motto (in full or part) of many organizations/publications/etc.

"to the stars through Motto of Kansas, and other organisations. difficulty" A favorite saying of John Steinbeck. A professor told "to the stars on the him that he would be an author when pigs flew. Every wings of a pig" book he wrote is printed with this insignia. To do something to appeal to the masses. Often used of politicians who make false or insincere promises to "in order to court appeal to popular interest. An argumentum ad the crowd" captandum is an argument designed to please the crowd. An ad eundem degree, from the Latin ad eundem gradum ("to the same step" or "to the same degree"), is a courtesy degree awarded by one university or "to the same" college to an alumnus of another. It is not an honorary degree, but a recognition of the formal learning that earned the degree at another college. A motto of Renaissance humanism. Also used in the "to the sources" Protestant Reformation. Said during a generic toast, equivalent to "bottoms "to the bottom" up!" In other contexts, generally means "back to the basics". Generally means "for this", in the sense of improvised on the spot or designed for only a specific, immediate purpose. "to this" Rather than relying on ad hoc decisions, we should form a consistent plan for dealing with emergency situations.

Connotations of "against the man". Typically used in argumentum ad hominem, a logical fallacy consisting of criticizing a person when the subject of debate is "to the man" the person's ideas or argument, on the mistaken assumption that the validity of an argument is to some degree dependent on the qualities of the proponent. Generally means "for the honor", not seeking any "to the honor" material reward. Going on forever. Used to designate a property which "to infinity" repeats in all cases in mathematical proof. "for the meantime" As in the term "chargé d'affaires ad interim" for a

diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador. Attributed by Suetonius in Lives of the Twelve Caesars to Caesar Augustus. The phrase means ad Kalendas "to the Greek "never" and is similar to phrases like "when pigs fly". Graecas Kalends" The Kalends (also written Calends) were specific days of the Roman calendar, not of the Greek, and so the "Greek Kalends" would never occur. Loosely, "according to what pleases" or "as you wish"; libitum comes from the past participle of libere, "to please". It typically indicates in music and theatrical ad libitum (ad lib) "toward pleasure" scripts that the performer has the liberty to change or omit something. Ad lib is specifically often used when someone improvises or ignores limitations. A legal term referring to a party appointed by a court to act in a lawsuit on behalf of another party who is ad litem "to the lawsuit" deemed incapable of representing himself. An individual who acts in this capacity is called a guardian ad litem. Motto of Oxford High School (Oxford), the University ad lucem "to the light" of Lisbon, Withington Girls' School and St. Bartholomew's School, Newbury, UK Motto of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Johann Sebastian Bach dedicated all of his work with the ad maiorem Dei "To the greater glory abbreviation "AMDG", and Edward Elgar's The gloriam (AMDG) of God" Dream of Gerontius is similarly dedicated. Often rendered ad majorem Dei gloriam. Expresses a wish for a long life. Similar to the English ad multos annos "To many years!" expression "Many happy returns!" Literally, "to the point of nausea". Sometimes used as a humorous alternative to ad infinitum. An "to the point of argumentum ad nauseam is a logical fallacy involving ad nauseam disgust" basing one's argument on prolonged repetition, i.e., repeating something so much that people are "sick of it". "With your own Meaning "obvious on sight" or "obvious to anyone ad oculos eyes." that sees it". "to the foot of the Thus, "exactly as it is written". Similar to the English ad pedem litterae letter" idiom "to the letter", meaning "to the last detail". Generally precedes "of" and a person's name, and is ad perpetuam "to the perpetual used to wish for someone to be remembered long after memoriam memory" death. ad pondus omnium "to the weight of all More loosely, "considering everything's weight". The (ad pond om) things" abbreviation was historically used by physicians and others to signify that the last prescribed ingredient is to weigh as much as all of the previously mentioned

ones. Meaning "according to the harm" or "in proportion to the harm". The phrase is used in tort law as a measure ad quod damnum "to what damage" of damages inflicted, implying that a remedy, if one exists, ought to correspond specifically and only to the damage suffered (cf. damnum absque injuria). ad referendum Loosely "subject to reference", meaning that (ad ref) to a referendum. Thus, "to the point". Without digression. Thank you for your concise, ad rem ad rem "to the matter" response.

ad undas

"to the waves"

ad usum Delphini

"for the use of the Dauphin"

Equivalent to "to hell". Said of a work that has been expurgated of offensive or improper parts. The phrase originates from editions of Greek and Roman classics which Louis XIV had censored for his heir apparent, the Dauphin. Also rarely in usum Delphini ("into the use of the Dauphin").

ad usum proprium "for one's own use" (ad us. propr.)

Also the motto of Lund University, with the implied "prepared for either alternatives being the book (study) and the sword alternative". (defending the country in war). According to an object's value. Used in commerce to ad valorem "to the value" refer to ad valorem taxes, taxes based on the assessed value of real estate or personal property. More commonly translated into "for victory" this is a ad victoriam "to victory" battlecry of the Romans. ad vitam aeternam "to eternal life" Also "to life everlasting". A common Biblical phrase. ad vitam aut "for life or until Usually used of a term of office. culpam fault" An item to be added, especially a supplement to a addendum "thing to be added" book. The plural is addenda. "correspondence of One of the definitions of the truth. When the mind has adequatio the mind and the same form as reality, we think truth. Also found as intellectus et rei reality" adequatio rei et intellectus. Equivalent to "Present!" or "Here!" The opposite of adsum "I am here" absum ("I am absent"). adversus solem ne "Don't speak against I.e., don't argue the obvious loquitor the sun" "a sick man's From Horace, Ars Poetica, 7. Loosely, "troubled aegri somnia dreams" dreams". aequitas "Justice" or ad utrumque paratus


aetatis suae

"of his own age"

Thus, "at the age of". Appeared on portraits, gravestones, etc. Sometimes extended to anno aetatis suae (AAS), "in the year of his age". Sometimes shortened to just aetatis (aet.). The tomb reads Anno 1629 Aetatis Suae 46 because she died in 1629 at age 46.


"he asserted"

age quod agis

"Do what you are doing."

A legal term from Medieval Latin referring to a sworn statement. From fides, "faith".

Originally comparable to a to-do list, an ordered list of things to be done. Now generalized to include any agenda "things to be done" planned course of action. The singular, agendum ("thing that must be done"), is rarely used. Latin translation from John 1:36, where John the Baptist exclaims "Ecce Agnus Dei!" ("Behold the Agnus Dei "Lamb of God" Lamb of God!") upon seeing Jesus, referring both to a lamb's connotations of innocence and to a sacrificial lamb. Said by Julius Caesar upon crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC, according to Suetonius. The original meaning was roughly equivalent to the English phrase "the game is alea iacta est "the die is cast" afoot", but its modern meaning, like that of the phrase "crossing the Rubicon", denotes passing the point of no return on a momentous decision and entering into a risky endeavor where the outcome is left to chance. "Let learning be alenda lux ubi orta cherished where The motto of Davidson College. libertas liberty has arisen." An assumed name or pseudonym. Similar to alter ego, alias "otherwise" but more specifically referring to a name, not to a "second self". A legal defense where a defendant attempts to show that he was elsewhere at the time a crime was committed. alibi "elsewhere" His alibi is sound; he gave evidence that he was in another city on the night of the murder.

alis aquilae alis grave nil

taken from the Book of Isaiah, Chapter 40. "But those who wait for the Lord shall find their strength "on eagles wings" renewed, they shall mount up on wings like eagles, they shall run and not grow weary, they shall walk and not grow faint." "nothing is heavy to motto of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de those who have Janeiro (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de

alis volat propris Aliquantus Aliquantulus aliquid stat pro aliquo

wings" "she flies with her own wings" "Rather big" "Not that big" "something that stands for something else"

Janeiro- PUC-RIO). State motto of Oregon. Can also be rendered alis volat propriis.

A foundational definition for semiotics

Term used for the university one attends or has attended. Another university term, matriculation, is also derived from mater. The term suggests that the alma mater "nourishing mother" students are "fed" knowledge and taken care of by the university. The term is also used for a university's traditional school anthem. Another self, a second persona or alias. Can be used to describe different facets or identities of a single alter ego "other I" character, or different characters who seem representations of the same personality. Often used of a fictional character's secret identity. Final sentence from Aesop ascribed fable (see also Aesop's Fables) "The Frogs Who Desired a King" as "Let no man belong alterius non sit qui appears in the collection commonly known as the to another that can suus esse potest "Anonymus Neveleti" (fable "XXIb. De ranis a Iove belong to himself" querentibus regem"). Motto of Paracelsus. Usually attributed to Cicero. "to not wound alterum non laedere One of Justinian I's three basic legal precepts. another" Sometimes rendered with the gender-neutral alumn or alum in English. A graduate or former student of a school, college or university. Alumna (pl. alumnae) is alumna or a female pupil, and alumnus (pl. alumni) is a male "pupil" alumnus pupil—alumni is generally used for a group of both males and females. The word derives from alere, "to nourish", a graduate being someone who was raised and taken care of at the school (cf. alma mater). An adviser, or a person who can obtain or grant access to the favour of powerful group, like a Roman Curia. amicus curiae "friend of the court" In current U.S. legal usage, an amicus curiae is a third party allowed to submit a legal opinion (in the form of an amicus brief) to the court. An obsolete legal term signifying the forfeiture of the amiterre legem "to lose the law of right of swearing in any court or cause, or to become terrae the land" infamous. amor est vitae "love is the essence As said by Robert B. Mackay, Australian Analyst. essentia of life"

amor et melle et felle est fecundissmismus Amor fati

"love is rich with both honey and venom" "love of fate"

Nietzscheian alternative world view to memento mori [remember you must die]. Nietzsche believed amor fati to be more life affirming.

"love is the same for from Virgil's Georgics III. all" "love of one's amor patriae Patriotism. country" Written on bracelet worn by the Prioress in Chaucer's amor vincit omnia "love conquers all" The Canterbury Tales. See also veritas omnia vincit and labor omnia vincit. "courage conquers Motto of North Mesquite High School, Mesquite, animus omnia vincit all" Texas. Also used in such phrases as anno urbis conditae (see anno (an.) "in the year" ab urbe condita), Anno Domini, and anno regni. Short for Anno Domini Nostri Iesus Christi ("in the Year of Our Lord, Jesus Christ"), the predominantly used system for dating years across the world, used with the Gregorian calendar, and based on the "in the Year of the perceived year of the birth of Jesus Christ. The years Anno Domini (A.D.) before Jesus' birth were once marked with a. C.n Lord" (Ante Christum Natum, "Before Christ was Born"), but now use the English abbreviation BC ("Before Christ"). amor omnibus idem

Augustus was born in the year 63 BC, and died AD 14.

anno regni

Annuit Cœptis

annus horribilis

annus mirabilis

"In the year of the reign"

Precedes "of" and the current ruler.

Motto on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States and on the back of the U.S. one dollar bill. "He" "He Has Approved refers to God, and so the official translation given by the Undertakings" the U.S. State Department is "He [God] has favored our undertakings". A recent pun on annus mirabilis, first used by Queen Elizabeth II to describe what a bad year 1992 had been for her, and subsequently occasionally used to refer to "horrible year" many other years perceived as "horrible". In Classical Latin, this phrase would actually mean "terrifying year". See also annus terribilis. "wonderful year" Used particularly to refer to the years 1665–1666, during which Isaac Newton made revolutionary inventions and discoveries in calculus, motion, optics and gravitation. Annus Mirabilis is also the title of a poem by John Dryden written in the same year. It has

annus terribilis

"dreadful year"

ante bellum

"before the war"

ante cibum (a.c.)

"before food"

ante litteram

"before the letter"

ante meridiem (a.m.) "before midday" ante mortem "before death"

since been used to refer to other years, especially to 1905, when Albert Einstein made equally revolutionary discoveries concerning the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion and the special theory of relativity. (See Annus Mirabilis Papers) Used to describe 1348, the year the Black Death began to afflict Europe. As in "status quo ante bellum", "as it was before the war". Commonly used in the Southern United States as antebellum to refer to the period preceding the American Civil War. Medical shorthand for "before meals". Said of an expression or term that describes something which existed before the phrase itself was introduced or became common. Alan Turing was a computer scientist ante litteram, since the field of "computer science" was not yet recognized in Turing's day.

The period from midnight to noon (cf. post meridiem). See post mortem ("after death"). Used on pharmaceutical prescriptions to denote ante prandium (a.p.) "before lunch" "before a meal". Less common is post prandium, "after lunch". Textual notes. A list of other readings relating to a apparatus criticus "critical apparatus" document, especially in a scholarly edition of a text. aqua (aq.) "water" aqua fortis "strong water" Refers to nitric acid. aqua pura "pure water" Or "clear water", "clean water". aqua regia "royal water" refers to a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. "Spirit of Wine" in many English texts. Used to refer to various native distilled beverages, such as whisky aqua vitae "water of life" in Scotland and Ireland, gin in Holland, brandy (eau de vie) in France, and akvavit in Scandinavia. aquila non capit "an eagle doesn't A noble or important person doesn't deal with muscas catch flies" insignificant issues. From Gerhard Gerhards' (1466-1536) [better known as "to plough the arare litus Erasmus] collection of annotated Adagia (1508). seashore" Wasted labour. One who prescribes, rules on, or is a recognized arbiter authority on matters of social behavior and taste. Said "judge of tastes" elegantiarum of Petronius. Also rendered arbiter elegentiae ("judge of a taste"). An opaque circle around the cornea of the eye, often arcus senilis "senile bow" seen in elderly people.

Argentum album

"white money"


"for arguing"

Also "silver coin". Mentioned in Domesday, signifies bullion, or silver uncoined. For the sake of argument. Said when something is done purely in order to discuss a matter or illustrate a point.

Let us assume, arguendo, that your claim is correct.

