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The Journal of Effective Teaching an online journal devoted to teaching excellence

Teaching Culture and Language through the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model in the ESL/EFL Classroom Ellen Yeh1 Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 Abstract This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners’ linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and cultural competencies by responding to teachers’ interactional feedback. Second, the presentation presents how Multiple Intelligences (MI) activities can encourage L2 learners’ motivation to acquire these competencies when responding to the interactional feedback. Third, the paper also illustrates how to construct MIFT model based on the theories of interactive feedback, noticing the gap and Multiple Intelligence. Last, examples will be presented sharing how to use the MIFT model through the incorporation of MI activities, such as reader’s theater, role play, read aloud, oral presentation, task-based activity, process writing, and journal writing. Keywords: Film, multiple intelligences, EFL/ESL, motivation, culture.

Numerous studies have shown statistical evidence that indicates motivation is a significant predictor of second language (L2) success (Dörnyei, 2001; Gardner, 1999; Gass & Selinker, 2008; Ushioda, 2003). The literature reveals that motivated L2 learners will learn another language faster and to greater degree (Gass & Selinker, 2008). Unfortunately, many L2 learners are anxious, unmotivated or have negative attitudes toward language learning due to the environment or limited resources. Therefore, the author created a Multiple Intelligence Film Teaching (MIFT) model to enhance L2 learners’ motivation in English language learning through the use of Multiple Intelligences activities and films in EFL/ESL curriculum. The purpose of designing the MIFT model is to show how the model can: (1) enhance L2 learners’ linguistic and cultural competencies by integrating films into an ESL/EFL curriculum (Kramsch, 1995), (2) enhance L2 learners’ motivation and engagement in target language activities, (3) demonstrate how to design lesson plans based on the concept of Gardner’s (1983) MI, and (4) demonstrate practical examples of MI activities such as reader’s theater, role play, read aloud, oral presentation, task-based activity, process writing, and journal writing in the MIFT model. 1

Corresponding author's email: [email protected]

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Theoretical Framework The author created the MIFT model based on the theoretical frameworks in terms of interactive feedback, noticing the gap, and Multiple Intelligence. First, interactional feedback is a highly effective strategy for teaching L2 acquisition. Second, interactional feedback provided by teachers helps students notice a gap between what they know about the target language and what is produced by the teacher of the target language. Third, the use of MI activities can motivate L2 learners’ self-correct their utterances. Fourth, the applications of MI activities can be enhanced through the use of technology. These four concepts inform the construction of the MIFT model, and will be illustrated in more detail in the following paragraphs. Interactive Feedback Interactional feedback, also known as corrective feedback, plays an important role in L2 learning. The interactional feedback discussed above can draw L2 learners’ attention to certain elements of language of their speech, which leads them to notice a gap between (a) their speech and that of a native speaker of the target language (especially when the feedback is a linguistic model) or (b) a deficiency of their output (Gass & Selinker, 2008). Noticing the gap refers to occasions when L2 learners notice a mismatch between what they know about the target language and what is produced by the speakers of the target language (Swain, 1985). If L2 learners are going to make modifications in the grammatical errors, they should first recognize that changes need to be made. Therefore, self-correction or readjustment of grammatical errors is triggered by the perception of noticing the gap (Schmidt, 1995; 2001). Noticing the Gap Through interactional feedback, learners receive information about the accuracy of their utterances from two types of interactional feedback – recasts and negotiations. These two types of feedback trigger learners to noticing the gap and self-correct their utterances. A recast refers to a reformulation of an inaccurate utterance which maintains the original meaning of the utterance (Gass & Selinker, 2008), as in 1-1, where the Native Speaker (NS) reformulates the Non-Native Speaker’s (NNS) inaccurate phonological error. NNS pronounces /l/ sound instead of /r/ sound in the word, really, as illustrated in the example below. (1-1)

NNS: Do you leally like him? NS: Do I really like him?

