Plutonium - Wikimedia Commons

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Plutonium An overview

PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at: Thu, 09 Jun 2011 13:52:20 UTC

Contents Articles Overview Plutonium

Allotropes Allotropes of plutonium

Isotopes Isotopes of plutonium

Compounds and mixtures

1 1 23 23 25 25 34

Plutonium borides

34

Plutonium carbide

35

Plutonium hexafluoride

36

Plutonium hydride

38

Plutonium(III) chloride

39

Plutonium(III) fluoride

40

Plutonium(IV) fluoride

42

Plutonium(IV) oxide

43

Plutonium-gallium alloy

45

MOX fuel

48

Environment Plutonium in the environment

52 52

References Article Sources and Contributors

61

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

62

Article Licenses License

63

1

Overview Plutonium Plutonium Appearance silvery white

General properties Name, symbol, number

plutonium, Pu, 94

Pronunciation

/pluːˈtoʊniəm/ ploo-toe-nee-əm

Element category

actinide

Group, period, block

n/a, 7, f

Standard atomic weight

(244) g·mol

Electron configuration

[Rn] 5f 7s

Electrons per shell

2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 (Image)

6

−1

2

Physical properties Phase

solid

Density (near r.t.)

19.816 g·cm−3

Liquid density at m.p.

16.63 g·cm−3

Melting point

912.5 K,639.4 °C,1182.9 °F

Boiling point

3505 K,3228 °C,5842 °F

Heat of fusion

2.82 kJ·mol−1

Heat of vaporization

333.5 kJ·mol−1

Specific heat capacity

(25 °C) 35.5 J·mol−1·K−1

Vapor pressure

Plutonium

2

P/Pa

1

at T/K 1756

10

100

1k

10 k

100 k

1953

2198

2511

2926

3499

Atomic properties Oxidation states

7, 6, 5, 4, 3 (amphoteric oxide)

Electronegativity

1.28 (Pauling scale)

Ionization energies

1st: 584.7 kJ·mol−1

Atomic radius

159 pm

Covalent radius

187±1 pm Miscellanea

Crystal structure

monoclinic

Magnetic ordering

paramagnetic

Electrical resistivity

(0 °C) 1.460 µΩ·m

Thermal conductivity

(300 K) 6.74 W·m ·K

Thermal expansion

(25 °C) 46.7 µm·m ·K

Speed of sound

2260 m/s

Young's modulus

96 GPa

Shear modulus

43 GPa

Poisson ratio

0.21

CAS registry number

7440-07-5

[1]

−1

−1

−1

−1

Most stable isotopes iso

NA

half-life

DM DE (MeV)

Pu syn

87.74 y

SF

204.66

α

5.5

238

[2]

DP — 234

U

Pu trace 2.41 × 104 y SF

207.06

α

5.157

SF

205.66

α

5.256

β−

0.02078

SF

210.83



Pu syn 3.73 × 105 y SF

209.47



α

4.984

238

α

4.666

240

239

Pu syn

240

Pu syn

241

6.5 × 103 y

14 y

242

Pu trace 8.08 × 107 y

244

SF

— 235

U

— 236

U

241

Am

U U



Plutonium Plutonium ( /pluːˈtoʊniəm/ ploo-toh-nee-əm) is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-white appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states. It reacts with carbon, halogens, nitrogen and silicon. When exposed to moist air, it forms oxides and hydrides that expand the sample up to 70% in volume, which in turn flake off as a powder that can spontaneously ignite. It is also a radioactive poison that accumulates in bone marrow. These and other properties make the handling of plutonium extremely dangerous. Plutonium is the heaviest primordial element (see also primordial nuclide), by virtue of its most stable isotope, plutonium-244, whose half-life of about 80 million years is just long enough for the element to be found in trace quantities in nature.[3] Plutonium is also a byproduct of nuclear fission in reactors: Some of the neutrons released by the fission process convert uranium-238 nuclei into plutonium.[4] The most important isotope of plutonium is plutonium-239, with a half-life of 24,100 years. Plutonium-239 is the isotope most useful for nuclear weapons. Plutonium-239 and 241 are fissile, meaning the nuclei of their atoms can split when bombarded by neutrons, releasing energy, gamma radiation and more neutrons. These neutrons can sustain a nuclear chain reaction, leading to applications in nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors. Plutonium-238 has a half-life of 88 years and emits alpha particles. It is a heat source in radioisotope thermoelectric generators, which are used to power some spacecraft. Plutonium-240 has a high rate of spontaneous fission, raising the neutron flux of any sample it is in. The presence of plutonium-240 limits a sample's usability for weapons or reactor fuel, and determines its grade. Plutonium isotopes are expensive and inconvenient to separate, so particular isotopes are usually manufactured in specialized reactors. Plutonium was first synthesized in 1940 by a team led by Glenn T. Seaborg and Edwin McMillan at the University of California, Berkeley laboratory by bombarding uranium-238 with deuterons. Trace amounts of plutonium were subsequently discovered in nature. Producing plutonium in useful quantities for the first time was a major part of the Manhattan Project during World War II, which developed the first atomic bombs. The first nuclear test, "Trinity" (July 1945), and the second atomic bomb used to destroy a city (Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945), "Fat Man", both had cores of plutonium-239. Human radiation experiments studying plutonium were conducted without informed consent, and a number of criticality accidents, some lethal, occurred during and after the war. Disposal of plutonium waste from nuclear power plants and dismantled nuclear weapons built during the Cold War is a nuclear-proliferation and environmental concern. Other sources of plutonium in the environment are fallout from numerous above-ground nuclear tests (now banned).