Or "reasoning", "inference", "appeal", "proof". The plural is argumenta. Commonly used in the names of logical arguments and fallacies, preceding phrases such as a silentio ("by silence"), ad antiquitatem ("to antiquity"), ad baculum ("to the stick"), ad captandum ("to capturing"), ad consequentiam ("to the consequence"), ad crumenam ("to the purse"), ad feminam ("to the woman"), ad hominem ("to the person"), ad ignorantiam ("to ignorance"), ad argumentum "argument" judicium ("to judgment"), ad lazarum ("to poverty"), ad logicam ("to logic"), ad metum ("to fear"), ad misericordiam ("to pity"), ad nauseam ("to nausea"), ad novitatem ("to novelty"), ad personam ("to the character"), ad numerum ("to the number"), ad odium ("to spite"), ad populum ("to the people"), ad temperantiam ("to moderation"), ad verecundiam ("to reverence"), ex silentio ("from silence"), and in terrorem ("into terror"). "art [is] to conceal An aesthetic ideal that good art should appear natural ars celare artem art" rather than contrived. Translated into Latin from Baudelaire's "L'art pour l'art". Motto of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. This phrasing ars gratia artis "art for art's sake" is a direct transliteration of 'art for the sake of art.' While very symmetrical for the MGM logo, the better Latin word order is 'Ars artis gratia.' The Latin translation by Horace of a phrase from "art is long, life is Hippocrates, often used out of context. The "art" ars longa vita brevis short" referred to in the original aphorism was the craft of medicine, which took a lifetime to acquire. From Gerhard Gerhards' (1466-1536) [better known as asinus ad lyram "an ass to the lyre" Erasmus] collection of annotated Adagia (1508). An awkward or incompetent individual. "the jackass rubs the Used to describe two people lavishing excessive asinus asinum fricat jackass" praise on one another. "the assured does assecuratus non not seek profit but Refers to the insurance principle that the indemnity quaerit lucrum sed just indemnity for cannot be larger than the loss. agit ne in damno sit the loss" Auctoritas "authority" Referred to the general level of prestige a person had

in Ancient Roman society. Motto of Queensland. Motto of Otago University Students' Association, a audeamus "let us dare" direct response to the university's motto of sapere aude ("dare to be wise"). State motto of Alabama, adopted in 1923. Translated into Latin from a paraphrase of the stanza "Men who audemus jura "we dare to defend their duties know / But know their rights, and nostra defendere our rights" knowing, dare maintain" from the poem "What Constitutes a State?" by 18th-century author William Jones. From Virgil, Aeneid X, 284 (where the first word is in the archaic form audentis). Allegedly the last words of audentes fortuna "fortune favors the Pliny the Elder before he left the docks at Pompeii to iuvat bold" rescue people from the eruption of Vesuvius in 79. Often quoted as audaces fortuna iuvat. The motto of Tottenham Hotspur Football Club, the audere est facere "to dare is to do" famous professional Association Football (soccer) team based in London, England. audi alteram A legal principle of fairness. Also worded as audiatur "hear the other side" partem et altera pars ("let the other side be heard too"). audio hostem "I hear the enemy" Motto of 845 NACS Royal Navy From Horace's Odes II, 10. Refers to the ethical goal of reaching a virtuous middle ground between two aurea mediocritas "golden mean" sinful extremes. The golden mean concept is common to many philosophers, chiefly Aristotle. From Virgil, Aeneid 3,57. Later quoted by Seneca as "accursed hunger "quod non mortalia pectora coges, auri sacra fames": auri sacra fames for gold" "What aren't you able to bring men to do, miserable hunger for gold!" A common ancient proverb, this version from Terence. auribus teneo "I hold a wolf by the Indicates that one is in a dangerous situation where lupum ears" both holding on and letting go could be deadly. A modern version is "To have a tiger by the tail." The Southern Lights, an aurora that appears in the Southern Hemisphere. It is less well-known than the aurora australis "southern dawn" Northern Lights, or aurorea borealis. The Aurora Australis is also the name of an Antarctic icebreaker ship. The Northern Lights, an aurora that appears in the aurora borealis "northern dawn" Northern Hemisphere. Indicates that the only valid possibility is to be "either Caesar or emperor, or a similarly prominent position. More aut Caesar aut nihil nothing" generally, "all or nothing". Adopted by Cesare Borgia as a personal motto. audax at fidelis

"bold but faithful"

"either by meeting aut concilio aut ense or by the sword"

Thus, either through reasoned discussion or through war. A former motto of Chile, post tenebras lux ultimately replaced by Por la Razon o la Fuerza (Spanish) ' by reason or by force '.

"either peace or The motto of the Gunn Clan. war" Aut viam inveniam "I will find a way, or Hannibal. aut faciam I will make one" "either to conquer or A general pledge of "victory or death" (cf. victoria aut aut vincere aut mori to die" mors). From Catullus, carmen 101, addressed to his deceased ave atque vale "Hail and farewell!" brother. From Suetonius' Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius 21. The traditional greeting of gladiators prior to battle. morituri is also translated as "we who "Hail, Caesar! The are about to die" based on the context in which it was Ave Caesar ones who are about spoken, and this translation is sometimes aided by morituri te salutant to die salute you!" changing the Latin to nos morituri te salutamus. Also rendered with imperator instead of Caesar. A poor translation here could be, "Caesar's birds died from poor health." ave Europa nostra "Hail, Europe, our Anthem of Pan-Europeanists. vera Patria true Fatherland!" Derived from "Hail, (Mary) full of grace, the Lord is Ave Maria "Hail, Mary" with thee..." ((NT) Luke 1:28,42). A popular Catholic Church prayer. aut pax aut bellum

B Latin


Notes From Gerhard Gerhards' (1466-1536) [better known as barba tenus "wise as far as the Erasmus] collection of annotated Adagia (1508). In sapientes beard" appearance wise, but not necessarily so. A common name in the Roman Catholic Church for Mary, Beata Virgo "Blessed Virgin the mother of Jesus. The genitive, Beatae Mariae Virginis, Maria (BVM) Mary" occurs often as well, appearing with such words as horae ("hours"), litaniae ("litany") and officium ("office"). "of blessed beatae memoriae See in memoriam. memory" Vulgate, Template:bibleref. The full quote is "beati beati pauperes "Blessed in spirit pauperes spiritu quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum" spiritu [are] the poor." ("Blessed in spirit [are] the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens" - one of the Beatitudes). beati possidentes "blessed [are] Translated from Euripides.

those who possess" "blessed is the beatus homo qui man who finds invenit sapentiam wisdom"

Motto of Gymnasium Apeldoorn

Originally from the Habsburg marriages of 1477 and 1496, written as bella gerant alii tu felix Austria nube ("let bella gerant alii others wage war; you, fortunate Austria, marry"). Said by King Matthias bellum omnium "war of all against A phrase used by Thomas Hobbes to describe the state of contra omnes all" nature. "he gives twice, bis dat qui cito who gives Thus haste is itself a gift. dat promptly" bis in die (bid) "twice in a day" Medical shorthand for "twice a day". In other words, "well-intentioned", "fairly". In modern contexts, often has connotations of "genuinely" or bona fide "in good faith" "sincerely". Bona fides is not the plural (which would be bonis fidebus), but the nominative, and means simply "good faith". Opposite of mala fide. In law, if a person dying has goods, or good debts, in another diocese or jurisdiction within that province, besides his goods in the diocese where he dies, amounting bona notabilia — to a certain minimum value, he is said to have bona notabilia; in which case, the probat of his will belongs to the archbishop of that province. A nation's offer to mediate in disputes between two other bona officia "good services" nations. bona patria — A jury or assize of countrymen, or good neighbors. United Kingdom legal term for ownerless property that bona vacantia "vacant goods" passes to The Crown. "It is of a good boni pastoris est shepherd to shear Tiberius reportedly said this to his regional commanders, tondere pecus non his flock, not to as a warning against taxing the populace excessively. deglubere flay them." Or "general welfare". Refers to what benefits a society, as bonum commune "common good of opposed to bonum commune hominis, which refers to what communitatis the community" is good for an individual. Refers to an individual's happiness, which is not bonum commune "common good of "common" in that it serves everyone, but in that hominis a man" individuals tend to be able to find happiness in similar things. busillis — Pseudo-Latin meaning "baffling puzzle" or "difficult point". John of Cornwall (ca. 1170) was once asked by a scribe what the word meant. It turns out that the original "let others wage war"

text said in diebus illis magnis plenæ ("in those days there were plenty of great things"), which the scribe misread as indie busillis magnis plenæ ("in India there were plenty of large busillis").

C Latin


Notes From Satires of Juvenal. An insatiable urge to cacoethes scribendi "bad habit of writing" write. Hypergraphia cadavera vero Used by the Romans to describe the aftermath of "truly countless bodies" innumera the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields. Refers to allowing statemenship and diplomacy to "Let arms yield to the supersede declaration of war. Arms, (i.e. weapons) cadent arma togae toga" are to yield to the toga, a formal garment symbolizing Rome. caetera desunt "the rest is wanting" calix meus "my cup makes me inebrians drunk" An optical device used in drawing, and an camera obscura "dark chamber" ancestor of modern photography. The source of the word camera. War Dogs or Fighting Canes Pugnaces Dogs Refers to a situation where nobody is safe from Canis Canem Edit "Dog Eats Dog" anybody, each man for himself. a pejorative term refering (at least) to some Christian doctrines of the incarnation of the Son of God when it asserts that humanity is capable of capax infiniti "capable of the infinite" housing full divinity within its finite frame. Related to the Docetic heresy and sometimes a counterpoint to the Reformed 'extracalvinisticum.' So aggrandized as to be beyond practical (earthly) caput inter nubila reach or understanding (from Virgil's Aeneid and "head in the clouds" (condit) the shorter form appears in John Locke's Two Treatises of Government) It implies a command to love as Christ loved. Caritas Christi "The love of Christ" Motto of St. Franicis Xavier High School located in West Meadowlark Park (Edmonton). carpe diem "seize the day" An exhortation to live for today. From Horace, Odes I, 11.8. By far the most common translation is "seize the day," though carpere normally means something more like "pluck," and the allusion here is to picking flowers. The phrase collige virgo

carpe noctem

"seize the night"

Carthago delenda est

"Carthage must be destroyed"

casus belli

"event of war"

causa mortis

"cause of death"



cave canem

"beware of the dog"

rosas has a similar sense. An exhortation to make good use of the night, often used when carpe diem, q.v., would seem absurd, e.g., when observing a deep sky object or conducting a Messier marathon. From Roman senator Cato the Elder, who ended every speech of his between the second and third Punic Wars with ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, literally "For the rest, I am of the opinion that Carthage is to be destroyed." Other translations include "In conclusion, I declare that Carthage must be destroyed." and "Furthermore, I move for Carthage to be destroyed." Refers to an incident that is the justification or case for war. especially used by doctors of medicine, when they want to warn each other (e.g.: "cave nephrolithiases" in order to warn about side effects of an uricosuric). Spoken aloud in some British public schools by pupils to warn each other of impending authority.

Pompeii mosaic Found written on floor mosaics depicting a dog, at the entrance of Roman houses excavated at Pompeii. cave laborem

"beware of work"

The purchaser is responsible for checking whether the goods suit his need. Used when the writer does not vouch for the caveat lector "let the reader beware" accuracy of a text. Probably a recent alteration of caveat emptor. The person signing a document is responsible for reading the information about the what the caveat subscriptor "let the signer beware" document entails before entering into an agreement. The person selling goods is responsible for caveat venditor "let the seller beware" providing information about the goods to the purchaser. caveat utilitor "let the user beware" The user is responsible for checking whether the caveat emptor

"let the buyer beware"

goods suit his need. "Let military power yield to civilian power," "let arms yield to the Cedant arma togae Cicero, De Officiis. See Toga, it:Cedant arma gown" togae Or simply "faster than cooking asparagus". A celerius quam "more swiftly than variant of the Roman phrase velocius quam asparagi cocuntur asparagus is cooked" asparagi coquantur, using a different adverb and an alternate mood and spelling of coquere. In law, it is a return made by the sheriff, upon a cepi corpus "I got the body" capias, or other process to the like purpose; signifying, that he has taken the body of the party. Often used in law when something is not known, "It is certain if it is certum est quod but can be ascertained (e.g. the purchase price on a capable of being certum reddi potest sale which is to be determined by a third-party rendered certain" valuer) "When the reason for A rule of law becomes ineffective when the reason cessante ratione the law ceases, the law for its application has ceased to exist or does not legis cessat ipsa lex itself ceases." correspond to the reality anymore. cetera desunt "the rest are missing" Also spelled "caetera desunt". Idiomatically translated as "all other things being "with other things ceteris paribus equal". A phrase which rules out outside changes equal" interfering with a situation. charta "a paper of pardon to The form of a pardon for killing another man in pardonationis se him who defended self-defence. (see manslaughter) defendendo himself" charta "a paper of pardon to the The form of a pardon of a man who is outlawed. pardonationis outlaw" Also called perdonatio utlagariae. utlagariae Christianos ad "[Throw the] Christians leones to the lions!" Christo et "For Christ and The motto of Furman University. Doctrinae Learning" Christus Rex "Christ the King" A Christian title for Jesus. In the sense of "approximately" or "about". circa (c.) or (ca.) "around" Usually used of a date. In logic, begging the question, a fallacy involving the presupposition of a proposition in one of the circulus vitiosus "vicious circle" premises (see petitio principii). In science, a positive feedback loop. In economics, a counterpart to the virtuous circle. citius altius fortius "faster, higher, stronger" Motto of the modern Olympics. A writ whereby the king of England could Clamea admittenda command the justice in eyre to admit one's claim in itinere per by an attorney, who being employed in the king's atturnatum service, cannot come in person.

An action of tresspass; thus called, by reason the writ demands the person summoned to answer to clausum fregit wherefore he broke the close (quare clausum fregit), i.e. why he committed such a trespass. claves Sancti Petri "the keys of Saint Peter" A symbol of the Papacy. The means of discovering hidden or mysterious clavis aurea "Golden key" meanings in texts, particularly applied in theology and alchemy. In law, a writ directed to the bishop, for the "about to be made a admitting a clerk to a benefice upon a ne admittas, clerico admittendo clerk" tried, and found for the party who procures the writ. clerico capto per In law, a writ for the delivery of a clerk out of statutum prison, who is imprisoned upon the breach of mercatorum statute merchant. clerico convicto In law, a writ for the delivery of a clerk to his commisso gaolae in ordinary, that was formerly convicted of felony; defectu ordinarii by reason that his ordinary did not challenge him deliberando according to the privilege of clerks. clerico intra sacros In law, a writ directed to the bailiffs, etc, that have ordines constituto thrust a bailiwick or beadleship upon one in holy non eligendo in orders; charging them to release him. officium Codex Iuris The official code of canon law in the Roman "Book of Canon Law" Canonici Catholic Church (cf. Corpus Iuris Canonici). Hexameter by Horace (Epistulae I, 11 v.27). "Those who hurry cross Coelum non Seneca shortens it to Animum debes mutare, the sea change the sky animum mutant qui non caelum ("You must change [your] [upon them], not their trans mare currunt disposition, not [your] sky") in his Letter to souls or state of mind" Lucilium XXVIII, 1 A rationalistic argument used by French cogito ergo sum "I think, therefore I am." philosopher René Descartes to attempt to prove his own existence. Aborting sexual intercourse prior to ejaculation— coitus interruptus "interrupted congress" the only permitted form of birth control in some religions. coitus more "congress in the way of An medical euphemism for the doggy-style sexual ferarum beasts" position. collige virgo rosas "pick, girl, the roses"

communibus annis "in common years"

"Gather ye rosebuds while ye may", 1909, by John William Waterhouse. Exhortation to enjoy fully the youth, similar to Carpe diem, from De rosis nascentibus (also titled Idyllium de rosis) attributed to Ausonius or Virgil. One year with another; on an average. "Common" here does not mean "ordinary," but "common to every situation" A term frequently used among philosophical and other writers, implying some medium, or mean relation between several places; one place with another; on a medium. "Common" here does not mean "ordinary," but "common to every situation"

communibus locis

"in common places"

communis opinio

"generally accepted view"

compos mentis

Describes someone of sound mind. Sometimes used ironically. Also a legal principle, non compos "in control of the mind" mentis ("not in control of one's faculties"), used to describe an insane person.

concordia cum veritate

"in harmony with truth" Motto of the University of Waterloo.

concordia salus

"salvation through harmony"

condemnant quod non intellegunt

"They condemn what they do not understand" or "They condemn because they do not understand" (the quod is ambiguous)

condicio sine qua non

"condition without which not"

confer (cf.) Confoederatio Helvetica (C.H.) coniunctis viribus Consuetudo pro lege servatur

Motto of Montreal. It is also the Bank of Montreal coat of arms and motto. [1]

A required, indispensable condition. Commonly mistakenly rendered with conditio ("seasoning" or "preserving") in place of condicio("arrangement" or "condition"). Thus, "compare". Used as an abbreviation in text "bring together" to recommend a comparison with another thing (cf. citation signal). The official name of Switzerland, hence the use of "Helvetian "CH" for its ISO country code, ".ch" for its Confederation" Internet domain, and "CHF" for the ISO threeletter abbreviation of its currency, the Swiss franc. "with connected Or "with united powers". Sometimes rendered strength" conjunctis viribus. "Custom is kept before An inconsistently applied maxim. See also the law" consuetudo est altera lex (custom is another law)

consummatum est

"It is completed."

contemptus saeculi "scorn for the times"

and consuetudo vincit communem legem (custom overrules the common law) The last words of Jesus on the cross in the Latin translation of John 19:30. Despising the secular world. The monk or philosopher's rejection of a mundane life and worldly values.

contra spem spero "hope against hope" contradictio in "contradiction in terms" A word that makes itself impossible terminis First formulated by Hippocrates to suggest that the contraria contrariis "the opposite is cured diseases are cured with contrary remedies. curantur with the opposite" Antonym of Similia similibus curantur (the diseases are recovered with similar remedies. ) Offensive to the conscience and to a sense of contra bonos mores "against good morals" justice. contra legem "against the law" From Augustine's Confessions, referring to a prescribed method of prayer: having a "heart to cor ad cor loquitur "heart speaks to heart" heart" with God. Commonly used in reference to a later quote by John Henry Cardinal Newman. A motto of Newman Clubs. cor meum tibi "my heart I offer to you offero domine Lord promptly and motto of Calvin College prompte et sincere sincerely" A popular school motto. Often used as names for cor unum "one heart" religious and other organisations such as the Pontifical Council Cor Unum. A phrase from Christian theology which summarizes the idea of Christians living in the coram Deo "in the Presence of God" Presence of, under the authority of, and to the honor and glory of God. "in the presence of the coram populo Thus, openly. people" coram nobis, coram "in our presence", "in Two kinds of writs of error. vobis your presence" The name of a feast in the Roman Catholic Church commemorating the Eucharist. It is also the name Corpus Christi "Body of Christ" of a city in Texas, Corpus Christi, Texas, and a controversial play. The fact that a crime has been committed, a necessary factor in convicting someone of having corpus delicti "body of the offence" committed that crime; if there was no crime, there can not have been a criminal. Corpus Iuris "Body of Canon Law" The official compilation of canon law in the

Canonici Corpus Iuris Civilis "Body of Civil Law" corpus vile

"worthless body"

corrigenda corruptio optimi pessima corruptus in extremis

"things to be corrected" "the corruption of the best is the worst"

Corruptissima re publica plurimae leges

"corrupt to the extreme"

Roman Catholic Church (cf. Codex Iuris Canonici). The body of Roman or civil law. A person or thing fit only to be the object of an experiment.