Negotiation refers to a type of explicit feedback which serves as a catalyst for selfcorrections because of its focus on inaccurate forms. Negotiation provides L2 learners explicit information about inaccurate forms, and encourages leaners to search for additional information to correct the errors. Four types of prompts are commonly used in negotiation (Lyster, 2004):

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1. Clarification requests: teacher uses phrases such as “Sorry” or “I don’t understand,” as in 1-2. (1-2)

Student: I like to picnic in the grass. Teacher: Sorry? Student: I like to picnic on the grass.

2. Repetition: teacher repeats the student’s incorrect forms, and adjusts intonation to highlight the error, as in 1-3. (1-3)

Student: She love to eat cookies. Teacher: She love to eat cookies? Student: She loves to eat cookies.

3. Metalinguistic clues: teacher provides comments, information, or questions related to the correct forms to bring up the attention to student’s ill-formed utterance, as in 1-4. (1-4)

Student: Mary is thinking about buying his own house. Teacher: Not his own house. Student: Mm…her own house.

4. Elicitation: teacher elicits students by asking questions such as “How do we say that in English?” or by pausing to allow students to complete teacher’s sentence, as in 1-5. (1-5)

Teacher: What did you do yesterday? Student: I do my homework yesterday. Teacher: You…Careful. Student: I did my homework yesterday.

Multiple Intelligences The learners’ motivation to self-correct their utterances can be enhanced through the application of MI theory. MI theory suggests that individuals possess eight “intelligences,” including linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematic intelligence, visual and spatial intelligences, musical and rhythmic intelligences, body and kinesthetic intelligences, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, and naturalist intelligence (Gardner, 1983; 1999). By designing lesson plans that acknowledge the differences among students, teachers can increase the level of interaction. For example, students who are high in an interpersonal intelligence enjoy learning through communicative language activities or cooperative activities, while other students who have a high level of intrapersonal intelligence enjoy learning through individual presentations or journal writing (Christison, 1996).

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The effectiveness of using MI theory is also shown in a large number of empirical studies. Many research studies revealed that MI activities were more effective in the positive development of the students’ attitudes (Baş & Beyhan, 2010; McCarthy & McCarthy, 2005). The findings of Baş and Beyhan’s study indicated that the students who are educated by multiple intelligences supported projected based learning approach are more successful and have higher motivation level than the students who received merely traditional instructional approaches (Baş & Beyhan, 2010). Furthermore, a number of studies show that teachers apply MI as the basis for learning preferences or learning styles that can be used effectively to enhance language instruction, motivate learners, and cross other disciplines (Kolb, 1984; McCarthy & McCarthy, 2005). Differences in learning and cognitive styles of L2 learners have led numbers of researchers and teachers to apply MI theory to ESL/EFL curriculum (Larsen-Freeman, 2000). Studies suggest that Multiple Intelligence (Gardner, 1983) activities are effective in the positive development of the students’ attitudes and enhancing motivation (Baş & Beyhan, 2010; McCarthy & McCarthy, 2005). Berman (1998) was the first scholar to show MI activities can enhance learners’ English language proficiency. Since then a large number of researchers and teachers have also contributed to the field of MI and claim that MI activities can be effectively used to enhance learners’ English language proficiency (Jallad & Abdelrahman, 2008; Jinxiu, 2013; Kim, 2009; Saricaoglu & Arikan, 2009; Savas, 2012). Furthermore, L2 learners’ motivation to self-correct their error in English utterance can be enhanced through the application of MI activities without feeling anxious or lack of self-confidence.Jallad and Abdelrahman (2008) investigated the effect of multiple intelligences strategies on EFL ninth graders' achievement in reading comprehension. The findings of the study revealed that students who received multiple intelligences strategies have significant improvement in the students' reading comprehension comparing to students who merely received traditional methods. The findings of Jinxiu’s (2013) study supports Jallad and Abdelrahman (2008) that MI-based reading contributed significantly to enhancing students’ motivation toward English reading, and improving their reading proficiency. Saricaoglu and Arikan (2009) investigated the relationship between 114 college EFL students’ intelligence types and English language performance. The results indicated that the relationship between musical intelligence and writing was significant and positive. As for applying films in EFL/ESL courses, this approach is commonly used for not only enhancing L2 learners’ motivation, but also developing their linguistic and cultural competences (Roell, 2010). Enhancing MI with Technology Literature shows that technology and multimedia can be effectively used to enhance various types of MI employed while learning language (Dryden, 2004; Kim, 2009; Mackenzie, 2002; Stedge, 2005). Mackenzie (2002) demonstrates how teachers can apply technology and multimedia (i.e., CD−ROMs, video clips, videoconferencing, social network sites) in their instructional planning through the use of MI theory. He compares MI with non-digital technologies to MI with digital technologies to demonstrate how teachers can effectively incorporate technology in MI activities. Dryden (2004) supports the curriculum of combining MI theory and CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning). He The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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claims that incorporating CALL into MI theory offers a new curriculum adaptable to each individual’s needs in the 21st century. Based on the empirical studies discussed above, literature shows that MI theory has significant impact on ESL/EFL learning. As a result, the author designed a MIFT Model for ESL/EFL teachers to enhance L2 learners’ English language proficiency and explain how to implement these intelligences into ESL/EFL curricula in the following section.

Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model The purpose of designing the MIFT model is to show how the model can: (1) enhance L2 learners’ linguistic and cultural competencies by integrating films into an ESL/EFL curriculum (Kramsch, 1995), (2) enhance L2 learners’ motivation and engagement in target language activities, (3) demonstrate how to design lesson plans based on the concept of Gardner’s (1983) MI, and (4) demonstrate practical examples of MI activities such as reader’s theater, role play, read aloud, oral presentation, task-based activity, process writing, and journal writing in the MIFT model. The MIFT model illustrates how L2 learners process the interactional feedback and acquire L2 successfully. (See Figure 1.) The center part of the Figure 1 is based on Gass and Mackey’s (2006) concept of interactional feedback. Interactional feedback is an essential source of information for L2 learners because it provides learners information about the accuracy of their utterances and draws their attention to focus on production and comprehension. The MIFT model illustrates this concept with the mediating factor of attention. Through interactional feedback, learners’ attention is drawn to certain elements of language, and these elements will be incorporated into a learner’s language developmental system (Gass & Mackey, 2006; Gass & Selinker, 2008). The top and bottom part of the Figure 1 illustrates a way to design MI activities to demonstrate how to use recasts for phonological errors and negotiations for lexical errors. Therefore, EFL/ESL teachers could use recasts to enhance learners’ awareness of phonological errors, and use negotiations to make learners aware of lexical and grammatical errors in different types of MI activities (Lyster, 1998). In the top part of the Figure 1, the MIFT model illustrates four MI activities focusing on phonological awareness. These MI activities are reader’s theater, role play, read aloud, and oral presentation. With regard to the phonological MI activities, it is important for teachers to provide recast feedback to enhance students’ awareness of phonological errors. In the bottom part of the Figure 1, the MIFT model illustrates three MI activities focusing on grammatical and lexical learning. These MI activities are task-based activity, process writing, and journal writing. During the grammatical and lexical MI activities, it is essential to provide negotiation feedback to draw students’ attention to grammatical and lexical errors. Lyster (1998) supports this idea that the negotiation is more effective in immediate self-correction than recasts, particularly in the areas of lexical and grammatical errors; however, it is not effective in correcting phonological errors.

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Figure 1. Multiple intelligences film teaching model incorporating Gass and Mackey’s (2006) concept of interactional feedback.