Characteristics Physical properties Plutonium, like most metals, has a bright silvery appearance at first, much like nickel, but it oxidizes very quickly to a dull gray, although yellow and olive green are also reported.[5] [6] At room temperature plutonium is in its α form (alpha). This, the most common structural form of the element (allotrope), is about as hard and brittle as grey cast iron unless it is alloyed with other metals to make it soft and ductile. Unlike most metals, it is not a good conductor of heat or electricity. It has a low melting point (640 °C) and an unusually high boiling point (3,327 °C).[5] Alpha decay, the release of a high-energy helium nucleus, is the most common form of radioactive decay for plutonium.[7] A 5 kg mass of 239Pu contains about 12.5 × 1024 atoms. With a half life of 24,100 years, about 11.5 × 1012 of its atoms decay each second by emitting a 5.157 MeV alpha particle. This amounts to 9.68 watts of power. Heat produced by the deceleration of these alpha particles makes it warm to the touch.[8] [9] Resistivity is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. The resistivity of plutonium at room temperature is very high for a metal, and it gets even higher with lower temperatures, which is unusual for metals.[10] This trend continues down to 100 K, below which resistivity rapidly decreases for fresh samples.[10]

3

Plutonium

4

Resistivity then begins to increase with time at around 20 K due to radiation damage, with the rate dictated by the isotopic composition of the sample.[10] Because of self-irradiation, a sample of plutonium fatigues throughout its crystal structure, meaning the ordered arrangement of its atoms becomes disrupted by radiation with time.[11] Self-irradiation can also lead to annealing which counteracts some of the fatigue effects as temperature increases above 100 K.[12] Unlike most materials, plutonium increases in density when it melts, by 2.5%, but the liquid metal exhibits a linear decrease in density with temperature.[10] Near the melting point, the liquid plutonium has also very high viscosity and surface tension as compared to other metals.[11]

Allotropes Plutonium normally has six allotropes and forms a seventh (zeta, ζ) at high temperature within a limited pressure range.[13] These allotropes, which are different structural modifications or forms of an element, have very similar internal energies but significantly varying densities and crystal structures. This makes plutonium very sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, or chemistry, and allows for dramatic volume changes following phase transitions from one allotropic form to another.[11] Densities of the different allotropes vary from 16.00 g/cm3 to 19.86 g/cm3.[14]

Plutonium has six allotropes at ambient pressure: alpha (α), beta (β), [13] gamma (γ), delta (δ), delta prime (δ'), & epsilon (ε)

The presence of these many allotropes makes machining plutonium very difficult, as it changes state very readily. For example, the α form exists at room temperature in unalloyed plutonium. It has machining characteristics similar to cast iron but changes to the plastic and malleable β form (beta) at slightly higher temperatures.[15] The reasons for the complicated phase diagram are not entirely understood. The α form has a low-symmetry monoclinic structure, hence its brittleness, strength, compressibility, and poor conductivity.[13] Plutonium in the δ form normally exists in the 310 °C to 452 °C range but is stable at room temperature when alloyed with a small percentage of gallium, aluminium, or cerium, enhancing workability and allowing it to be welded.[15] The delta form has more typical metallic character, and is roughly as strong and malleable as aluminium.[13] In fission weapons, the explosive shock waves used to compress a plutonium core will also cause a transition from the usual delta phase plutonium to the denser alpha form, significantly helping to achieve supercriticality.[16] The ε phase, the highest temperature solid allotrope, exhibits anomalously high atomic self-diffusion compared to other elements.[11]

Plutonium

5

Nuclear fission Plutonium is an element in which the 5f electrons are the transition border between delocalized and localized; it is therefore considered one of the most complex elements.[17] It is a radioactive actinide metal whose isotope, plutonium-239, is one of the three primary fissile isotopes[18] (uranium-233 and uranium-235 are the other two);[19] plutonium-241 is also highly fissile. To be considered fissile, an isotope's atomic nucleus must be able to break apart or fission when struck by a slow moving neutron, and to release enough additional neutrons in the process to sustain the nuclear chain reaction by splitting further nuclei. A ring of weapons-grade 99.96% pure electrorefined plutonium, enough for one bomb core. The ring weighs 5.3 kg, is ca. 11 cm in diameter and its shape helps with criticality safety.

Plutonium-239 has a multiplication factor (k) larger than one, which means that if the metal is present in sufficient mass and with an appropriate geometry (e.g., a compressed sphere), it can form a critical mass.[20] During fission, a fraction of the binding energy, which holds a nucleus together, is released as a large amount of electromagnetic and kinetic energy (much of the latter being quickly converted to thermal energy). Fission of a kilogram of plutonium-239 can produce an explosion equivalent to 21,000 tons of TNT.[8] It is this energy that makes plutonium-239 useful in nuclear weapons and reactors. The presence of the isotope plutonium-240 in a sample limits its nuclear bomb potential, as plutonium-240 has a relatively high spontaneous fission rate (~440 fissions per second per gram—over 1,000 neutrons per second per gram[21] ), raising the background neutron levels and thus increasing the risk of predetonation.[22] Plutonium is identified as either weapons-grade, fuel grade, or power reactor grade based on the percentage of plutonium-240 that it contains. Weapons-grade plutonium contains less than 7% plutonium-240. Fuel grade plutonium contains from 7% to less than 19%, and power reactor grade contains 19% or more plutonium-240. Supergrade plutonium, with less than 4% of plutonium-240, is used in U.S. Navy weapons stored in proximity to ship and submarine crews, due to its lower radioactivity.[23] The isotope plutonium-238 is not fissile but can undergo nuclear fission easily with fast neutrons as well as alpha decay.[8]

Plutonium

Isotopes and synthesis Twenty radioactive isotopes of plutonium have been characterized. The longest-lived are plutonium-244, with a half-life of 80.8 million years, plutonium-242, with a half-life of 373,300 years, and plutonium-239, with a half-life of 24,110 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 7,000 years. This element also has eight metastable states, though none are stable and all have half-lives less than one second.[7] The isotopes of plutonium range in mass number from 228 to 247. The primary decay modes of isotopes with Uranium-plutonium and thorium-uranium chains mass numbers lower than the most stable isotope, plutonium-244, are spontaneous fission and α emission, mostly forming uranium (92 protons) and neptunium (93 protons) isotopes as decay products (neglecting the wide range of daughter nuclei created by fission processes). The primary decay mode for isotopes with mass numbers higher than plutonium-244 is β emission, mostly forming americium (95 protons) isotopes as decay products. Plutonium-241 is the parent isotope of the neptunium decay series, decaying to americium-241 via β or electron emission.[7] [24] Plutonium-238 and 239 are the most-widely synthesized isotopes.[8] Plutonium-239 is synthesized via the following reaction using uranium (U) and neutrons (n) via beta decay (β−) with neptunium (Np) as an intermediate:[25]

Neutrons from the fission of uranium-235 are captured by uranium-238 nuclei to form uranium-239; a beta decay converts a neutron into a proton to form Np-239 (half-life 2.36 days) and another beta decay forms plutonium-239.[26] Workers on the Tube Alloys project had predicted this reaction theoretically in 1940. Plutonium-238 is synthesized by bombarding uranium-238 with deuterons (D, the nuclei of heavy hydrogen) in the following reaction:[27]

In this process, a deuteron hitting uranium-238 produces two neutrons and neptunium-238, which spontaneously decays by emitting negative beta particles to form plutonium-238.