Motto of the fictional Springfield Mayor Office in The Simpsons TV-Show

"When the republic is at its most corrupt the laws are most numerous"-Tacitus

It's the refrain from the 'Pervigilium Veneris', a "May he love tomorrow poem which describes a three day holiday in the Cras amet qui who has never loved cult of Venus, located somewhere in Sicily, nunquam amavit; before; And may he who involving the whole town in religious festivities quique amavit, cras has loved, love joined with a deep sense of nature and Venus as amet tomorrow as well" the "procreatrix", the life-giving force behind the natural world. Credo in Unum "I Believe in One God" The first words of the Nicene Creed. Deum A very common misquote of Tertullian's et mortuus est Dei Filius prorsus credibile quia ineptum est ("and the Son of God is dead: in short, it is credible because it is unfitting"), meaning that it is so absurd to say that God's son has died that it would have to be a matter of belief, rather than credo quia "I believe it because it is reason. The misquoted phrase, however, is absurdum est absurd" commonly used to mock the dogmatic beliefs of the religious (see fideism). This phrase is commonly shortened to credo quia absurdum, and is also sometimes rendered credo quia impossibile est ("I believe it because it is impossible")or, as Darwin used it in his autobiography, credo quia incredibile. crescamus in Illo "May we grow in Him Motto of Cheverus High School. per omina through all things" crescat scientia vita "let knowledge grow, let Motto of the University of Chicago. excolatur life be enriched" crescit eundo "it grows as it goes" State motto of New Mexico, adopted in 1887 as the territory's motto, and kept in 1912 when New Mexico received statehood. Originally from Lucretius' On the Nature of Things book VI,

where it refers in context to the motion of a thunderbolt across the sky, which acquires power and momentum as it goes. cruci dum spiro fido cucullus non facit monachum

"while I live, I trust in the cross", "Whilst I trust in the Cross I have life" "The hood does not make the monk"

Motto of the Sisters of Loreto (IBVM) and its associated schools. A second translation is "Whilst I trust in the Cross I have life"

William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, Scene I, Act V 48–50 "Who benefits?" An adage in criminal investigation which suggests that considering who would benefit from an unwelcome event is likely cui bono "Good for whom?" to reveal who is responsible for that event (cf. cui prodest). Also the motto of the Crime Syndicate of America, a fictional supervillain group. The opposite is cui malo ("Bad for whom?"). Short for cui prodest scelus is fecit ("for whom the crime advances, he has done it") in Seneca's cui prodest "for whom it advances" Medea. Thus, the murderer is often the one who gains by the murder (cf. cui bono). First coined by Accursius of Bologna in the 13th "Whose the land is, all cuius est solum eius century. A Roman legal principle of property law the way to the sky and est usque ad coelum that is no longer observed in most situations today. to the underworld is et ad inferos Less literally, "For whosoever owns the soil, it is his." theirs up to the sky and down to the depths." The privilege of a ruler to choose the religion of cuius regio, eius "whose region, his his subjects. A regional prince's ability to choose religio religion" his people's religion was established at the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. Cuiusvis hominis "Anyone can err, but est errare, nullius only the fool persists in — Marcus Tullius Cicero, Philippica XII, ii, 5 nisi insipientis in his fault." errore perseverare. Also "blame" or "guilt". In law, an act of neglect. culpa "fault" In general, guilt, sin, or a fault. See also mea culpa. cum gladiis et From the Bible. Occurs in Template:bibleref and "with swords and clubs" fustibus Luke 22:52. cum gladio et sale "with sword and salt" Motto of a well-paid soldier. See salary. Not to be taken too seriously or as the literal truth. cum grano salis "with a grain of salt" Yes, the brochure made it sound great, but such claims should be taken cum grano salis.

cum laude

"with praise"

The standard formula for academic Latin honors in the United States. Greater honors include magna cum laude and summa cum laude.

cum mortuis in lingua mortua

"with the dead in a dead Movement from Pictures at an Exhibition by language" Modest Mussorgsky "care for the whole cura personalis person" An exhortation to physicians, or experts in "take care of your own cura te ipsum general, to deal with their own problems before self" addressing those of others. The question attributed to Anselm in his work of by this name, wherein he reflects on why the cur Deus Homo "Why the God/Man" Christ of Christianity must be both fully Divine and fully Human. Often translated "why did God become Man?" curriculum vitae "course of life" A résumé. custos morum "keeper of morals" A censor. cygnus inter anates "swan among ducks" "distinguished by its cygnus insignis Motto of Western Australia. swans"

D Latin


damnatio memoriae

"damnation of memory"

damnum absque injuria

"damage without injury"

"with due respect" or "given the excuse" dat deus "God grants the incrementum increase" "carrying goods de bonis asportatis away" data venia

Notes A Roman custom in which disgraced Romans (particularly former Emperors) were pretended to have never existed. A loss that results from no one's wrongdoing. In Roman law, a man is not responsible for unintended, consequential injury to another resulting from a lawful act. This protection does not necessarily apply to unintended damage by negligence or folly. Used before disagreeing with someone.

Motto of Westminster School, a leading British independent school. Trespass de bonis asportatis was the traditional name for larceny, or wrongful taking of chattels. Inscription on one pound coins. Originally on 17th "An ornament and a century coins, it refers to the inscribed edge as a Decus Et Tutamen safeguard" protection against the clipping of precious metal. The phrase originally comes from Virgil's Aeneid. descensus in "The descent into the Down the Rabbit Hole cuniculi cavum cave of the rabbit" Used in the context of "As we agreed in the meeting de dato "of the date" d.d.26th Mai 2006. de facto "in fact" Said of something that is the actual state of affairs, in

contrast to something's legal or official standing, which is described as de jure. De facto refers to the "way things really are" rather than what is "officially" presented as the fact. Although the emperor held the title and trappings of head of state, the Shogun was the de facto ruler of Japan.

de fideli

"with faithfulness"

A clerk makes the declaration De fideli on when appointed, promising to do his or her tasks faithfully as a servant of the court.

de futuro

"regarding the future"

Usually used in the context of "at a future time"

Less literally "In matters of taste there is no dispute" or simply "There's no arguing taste". A similar expression "there is not to be in English is "There's no accounting for taste". de gustibus non discussion regarding Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, without attribution, est disputandum tastes" renders the phrase as de gustibus non disputandum; the verb "to be" is often assumed in Latin, and is rarely required. "again" or "a second de integro time" "Official", in contrast with de facto. Analogous to "in principle", whereas de facto is to "in practice". In other de jure "by law" contexts, can mean "according to law", "by right" or "legally". Also commonly written de iure, the classical form. "from law to be de lege ferenda passed" "from law passed" or de lege lata "by law in force" Also "The chief magistrate does not concern himself with trifles." Trivial matters are no concern of a high "The commander official (cf. aquila non capit muscas, "the eagle does de minimis non does not bother with not catch flies"). Sometimes rex ("the king") or lex curat praetor the smallest things." ("the law") is used in place of praetor, and de minimis is a legal term referring to things unworthy of the law's attention. "about the dead, de mortuis aut Less literally, "speak well of the dead or not at all" (cf. either well or bene aut nihil de mortuis nil nisi bonum). nothing" de mortuis nil nisi "about the dead, From de mortuis nil nisi bonum dicendum est, "nothing bonum nothing unless a must be said about the dead except the good", good thing" attributed by Diogenes Laertius to Chilon. In legal contexts, this quotation is used with the opposite meaning, as defaming a deceased person is not a crime. In other contexts, it refers to taboos against criticizing

de nobis fabula narratur

de novo

de omnibus dubitandum de omni re scibili et quibusdam aliis De oppresso liber de profundis de re

Dei Gratia Regina Dei sub numine viget delectatio morosa

deliriant isti Romani Deo ac veritati Deo domuique Deo gratias

the recently deceased. Thus, "their story is our story". Originally referred to "about us is the story the end of Rome's dominance. Now often used when told" comparing any current situation to a past story or historical event. "Anew" or "afresh". In law, a trial de novo is a retrial. In biology, de novo means newly-synthesized, and a de novo mutation is a mutation that neither parent "from the new" possessed or transmitted. In economics, de novo refers to newly-founded companies, and de novo banks are state banks that have been in operation for five years or less. "be suspicious of Karl Marx's favorite motto. He used this to explain his everything, doubt standpoint: "Critique everything in a capitalist everything" economy". "about every knowable thing, and A 15th-century Italian scholar wrote the De omni re even certain other scibili portion, and a wag added et quibusdam aliis. things" Commonly mistranslated as "To Liberate the "Free From Having Oppressed". The motto of the United States Army Been Oppressed" Special Forces. Out of the depths of misery or dejection. From the "from the depths" Latin translation of Psalm 130. In logic, de dicto statements (about the truth of a "about the matter" proposition) are distinguished from de re statements (about the properties of a thing itself). Also Dei Gratia Rex ("By the Grace of God, King"). "By the Grace of Abbreviated as D G REG preceding Fidei Defensor (F D) God, Queen" on British pounds, and as D G Regina on Canadian coins. "under God's Spirit Motto of Princeton University. she flourishes" In Catholic theology, a pleasure taken in sinful thought or imagination, such as brooding on sexual images. It "peevish delight" is distinct from actual sexual desire, and involves voluntary and complacent erotic fantasizing, without any attempt to suppress such thoughts. A translation into Latin from René Goscinny's "ils sont "They are mad, those fous, ces romains!", frequently issued by Obelix in the Romans!" Asterix comics. "God and Truth" Motto of Colgate University. "for God and for Motto of Methodist Ladies' College, Melbourne. home" "thanks [be] to God" The semi-Hispanicized form Deogracias is a

Deo Optimo Maximo (DOM)

"To the Best and Greatest God"

Deo vindice

"with God as protector"

Deo volente

"with God willing"

deus ex machina

"a god from a machine"

Deus vult deus otiosus

"God wills it!" "God at leisure"

Philippine first name. Derived from the Pagan Iupiter Optimo Maximo ("To the best and greatest Jupiter"). Printed on bottles of Benedictine liqueur. Motto of the Confederate States of America. An alternate translation is "With an avenging God". This was often used in conjunction with a signature at the end of letters. It was used in order to signify that "God willing" this letter will get to you safely, "God willing" the contents of this letter come true. From the Greek Από μηχανής Θεός (Apo mēchanēs Theos). A contrived or artificial solution, usually to a literary plot. Refers to the practice in Greek drama of lowering by machine an actor playing a god or goddess, typically either Athena or (as in Euripides) the Dioscuri onto the stage to resolve an insuperable conflict in the plot. The principal slogan of the Crusades.

Dicto simpliciter

"[From] a maxim, simply"

I.e. "From a rule without exception." Short for A dicto simpliciter, the a often being dropped by confusion with the indefinite article. A dicto simpliciter occurs when an acceptable exception is ignored or eliminated. For instance, the appropriateness of using opiates is dependent on the presence of extreme pain. To justify the recreational use of opiates by referring to a cancer patient or to justify arresting said cancer patient by comparing him to the recreational user would be a dicto simpliciter.

dictum meum pactum

"my word [is] my bond"

Motto of the London Stock Exchange

diem perdidi Diem Ex Dei Dies Irae

From the Roman Emperor Titus. Passed down in "I have lost the day" Suetonius's biography of him in Lives of the Twelve Caesars (8) "Day of God" Refers to the Judgment Day in Christian eschatology. The name of a famous 13th-century Medieval Latin "Day of Wrath" hymn by Tommaso da Celano, used in the Mass for the dead.

differentia specifica

"specific differences"


"I direct"

dis aliter visum

In Classical Latin, "I arrange". State motto of Maine. Based on a comparison of the state of Maine to the star Polaris. "it seemed otherwise In other words, the gods have different plans than

mortals, and so events do not always play out as people wish them to. Refers to the Manes, Roman spirits of the dead. Loosely "To the memory of". A conventional dis manibus "Sacred to the ghost- inscription preceding the name of the deceased on sacrum (D.M.S.) gods" pagan grave markings, often shortened to dis manibus (D.M.), "for the ghost-gods". Preceded in some earlier monuments by hic situs est (H. S. E.), "he lies here". Disce aut Discede "Learn or Depart" Motto of Royal College, Colombo. "Learn as if always disce quasi semper going to live; live as victurus vive quasi Attributed to St Edmund of Abingdon. if tomorrow going to cras moriturus die." discipuli nostri "Our students are the bardissimi sunt stupidest" That is, "scattered remains". Paraphrased from Horace, Satires, I, 4, 62, where it was written "disiecti membra disjecta membra "scattered limbs" poetae" ("limbs of a scattered poet"). Also written as disiecta membra. State motto of Arizona, adopted in 1911. Probably ditat Deus "God enriches" derived from the Vulgate's translation of Genesis 14:23. A Roman maxim adopted by Julius Caesar, Louis XI divide et impera "divide and rule" and Machiavelli. Commonly rendered "divide and conquer". A popular eloquent expression, usually used in the end dixi "I have spoken" of a speech. The implied meaning is: "I have said all that I had to say and thus the argument is settled". Used to attribute a statement or opinion to its author, ["...", ...] dixit "["...", ...] said" rather than the speaker. "I give that you may Often said or written for sacrifices, when one "gives" do ut des give" and expects something back from the gods. "It is learned by Also translated "One learns by teaching." Attributed to Docendo discitur teaching" Seneca the Younger. Docendo disco, I learn by teaching, scribendo cogito think by writing. "The ... concept is particular to a few civil law systems and cannot sweepingly be equated with the notions of ‘special’ or ‘specific intent’ in common law systems. Of course, the same might equally be said of the dolus specialis special intent concept of ‘specific intent,’ a notion used in the common law almost exclusively within the context of the defense of voluntary intoxication."—Genocide scholar William Schabas[1] Domine dirige nos "Lord guide us" Motto of the City of London. to the gods"

Dominus illuminatio mea

"the Lord is my light"

Motto of the University of Oxford.