Examples of MI activities in MIFT Model There are seven practical examples of MI activities in MIFT model. These activities are reader’s theater, role play, read aloud, oral presentation, task-based activity, process writing, and journal writing. The MIFT model suggests teachers provide recast feedback in the former four MI activities, and provide negotiation feedback in the later three MI activities. The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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The MIFT model incorporates one feature film, Freedom Writers (Sher, Shamberg, & LaGravenese, 2007), and one simplified readers’ book, The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. These materials provide teachers with a variety of intercultural issues about which to speak of in ESL/EFL classrooms. Freedom Writers and The Diary of a Young Girl discuss a wide variety of intercultural themes; therefore, they are useful and informative materials that can be used to enrich thematic or content-based teaching. The MIFT model suggests four cultural thematic lesson topics in Freedom Writers: cultural diversity, social justice, gender roles, and heroism. Furthermore, the MIFT model, based on Gardener’s MI theory (Gardner, 1983), demonstrates how to incorporate multiple aspects of learning to trigger L2 learners’ different intelligences through the use of films. (See Table 1 for MIFT model Activity Chart.) Table 1. Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model Activity Charts. MI Linguistic

Activities Recasts Reader’s Theater

Logicalmathematic

Spatial/ visual

X

Role play

X

Read aloud

X

Oral presentation Negotiation Task-based activity

X

Process writing

X

Journal writing

X

X

X

Musical

Body/ kinesthetic

Interpersonal

X

X

X

X

X

X

Intropersonal

X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Recasts The main purpose of the following activities is to focus on pronunciation, intonation, appropriate stress and fluency. The teacher plays the role of facilitator who provides recasts to scaffold students during the practices. Reader’s theater. The teacher shows students two scene dialogues from “Toast for Change” (1:00:00––1:06:00), and “Guest Speaker: the Day Miep Gies Comes to the School” (1:28:56––1:32:07) in Freedom Writers. Both scenes discuss the theme of cultural diversity and racism. They read the accompanying script of the conversation, and The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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then memorize and imitate the conversation. The teacher should provide recasts to draw students’ attention on phonological awareness in terms of pronunciation, intonation, and appropriate stress. By giving students practice and recasting feedback in phonological components before they present the final performances, these practices ought to develop their linguistic and intercultural competence. The read theater activity helps to develop learners’ linguistic, musical, body/ kinesthetic and interpersonal intelligences. Role play. The purpose of role-play is to encourage students to discuss and write about hypothetical conversations between different characters from Freedom Writers to explore motivation and characterization. The teacher shows students four short clips from “Eva as a Witness of a Gunshot” (26:30––28:00), “The Expectation of Eva’s Father” (1:00:30––1:01:36), “Family Pressures” (1:26:49––1:27:58) and “The Truth of the Trial” (1:29:36––1:32:45) in Freedom Writers. The scenes discuss the theme of cultural diversity and racism. Students are prompted to write their own scripts to accompany the clip, making sure that both the dialogue and content are consistent with and supported by scenes depicted in the film. Students discuss their scripts in a small group. Each group choses one version of the scripts and revises it as a group. The teacher uses recasts with each group before they present their skit to the class (Tognozzi, 2010). The teacher provides feedback to the scripts and recasts to draw students’ attention to phonological awareness. The role play activity helps to develop learners’ linguistic, visual, musical, body/ kinesthetic and interpersonal intelligences. Read aloud. In the read aloud activity, the teacher uses the simplified reader’s book, The Diary of a Young Girl, to practice students’ phonological language skills. After brief discussion of the assigned reading, students choose one of their favorite paragraphs related to intercultural themes in