6

Plutonium

7

Decay heat and fission properties Plutonium isotopes undergo radioactive decay, which produces decay heat. Different isotopes produce different amounts of heat per mass. The decay heat is usually listed as watt/kilogram, or milliwatt/gram. In case of larger pieces of plutonium (e.g. a weapon pit) and inadequate heat removal the resulting self-heating may be significant. All isotopes produce weak gamma on decay.

Decay heat of plutonium isotopes[28] Decay mode Isotope

Half-life (years)

Decay heat (W/kg)

Spontaneous fission neutrons (1/(g·s))

Comment

Pu-238 alpha to U-234

87.74

560

2600

Very high decay heat. Even in small amounts can cause significant self-heating. Used on its own in radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

Pu-239 alpha to U-235

24100

1.9

0.022

The principal fissile isotope in use.

Pu-240 alpha to U-236, 6560 spontaneous fission

6.8

910

The principal impurity of the Pu-239 isotope. The plutonium grade is usually listed as percentage of Pu-240. High spontaneous fission hinders use in nuclear weapons.

Pu-241 beta, to Am-241

14.4

4.2

0.049

Decays to americium-241; its buildup presents a radiation hazard in older samples.

Pu-242 alpha to U-238

376000

0.1

1700

Americium-241, the decay product of plutonium-241, has half-life of 430 years, 1.2 spontaneous fissions per gram per second, and decay heat of 114 watts per kilogram. As its decay produces highly penetrative gamma rays, its presence in plutonium, determined by the original concentration of plutonium-241 and the sample age, increases the radiation exposure of surrounding structures and personnel.

Compounds and chemistry At room temperature, pure plutonium is silvery in color but gains a tarnish when oxidized.[29] The element displays four common ionic oxidation states in aqueous solution and one rare one:[14] • Pu(III), as Pu3+ (blue lavender) • Pu(IV), as Pu4+ (yellow brown) • Pu(V), as PuO2+ (pink?)[30]

• Pu(VI), as PuO22+ (pink orange) • Pu(VII), as PuO53− (green)–the heptavalent ion is rare

The color shown by plutonium solutions depends on both the oxidation state and the nature of the acid anion.[31] It is the acid anion that influences the degree of complexing—how atoms connect to a central atom—of the plutonium species.

Various oxidation states of plutonium in solution

Metallic plutonium is produced by reacting plutonium tetrafluoride with barium, calcium or lithium at 1200 °C.[32] It is attacked by acids, oxygen, and steam but not by alkalis and dissolves easily in concentrated hydrochloric,

Plutonium

8

hydroiodic and perchloric acids.[33] Molten metal must be kept in a vacuum or an inert atmosphere to avoid reaction with air.[15] At 135 °C the metal will ignite in air and will explode if placed in carbon tetrachloride.[34] Plutonium is a reactive metal. In moist air or moist argon, the metal oxidizes rapidly, producing a mixture of oxides and hydrides.[5] If the metal is exposed long enough to a limited amount of water vapor, a powdery surface coating of PuO2 is formed.[5] Also formed is plutonium hydride but an excess of water vapor forms only PuO2.[33] Plutonium pyrophoricity can cause it to look like a glowing ember under certain conditions.

With this coating, the metal is pyrophoric, meaning it can ignite spontaneously, so plutonium metal is usually handled in an inert, dry atmosphere of nitrogen or argon. Oxygen retards the effects of moisture and acts as a passivating agent.[5] Plutonium shows enormous, and reversible, reaction rates with pure hydrogen, forming plutonium hydride.[11] It also reacts readily with oxygen, forming PuO and PuO2 as well as intermediate oxides; plutonium oxide fills 40% more volume than plutonium metal. It reacts with the halogens, giving rise to compounds such as PuX3 where X can be F, Cl, Br or I; PuF4 is also seen. The following oxyhalides are observed: PuOCl, PuOBr and PuOI. It will react with carbon to form PuC, nitrogen to form PuN and silicon to form PuSi2.[14] [34] Crucibles used to contain plutonium need to be able to withstand its strongly reducing properties. Refractory metals such as tantalum and tungsten along with the more stable oxides, borides, carbides, nitrides and silicides can tolerate this. Melting in an electric arc furnace can be used to produce small ingots of the metal without the need for a crucible.[15]

Twenty micrograms of pure [35] plutonium hydroxide.

Cerium is used as a chemical simulant of plutonium for development of containment, extraction, and other technologies.[36]

Electronic structure The anomalous behavior of plutonium is caused by its electronic structure. The energy difference between the 6d and 5f subshells is very low. The size of the 5f shell is just enough to allow the electrons to form bonds within the lattice, on the very boundary between localized and bonding behavior. The proximity of energy levels leads to multiple low-energy electron configurations with near equal energy levels. This leads to competing 5fn7s2 and 5fn-17s26d1 configurations, which causes the complexity of its chemical behavior. The highly directional nature of 5f orbitals is responsible for directional covalent bonds in molecules and complexes of plutonium.[11]