Phrase used during and at the end of Catholic sermons, and a general greeting form among and towards "Lord be with you" members of Catholic organizations, such as priests and nuns. See also pax vobiscum. Often set to music, either by itself or as part of the dona nobis pacem "give us peace" Agnus Dei prayer of the Mass (see above). Also an ending in the video game Haunting Ground. A legal concept where a person in imminent mortal donatio mortis "giving in danger need not meet the requisite consideration to causa expectation of death" create or modify a will. draco dormiens Motto of the fictional Hogwarts school in the Harry "a sleeping dragon is nunquam Potter series; translated more loosely in the books as never to be tickled" titillandus "never tickle a sleeping dragon". More literally, "the masks of the drama"; more "the parts of the dramatis personae figuratively, "cast of characters". The characters play" represented in a dramatic work. Duae tabulae "Two minds, not one Stan Laurel, inscription for the fanclub logo Sons of rasae in quibus single thought" the Desert. nihil scriptum est This is the motto for the United States Marine Corps' "Leadership by Ductus exemplo Officer Candidates School located at Marine Corps Example" Base Quantico; Quantico, Virginia. War may seem pleasant to those who have never been dulce bellum "war is sweet to the involved in it, though the more experienced know inexpertis inexperienced" better. A phrase from Erasmus in the 16th century. dulce et decorum "It is sweet and From Horace, Odes III, 2, 13. Used by Wilfred Owen est pro patria honorable to die for for the title of a poem about World War I, Dulce et mori the fatherland." Decorum Est. Horace wrote in his Ars Poetica that poetry must be "a sweet and useful dulce et utile dulce et utile ("pleasant and profitable"), both thing" enjoyable and instructive. Horace, Odes III, 25, 16. Motto of the Scottish clan dulce periculum "danger is sweet" Clan MacAulay. dulcissime, totam "darling, I give Movement from Carl Orff's Carmina Burana. tibi subdo me myself to you totally" "sweeter after Dulcius ex asperis Motto of the Scottish clan Clan Fergusson.[2] difficulties" or more commonly, "As long as we are working, we dum laborus "While we work, we are prospering" Motto of Vincent Massey Secondary prosperous prospering" School, Windsor, Ontario, Canada "while I breathe, I dum spiro spero State motto of South Carolina. From Cicero. hope" dum Roma "while Rome Used when someone has been asked for urgent help, Dominus vobiscum

but responds with no immediate action. Similar to debates, Saguntum is Hannibal ante portas, but referring to a less personal in danger" danger. dum vivimus "While we live, we motto of Presbyterian College. servimus serve" "[the] law [is] harsh, dura lex sed lex but [it is] the law" dura mater "tough mother" Outer covering of the brain. dum vita est, spes while there is life, est there is hope dux bellorum War leader deliberat Saguntum perit

E Latin


e pluribus unum

'From many, (comes) One.'

Ecce Homo

'Behold the Man'

editio princeps

'first edition' 'for the sake of example'

e.g. ego te absolvo

'I absolve you'

ego te provoco

'I dare you'


ens causa sui ense petit placidam

Notes Usually translated 'Out of many, (is) One.' Motto of the United States of America. Inscribed on the Capitol and many coins used in the United States of America. The motto of the Sport Lisboa e Benfica Portuguese soccer club. From the Latin Vulgate Gospel according to St. John (XIX.v) (19.5, Douay-Rheims), where Pilate speaks these words as he presents Christ, crowned with thorns, to the crowd. Oscar Wilde opened his defense with this phrase when on trial for sodomy, characteristically using a well-known Biblical reference as a double entendre. It is also the title of Nietzsche's autobiography and of the theme music by Howard Goodall for the BBC comedy Mr. Bean. The first printed edition of a work. Abbreviation for exempli gratia, below. Often confused with id est (i.e.) Part of the absolution-formula spoken by a priest as part of the sacrament of Penance (cf. absolvo).

Also 'worn-out'. Retired from office. Often used to denote a position held at the point of retirement, as an 'veteran' honor, such as professor emeritus or provost emeritus. This does not necessarily mean that the honoree is no longer active. Or 'being one's own cause'. Traditionally, a being that 'existing because of owes its existence to no other being, hence God or a oneself' Supreme Being (cf. Primum Mobile). 'by the sword she State motto of Massachusetts, adopted in 1775.

sub libertate quietem

seeks gentle peace under liberty'

entitas ipsa involvit 'reality involves a aptitudinem ad power to compel extorquendum sure assent' certum assensum

A phrase used in modern Western philosophy on the nature of truth.

eo ipso

eo ipso is a technical term used in philosophy. It means 'by that very act' in Latin. Similar to ipso facto. Example: 'The fact that I am does not eo ipso mean that I think.' It is also used, with the same meaning, in law.

'by that very act'

eo nomine

'do not trust the horse' 'by that name'



erga omnes

'in relation to everyone'

equo ne credite

Virgil, Aeneid, II. 48-49 Used to show a logical conclusion (cf. cogito ergo sum).

From Seneca the Younger. The full quote is errare errare humanum est 'to err is human' humanum est perseverare diabolicum: 'to err is human; to persist is of the Devil'. Or 'mistake'. Lists of errors in a previous edition of a erratum 'error' work are often marked with the plural, errata ('errors'). George Berkeley's motto for his idealist philosophical 'to be is to be esse est percipi position that nothing exists independently of its perceived' perception by a mind except minds themselves. Truly being something, rather than merely seeming to be something. State motto of North Carolina and academic motto of several schools, including North Carolina State University, Berklee College of Music, and Columbia College Chicagoas well as Connell's Point Public School and Cranbrook High School in Sydney, Australia. From chapter 26 of Cicero's De 'to be, rather than to esse quam videri amicitia ('On Friendship'). Earlier than Cicero, the seem' phrase had been used by Sallust in his Bellum Catilinae (54.6), where he wrote that Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat ('he preferred to be good, rather than to seem so'). Earlier still, Aeschylus used a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes, line 592, ou gar dokein aristos, all' enai thelei ('his resolve is not to seem the best, but in fact to be the best'). Said of Venice by the Venetian historian Fra Paolo esto perpetua 'may it be perpetual' Sarpi shortly before his death. Also the state motto of Idaho, adopted in 1867.

et alibi (et al.)

'and elsewhere'

et alii (et al.)

'and others'

et cetera (etc.) or (&c.) 'And the rest'

A less common variant on et cetera used at the end of a list of locations to denote unlisted places. Used similarly to et cetera ('and the rest'), to stand for a list of names. Alii is actually masculine, so it can be used for men, or groups of men and women; the feminine, et aliae, is appropriate when the 'others' are all female. Et alia is correct for the neuter.[3]APA style uses et al. if the work cited was written by more than two authors; MLA style uses et al. for more than three authors. In modern usages, also used to mean 'and so on' or 'and more'.

'And light was This phrase is used by Morehouse College of Atlanta, made' Georgia, USA, as the school's motto. 'And all that sort of et hoc genus omne Abbreviated to e.h.g.o. or ehgo thing' 'and in Arcadia [am] In other words, 'I, too, am in Arcadia'. See memento et in Arcadia ego I' mori. 'And now, O ye et nunc reges kings, understand: From the Book of Psalms, II.x. (Vulgate), 2.10 intelligite erudimini receive instruction, (Douay-Rheims). qui judicati terram you that judge the earth.' Pluralized as et sequentia ('and the following things'), et sequentes (et seq.) 'and the following' abbreviations: et seqq., et seq.., or sqq. More typically translated as "sayin' it don't make it et suppositio nil 'a supposition puts so" ponit in esse nothing in being' et facta est lux

Also 'Even you, Brutus?' or 'You too, Brutus?' Used to indicate a betrayal by someone close. From Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, based on the traditional dying words of Julius Caesar. However, these were almost certainly not Caesar's true last words; Plutarch et tu, Brute? 'And you, Brutus?' quotes Caesar as saying, in Greek (which was the language of Rome's elite at the time), 'και συ, τεκνον;' (Kai su, teknon?), in English 'You as well, (my) child?' Some have speculated based on this that Brutus was Caesar's child, though there is no substantial evidence of this. et uxor (et ux.) 'and wife' A legal term. 'For out of the From the Gospel according to St. Matthew, XII.xxxiv ex abundantia enim abundance of the (Vulgate), 12.34 (Douay-Rheims) and the Gospel cordis os loquitur heart the mouth according to St. Luke, VI.xlv (Vulgate), 6.45 (Douayspeaketh.' Rheims). Sometimes rendered without enim ('for').

ex aequo ex animo

'from abundant caution' 'from the equal' 'from the heart'

ex ante

'from before'

Ex Astris Scientia

'From the Stars, Knowledge'

ex cathedra

'from the chair'

ex Deo

'from God'

ex abundanti cautela

ex dolo malo

'from fraud'

ex facie

'from the face'

ex gratia

'from kindness'

ex lege

'from the hypothesis' 'from the law'

ex libris

'from the books'

ex hypothesi

ex luna scientia ex nihilo nihil fit

'On equal footing', i.e., 'in a tie'. Thus, 'sincerely'. 'Beforehand', 'before the event'. Based on prior assumptions. A forecast. The motto of the fictional Starfleet Academy on Star Trek. Adapted from ex luna scientia, which in turn was modeled after ex scientia tridens. A phrase applied to the declarations or promulgations of the Pope when, preserved from even the possibility of error by the action of the Holy Ghost (see Papal Infallibility), he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least being intimately connected to divine revelation. Used, by extension, of anyone who is perceived as speaking as though with supreme authority or with arrogance. 'From harmful deceit'; dolus malus is the Latin legal term for 'fraud'. The full legal phrase is ex dolo malo non oritur actio ('an action does not arise from fraud'). When an action has its origin in fraud or deceit, it cannot be supported; thus, a court of law will not assist a man who bases his course of action on an immoral or illegal act. Idiomatically rendered 'on the face of it'. A legal term typically used to note that a document's explicit terms are defective without further investigation. More literally 'from grace'. Refers to someone voluntarily performing an act purely out of kindness, as opposed to for personal gain or from being forced to do it. In law, an ex gratia payment is one made without recognizing any liability or legal obligation. Thus, 'by hypothesis'.

Precedes a person's name, with the meaning of 'from the library of...' 'from the moon, The motto of the Apollo 13 moon mission, derived knowledge' from ex scientia tridens. 'nothing may come From Lucretius, and said earlier by Empedocles. Its from nothing' original meaning is 'work is required to succeed', but its modern meaning is a more general 'everything has its origins in something' (cf. causality). It is

ex oblivione

'from oblivion'

ex officio

'from the office'

commonly applied to the conservation laws in philosophy and modern science. Ex nihilo often used in conjunction with the term creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning 'creation, out of nothing'. It is often used in philosophy or theology in connection with the proposition that God created the universe from nothing. The title of a short story by H.P. Lovecraft. By virtue of office or position; 'by right of office'. Often used when someone holds one position by virtue of holding another. A common misconception is that ex officio members of a committee or congress may not vote, but this is not guaranteed by that title. The Vice President of the United States is ex officio President of the United States Senate.

ex opere operantis

ex opere operato

ex oriente lux ex parte ex pede Herculem ex post ex post facto ex scientia tridens ex scientia vera ex silentio

A theological phrase contrasted with ex opere operato, referring to the notion that the validity or promised benefit of a sacrament depends on the person administering it. A theological phrase meaning that the act of receiving a sacrament actually confers the promised 'from the work that benefit, such as a baptism actually and literally worked' cleansing one's sins. The Catholic Church affirms that the source of grace is God, not just the actions or disposition of the recipient. 'from the East, the Superficially refers to the sun rising in the east, but light' alludes to culture coming from the Eastern world. A legal term meaning 'by one party' or 'for one party'. 'from a part' Thus, on behalf of one side or party only. From the measure of Hercules' foot you shall know 'from Hercules' foot' his size; from a part, the whole. 'Afterward', 'after the event'. Based on knowledge of 'from after' the past. Measure of past performance. 'from a thing done Said of a law with retroactive effect. afterward' The United States Naval Academy motto. Refers to 'from knowledge, knowledge bringing men power over the sea sea power.' comparable to that of the trident-bearing Greek god Poseidon. 'from knowledge, The motto of the College of Graduate Studies at truth.' Middle Tennessee State University. 'from silence' In general, the claim that the absence of something demonstrates the proof of a proposition. An argumentum ex silentio ('argument from silence') is an argument based on the assumption that someone's 'from the work of the one working'

ex tempore

'from time'

ex vi termini

'from the force of the term'

silence on a matter suggests ('proves' when a logical fallacy) that person's ignorance of the matter or their inability to counterargue validly. 'This instant', 'right away' or 'immediately'. Also written extempore. Thus, 'by definition'.

Used in reference to the study or assay of living 'out of or from life' tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism. Thus, in accordance with a promise. An ex voto is ex voto 'from the vow' also an offering made in fulfillment of a vow. 'Ever upward!' The state motto of New York. Also a excelsior 'higher' catch phrase used by Marvel Comics head Stan Lee. A juridical motto which means that exception, as for 'The exception example during a 'state of exception', does not put in exceptio firmat confirms the rule in danger the legitimity of the rule in its globality. In regulam in casibus cases which are not other words, the exception is strictly limited to a non exceptis excepted' particular sphere (see also: exceptio strictissimi juris est. 'an excuse that has More loosely, 'he who excuses himself, accuses excusatio non petita not been sought is himself'—an unprovoked excuse is a sign of guilt. In accusatio manifesta an obvious French, qui s'excuse, s'accuse. accusation' exeat 'may he leave' A formal leave of absence (cf. exit). Usually shortened in English to 'for example' (see citation signal). Often confused with id est (i.e.). 'for the sake of exempli gratia (e.g.) Exempli gratia, i.e., 'for example', is commonly example' abbreviated 'e.g.'; in this usage it is sometimes followed by a comma, depending on style. exercitus sine duce 'an army without On a plaque at the former military staff building of corpus est sine leader is like a body the Swedish Armed Forces. spiritu without spirit' The plural of exit. Also extended to exeunt omnes, exeunt 'they leave' 'everyone leaves'. Literally 'experiment of the cross'. A decisive test of a experimentum crucis 'crucial experiment' scientific theory. Literally 'believe one who has had experience'. An experto crede 'trust the expert' author's aside to the reader. expressio unius est 'the expression of 'Mentioning one thing may exclude another thing'. A exclusio alterius the one is the principle of legal statutory interpretation: the explicit exclusion of the presence of a thing implies intention to exclude other' others; e.g., a reference in the Poor Relief Act 1601 to 'lands, houses, tithes and coal mines' was held to exclude mines other than coal mines. Sometimes ex vivo

expressed as expressum facit cessare tacitum (broadly, 'the expression of one thing excludes the implication of something else'). adjective: 'still in existence; extant law is still existing, in existence, existent, extant surviving' surviving, remaining, undestroyed. Usage, when a law is repealed the extant law governs. Refers to a possible result of Catholic ecclesiastical '(placed) outside of extra domus legal proceedings when the culprit is removed from the house' being part of a group like a monastery. This expression comes from the writings of Saint Extra Ecclesiam 'Outside the Church Cyprian of Carthage, a bishop of the third century. It nulla salus there is no salvation' is often used to summarise the doctrine that the Catholic Church is absolutely necessary for salvation. It is issued by the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations before a session of the Papal Conclave which will elect a new Pope. When spoken, all those Extra omnes 'Out, all of you.' who are not Cardinals, or those otherwise mandated to be present at the Conclave, must leave the Sistine Chapel. 'he who administers extra territorium jus justice outside of his Refers to extraterritorial jurisdiction. Often cited in dicenti impune non territory is law of the sea cases on the high seas. paretur disobeyed with impunity'

Notes F Latin



fac fortia et patere

"do brave deeds and endure"

Motto of Prince Alfred College in Adelaide, Australia.

fac simile

"make a similar thing"

Origin of the word facsimile, and, through it, of fax.

facta, non verba

"actions, not words"

Motto of United States Navy Destroyer Squadron 22, and the Canadian Fort Garry Horse armoured regiment (Militia).

falsus in unum, falsus in omnibus

"false in one thing, false in everything"

A Roman legal principle indicating that a witness who willfully falsifies one matter is not credible on any matter. The underlying motive for attorneys to

impeach opposing witnesses in court: the principle discredits the rest of their testimony if it is without corroboration.

felo de se

"felon from himself"

An archaic legal term for one who commits suicide, referring to early English common law punishments, such as land seizure, inflicted on those who killed themselves.

fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt

"as a rule, men willingly believe that which they wish to"

People believe what they wish to be true, even if it isn't. Attributed to Julius Caesar.

festina lente

"hurry slowly"

An oxymoronic motto of St Augustine. It encourages proceeding quickly, but with calm and caution. Equivalent to 'More haste, less speed'.

fiat iustitia et pereat mundus

"let justice be done, even should the world perish"

From Ferdinand I.

fiat justitia ruat caelum

"let justice be done should the sky fall"

Attributed to Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus.

fiat lux

"let light be made"

Less literally, "let light arise" or "let there be light" (cf. lux sit). From the Latin translation of Genesis, "dixitque Deus fiat lux et facta est lux" ("and God said, 'Let light be made', and light was made"). The motto of the University of California, Angelo State University, University of Lethbridge and Rollins College.