the book and read it out loud in the class. While reading, the teacher recasts the students’ phonological errors to trigger their immediate selfcorrections. The teacher allows students to re-read the passage after going through it with the teacher recasts for the first time. This gives students a sense of accomplishment and enhances their motivation in reading. The read aloud activity helps to develop learners’ linguistic and interpersonal intelligences. Oral presentation. The purpose of oral presentation is to enhance students’ presentation skills in their academic and professional careers. To date, presentation skills in English have become more important because of the communication across countries, cultures, international businesses, and the issues of science and technology. Students follow guidelines that include three main features of structuring an oral presentation: (1) how to introduce a main theme and outlines of the presentation; (2) how to connect and refer to visuals (e.g., video clips); (3) how to wrap up and design Q&A questions. The teacher assigns the students an artifact from a Holocaust survivor. Students read an article through Washington State Holocaust Resource Center at the web site http://www.wsherc.org/teaching/posters.aspx (Young, 2010). The article is about the story of a survivor and the artifact he/she hold. In the presentation, students are required to The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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(a) introduce the story of the Holocaust survivor, (b) illustrate the role of the artifact in the history of Holocaust, and (c) explain the connection between the Holocaust survivor and the artifact. The teacher takes notes of students’ utterances that have phonological errors and provides feedback after the presentation. The oral presentation activity helps to develop learners’ linguistic, spatial/visual, musical and intrapersonal intelligences. Negotiation The main purpose of the following activities is to focus on lexical and grammatical language skills. The MIFT model uses three MI activities to illustrate the lesson plans. The three activities engage students in different types of written tasks. The MIFT model suggests the teacher provide negotiation feedback in students’ written tasks. Lyster (2004) supports this idea that negotiation feedback is more successful than recasts in teaching grammar, especially in the written tasks. While providing negotiation feedback on written work, clarification requests and metalinguistic clues are two most commonly used negotiation techniques. The teacher should create correction symbols to indicate that students have made grammatical and lexical errors in their written tasks. The correction symbols not only make the corrections clearer and less threatening, but also provide opportunities for students to respond to peers’ and teachers’ comments by making self-corrections. Table 2 demonstrates the use of clarification requests and metalinguistic clues in order to draw students’ attention to noticing their grammatical and lexical errors in written tasks (Harmer, 2007). Task-based approach activity. The purpose of using task-based activity is to encourage students to work collaboratively in order to solve the tasks through an authentic communication or written texts. During the activity, the interaction among the class and the teacher draw students’ attention to some target feature of the language, such as a verb tense or the structure of paragraphs. Students are aware of their grammatical and lexical errors because the teacher and peers give feedback on a task they have just been involved in (Harmer, 2007; Thornbury, 1999). Step 1: The teacher introduces the theme, cultural diversity, by telling a short story about one’s experiences, which demonstrates, for instance, the approach to the cultural diversity and conflicts in one’s country. The teacher uses the story to check the meaning of heterogenous and its opposite, homogeneous. Step 2: The teacher asks students to recall relevant experiences. The teacher suggests that there are many controversies of pros and cons of living in either a heterogenous or a homogeneous society. Since there is argument about this issue, the teacher suggests the class to The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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Table 2. Correction Symbols Chart Incorporating Harmer’s (2007) Concept of The Use of Written Feedback. Correction symbol examples