Alloys Plutonium can form alloys and intermediate compounds with most other metals. Exceptions include lithium, sodium, potassium, and rubidium of the alkali metals; and magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium of the alkaline earth metals; and europium and ytterbium of the rare earth metals.[33] Partial exceptions include the refractory metals chromium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, and tungsten, which are soluble in liquid plutonium, but insoluble or only slightly soluble in solid plutonium.[33] Gallium, aluminium, americium, scandium and cerium can stabilize the δ phase of plutonium for room temperature. Silicon, indium, zinc and zirconium allow formation of metastable δ state when rapidly cooled. High amounts of hafnium, holmium and thallium also allows retaining some of the δ phase at room temperature. Neptunium is the only element that can stabilize the α phase at higher temperatures.[11] Plutonium alloys can be produced by adding a metal to molten plutonium. If the alloying metal is sufficiently reductive, plutonium can be added in the form of oxides or halides. The δ phase plutonium-gallium and plutonium-aluminium alloys are produced by adding plutonium(III) fluoride to molten gallium or aluminium, which

Plutonium has the advantage of avoiding dealing directly with the highly reactive plutonium metal.[37] • Plutonium-gallium is used for stabilizing the δ phase of plutonium, avoiding the α-phase and α-δ related issues. Its main use is in pits of implosion nuclear weapons.[38] • Plutonium-aluminium is an alternative to the Pu-Ga alloy. It was the original element considered for δ phase stabilization, but its tendency to react with the alpha particles and release neutrons reduces its usability for nuclear weapon pits. Plutonium-aluminium alloy can be also used as a component of nuclear fuel.[39] • Plutonium-gallium-cobalt alloy (PuCoGa5) is an unconventional superconductor, showing superconductivity below 18.5 kelvin, an order of magnitude higher than the highest between heavy fermion systems, and has large critical current.[17] [40] • Plutonium-zirconium alloy can be used as nuclear fuel.[41] • Plutonium-cerium and plutonium-cerium-cobalt alloys are used as nuclear fuels.[42] • Plutonium-uranium, with about 15–30 mol.% plutonium, can be used as a nuclear fuel for fast breeder reactors. Its pyrophoric nature and high susceptibility to corrosion to the point of self-igniting or disintegrating after exposure to air require alloying with other components. Addition of aluminium, carbon or copper did not improve disintegration rates markedly, zirconium and iron alloys have better corrosion resistance but they disintegrate in several months in air as well. Addition of titanium and/or zirconium significantly increases the melting point of the alloy.[43] • Plutonium-uranium-titanium and plutonium-uranium-zirconium were investigated for use as nuclear fuels. The addition of the third element increases corrosion resistance, reduces flammability, and improves ductility, fabricability, strength, and thermal expansion. Plutonium-uranium-molybdenum has the best corrosion resistance, forming a protective film of oxides, but titanium and zirconium are preferred for physics reasons.[43] • Thorium-uranium-plutonium was investigated as a nuclear fuel for fast breeder reactors.[43]

Occurrence Trace amounts of at least two plutonium isotopes (plutonium-239 and 244) can be found in nature. Small traces of plutonium-239, a few parts per trillion, and its decay products are naturally found in some concentrated ores of uranium,[44] such as the natural nuclear fission reactor in Oklo, Gabon.[45] The ratio of plutonium-239 to uranium at the Cigar Lake Mine uranium deposit ranges from 2.4 × 10−12 to 44 × 10−12.[46] Even smaller amounts of primordial plutonium-244 occur naturally due to its relatively long half-life of about 80 million years.[47] These trace amounts of Pu-239 originate in the following fashion: On rare occasions, U-238 undergoes spontaneous fission, and in the process, the nucleus emits one or two free neutrons with some kinetic energy. When one of these neutrons strikes the nucleus of another U-238 atom, it is absorbed by the atom, which becomes U-239. With quite-short half-lives, U-239 decays to neptunium-239 (Np-239), and then Np-239 decays into Pu-239. Since the relatively long-lived isotope plutonium-240 occurs in the decay chain of plutonium-244 it should also be present, albeit 10,000 times rarer still. Finally, exceedingly small amounts of plutonium-238, attributed to the incredibly rare double beta decay of uranium-238, have been found in natural uranium samples.[48] Minute traces of plutonium are usually found in the human body due to the 550 atmospheric and underwater nuclear tests that have been carried out, and to a small number of major nuclear accidents. Most atmospheric and underwater nuclear testing was stopped by the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, which was signed and ratified by the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other nations. Continued atmospheric nuclear weapons testing since 1963 by non-treaty nations included those by China (atomic bomb test above the Gobi Desert in 1964, hydrogen bomb test in 1967, and follow-on tests), and France (tests as recently as the 1980s). Because it is purposely manufactured for nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors, plutonium-239 is the most abundant isotope of plutonium by far.[34] It is also hypothetically possible for minute quantities of plutonium to be produced by the natural bombardment of uranium ores with cosmic rays.

9

Plutonium

10

History Discovery Enrico Fermi and a team of scientists at the University of Rome reported that they had discovered element 94 in 1934.[49] Fermi called the element hesperium and mentioned it in his Nobel Lecture in 1938.[50] The sample was actually a mixture of barium, krypton, and other elements, but this was not known at the time because nuclear fission had not been discovered yet.[51] Plutonium (specifically, plutonium-238) was first produced and isolated on December 14, 1940, and chemically identified on February 23, 1941, by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, J. W. Kennedy, and A. C. Wahl by deuteron bombardment of uranium in the 60-inch (150 cm) cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley.[52] [53] In the 1940 experiment, neptunium-238 was created directly by the bombardment but decayed by beta emission two days later, which indicated the formation of element 94.[34] A paper documenting the discovery was prepared by the team and sent to the journal Physical Review in March 1941.[34] The paper was withdrawn before publication after the discovery that an isotope of the new element (plutonium-239) could undergo nuclear fission in a way that might be useful in an atomic bomb. Publication was delayed until a year after the end of World War II due to security concerns.[18]

Glenn T. Seaborg and his team at Berkeley were the first to produce plutonium.