Fidei Defensor (Fid Def) or (fd)

"Defender of the Faith"

A title given to Henry VIII of England by Pope Leo X on October 17, 1521 before Henry became a heresiarch. Still used by the British monarchs, it appears on all British coins, usually abbreviated.

fides qua creditur

"the faith by which it is believed"

the personal faith which apprehends, contrasted with fides quae creditur

fides quae creditur

"the faith which is believed"

the content of "the faith," contrasted with fides qua creditur

fides quaerens intellectum

"faith seeking understanding"

the motto of Saint Anselm, found in his Proslogion

fidus Achates

"faithful Achates"

A faithful friend. From the name of Aeneas's faithful

companion in Virgil's Aeneid. flagellum dei

"scourge of god"

flectere si nequeo superos, Achaeronta movebo

"If I cannot move heaven I will raise hell"

Virgil's Aeneid - Book 7


"one flourished"

Indicates the period when a historical figure whose birth and death dates are unknown was most active.

fluctuat nec mergitur

"she wavers and is not immersed"

Motto of Paris.

fons et origo

"the spring and source"

"The fountainhead and beginning". The source and origin.

fortes fortuna adiuvat

"fortune favours the brave"

fortis est veritas

"truth is strong"

Motto on the coat of arms of Oxford, England.

fortis et liber

"strong and free"

Motto of Alberta.

G Latin



"universal things do not detract from specific things"

A principle of legal statutory interpretation: If a matter falls under a specific provision and a general provision, it shall be governed by the specific provision.

"spirit of place"

The unique, distinctive aspects or atmosphere of a place, such as those celebrated in art, stories, folk tales, and festivals. Originally, the genius loci was literally the protective spirit of a place, a creature usually depicted as a snake.

Gloria in Excelsis Deo

"Glory to God in the Heights"

Often translated "Glory to God on High". The title and beginning of an ancient Roman Catholic doxology, the Greater Doxology. See also ad maiorem Dei gloriam.

Gloria Patri

"Glory to the Father"

The beginning of the Lesser Doxology.

generalia specialibus non derogant

genius loci

gloriosus et liber

"glorious and free"

Motto of Manitoba

Gradibus ascendimus

"Ascending by degrees"

Motto of Grey College, Durham

graviora manent

"heavier things remain"

In other words, "more severe things await" or simply "the worst is yet to come".

gutta cavat "a drop hollows a lapidem non vi stone not by force, sed saepe cadendo but by often falling"

From Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV, 10, 5.

H Latin



habeas corpus

"you may have the body"

A legal term from the 14th century or earlier. Refers to a number of legal writs to bring a person before a court or judge, most commonly habeas corpus ad subjiciendum ("you may have the body to bring up"). Commonly used as the general term for a prisoner's legal right to have the charge against them specifically identified.

habemus papam

"we have a pope"

Used after a Roman Catholic Church papal election to announce publicly a successful ballot to elect a new pope.

hac lege

"with this law"

haec olim meminisse iuvabit

"one day, this will be pleasing to remember"

Commonly rendered in English as "One day, we'll look back on this and smile". From Virgil's Aeneid 1.203.

Hannibal ante portas

"Hannibal before the gates"

Refers to wasting time while the enemy is already here. Attributed to Cicero.

Hannibal ad portas

"Hannibal is at the gates"

Roman parents would tell their misbehaving children this, invoking their fear of Hannibal.

haud ignota loquor

"I speak not of unknown things"

Thus, "I say no things that are unknown". From Virgil's Aeneid, 2.91.

hic abundant leones

"here lions abound"

Written on uncharted territories of old maps.

hic et nunc

"here and now"

hic jacet (HJ)

"here lies"

Also rendered hic iacet. Written on gravestones or tombs,

preceding the name of the deceased. Equivalent to hic sepultus ("here is buried"), and sometimes combined into hic jacet sepultus (HJS), "here lies buried".

hic manebimus optime

"here we'll stay excellently"

According to Titus Livius the phrase was pronounced by Marcus Furius Camillus, addressing the senators who intended to abandon the city, invaded by Gauls, in 390 BCE circa. It is used today to express the intent to keep one's position even if the circumstances appear adverse.

hic sunt leones

"here there are lions"

Written on uncharted territories of old maps.

hinc illae lacrimae

"hence those tears"

From Terence, Andria, line 125. Originally literal, referring to the tears shed by Pamphilus at the funeral of Chrysis, it came to be used proverbally in the works of later authors, such as Horace (Epistula XIX, 41).

historia vitae magistra

"history, the teacher of life"

From Cicero, Tusculanas, 2, 16. Also "history is the mistress of life".

homo homini lupus

"man [is a] wolf to man"

First attested in Plautus' Asinaria ("lupus est homo homini"). The sentence was drawn on by Hobbes in Leviathan as a concise expression of his human nature view.

homo sum humani a mi nihil alienum puto

"I am a human being; nothing human is strange to me"

From Terence, Heautontimoroumenos. Originally "strange" or "foreign" (alienum) was used in the sense of "irrelevant", as this line was a response to the speaker being told to mind his own business, but it is now commonly used to advocate respecting different cultures and being humane in general. Puto ("I consider") is not translated because it is meaningless outside of the line's context within the play.

homo unius libri (timeo)

"(I fear) a man of one book"

Attributed to Thomas Aquinas

honeste vivere

"to live virtuously"

One of Justinian I's three basic legal precepts.

honor virtutis praemium

"esteem is the reward of virtue"

O'Flynn family motto.

honoris causa

"for the sake of honor"

Said of an honorary title, such as "Doctor of Science honoris causa".

hora somni

"at the hour of

Medical shorthand for "at bedtime".



horas non numero nisi serenas

"I do not count the hours unless they are sunny"

A common inscription on sundials.

hortus in urbe

"A garden in the city"

Motto of the Chicago Park District, a playful allusion to the city's motto, urbs in horto, q.v.

horribile dictu

"horrible to say"

That is, "a horrible thing to relate". A pun on mirabile dictu.

hostis humani generis

"enemy of the human race"

Cicero defined pirates in Roman law as being enemies of humanity in general.

hypotheses non fingo

"I do not fabricate hypotheses"

From Newton, Principia. Less literally, "I do not assert that any hypotheses are true".

I Latin



"in the same place"

Usually used in bibliographic citations to refer to the last source previously referenced.

id est (i.e.)

"that is"

"That is (to say)", "in other words", or sometimes "in this case", depending on the context. Never equivalent to exempli gratia (e.g.). Id est, i.e., "that is", is commonly abbreviated "i.e."; in this usage it is sometimes followed by a comma, depending on style.

idem (id.)

"the same"

Used to refer to something that has already been cited. See also ibidem.

idem quod (i.q.)

"the same as"

Not to be confused with an intelligence quotient.


"that is"

Abbreviation for id est, above.

"Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews"

Based on a Christian belief that "this one is King of the Jews" was written in Latin, Greek and Aramaic at the top of the cross Jesus was crucified on.

"through fire, nature is reborn whole"

An alchemical aphorism invented as an alternate meaning for the acronym INRI.

ibidem (ibid.)

Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum (INRI)

igne natura renovatur integra

igni ferroque

"with fire and iron"

A phrase describing scorched earth tactics. Also rendered as igne atque ferro, ferro ignique, and other variations.

ignis fatuus

"foolish fire"

will o' the wisp.

ignoratio elenchi

"ignorance of the issue"

The logical fallacy of irrelevant conclusion: making an argument that, while possibly valid, doesn't prove or support the proposition it claims to. An ignoratio elenchi that is an intentional attempt to mislead or confuse the opposing party is known as a red herring. Elenchi is from the Greek elenchos.

ignotum per ignotius

"unknown by means of the more unknown"

An explanation that is less clear than the thing to be explained. Synonymous with obscurum per obscurius.

ignotus (ign.)


Illegitimi non carborundum

"Don't let the bastards grind you down"

Mock Latin originating during World War II, used and known in many forms since then.

imago Dei

"image of God"

From the religious concept that man was created in "God's image".

imitatio dei

"imitation of a god"

A principle, held by several religions, that believers should strive to resemble their god(s).

"an order within an order"

1. A group of people who owe utmost fealty to their leader(s), subordinating the interests of the larger group to the authority of the internal group's leader(s). 2. A "fifth column" organization operating against the organization within which they seemingly reside.

imperium sine fine

"an empire without an end"

In Virgil's Aeneid, Jupiter ordered Aeneas to found a city (Rome) from which would come an everlasting, neverending empire, the endless (sine fine) empire.


"let it be printed"

An authorization to publish, granted by some censoring authority (originally a Catholic Bishop).

in absentia

"in the absence"

Used in a number of situations, such as in a trial carried out in the absence of the accused.

imperium in imperio

in actu

"in act"

"In the very act/In reality".

in articulo mortis

"at the point of death"

in camera

"in the chamber"

Figuratively, "in secret". See also camera obscura.

in casu

"in the event"

"In this case".

in cauda venenum

"the poison is in the tail"

Using the metaphor of a scorpion, this can be said of an account that proceeds gently, but turns vicious towards the end — or more generally waits till the end to reveal an intention or statement that is undesirable in the speaker's eyes.

in concreto

"in the concrete (sense)"

Usually as opposed to figurative or metaphysical usage.

in Deo speramus

"in God we hope"

Motto of Brown University.

in dubio pro reo

"in doubt, on behalf of the [alleged] culprit"

Expresses the judicial principle that in case of doubt the decision must be in favor of the accused (in that anyone is innocent until there is proof to the contrary).

in duplo

"in double"

"In duplicate".

in effigie

"in the likeness"

"In (the form of) an image", as opposed to "in the flesh" or "in person".

in esse

"in existence"

in extenso

"in the extended"

"In full", "at full length", "completely", "unabridged".

in extremis

"in the furthest reaches"

In extremity; in dire straits. Also "at the point of death" (cf. in articulo mortis).

in fidem

"into faith"

To the verification of faith.

in fieri

"in becoming"

Thus, "pending".

in fine (i.f.)

"in the end"

in flagrante delicto

"in a blazing wrong", "while the crime is blazing"

At the end.

The footnote says "p. 157 in fine": "the end of page 157".

Equivalent to the English idiom "caught redhanded": caught in the act of committing a crime. Sometimes carried the connotation of being caught in a "compromising position".

in flore

"in blossom"


in foro

"in forum"

Legal term for "in court".

"We enter the circle in girum imus nocte at night and are et consumimur igni consumed by fire" in hoc signo vinces

in illo tempore

in limine

A palindrome said to describe the behavior of moths. Also the title of a film by Guy Debord.

"by this sign you will conquer"

Words Constantine claimed to have seen in a vision before the Battle of Milvian Bridge.

"in that time"

"at that time", found often in Gospel lectures during Masses, used to mark an undetermined time in the past.

"at the outset"

Preliminary, in law referring to a motion that is made to the judge before or during trial, often about the admissibility of evidence believed prejudicial That is, "at the place".

in loco

"in the place"

The nearby labs were closed for the weekend, so the water samples were analyzed in loco.

in loco parentis

"in the place of a parent"

A legal term meaning "assuming parental (i.e., custodial) responsibility and authority".

in luce Tua videmus lucem

"in Thy light we see light"

Motto of Valparaiso University.

in lumine tuo videbimus lumen

"in your light we will see the light"

Motto of Columbia University and Ohio Wesleyan University.

in manus tuas "into your hands I commendo spiritum entrust my spirit" meum

According to Luke 23:46, the last words of Jesus on the cross.

in medias res

"into the middle of things"

From Horace. Refers to the literary technique of beginning a narrative in the middle of, or at a late point in, the story, after much action has already taken place. Examples include the Iliad, the Odyssey, and Paradise Lost. Compare ab initio.

in memoriam

"into the memory"

Equivalent to "in the memory of". Refers to remembering or honoring a deceased person.

in necessariis unitas, in dubiis

"in necessary things unity, in doubtful

"Charity" (caritas) is being used in the classical sense of "compassion" (cf. agape). Motto of the

libertas, in omnibus caritas

things liberty, in all things charity"

Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen. Often misattributed to Augustine of Hippo.

in nuce

"in a nut"

I.e. "in potentiality." Comparable to "potential", "to be developed".

In omnia paratus

"Ready for anything."

Motto of the so-called secret society of Yale in the sitcom Gilmore Girls.

"Everywhere I have In omnibus searched for peace requiem quaesivi, et and nowhere found nusquam inveni nisi it, except in a corner in angulo cum libro with a book"

Quote by Thomas a Kempis.

in partibus infidelium

"in the parts of the infidels"

That is, "in the land of the infidels", infidels here referring to non-Christians. After Islam conquered a large part of the Roman Empire, the corresponding bishoprics didn't disappear, but remained as titular sees.

in pectore

"in the heart"

A Cardinal named in secret by the pope. See also ab imo pectore.

in personam

"into a person"

"Directed towards a particular person". In a lawsuit in which the case is against a specific individual, that person must be served with a summons and complaint to give the court jurisdiction to try the case. The court's judgment applies to that person and is called an "in personam judgment." In personam is distinguished from in rem, which applies to property or "all the world" instead of a specific person. This technical distinction is important to determine where to file a lawsuit and how to serve a defendant. In personam means that a judgment can be enforceable against the person, wherever he or she is. On the other hand, if the lawsuit is to determine title to property (in rem), then the action must be filed where the property exists and is only enforceable there.

in propria persona

"in one's own person"

"Personally", "in person".

in rerum natura

"in the nature of things"

See also Lucretius' De Rerum Natura ("On the Nature of Things").

in saeculo

"in the times"

in salvo

"in safety"

"In the secular world", that is, outside a monastery, or before death.