Negotiation types

A.

B.

Clarification requests

Correction symbols ?M: The meaning is unclear.

Example errors That is a very excited picture.

L1 effects: Errors caused by the influence of students’ first language syntactical structures.

I very much like it. or Chinese English

Metalinguistic SP: A spelling errors. clues T: Wrong word tense.

I write my diary yesterday.

C: Concord mistake.

Most of the Chinese people is collectivists.

^: There is something missing.

Anne told ^ that she has a secret.

WW: Wrong word.

The students pay attention on Ms. G.

X: Something is redundant.

My apartment is far more farther than yours.

P: A punctuation mistake.

Would you like to go out with me.

F/I: Too formal or informal.

Hey, Mr. Smith, thank you for your consideration…

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My mother and I had an argument yesterday.

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conduct a survey, in which they interview each other to see if there is any correlation between their previous experiences and present attitudes of cultural diversity. The teacher assigns students into pairs to prepare questions, which they wrote down. Step 3: The teacher organizes the pairs of students into groups of four, and asks them to ask each other the questions they designed. He/she takes notes of students’ utterances that have grammatical or lexical errors, but he/she doesn’t correct them at that point. Step 4: The teacher asks the class to watch two video clips from “The Debate of Racism and Holocaust” (28:00––41:00) and “The Line Game” (41:00––50:00) in Freedom Writers. The dialogues include various examples of the same themes, cultural diversity and racism. The whole class discusses the clips using the five key questions. (See Appendix A for general comprehension questions). The teacher hands out the script of the video clips, and replays the video while they read. Step 5: Students study the script to find the target language that might be useful for the survey task, particularly language related to the notions of heterogenous and homogeneous. They list these in two categories: previous experiences and present attitudes. Students work in pairs on this task, and then the teacher writes the ideas on the board (See Figure 4 for examples). Table 3. Examples for Task-Based Approach Activity. Previous experiences

Present attitudes

I could not understand the jokes my I still feel uncomfortable while hanging friends were talking about. out with foreign friends; especially they are speaking in foreign language. The teacher asks the class to complete the chart together, and to make generalizations about the grammar of the two categories. The teacher also elicits the question forms of the verb structures: Have you ever experienced…? How did you feel? etc. The students return to their survey task and revise their questions in pairs. Then, they are paired up with different students than the ones they were working with (in Step 3). Step 6: The teacher asks students, working in their original pairs, to prepare a report on their findings, with a view of answering the question: How does living in a heterogenous society or a homogeneous society affect attitudes of cultural diversity and racism? Each stuThe Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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dent is required to submit their questions and answers. The teacher provides negotiation feedback to students’ writing assignment. Process writing. The purpose of process writing is to engage a L2 learner in interaction between the writer and his/her audience that enhance an authentic situation and create an opportunity to cooperate with others. This activity provides students’ opportunities to respond to peers and teachers’ feedback and make self-corrections. There are three phases in process writing including: (1) the processes of planning, (2) peers and teachers’ feedback, and (3) revising the drafts. Group social networking websites (e.g., blog, black board) are very useful tools for developing students’ process writing skills (Boas, 2011; Ferris and Hedgcock, 2005). The following lesson plan demonstrates how to integrate black board and film into process writing. Step 1: Selecting a cultural theme The novel, The Diary of a Young Girl, and the film, Freedom Writers discuss four cultural thematic lesson topics including racism, social justice, gender roles, and heroism. After reading the book and watching the video clips, the whole class discusses the film and selects one topic for the writing assignment. The following paragraphs will use the topic, social justice, as an example in the process writing. The example demonstrates how to write a text in the problem-solving genre. Step 2: Planning For the purpose of developing a problem-solving topic related to social justice, a black board was created with the title “How can we prevent bullying?” After reading the novel and watching the film about social justice, students receive a handout and work in pairs to complete the following activity: In the reading and video clips, bully could happen in various situations from a small-scale bullying at school, a gang culture in the community, to the Nazis trying to exterminate the Jews and other groups in Europe in WII (Belchere, 2007). The characters in both the novel and the film show “ethical courage” and stand up against the authority to do the right thing. The teacher asks the students work in pairs to discuss about (1) what causes bullying, and (2) how to prevent bullying. Students write down three causes of bullying and three solutions from preventing bullying. The homework is to post the three problems and three solutions on the black board. Step 3: Drafting During the next class, students work in pairs and receive two handouts. The first handout contains the student-generated ideas of the causes and solutions on the black board posts. The second handout is the guidelines of how to structure a problem-solving text. The guidelines include how to write the introduction, the body of the paper, and the conclusion. For instance, in the body of the paper, students discuss the cause and the solution about bullying. The teacher asks students to pick one cause of bullying and one solution The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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of preventing bullying. Students are required to provide three supporting sentences and one example to support the idea of the cause of bullying. Likewise, students write down three supporting sentences and one example to support the solution of preventing bullying. In the first phase, the homework is to write the first draft on introduction of “How can we prevent bullying?” and post it on the black board. Step 4: Peer review Students bring their first draft to the class and exchange papers for peer revision. Peer revision is an essential component in process writing because it (1) engages writers in interactive and collaborative writing process (Lui and Hansen, 2002); (2) provides negotiation feedback different from the teacher (Campbell, 1998); and (3) helps develop students’ critical thinking skills. Step 5: Teacher’s feedback After students’ revised their first draft of introduction based on peers’ negotiation feedback, they submit the second draft to the teacher. The teacher provides negotiation feedback to the students and students are required to revise the second draft based on the teacher’s feedback. Step 6: Multiple drafting and revising After two versions of draft from both peers and the teacher, students are now ready to write about the body of the paper –– the cause and solution of bullying. In this phase, students follow the guidelines and information that was posted on the black board for guidance on how to pattern their problem-solving essays. After writing the first draft of the body of the paper, the class repeats the same pattern by having peer reviewing process and then the teacher reviewing process. Process writing involves in many re-writing and reviewing opportunities for students. Students post the final essays on the class black board. Step 7: Reflection of peers’ essays Students’ audience of writing assignments is usually merely the teacher. Therefore, in order to make writing tasks more authentic, the teacher assigns students to interact with their peers’ by writing reflections of peers’ essays on the black board. Because the multiple drafting and revising phase had already finished, the purpose of the reflections is to emphasize the content of the essays rather than the lexical and grammatical forms. This writing activity focuses on the content of different ideas and cultural contexts. Journal writing. The purpose of writing a journal is writing to communicate. Writing to communicate provides students opportunities to (1) develop creative thinking skills, (2) express their feelings by using informal language, rather than formal languages, and (3) communicate with the teacher. The teacher plays a role as a facilitator to scaffold the students, rather than a judge (Young, 1999). The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