Edwin McMillan had recently named the first transuranium element after the planet Neptune and suggested that element 94, being the next element in the series, be named for what was then considered the next planet, Pluto.[8] [54] Seaborg originally considered the name "plutium", but later thought that it did not sound as good as "plutonium."[55] He chose the letters "Pu" as a joke, which passed without notice into the periodic table.[56] Alternative names considered by Seaborg and others were "ultimium" or "extremium" because of the erroneous belief that they had found the last possible element on the periodic table.[57]

Early research The basic chemistry of plutonium was found to resemble uranium after a few months of initial study.[34] Early research was continued at the secret Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago. On August 18, 1942, a trace quantity of this element was isolated and measured for the first time. About 50 micrograms of plutonium-239 combined with uranium and fission products was produced and only about 1 microgram was isolated.[44] This procedure enabled chemists to determine the new element's atomic weight.[58] [59] In November 1943 some plutonium trifluoride was reduced to create the first sample of plutonium metal: a few micrograms of metallic beads.[44] Enough plutonium was produced to make it the first synthetically made element to be visible with the unaided eye.[60] The nuclear properties of plutonium-239 were also studied; researchers found that when it is hit by a neutron it breaks apart (fissions) by releasing more neutrons and energy. These neutrons can hit other atoms of plutonium-239 and so on in an exponentially fast chain reaction. This can result in an explosion large enough to destroy a city if enough of the isotope is concentrated to form a critical mass.[34]

Plutonium

11

Production during the Manhattan Project During World War II the U.S. government established the Manhattan Project, which was tasked with developing an atomic bomb. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium production facility at what is now the Hanford Site, the uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.[61] The first production reactor that made plutonium-239 was the X-10 Graphite Reactor. It went online in 1943 and was built at a facility in Oak Ridge that later became the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.[34] [62]

The Hanford B Reactor face under construction—the first plutonium-production reactor.

On April 5, 1944, Emilio Segrè at Los Alamos received the first sample of reactor-produced plutonium from Oak Ridge.[63] Within ten days, he discovered that reactor-bred plutonium had a higher concentration of the isotope plutonium-240 than cyclotron-produced plutonium. Plutonium-240 has a high spontaneous fission rate, raising the overall background neutron level of the plutonium sample. The original gun-type plutonium weapon, code-named "Thin Man", had to be abandoned as a result—the increased number of spontaneous neutrons meant that nuclear pre-detonation (a fizzle) would be likely.

The entire plutonium weapon design effort at Los Alamos was soon changed to the more complicated implosion device, code-named "Fat Man." With an implosion weapon, a solid (or, in later designs, hollow) sphere of plutonium is compressed to a high density with explosive lenses—a technically more daunting task than the simple gun-type design, but necessary in order to use plutonium for weapons purposes. (Enriched uranium, by contrast, can be used with either method.)[63] Construction of the Hanford B Reactor, the first industrial-sized nuclear reactor for the purposes of material production, was completed in March 1945. B Reactor produced the fissile material for the plutonium weapons used during World War II.[64] B, D and F were the initial reactors built at Hanford, and six additional plutonium-producing reactors were built later at the site.[65] In 2004, a safe was discovered during excavations of a burial trench at the Hanford nuclear site. Inside the safe were various items, including a large glass bottle containing a whitish slurry which was subsequently identified as the oldest sample of weapons-grade plutonium known to exist. Isotope analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory indicated that the plutonium in the bottle was manufactured in the X-10 reactor at Oak Ridge during 1944.[66] [67] [68]

Plutonium

Trinity and Fat Man atomic bombs The first atomic bomb test, codenamed "Trinity" and detonated on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, used plutonium as its fissile material.[44] The implosion design of "the Gadget", as the Trinity device was code-named, used conventional explosive lenses to compress a sphere of plutonium into a supercritical mass, which was simultaneously showered with neutrons from the "Urchin", an initiator made of polonium and beryllium (neutron source: (α, n) reaction).[34] Together, these ensured a runaway chain reaction and explosion. The overall weapon weighed over 4 tonnes, although it used just 6.2 kg of plutonium in its core.[69] About 20% of the plutonium used in the Trinity weapon underwent fission, resulting in an explosion with an energy equivalent to approximately 20,000 tons of TNT.[70] [71] An identical design was used in the "Fat Man" atomic bomb dropped Because of the presence of plutonium-240 in on Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945, killing 70,000 people and reactor-bred plutonium, the implosion design was wounding another 100,000.[34] The "Little Boy" bomb dropped on developed for the "Fat Man" and "Trinity" weapons Hiroshima three days earlier used uranium-235, not plutonium. Japan capitulated on August 15 to General Douglas MacArthur. Only after the announcement of the first atomic bombs was the existence of plutonium made public.

Cold War use and waste Large stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium were built up by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. The U.S. reactors at Hanford and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina produced 103 tonnes,[72] and an estimated 170 tonnes of military-grade plutonium was produced in Russia.[73] [74] Each year about 20 tonnes of the element is still produced as a by-product of the nuclear power industry.[14] As much as 1000 tonnes of plutonium may be in storage with more than 200 tonnes of that either inside or extracted from nuclear weapons.[34] SIPRI estimated the world plutonium stockpile in 2007 as about 500 tons, divided equally between weapon and civilian stocks.[75] Since the end of the Cold War, these stockpiles have become a focus of nuclear proliferation concerns. In the U.S., some plutonium extracted from dismantled nuclear weapons is melted to form glass logs of plutonium oxide that weigh two tonnes.[34] The glass is made of borosilicates mixed with cadmium and gadolinium.[76] These logs are planned to be encased in stainless steel and stored as much as 4 km underground in bore holes that will be back-filled with concrete.[34] As of 2008, the only facility in the U.S. that is scheduled to store Proposed waste storage tunnel design for the plutonium in this way is the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository which is about 100 miles (160 km) north-east of Las Vegas, Nevada.[77] Local and state opposition to this plan has delayed efforts to store nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. In March 2010, the Department of Energy withdrew its license application for the Yucca Mountain repository "with predjudice" and eliminated funding for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, which had managed the Yucca Mountain site for 25 years.[78]

12

Plutonium

13

Medical experimentation During and after the end of World War II, scientists working on the Manhattan Project and other nuclear weapons research projects conducted studies of the effects of plutonium on laboratory animals and human subjects.[79] Animal studies found that a few milligrams of plutonium per kilogram of tissue is a lethal dose.[80] In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing (typically) five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years either due to age or chronic disease condition.[79] This was reduced to one microgram in July 1945 after animal studies found that the way plutonium distributed itself in bones was more dangerous than radium.[80] Eighteen human test subjects were injected with plutonium without informed consent. The tests were used to create diagnostic tools to determine the uptake of plutonium in the body in order to develop safety standards for working with plutonium.[79] The episode is now considered to be a serious breach of medical ethics and of the Hippocratic Oath. More sympathetic commentators have noted that while it was definitely a breach in trust and ethics, "the effects of the plutonium injections were not as damaging to the subjects as the early news stories painted, nor were they so inconsequential as many scientists, then and now, believe."[81]