"in silicon"

Coined in the early 1990s for scientific papers. Refers to an experiment or process performed virtually, as a computer simulation. The term is Dog Latin modeled after terms such as in vitro and in vivo. The Latin word for silicon is silicium, so the correct Latinization of "in silicon" would be in silicio, but this form has little usage.

"in the place"

In the original place, appropriate position, or natural arrangement. In medical contexts, it implies that the condition is still in the same place and has not worsened, improved, spread, etc.

In spe

"in hope"

"future" ("My mother-in-law in spe", i.e. "My future mother-in-law"), or "in embryonic form", as in "Locke's theory of government resembles, in spe, Montesquieu's theory of the separation of powers."

In specialibus generalia quaerimus

"To seek the general in the specifics"

That is, to understand the most general rules through the most detailed analysis.

in statu nascendi

"in the state of being born"

Just as something is about to begin.

in toto

"in all"

"Totally", "entirely", "completely".

in triplo

"in triple"

"In triplicate".

in utero

"in the womb"

in vacuo

"in a void"

"In a vacuum". In isolation from other things.

in vino veritas

"in wine [there is] truth"

That is, wine loosens the tongue. (Referring to alcohol's disinhibitory effects.)

in vitro

"in glass"

An experimental or process methodology performed in a "non-natural" setting (e.g., in a laboratory using a glass test tube or Petri dish), and thus outside of a living organism or cell. The reference to glass is merely an historic one, as the current usage of this term is not specific to the materials involved, but rather to the "non-natural"

in silico

in situ

setting employed. Alternative experimental or process methodologies would include in vitro, in silico, ex vivo and in vivo.

In vitro fertilization is not literally done "in glass", but rather is a technique to fertilize egg cells outside of a woman's body. By definition, it is thus an ex vivo process.

in vivo

"in life" or "in a living thing"

An experiment or process performed on a living specimen.

incredibile dictu

"incredible to say"

A variant on mirabile dictu.

Index Librorum Prohibitorum

"Index of Forbidden Books"

A list of books considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church.

indivisibiliter ac inseparabiliter

"indivisible and inseparable"

Motto of Austria-Hungary prior to its separation into independent states in 1918.

infra dignitatem

"beneath one's dignity"

(infra dig)

instante mense (inst.)

"in the present month"

Formerly used in formal correspondence to refer to the current month. Sometimes abbreviated as instant. Used with ult. ("last month") and prox. ("next month"). "Thank you for your letter of the 17th inst."

integer vitae scelerisque purus

"unimpaired by life and clean of wickedness"

inter alia

"among other things"

inter alios

"among others"

Often used to compress lists of parties to legal documents.

inter arma enim silent leges

"In the face of arms, the law falls mute," more popularly rendered as "during warfare, in fact, the laws are silent"

Said by Cicero in Pro Milone as a protest against unchecked political mobs that had virtually seized control of Rome in the '60s and '50s BC. Also used in the Star Trek DS9 episode of the same name to justify Admiral William Ross' decision to assist Agent Sloan from Section 31 in destabilizing the Romulan Senate.

inter caetera

"among others"

Title of a papal bull.

inter spem et

"between hope and

From Horace. Used as a funeral hymn.



inter vivos

"between the living"

Said of property transfers between living persons, as opposed to inheritance; often relevant to tax laws.

intra muros

"within the walls"

Thus, "not public". Source of the word intramural. See also Intramuros.

intra vires

"within the powers"

That is, "within the authority".

ipsa scientia potestas est

"knowledge itself is power"

Famous phrase written by Sir Francis Bacon in 1597.

ipse dixit

"he himself said it"

From Greek Αυτος εφη Commonly said in Medieval debates referring to Aristotle, who was considered the supreme authority on matters of philosophy. Used in general to emphasize that some assertion comes from some authority, i.e., as an appeal to authority, and the term ipsedixitism has come to mean any unsupported rhetorical assertion that lacks a logical argument.

ipsissima verba

"the very words themselves"

"Strictly word for word" (cf. verbatim).

ipso facto

"by the fact itself"

Or "by that very fact".

"Wrath of the Gods"

Like the vast majority of inhabitants of the ancient world, the ancient Romans practiced pagan rituals, believing it important to achieve a state of Pax Deorum ("Peace of the Gods") instead of Ira Deorum ("Wrath of the Gods"): earthquakes, floods, famine, etc.

ita vero

"thus indeed"

A useful phrase, as the Romans had no word for "yes", preferring to respond to questions with the affirmative or negative of the question (i.e., "Are you hungry?" was answered by "I am hungry" or "I am not hungry", not "Yes" or "No").

ite missa est

"go, the things have been sent"

The final words of the Roman Missal, meaning "leave, the mass is finished".

"the court knows the laws"

A legal principle in civil law countries of the Roman-German tradition (e.g., in Brazil,Germany and Italy) that says that lawyers need not to argue

Ira Deorum

iura novit curia

the law, as that is the office of the court. Sometimes miswritten as iura novat curia ("the court renews the laws").

J Latin


juris ignorantia est cum jus nostrum ignoramus

"it is ignorance of the law when we do not know our own rights"

Johannes est nomen ejus

"John is its name / Juan es su Nombre"

Motto of the Seal of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

"law towards war"

Refers to the "laws" that regulate the reasons for going to war. Typically, this would address issues of self-defense or preemptive strikes

jus in bello

"law in war"

Refers to the "laws" that regulate the conduct of combatants during a conflict. Typically, this would address issues of who or what is a valid target, how to treat prisoners, and what sorts of weapons can be used. The word jus is also commonly spelled ius.

jus primae noctis

"law of the first night"

The droit de seigneur.

justitia omnibus

"justice for all"

Motto of the District of Columbia.

jus ad bellum


L Latin Labor omnia vincit lapsus linguae



"Work conquers all things"

State motto of Oklahoma. Motto of Instituto Nacional, leading Chilean high school. Derived from a phrase in Virgil's Georgics.

"slip of the tongue"

A "proglossis", "tip of the tongue" or "apex of the tongue". Often used to mean "linguistic error" or "language mistake". It and its written-word variant, lapsus calami ("slip of the pen") can sometimes refers to a typographical error as well.

Ex.: "I'm sorry for mispronouncing your name. It wasn't intentional; it was a lapsus linguae". lapsus memoriae

"slip of memory"

laus Deo

"praise be to God"

legem terrae

"the law of the land"

leges humanae nascuntur, vivunt, et moriuntur

"laws of man are born, live and die"

leges sine moribus vanae

"laws without morals [are] vain"

From Horace's Odes: the official motto of the University of Pennsylvania.



A legal term describing a "forced share", the portion of a deceased person's estate from which the immediate family cannot be disinherited. From the French héritier legitime ("rightful heir").

lex artis

"law of the skill"

The rules that regulate a professional duty.

lex ferenda

"the law that should be borne"

The law as it ought to be.

lex lata

"the law that has been borne"

The law as it is.

lex loci

"law of the place"

lex non scripta

"law that has not been written"

Unwritten law, or common law.

lex parsimoniae

"law of succinctness

also known as Ockhams Razor.

"the law [is] king"

A principle of government advocating a rule by law rather than by men. The phrase originated as a double entendre in

lex rex

Source of the term memory lapse.

the title of Samuel Rutherford's controversial book Lex, Rex (1644), which espoused a theory of limited government and constitutionalism. lex scripta

"written law"

Statute law. Contrasted with lex non scripta.

lex talionis

"the law of retaliation"

Retributive justice (cf. an eye for an eye).

liberate me ex infernis

"free me from hell"

Used in a Hellsystem album cover from 2005.

libera te tutemet

"you, free yourself"

Used in Event Horizon (1997), where it is translated as "save yourself". It is initially misheard as liberate me ("free me"), but is later corrected. Libera te is often mistakenly merged into liberate, which would necessitate a plural pronoun instead of the singular tutemet (which is an emphatic form of tu, "you").

libertas quæ sera tamen

"freedom which [is] however late"

Thus, "liberty even when it comes late". Motto of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

libra (lb)


Literally "balance". Its abbreviation, lb, is used as a unit of weight, the pound.

loco citato (lc)

"in the place cited"

More fully written in loco citato. See also opere citato.

locus classicus

"a classic place"

A quotation from a classical text used as an example of something.

lorem ipsum

A mangled fragment from Cicero's De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum ("On the Limits of Good and Evil", 45 BC), used as typographer's filler to show fonts (a.k.a. greeking). An approximate literal translation of lorem ipsum might be "sorrow itself", as the term is from dolorum ipsum quia, meaning "sorrow because of itself", or less literally, "pain for its own sake".

luctor et emergo

"I struggle and emerge"

Motto of the Dutch province of Zeeland to denote its battle against the sea.

"[it is] a grove by not being light"

From late 4th-century grammarian Honoratus Maurus, who sought to mock implausible word origins such as those proposed by Priscian. A pun based on the word lucus ("dark grove") having a similar appearance to the verb lucere ("to shine"), arguing that the former word is derived

lucus a non lucendo

from the latter word because of a lack of light in wooded groves. Often used as an example of absurd etymology. lupus in fabula

"the wolf in the story"

lupus non mordet lupum

"a wolf does not bite a wolf"

With the meaning "speak of the wolf, and he will come". Occurs in Terence's play Adelphoe.

"light and law"

Motto of the prestigious liberal arts school, Franklin & Marshall College. Light in reference to Benjamin Franklin's many innovations and discoveries. Law in reference to John Marshall as one of the most notable Supreme Court Justices.

lux et veritas

"light and truth"

A translation of the Hebrew Urim and Thummim. Motto of Yale University and Indiana University. An expanded form, lux et veritas floreant ("let light and truth flourish"), is the motto of the University of Winnipeg

lux hominum vita

"life the light of men"

lux et lex

"let there be light"

lux sit

A more literal Latinization of the phrase "let there be light", the most common translation of fiat lux ("let light arise", literally "let light be made"), which in turn is the Latin Vulgate Bible phrase chosen for the Genesis line " ‫ג‬ ‫או"ר‬-‫ יִההי או"ר; ויִההי‬,‫"( "וֹילאממ"ר אאללִההים‬And God said: 'Let there be light.' And there was light"). Motto of the University of Washington.

M Latin



magister dixit

"the master has said it"

Canonical medieval reference to Aristotle, precluding further discussion

Magna Carta

"Great Paper"

A set of documents between Pope Innocent III, King John, and English barons.

magna cum laude "with great praise"

A common Latin honor, above cum laude and below summa cum laude.

Magna Europa est Patria Nostra

Political motto of pan-Europeanists (cf. ave Europa nostra vera Patria)

"Great Europe is Our Fatherland"

magna est vis consuetudinis

"great is the power of habit"

magno cum gaudio

"with great joy"

magnum opus

"great work"

Said of someone's masterpiece.

maiora premunt

"greater things are pressing"

Used to indicate that it is the moment to address more important, urgent, issues.

mala fide

"in bad faith"

Said of an act done with knowledge of its illegality, or with intention to defraud or mislead someone. Opposite of bona fide.

mala tempora currunt

"bad times are upon us"

Also used ironically, e.g.: New teachers know all tricks used by pupils to copy from classmates? Oh, mala tempora currunt!.

malum discordiae

"apple of dischord"

Alludes to the apple of Eris in the judgement of Paris, the mythological cause of the Trojan War. It is also a pun based on the near-homonymous word malum ("evil"). The word for "apple" has a long a vowel in Latin and the word for "evil" a short a vowel, but they are normally written the same.

malum quo communius eo peius

"the more common an evil is, the worse it is"

malum in se

"wrong in itself"

A legal term meaning that something is inherently wrong (cf. malum prohibitum).

malum prohibitum

"wrong due to being prohibited"

A legal term meaning that something is only wrong because it is against the law.

manu militari

"with a military hand"

Using armed forces in order to achieve a goal.

manu propria

With the implication of "signed by one's hand". Its abbreviated form is sometimes used at the end of typewritten or printed documents or official notices, "with one's own hand" directly following the name of the person(s) who "signed" the document exactly in those cases where there isn't an actual handwritten signature.


manus celer Dei

"the swift hand of God"

Originally used as the name of a ship in the Marathon game series, its usage has spread.

manus manum

"one hand washes the

famous quote from Lucius Annaeus Seneca . It



implies that one situation helps the other.

mare clausum

"closed sea"

In law, a sea under the jurisdiction of one nation and closed to all others.

mare liberum

"free sea"

In law, a sea open to international shipping navigation.

mare nostrum

"our sea"

A nickname given to the Mediterranean Sea during the height of the Roman Empire, as it encompassed the entire coastal basin.

Mater Facit

"Mother Does It"

Used as a joke to say Mother Fuck It, though it really means "mother does it"


"the mother of the family"

The female head of a family. See paterfamilias.

materia medica

"medical matter"

The branch of medical science concerned with the study of drugs used in the treatment of disease. Also, the drugs themselves.

me vexat pede

"it annoys me at the foot"

Less literally, "my foot itches". Refers to a trivial situation or person that is being a bother, possibly in the sense of wishing to kick that thing away.

"My Fault"

Used in Christian prayers and confession to denote the inherently flawed nature of mankind. Can also be extended to mea maxima culpa ("my greatest fault"). Also used similarly to the modern English slang "my bad".

Media vita in morte sumus

"In the midst of our lives we die"

A well-known sequence, falsely attributed to Notker during the Middle Ages. It was translated by Cranmer and became a part of the burial service in the funeral rites of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.


"better things"

Carrying the connotation of "always better". The motto of the University of Rochester.

"Honey, I'm home!"

A relatively common recent Latinization from the joke phrasebook Latin for All Occasions. Grammatically correct, but the phrase would be anachronistic in ancient Rome.

Mea Culpa

Melita, domi adsum memento mori

"remember that [you will] die"

Figuratively "be mindful of dying" or "remember your mortality", and also more literally rendered as "remember to die", though in English this ironically

misses the original intent. An object (such as a skull) or phrase intended to remind people of the inevitability of death. A more common theme in Christian than in Classical art. The motto of the Trappist order. memento vivere

"a reminder of life"

Also, "remember that you have to live." Literally rendered as "remember to live."

memores acti prudentes futuri

"mindful of what has been done, aware of what will be"

Thus, both remembering the past and foreseeing the future. From the North Hertfordshire District Council coat of arms.

mens agitat molem

"the mind moves the mass"

From Virgil. Motto of the University of Oregon, the University of Warwick and the Eindhoven University of Technology.

mens et manus

"mind and hand"

Motto of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

mens rea

"guilty mind"

Also "culprit mind". A term used in discussing the mindset of an accused criminal.

mens sana in corpore sano

"a sound mind in a sound body"

Or "a sensible mind in a healthy body".

meminerunt omnia amantes

"lovers remember all" Or "Boastful Soldier". Title of a play of Plautus. A stock character in comedy, the braggart soldier. (It is said that at Salamanca, there is a wall, on which graduates inscribe their names, where Francisco Franco had a plaque installed reading FRANCISCUS FRANCUS MILES GLORIOSUS. Or perhaps some scholar got the better of the dictator!)