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In The Diary of a Young Girl and Freedom Writers, the characters keep journals to express their feelings and write down the difficulties they encounter in life. The teacher asks students to choose one characters in the story and write diary entries in order to answer the following questions: (1) what would you do, if you were the character in the story?; (2) how would you feel, if you were the character in the story?; and (3) how the problems and difficulties the characters faced connect to your life experiences? The teacher should collect and read the journals on a regular daily basis. Some teachers prefer not to correct students’ errors in journal writings; however, in this activity, the purpose is to focus on not only the contents but also the common lexical and grammatical errors in L2 writing. Therefore, the teacher should provide negotiation feedback on the errors.

Conclusions In order to successfully acquire a L2, students must gain not only linguistic competency but also an ever-widening critical cultural competency. The MIFT model provides three benefits: first, it demonstrates to ESL/EFL teachers a classroom application via a course management system for intermediate and advanced English conversation and composition class; second, it provides strategies and techniques that can be employed to promote linguistic and cultural competency; and third, it shows how the development of linguistic and cultural competencies can be integrated with the development of creative and critical thinking. This paper is of significant interest to multilingual and multicultural educators and learners. It addresses pressing concerns for other educator in the fields of language, media literacy, cultural competency, social study, and critical thinking skills in education today. This paper also suggests directions for future research and pedagogical implications. Media literacy has been an essential tool in not only language classrooms but also other disciplines; however, teaching content knowledge and cultural competence through the use of media and selecting appropriate materials through media are still controversial. Additionally, this paper serves as a model for (1) how teachers can use films effectively in teaching English and cultural competency or other disciplines; (2) and how teachers can use films to design lesson plans based on the concept of Multiple Intelligences.

Acknowledgments This study would not have been possible without the love, support, and encouragement I received from my family, professors, and classmates. I have benefited greatly from the mentoring of Dr. John Henning and comments received from Dr. Sara Helfrich, Daniel Showalter, Ellen Myers, and Andy Knapp. The authors acknowledge the support from faculty and students from the Ohio OPIE and ELIP programs.

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Appendix A General comprehension questions for discussions: 1. Setting: Where did the story take place? 2. Theme: What is the message of the scene? 3. Problem: What was the problem in the debate? Solution: How was the problem solved? 4. Characters: Who were in the story? Whose point of view is shown in the debate? 5. Event: What important things happened in the scene?

The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 14, No.1, 2014, 63-79 ©

2014 All rights reserved.