Applications Explosives The isotope plutonium-239 is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability. Encasing the bomb's plutonium pit in a tamper (an optional layer of dense material) decreases the amount of plutonium needed to reach critical mass by reflecting escaping neutrons back into the plutonium core. This reduces the amount of plutonium needed to reach criticality from 16 kg to 10 kg, which is a sphere with a diameter of about 10 centimeters (4 in).[82] This critical mass is about a third of that for uranium-235.[8] The "Fat Man"-type plutonium bombs produced during the Manhattan Project used explosive compression of plutonium to obtain significantly higher densities than normal, combined with a central neutron source to begin the reaction and increase efficiency. Thus only 6.2 kg of plutonium was needed for an explosive yield equivalent to 20 kilotons of TNT.[70] [83] (See also Nuclear weapon design.) Hypothetically, as little as 4 kg of plutonium—and maybe even less—could be used to make a single atomic bomb using very sophisticated assembly designs.[83]

The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in 1945 had a plutonium core.

Mixed oxide fuel Spent nuclear fuel from normal light water reactors contains Plutonium, but it is a mixture of Plutonium-242, 240, 239 and 238. The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used once as MOX fuel. Accidental neutron capture causes the amount of Plutonium-242 and 240 to grow each time the Plutonium is irradiated in a reactor with low-speed "thermal" neutrons, so that after the second cycle, the Plutonium can only be consumed by fast neutron reactors. If fast neutron reactors are not available (the normal case), excess Plutonium is usually discarded, and forms the longest-lived component of nuclear waste. The desire to consume this Plutonium and other transuranic fuels and reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste is the usual reason nuclear engineers give to make fast neutron reactors.

Plutonium The most common chemical process, PUREX (Plutonium–URanium EXtraction) reprocesses spent nuclear fuel to extract plutonium and uranium which can be used to form a mixed oxide "MOX fuel" for reuse in nuclear reactors. Weapons grade plutonium can be added to the fuel mix. MOX fuel is used in light water reactors and consists of 60 kg of plutonium per tonne of fuel; after four years, three-quarters of the plutonium is burned (turned into other elements).[34] Breeder reactors are specifically designed to create more fissionable material than they consume. MOX fuel has been in use since the 1980s and is widely used in Europe.[84] In September 2000, the United States and the Russian Federation signed a Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement by which each agreed to dispose of 34 tonnes of weapon grade plutonium.[85] The U.S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of 34 tonnes of weapon grade plutonium in the United States before the end of 2019 by converting the plutonium to a MOX fuel to be used in commercial nuclear power reactors.[85] MOX fuel improves total burnup. A fuel rod is reprocessed after three years of use to remove waste products, which by then account for 3% of the total weight of the rods.[34] Any uranium or plutonium isotopes produced during those three years are left and the rod goes back into production.[86] The presence of up to 1% gallium per mass in weapon grade plutonium alloy has the potential to interfere with long-term operation of a light water reactor.[87] Plutonium recovered from spent reactor fuel poses a less significant proliferation hazard, because of excessive contamination with non-fissile plutonium-240 and plutonium-242. Separation of the isotopes is not feasible. A dedicated reactor operating on very low burnup is generally required to produce material suitable for use in efficient nuclear weapons. While 'weapons-grade' plutonium is defined to contain at least 92% plutonium-239, the United States have managed to detonate an under-20Kt device using plutonium believed to contain only about 85% plutonium-239, so called 'fuel-grade' plutonium.[88] The 'reactor grade' plutonium produced by a regular LWR burnup cycle typically contains less than 60% Pu-239, with up to 30% parasitic Pu-240/Pu-242, and 10-15% fissile Pu-241.[88] It's unknown if a device using plutonium obtained from reprocessed civil nuclear waste can be detonated, however such a device could hypothetically fizzle and spread radioactive materials over a large urban area. The IAEA conservatively classifies plutonium of all isotopic vectors as "direct-use" material, that is, "nuclear material that can be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives components without transmutation or further enrichment".[88] 241

Am has recently been suggested for use as a denaturing agent in plutonium reactor fuel rods to further limit its proliferation potential.[89]

Power and heat source The isotope plutonium-238 has a half-life of 87.74 years.[90] It emits a large amount of thermal energy with low levels of both gamma rays/particles and spontaneous neutron rays/particles.[91] Being an alpha emitter, it combines high energy radiation with low penetration and thereby requires minimal shielding. A sheet of paper can be used to shield against the alpha particles emitted by plutonium-238 while one kilogram of the isotope can generate about 570 watts of heat energy.[8] [91] These characteristics make it well-suited for electrical power A glowing cylinder of 238PuO2 generation for devices which must function without direct maintenance for timescales approximating a human lifetime. It is therefore used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units such as those in the Cassini, Voyager and New Horizons space probes. The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 with each containing a 500 watt plutonium power source. Over 30 years later each source is still producing about 300 watts which allows limited operation of each spacecraft.[92]

14

Plutonium Earlier versions of the same technology powered the ALSEP and EASEP systems including seismic experiments on the Apollo 14 Moon mission.[34] Plutonium-238 has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers, to reduce the risk of repeated surgery.[93] [94] It has been largely replaced by lithium-based primary cells, but as of 2003 there were somewhere between 50 and 100 plutonium-powered pacemakers still implanted and functioning in living patients.[95] Plutonium-238 was studied as way to provide supplemental heat to scuba diving.[96] Plutonium-238 mixed with beryllium is used to generate neutrons for research purposes.[34]