Miles Gloriosus

"Glorious Soldier"

minatur innocentibus qui parcit nocentibus

"he threatens the innocent who spares the guilty"

mirabile dictu

"wonderful to tell"

mirabile visu

"wonderful by the sight"

A Roman phrase used to describe a wonderful event/happening.

miserabile visu

"terrible by the sight"

A terrible happening or event.

miserere nobis

"have mercy upon us"

A phrase within the Gloria in Excelsis Deo and the

Agnus Dei, to be used at certain points in Christian religious ceremonies. missit me Dominus

"the Lord has sent me"


"we send"

A warrant of commitment to prison, or an instruction for a jailer to hold someone in prison.

mobilis in mobili

"moving in a moving thing" or, poetically, "changing through the changing medium"

The motto of the Nautilus from the Jules Verne novel 20000 Leagues Under the Sea.

modus operandi

"method of operating"

Usually used to describe a criminal's methods.

modus ponens

"method of placing"

Loosely "method of affirming", a logical rule of inference stating that from propositions P and if P then Q one can conclude Q.

modus tollens

Loosely "method of denying", a logical rule of "method of removing" inference saying that from propositions not Q and if P then Q one can conclude not P.


A phrase used by Christ.

modus morons

Dog Latin based on wordplay with modus ponens and modus tollens, referring to the common logical fallacy that if P then Q and not P, one could conclude not Q (cf. contraposition).

modus vivendi

"method of living"

An accommodation between disagreeing parties to allow life to go on. A practical compromise.

montani semper liberi

"mountaineers [are] always free"

State motto of West Virginia, adopted in 1872.

Montis Insignia Calpe

"Badge of the Rock of Gibraltar"

more ferarum

"like beasts"

used to describe any sexual act in the manner of beasts

morituri te salutant

"those who are about to die salute thee"

Used once in Suetonius' Life of the Divine Claudius, chapter 21, by the condemned prisoners manning galleys about to take part in a mock naval battle on Lake Fucinus in AD 52. Popular misconception ascribes it as a gladiator's salute.

mors vincit

"death conquers all"

An axiom often found on headstones.


or "death always wins"

motu proprio

"on his own initiative"

Or "by his own accord." Identifies a class of papal documents, administrative papal bulls.

multis e gentibus vires

"from many peoples, strength"

Motto of Saskatchewan. Conciseness. The motto of Rutland, a county in central England.

multum in parvo

"much in little"

mundus vult decipi

"the world wants to be From James Branch Cabell. deceived"

munit haec et altera vincit

"this one defends and the other one conquers"

mutatis mutandis

"with those things changed which Thus, "with the appropriate changes". needed to be changed"

Latin phrases are often multum in parvo, conveying much in few words.

Motto of Nova Scotia.

N Latin



natura non contristatur

"nature is not saddened"

That is, the natural world is not sentimental or compassionate.

natura non facit saltum ita nec lex

"nature does not make a leap, thus neither does the law"

Shortened form of "sicut natura nil facit per saltum ita nec lex" ("just as nature does nothing by a leap, so neither does the law"), referring to both nature and the legal system moving gradually.

navigare necesse est vivere non est necesse

"to sail is necessary; to live is not necessary"

Attributed by Plutarch to Gnaeus Pompeius, who, during a severe storm, commanded sailors to bring food from Africa to Rome.

ne cede malis

"do not give in to misfortune"

Used as a level name in the Marathon series to reflect the doomed theme of the level, and derived from the family motto of one of the developers.

ne sutor ultra crepidam

"Cobbler, no further than the sandal!"

Thus, don't offer your opinion on things that are outside your competence. It is said that the Greek

painter Apelles once asked the advice of a cobbler on how to render the sandals of a soldier he was painting. When the cobbler started offering advice on other parts of the painting, Apelles rebuked him with this phrase in Greek, and it subsequently became a popular Latin expression. "Neither to the left nor to the right"

Do not get distracted. This Latin phrase is also the motto for Bishop Cotton Boys School and the Bishop Cotton Girls High school, both located in Bangalore, India.

nec plus ultra

"nothing more beyond"

Also ne plus ultra or non plus ultra. A descriptive phrase meaning the best or most extreme example of something. The Pillars of Hercules, for example, were literally the nec plus ultra of the ancient Mediterranean world. Charles V's heraldic emblem reversed this idea, using a depiction of this phrase inscribed on the Pillars—as plus ultra, without the negation. This represented Spain's expansion into the New World.

nec temere nec timide

"neither reckless nor timid"

The motto of the Dutch 11th air manouvre brigade 11 Air Manoeuvre Brigade

nemine contradicente

"with no one speaking against"

Less literally, "without dissent". Used especially in committees, where a matter may be passed nem. con., or unanimously.

"no one gives what he does not have"

Thus, "none can pass better title than they have".

nec dextrorsum, nec sinistrorsum

(nem. con.)

nemo dat quod non habet

"no man shall be a nemo iudex in sua judge in his own causa cause"

Legal principle that no individual can preside over a hearing in which he holds a specific interest or bias.

nemo me impune lacessit

"no one provokes me with impunity"

Motto of the Order of the Thistle, and consequently of Scotland, found stamped on the milled edge of certain British pound sterling coins. It is also the motto of the Montressors in the Edgar Allan Poe short story "The Cask of Amontillado"

nemo nisi per amicitiam cognoscitur

"No one learns except by friendship"

Used to imply that one must like a subject in order to study it.

nemo tenetur seipsum accusare

"no one is bound to accuse himself"

A maxim banning mandatory self-incrimination. Near-synonymous with accusare nemo se debet nisi

coram Deo. Similar phrases include: nemo tenetur armare adversarium contra se ("no one is bound to arm an opponent against himself"), meaning that a defendant is not obligated to in any way assist the prosecutor to his own detriment; nemo tenetur edere instrumenta contra se ("no one is bound to produce documents against himself", meaning that a defendant is not obligated to provide materials to be used against himself (this is true in Roman law and has survived in modern criminal law, but no longer applies in modern civil law); and nemo tenere prodere seipsum ("no one is bound to betray himself"), meaning that a defendant is not obligated to testify against himself. "he says nothing"

In law, a declination by a defendant to answer charges or put in a plea.

"nothing of the new"

Or just "nothing new". The phrase exists in two versions: as nihil novi sub sole ("nothing new under the sun"), from the Vulgate, and as nihil novi nisi commune consensu ("nothing new unless by the common consensus"), a 1505 law of the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth and one of the cornerstones of its Golden Liberty.

nihil obstat

"nothing prevents"

A notation, usually on a title page, indicating that a Roman Catholic censor has reviewed the book and found nothing objectionable to faith or morals in its content. See also imprimatur.

nil admirari

"be surprised at nothing"

nil desperandum

"nothing must be despaired at"

That is, "never despair".

nil nisi bonum

"(about the dead say) nothing unless (it is) good"

Short for nil nisi bonum de mortuis dicere. That is, "Don't speak ill of anyone who has died".

nil nisi malis terrori

"no terror, except to the bad"

The motto of King's School, Macclesfield.

nil per os (n.p.o.)

"nothing through the mouth"

Medical shorthand indicating that oral foods and fluids should be withheld from the patient.

nil satis nisi

"nothing [is] enough

Motto of Everton Football Club, residents of

nihil dicit

nihil novi


unless [it is] the best"

Goodison Park, Liverpool.

nil sine numine

"nothing without the divine will"

Or "nothing without providence". State motto of Colorado, adopted in 1861. Probably derived from Virgil's Aeneid Book II, line 777, "non haec sine numine devum eveniunt" ("these things do not come to pass without the will of the gods"). See also numina.

nil volentibus arduum

"Nothing [is] arduous "Nothing is impossible for the willing" for the willing"

"if not the Lord, [it is] in vain"

That is, "everything is in vain without God". Summarized from Psalm 127, "nisi Dominus aedificaverit domum in vanum laboraverunt qui aedificant eam nisi Dominus custodierit civitatem frustra vigilavit qui custodit" ("unless the Lord builds the house, they work on a useless thing who build it; unless the Lord guards the community, he keeps watch in vain who guards it"). The motto of Edinburgh.

"unless previously"

In England, a direction that a case be brought up to Westminster for trial before a single judge and jury. In the United States, a court where civil actions are tried by a single judge sitting with a jury, as distinguished from an appellate court.

nolens volens

"unwilling, willing"

That is, "whether unwillingly or willingly". Sometimes rendered volens nolens or aut nolens aut volens. Similar to willy-nilly, though that word is derived from Old English will-he nil-he ("[whether] he will or [whether] he will not").

noli me tangere

"do not touch me"

Commonly translated "touch me not". According to the Gospel of John, this was said by Jesus to Mary Magdalene after his resurrection.

noli turbare circulos meos

"Do not disturb my circles!"

That is, "Don't upset my calculations!" Said by Archimedes to a Roman soldier who, despite having been given orders not to, killed Archimedes at the conquest of Syracuse. The soldier was executed for his act.

nolle prosequi

"to be unwilling to prosecute"

A legal motion by a prosecutor or other plaintiff to drop legal charges, usually in exchange for a diversion program or out-of-court settlement.

nisi Dominus frustra

nisi prius

nolo contendere

"I do not wish to contend"

That is, "no contest". A plea that can be entered on behalf of a defendant in a court that states that the accused doesn't admit guilt, but will accept punishment for a crime. Nolo contendere pleas cannot be used as evidence in another trial.

nomen dubium

"doubtful name"

A scientific name of unknown or doubtful application.

nomen est omen

"the name is a sign"

Thus, "true to its name".

nomen nescio (N.N.)

"I do not know the name"

Thus, the name or person in question is unknown.

nomen nudum

"naked name"

A purported scientific name that does not fulfill the proper formal criteria and therefore cannot be used unless it is subsequently proposed correctly.

non bis in idem

"not twice in the same thing"

A legal principle forbidding double jeopardy.

non causa pro causa

"not the cause for the cause"

Also known as the "questionable cause" or "false cause". Refers to any logical fallacy where a cause is incorrectly identified.

non compos mentis

"not in control of the mind"

See compos mentis. Also rendered non compos sui ("not in control of himself"). Samuel Johnson, author of the first English dictionary, theorized that the word nincompoop may derive from this phrase.

non ducor duco

"I am not led; I lead"

Motto of São Paulo city, Brazil. See also pro Brasilia fiant eximia.

non facias malum ut inde fiat bonum

"you should not make More simply, "don't do wrong to do right". The evil in order that direct opposite of the phrase "the ends justify the good may be made means". from it"

non impediti ratione congitatonis

"unencumbered by the thought process"

Motto of radio show Car Talk.

non in legendo "the laws depend not sed in intelligendo on being read, but on legis consistunt being understood" non liquet

"it is not proven"

Also "it is not clear" or "it is not evident". A sometimes controversial decision handed down by a judge when they feel that the law is not complete.

non mihi solum

"not for myself alone"

non obstante veredicto

"not standing in the way of a verdict"

A judgment notwithstanding verdict, a legal motion asking the court to reverse the jury's verdict on the grounds that the jury could not have reached such a verdict reasonably.

non olet

"it doesn't smell"

See pecunia non olet.

non omnis moriar

"I shall not all die"

"Not all of me will die", a phrase expressing the belief that a part of the speaker will survive beyond death.

non progredi est regredi

"to not go forward is to go backward"

non prosequitur

A judgment in favor of a defendant when the "he does not proceed" plaintiff failed to take the necessary steps in an action within the time allowed.

Non scholae sed vitae discimus

"We learn not for school, but for life."

from Seneca

"it does not follow"

In general, a non sequitur is a comment which is absurd due to not making sense in its context (rather than due to being inherently nonsensical or internally inconsistent), often used in humor. As a logical fallacy, a non sequitur is a conclusion that does not follow from a premise.

non serviam

"I will not serve"

Possibly derived from a Vulgate mistranslation of the Book of Jeremiah. Commonly used in literature as Satan's statement of disobedience to God, though in the original context the quote is attributed to Israel, not Satan.

non sum qualis eram

"I am not such as I was"

non vi, sed verbo

"Not through violence, but through the word alone

nosce te ipsum

"know thyself"

non sequitur

Or "I am not the kind of person I once was". Expresses a change in the speaker.

Martin Luther on Catholic church reform. (see Reformation) From Cicero, based on the Greek γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnothi seauton), inscribed on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. A non-traditional Latin rendering, temet

nosce ("thine own self know"), is translated in The Matrix as "know thyself". nota bene (n.b.)

"mark well"

That is, "please note" or "note it well".

Novus Ordo Seclorum

"New Order of the Ages"

From Virgil. Motto on the Great Seal of the United States. Similar to Novus Ordo Mundi ("New World Order").

Nulla dies sine linea

"Not a day without a line drawn."

Pliny the Elder attributes this maxim to Apelles, an ancient Greek artist.

nullam rem natam

"no thing born"

That is, "nothing". It has been theorized that this expression is the origin of Italian nulla, French rien, and Spanish and Portuguese nada, all with the same meaning.

nulli secundus

"second to none"

Motto of the Coldstream Guards.

Nullius in verba

"On the word of no man"

Motto of the Royal Society.

nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege

"no crime, no punishment without law"

Legal principle meaning that one cannot be penalised for doing something that is not prohibited by law. It also means that penal law cannot be enacted retroactively.

numerus clausus

"closed number"

A method to limit the number of students who may study at a university.

nunc dimittis

In the Gospel of Luke, spoken by Simeon while holding the baby Jesus when he felt he was ready to "now you are sending be dismissed into the afterlife ("he had seen the away" light"). Often used in the same way the phrase Eureka is used, as a jubilant exclamation of revelation.

nunc est bibendum

"now is the time to drink"

Carpe-Diem-type phrase from the Odes of Horace, "Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda tellus" (Now is the time to drink, now the time to dance footloose upon the earth).

nunc pro tunc

"now for then"

Something that has retroactive effect, is effective from an earlier date.

nunc scio quid sit amor

"now I know what love is"

From Virgil, Eclogues VIII.

nunquam non

"never unprepared"

Motto of the Scottish clan Johnston


O Latin



O homines ad servitutem paratos

"Men fit to be slaves!"

Attributed (in Tacitus, Annales, III, 65) to the Emperor Tiberius, in disgust at the servile attitude of Roman senators. Used of those who should be leaders but instead slavishly follow the lead of others.

O tempora O mores

"O, the times! O, the morals!"

Also translated "What times! What customs!" From Cicero, Catilina I, 1, 2.

obiit (ob.)

"one died"

"He died" or "she died", an inscription on gravestones. ob. also sometimes stands for obiter ("in passing" or "incidentally").

Obit anus, abit onus

"The old woman dies, the burden is lifted"

Arthur Schopenhauer.

obiter dictum

"a thing said in passing"

In law, an observation by a judge on some point of law not directly relevant to the case before him, and thus neither requiring his decision nor serving as a precedent, but nevertheless of persuasive authority. In general, any comment, remark or observation made in passing.

obscuris vera involvens

"the truth being enveloped by obscure things"

From Virgil.

obscurum per obscurius

"the obscure by means of the more obscure"

An explanation that is less clear than what it tries to explain. Synonymous with ignotum per ignotius.

oculus dexter (O.D.)

"right eye"

Ophthalmologist shorthand.

oculus sinister (O.S.)

"left eye"

Ophthalmologist shorthand.

oderint dum metuant

"let them hate, so long as they fear"

Favorite saying of Caligula, attributed originally to Lucius Accius, Roman tragic poet (170 BC).

odi et amo

"I hate and I love"

The opening of Catullus 85. The entire poem reads, "odi et amo quare id faciam fortasse

requiris / nescio sed fieri sentio et excrucior" ("I hate and I love. Why do I do this, you perhaps ask. / I do not know, but I feel it happening and am tormented."). odi profanum vulgus et arceo

"I hate the unholy rabble and keep them away"

From Horace.

odium theologicum

"theological hatred"

A name for the special hatred generated in theological disputes.

omne ignotum pro magnifico

"every unknown thing [is taken] for great"

Or "everything unknown appears magnificent".

omnia dicta fortiora si dicta Latina

"everything said [is] stronger if said in Latin"

Or "everything sounds more impressive when said in Latin". A more common phrase with the same meaning is quidquid Latine dictum sit altum videtur.

omnia munda mundis

"everything [is] pure to the pure [men]"

From The New Testament.

omnia praesumuntur legitime facta donec probetur in contrarium

"all things are presumed to be lawfully done, until it is shown [to be] in the reverse"

In other words, "innocent until proven guilty".