Precautions Toxicity Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are radioactive and accumulate in bone marrow. Contamination by plutonium oxide has resulted from a number of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents including military nuclear accidents where nuclear weapons have burned.[97] Studies of the negligible effects of these smaller releases, as well as of the widespread radiation poisoning sickness and death following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, have provided considerable information regarding the dangers, symptoms and prognosis of Radiation poisoning.[98] During the decay of plutonium, three types of radiation are released—alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha radiation can travel only a short distance and cannot travel through the outer, dead layer of human skin. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body. Gamma radiation can go all the way through the body.[99] Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are all forms of ionizing radiation. Either acute or longer-term exposure carries a danger of unfavorable health outcomes including radiation sickness, cancer, and death. The danger increases with the amount of exposure. Even though alpha radiation can not penetrate the skin, ingested or inhaled plutonium does irradiate internal organs.[34] The skeleton, where plutonium is absorbed, and the liver, where it collects and becomes concentrated, are at risk.[33] Plutonium is not absorbed into the body efficiently when ingested; only 0.04% of plutonium oxide is absorbed after ingestion.[34] Plutonium absorbed by the body is excreted very slowly, with a biological half-life of 200 years.[100] Plutonium passes only slowly through cell membranes and intestinal boundaries, so absorption by ingestion and incorporation into bone structure proceeds very slowly.[101] [102] Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested. The risk of lung cancer increases once the total radiation dose equivalent of inhaled plutonium exceeds 400 mSv.[103] The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that the lifetime cancer risk from inhaling 5,000 plutonium particles, each about 3 microns wide, to be 1% over the background U.S. average.[104] Ingestion or inhalation of large amounts may cause acute radiation poisoning and death; no human is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies.[88] The "hot particle" theory in which a particle of plutonium dust radiates a localized spot of lung tissue has been tested and found false—such particles are more mobile than originally thought and toxicity is not measurably increased due to particulate form.[101] However, when inhaled, plutonium can pass into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, plutonium moves throughout the body and into the bones, liver, or other body organs. Plutonium that reaches body organs generally stays in the body for decades and continues to expose the surrounding tissue to radiation and thus may cause cancer.[105] A commonly cited quote by Ralph Nader, states that a pound of plutonium dust spread into the atmosphere would be enough to kill 8 billion people. However, the math shows that one pound of plutonium could kill no more than 2 million people by inhalation. This makes the toxicity of plutonium roughly equivalent with that of nerve gas.[106]

15

Plutonium Several populations of people who have been exposed to plutonium dust (e.g. people living down-wind of Nevada test sites, Hiroshima survivors, nuclear facility workers, and "terminally ill" patients injected with Pu in 1945–46 to study Pu metabolism) have been carefully followed and analyzed. These studies generally do not show especially high plutonium toxicity or plutonium-induced cancer results.[101] "There were about 25 workers from Los Alamos National Laboratory who inhaled a considerable amount of plutonium dust during the 1940's; according to the hot-particle theory, each of them has a 99.5% chance of being dead from lung cancer by now, but there has not been a single lung cancer among them."[106] [107] Plutonium has a metallic taste.[108]

Criticality potential Toxicity issues aside, care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium-235.[8] A critical mass of plutonium emits lethal amounts of neutrons and gamma rays.[109] Plutonium in solution is more likely to form a critical mass than the solid form due to moderation by the hydrogen in water.[14] Criticality accidents have occurred in the past, some of them with lethal consequences. Careless handling of tungsten carbide bricks A sphere of simulated plutonium surrounded by around a 6.2 kg plutonium sphere resulted in a fatal dose of radiation at neutron-reflecting tungsten carbide blocks in a Los Alamos on August 21, 1945, when scientist Harry K. Daghlian, Jr. re-enactment of Harry Daghlian's 1945 experiment received a dose estimated to be 5.1 Sievert (510 rems) and died [110] 28 days later. Nine months later, another Los Alamos scientist, Louis Slotin, died from a similar accident involving a beryllium reflector and the same plutonium core (the so-called "demon core") that had previously claimed the life of Daghlian.[111] These incidents were fictionalized in the 1989 film Fat Man and Little Boy. In December 1958, during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.[112] Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States and many other countries.[112]

Flammability Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided. In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which are pyrophoric and may ignite in air at room temperature. Plutonium expands up to 70% in volume as it oxidizes and thus may break its container.[113] The radioactivity of the burning material is an additional hazard. Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire. It cools the burning material, acting as a heat sink, and also blocks off oxygen. Special precautions are necessary to store or handle plutonium in any form; generally a dry inert gas atmosphere is required.[113] [114] [115]