A miscellaneous collection or assortment. Often used facetiously.

omnium gatherum

"gathering of all"

onus probandi

"burden of proof"

opera omnia

"all works"

The collected works of an author.

opera posthuma

"posthumous works"

Works published after the author's death.

opere citato (op. cit.)

"in the work that was Used in academic works when referring again to cited" the last source mentioned or used.

ophidia in herba

"a snake in the grass"

Any hidden danger or unknown risk.

opus anglicanum

"English work"

Fine embroidery. Especially used to describe church vestments.

Opus Dei

"The Work of God"

Opus Dei is a Catholic institution founded by Saint Josemaría Escrivá. Its mission is to help people turn their work and daily activities into occasions for growing closer to God, for serving others, and for improving society.

ora et labora

"pray and work"

The Motto of Order of Saint Benedict as well as the motto for [1]Dalhousie Law School, Halifax Nova Scotia.

ora pro nobis

"pray for us"

oratio directa

"direct speech"

oratio obliqua

"indirect speech"

orbis non sufficit

"the world does not suffice" "the world is not enough"

Originates from Juvenal's Tenth Satire, referring to Alexander the Great. James Bond's adopted family motto in the novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service. It made a brief appearance in the film adaptation of the same name and was later used as the title of the nineteenth James Bond film, The World Is Not Enough.

ordo ab chao

"Out of chaos, comes order"

The phrase is one of the oldest mottos of Craft Freemasonry.

orta recens quam pura nites

"newly risen, how brightly you shine"

Motto of New South Wales.

P Latin




"with peace"

Loosely, "be at peace", "with due deference to", "by leave of" or "no offense to". Used to politely acknowledge someone who disagrees with the speaker or writer.

pace tua

"with your peace"

Thus, "with your permission".

pacta sunt servanda

"agreements must be Also "contracts must be honored". Indicates the kept" binding power of treaties.

panem et

"bread and circuses"

From Juvenal, Satire X, line 81. Originally described

all that was needed for emperors to placate the Roman mob. Today used to describe any entertainment used to distract public attention from more important matters.


parens patriae

"parent of the nation"

A public policy requiring courts to protect the best interests of any child involved in a lawsuit. See also Pater Patriae.

pari passu

"with equal step"

Thus, "moving together", "simultaneously", etc.

parva sub ingenti

"the small under the huge"

Implies that the weak are under the protection of the strong, rather than that they are inferior. Motto of Prince Edward Island.

"here and there"

Less literally, "throughout" or "frequently". Said of a word that occurs several times in a cited texts. Also used in proof reading, where it refers to a change that is to be repeated everywhere needed.

pater familias

"father of the family"

Or "master of the house". The eldest male in a family, who held patria potestas ("paternal power"). In Roman law, a father had enormous power over his children, wife, and slaves, though these rights dwindled over time. Derived from the phrase pater familias, an Old Latin expression preserving the archaic -as ending.

Pater Patriae

"Father of the Nation"

Also rendered with the gender-neutral parens patriae ("parent of the nation").

pater peccavi

"father, I have sinned"

The traditional beginning of a Roman Catholic confession.

pauca sed matura

"few, but ripe"

From The King and I by Rogers and Hammerstein. Said to be one of Carl Gauss's favorite quotations.

pauca sed bona

"few, but good"

Good things are better if few.

Pax Americana

"American Peace"

A euphemism for the United States of America and its sphere of influence. Adapted from Pax Romana.

Pax Aut Bellum

"Peace or War"

The motto of the Gunn Clan.

Pax Britannica

"British Peace"

A euphemism for the British Empire. Adapted from Pax Romana.

pax Dei

"peace of God"

Used in the Peace and Truce of God movement in 10th-Century France.


Pax Deorum

"Peace of the Gods"

Like the vast majority of inhabitants of the ancient world, the Romans practiced pagan rituals, believing it important to achieve a state of Pax Deorum (The Peace of the Gods) instead of Ira Deorum (The Wrath of the Gods).

pax et bonum

"peace and the good"

Motto of St. Francis of Assisi and, consequently, of his monastery in Assisi, in the Umbria region of Italy. Translated in Italian as pace e bene.

pax et lux

"peace and light"

Motto of Tufts University.

pax maternum, ergo pax familiarum

"peace of mothers, therefore peace of families"

If the mother is peaceful, then the family is peaceful.

Pax Romana

"Roman Peace"

A period of relative prosperity and lack of conflict in the early Roman Empire.

Pax Sinica

"Chinese Peace"

A euphemism for periods of peace in East Asia during times of strong Chinese imperialism. Adapted from Pax Romana.

pax vobiscum

"peace [be] with you"

A common farewell. The "you" is plural ("you all"), so the phrase must be used when speaking to more than one person; pax tecum is the form used when speaking to only one person.

pecunia non olet

"the money doesn't smell"

According to Suetonius, when Emperor Vespasian was challenged by his son Titus for taxing the public lavatories, the emperor held up a coin before his son and asked whether it smelled or simply said non olet ("it doesn't smell"). From this, the phrase was expanded to pecunia non olet, or rarely aes non olet ("copper doesn't smell").

pecunia, si uti scis, ancilla est; si nescis, domina

"if you can use money, money is your slave; if you can't, money is your master"

Written on a old Latin tablet in downtown Verona (Italy).

pendent opera interrupta

"the work hangs interrupted"

From the Aeneid of Virgil, Book IV.


"By, through, by means of"

See specific phrases below.

per annum (p.a.)

"through a year"

Thus, "yearly"—occurring every year.

per ardua

"through adversity"

Motto of the British RAF Regiment

"through adversity to the stars"

Motto of the British Royal Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. The phrase was derived from H. Rider Haggard's famous novel The People of the Mist, and was selected and approved as a motto for the Royal Flying Corps on March 15, 1913. In 1929, the Royal Australian Air Force decided to adopt it as well.

per aspera ad astra

"through hardships to the stars"

From Seneca the Younger. Motto of NASA and the South African Air Force. A common variant, ad astra per aspera ("to the stars through hardships"), is the state motto of Kansas. Ad Astra ("To the Stars") is the title of a magazine published by the National Space Society. De Profundus Ad Astra ("From the depths to the stars.") is the motto of the LASFS.

per capsulam

"through the small box"

That is, "by letter".

per capita

"through the heads"

"Per head", i.e., "per person". The singular is per caput ("through a head").

per contra

"through the contrary"

Or "on the contrary" (cf. a contrario).

per curiam

"through the senate"

Legal term meaning "by the court", as in a per curiam decision.

per definitionem

"through the definition"

Thus, "by definition".

per diem

"through a day"

Thus, "per day". A specific amount of money an organization allows an individual to spend per day, typically for travel expenses.

Per Mare per Terram

"By Sea and by Land"

Motto of the Royal Marines.

per mensem

"through a month"

Thus, "per month", or "monthly".

per os (p.o.)

"through the mouth"

Medical shorthand for "by mouth".

per procura (p.p.) or (per pro)

"through the agency"

Also rendered per procurationem. Used to indicate that a person is signing a document on behalf of

per ardua ad astra

another person. Correctly placed before the name of the person signing, but often placed before the name of the person on whose behalf the document is signed, sometimes through incorrect translation of the alternative abbreviation per pro. as "for and on behalf of". In a UK legal context: "by reason of which" (as opposed to per se which requires no reasoning). In American jurisprudence often refers to a spouse's claim for loss of consortium.

per quod

"by reason of which"

per rectum (pr)

"through the rectum" Medical shorthand. See also per os.

per se

"through itself"

Also "by itself" or "in itself". Without referring to anything else, intrinsically, taken without qualifications, etc. A common example is negligence per se. See also malum in se.

per stirpes

"through the roots"

Used in wills to indicate that each "branch" of the testator's family should inherit equally. Contrasted with per capita.

per veritatem vis

"through truth, strength"

Motto of Washington University in St. Louis.

perpetuum mobile

"thing in perpetual motion"

A musical term. Also used to refer to hypothetical perpetual motion machines.

persona non grata

"person not pleasing"

An unwelcome, unwanted or undesirable person. In diplomatic contexts, a person rejected by the host government. The reverse, persona grata ("pleasing person"), is less common, and refers to a diplomat acceptable to the government of the country to which he is sent.

petitio principii

"request of the beginning"

Begging the question, a logical fallacy in which a proposition to be proved is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the premises.

pia desideria

"pious longings"

Or "dutiful desires".

pia fraus

"pious fraud"

Or "dutiful deceit". Expression from Ovid. Used to describe deception which serves Church purposes.

pia mater

"pious mother"

Or "tender mother". Translated into Latin from Arabic. The delicate innermost of the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

"one painted"

Thus, "he painted this" or "she painted this". Formerly used on works of art, next to the artist's name.

"plural of majesty"

The first-person plural pronoun when used by an important personage to refer to himself or herself; also known as the "royal we".

pollice verso

"with a turned thumb"

Used by Roman crowds to pass judgment on a defeated gladiator. It is uncertain whether the thumb was turned up, down, or concealed inside one's hand. Also the name of a famous painting depicting gladiators by Jean-Léon Gérôme.

pons asinorum

"bridge of asses"

Any obstacle that stupid people find hard to cross. Originally used of Euclid's Fifth Proposition in geometry.

Pontifex Maximus

"Greatest High Priest"

Or "Supreme Pontiff". Originally an epithet of the Roman Emperors, and later a traditional epithet of the pope. The pontifices were the most important priestly college of the ancient Roman religion; their name is usually thought to derive from pons facere ("to make a bridge"), which in turn is usually linked to their religious authority over the bridges of Rome, especially the Pons Sublicius.

posse comitatus

Thus, to be able to be made into part of a retinue or force. In common law, posse comitatus is a sheriff's "to be able to attend" right to compel people to assist law enforcement in unusual situations.

post aut propter

"after it or by means of it"

Causality between two phenomena is not established (cf. post hoc, ergo propter hoc).

post cibum (p.c.)

"after food"

Medical shorthand for "after meals" (cf. ante cibum).

post hoc ergo propter hoc

"after this, therefore because of this"

A logical fallacy where one assumes that one thing happening after another thing means that the first thing caused the second.

post meridiem

"after midday"

The period from noon to midnight (cf. ante meridiem).

pinxit pluralis majestatis


post mortem (pm) "after death" post prandial

"after the time before midday"

Usually rendered postmortem. Not to be confused with post meridiem. Refers to the time after any meal. Usually rendered postprandial.

"after what has been written"

A postscript. Used to mark additions to a letter, after the signature. Can be extended to post post scriptum (p.p.s.), etc.

post tenebras lux

"after darkness, light"

A motto of the Protestant Reformation inscribed on the Reformation Wall in Geneva, Switzerland. A former motto of Chile, replaced by the current one, Por la Razón o la Fuerza (Spanish: "By Right or Might"). Another obsolete motto is aut concilio aut ense.

prima facie

"at first sight"

Used to designate evidence in a trial which is suggestive, but not conclusive, of something (e.g., a person's guilt).

prima luce

"at dawn"

Literally "at first light"

Praemonitus praemunitus

"forewarned is forearmed." See Praemonitus praemunitus.

primum mobile

"first moving thing"

Or "first thing able to be moved". See primum movens.

"prime mover"

Or "first moving one". A common theological term, such as in the cosmological argument, based on the assumption that God was the first entity to "move" or "cause" anything. Aristotle was one of the first philosophers to discuss the "uncaused cause", a hypothetical originator—and violator of—causality.

primum non nocere

"first, to not harm"

A medical precept. Often falsely attributed to the Hippocratic Oath, though its true source is probably a paraphrase from Hippocrates' Epidemics, where he wrote, "Declare the past, diagnose the present, foretell the future; practice these acts. As to diseases, make a habit of two things: to help, or at least to do no harm."

primus inter pares

"first among equals"

A title of the Roman Emperors (cf. princeps).

principia probant non probantur

"principles prove; they are not proved"

Fundamental principles require no proof; they are assumed a priori.

prior tempore potior iure

"earlier in time, stronger in law"

A legal principle that older laws take precedent over newer ones. Another name for this principle is lex

post scriptum (p.s.)

primum movens


pro bono

"for the good"

"let exceptional pro Brasilia fiant things be made for eximia Brazil"

The full phrase is pro bono publico ("for the public good"). Said of work undertaken voluntarily at no expense, such as public services. Often used of a lawyer's work that is not charged for. Motto of São Paulo state, Brazil. See also non ducor duco.

Pro deo et patria

"For God and Country"

Motto of American University.

pro forma

"for form"

Or "as a matter of form". Prescribing a set form or procedure, or performed in a set manner.

pro hac vice

"for this occasion"

Request of a state court to allow an out-of-state lawyer to represent a client.

Pro multis

"for many"

It is part of the Rite of Consecration of the wine in the Western Christian tradition, as part of the Mass.

pro patria

"for country"

Pro Patria Medal:- for operational service (minimum 55 days) in defence of the Republic South Africa or in the prevention or suppression of terrorism; issued for the Border War (counter-insurgency operations in South West Africa 1966-89) and for campaigns in Angola (1975-76 and 1987-88)

pro rata

"for the rate"

i.e., proportionately.

pro re nata (prn)

"for a thing that has been born"

Medical shorthand for "as the occasion arises" or "as needed".

pro studio et labore

"for study and work"

pro se

"for oneself"

to defend oneself in court without counsel ("pro per" -persona-in California)

pro tanto

"for so much"

Denotes something that has only been partially fulfilled. A philosophical term indicating the acceptance of a theory or idea without fully accepting the explanation

pro tempore

"for the time"

Equivalent to English phrase "for the time being". Denotes a temporary current situation.

probatio pennae

"testing of the pen"

propria manu

"by one's own hand"


A Medieval Latin term for breaking in a new pen.

propter vitam vivendi perdere causas

"to destroy the That is, to squander life's purpose just in order to stay reasons for living for alive, and live a meaningless life. From Juvenal, the sake of life" Satyricon VIII, verses 83–84.

provehito in altum

"launch forward into the deep"

Motto of the band 30 Seconds to Mars..

proxime accessit

"he came next"

The runner-up.

proximo mense (prox.)

"in the following month"

Formerly used in formal correspondence to refer to the next month. Used with ult. ("last month") and inst. ("this month").

pulvis et umbra sumus

"we are dust and shadow"

From Horace, Carmina book IV, 7, 16.

punctum saliens

"leaping point"

Thus, the essential or most notable point.

Q Latin qua patet orbis

Translation "as far as the world extends"

Notes Motto of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps.

quaecumque vera "whatever is true"

Motto of the University of Alberta. Taken from Phillipians 4:8 of the Bible



Or "you might ask..." Used to suggest doubt or to ask one to consider whether something is correct. Often introduces rhetorical or tangential questions.

quaerite primum regnum Dei

"seek ye first the kingdom of God"

Motto of Newfoundland and Labrador.

qualis artifex pereo

"As what kind of artist do I perish?"

Or "What an artist dies in me!" Attributed to Nero by Suetonius.

quamdiu bene gesserit

Legal latin: "as long as I.e., "[while on] good behavior." From which Frank he shall have behaved Herbert extracted the name for the sisterhood in the well" Dune novels.

quando omni

"When all else fails,

Mock-Latin phrase said at the end of The Red

flunkus, mortati

play dead"

quantum libet

"as much as p


Green Show.