16

Plutonium

Notes Footnotes [1] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press. [2] BNL-NCS 51363, vol. II (http:/ / www. osti. gov/ bridge/ / product. biblio. jsp?query_id=0& page=0& osti_id=5972980) (1981), pages 835ff [3] Hoffman, D. C.; Lawrence, F. O.; Mewherter, J. L.; Rourke, F. M. (1971). "Detection of Plutonium-244 in Nature" (http:/ / www. nature. com/ nature/ journal/ v234/ n5325/ abs/ 234132a0. html). Nature 234 (5325): 132–134. Bibcode 1971Natur.234..132H. doi:10.1038/234132a0. . [4] "Contaminated Water Escaping Nuclear Plant, Japanese Regulator Warns" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 03/ 29/ world/ asia/ 29japan. html). The New York Times. [5] NIH contributors. "Plutonium, Radioactive" (http:/ / webwiser. nlm. nih. gov/ getSubstanceData. do;jsessionid=89B673C34252C77B4C276F2B2D0E4260?substanceID=419& displaySubstanceName=Plutonium, Radioactive& UNNAID=& STCCID=& selectedDataMenuItemID=44). Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER). Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. . Retrieved November 23, 2008. (public domain text) [6] ARQ staff (2008). "Nitric acid processing" (http:/ / arq. lanl. gov/ source/ orgs/ nmt/ nmtdo/ AQarchive/ 3rdQuarter08/ page3. shtml). Actinide Research Quarterly (Los Alamos (NM): Los Alamos National Laboratory) (3rd quarter). . Retrieved February 9, 2010. "While plutonium dioxide is normally olive green, samples can be various colors. It is generally believed that the color is a function of chemical purity, stoichiometry, particle size, and method of preparation, although the color resulting from a given preparation method is not always reproducible.". [7] NNDC contributors; Alejandro A. Sonzogni (Database Manager) (2008). "Chart of Nuclides" (http:/ / www. nndc. bnl. gov/ chart/ ). Upton (NY): National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. . Retrieved September 13, 2008. [8] Heiserman 1992, p. 338 [9] Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 659–660. ISBN 0-671-65719-4. Leona Marshall: "When you hold a lump of it in your hand, it feels warm, like a live rabbit" [10] Miner 1968, p. 544 [11] Hecker, Siegfried S. (2000). "Plutonium and its alloys: from atoms to microstructure" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00818035. pdf) (PDF). Los Alamos Science 26: 290–335. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [12] Hecker, Siegfried S.; Martz, Joseph C. (2000). "Aging of Plutonium and Its Alloys" (http:/ / library. lanl. gov/ cgi-bin/ getfile?00818029. pdf) (PDF). Los Alamos Science (Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos National Laboratory) (26): 242. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [13] Baker, Richard D.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Harbur, Delbert R. (1983). "Plutonium: A Wartime Nightmare but a Metallurgist's Dream" (http:/ / library. lanl. gov/ cgi-bin/ getfile?07-16. pdf). Los Alamos Science (Los Alamos National Laboratory): 148, 150–151. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [14] CRC 2006, pp. 4–27 [15] Miner 1968, p. 542 [16] "Plutonium Crystal Phase Transitions" (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ wmd/ intro/ pu-phase. htm). GlobalSecurity.org. . [17] Dumé, Belle (November 20, 2002). "Plutonium is also a superconductor" (http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 16443). PhysicsWeb.org. . [18] Stwertka 1998 [19] EPA contributors (2008). "Fissile Material" (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ rpdweb00/ glossary/ termdef. html#f). Radiation Glossary. United States Environmental Protection Agency. . Retrieved November 23, 2008. [20] Asimov, Isaac (1988). "Nuclear Reactors". Understanding Physics. Barnes & Noble Publishing. p. 905. ISBN 0-88029-251-2. [21] Samuel Glasstone and Leslie M. Redman, An Introduction to Nuclear Weapons (http:/ / www. doeal. gov/ opa/ docs/ RR00171. pdf) (Atomic Energy Commission Division of Military Applications Report WASH-1038, June 1972), p. 12. [22] Gosling, F.G. (1999). The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (http:/ / www. cfo. doe. gov/ me70/ manhattan/ publications/ DE99001330. pdf). Oak Ridge (TN): United States Department of Energy. p. 40. ISBN 0-7881-7880-6. DOE/MA-0001-01/99. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [23] DOE contributors (1996). Plutonium: The First 50 Years (http:/ / www. doeal. gov/ SWEIS/ DOEDocuments/ 004 DOE-DP-0137 Plutonium 50 Years. pdf). U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/DP-1037. . (public domain text) [24] Heiserman 1992, p. 340 [25] Kennedy, J. W.; Seaborg, G. T.; Segrè, E.; Wahl, A. C. (1946). "Properties of Element 94". Physical Review 70 (7–8): 555–556. Bibcode 1946PhRv...70..555K. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.70.555. [26] Greenwood 1997, p. 1259 [27] Seaborg, Glenn T.; McMillan, E.; Kennedy, J. W.; Wahl, A. C. (1946). "Radioactive Element 94 from Deuterons on Uranium". Physical Review 69 (7–8): 366–367. Bibcode 1946PhRv...69..367S. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.69.367. [28] "Can Reactor Grade Plutonium Produce Nuclear Fission Weapons?" (http:/ / www. cnfc. or. jp/ e/ proposal/ reports/ index. html). Council for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Institute for Energy Economics, Japan. May 2001. . [29] Heiserman 1992, p. 339

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18

[30] The PuO2+ ion is unstable in solution and will disproportionate into Pu4+ and PuO22+; the Pu4+ will then oxidize the remaining PuO2+ to PuO22+, being reduced in turn to Pu3+. Thus, aqueous solutions of plutonium tend over time towards a mixture of Pu3+ and PuO22+.

Crooks, William J. (2002). "Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineering Training Module 10 – Criticality Safety in Material Processing Operations, Part 1" (http:/ / ncsp. llnl. gov/ ncset/ Module10. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved February 15, 2006. [31] Matlack, George (2002). A Plutonium Primer: An Introduction to Plutonium Chemistry and its Radioactivity. Los Alamos National Laboratory. LA-UR-02-6594. [32] Eagleson, Mary (1994). Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry. Walter de Gruyter. p. 840. ISBN 978-3-11-011451-5. [33] Miner 1968, p. 545 [34] Emsley 2001 [35] Pure plutonium hydroxide in capillary tube (http:/ / imglib. lbl. gov/ ImgLib/ COLLECTIONS/ BERKELEY-LAB/ RESEARCH-1930-1990/ NUCLEAR-PHYSICS/ TRANSURANIUM-ELEMENTS/ index/ 96602765. html), LBNL Image Library [36] Crooks, W. J. et al. (2002). "Low Temperature Reaction of ReillexTM HPQ and Nitric Acid" (http:/ / sti. srs. gov/ fulltext/ ms2000068/ ms2000068. html). Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange 20: 543. doi:10.1081/SEI-120014371. . [37] Moody, Kenton James; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Grant, Patrick M. (2005). Nuclear forensic analysis (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=W3FnEOg8tS4C& pg=PA169). CRC Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-8493-1513-1. . [38] Kolman, D. G. and Colletti, L. P. (2009). "The aqueous corrosion behavior of plutonium metal and plutonium-gallium alloys exposed to aqueous nitrate and chloride solutions" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=0o4DnYptWdgC& pg=PA71). ECS transactions. 16. Electrochemical Society. p. 71. . [39] Hurst, D. G. and Ward, A. G.. Canadian Research Reactors (http:/ / www. csirc. net/ docs/ reports/ ref_066. pdf). Los Alamos National Laboratory. . [40] Curro, N. J. (Spring 2006). Unconventional superconductivity in PuCoGa5 (http:/ / www. lanl. gov/ orgs/ mpa/ files/ mrhighlights/ LALP-06-072. pdf). Los Alamos National Laboratory. . [41] McCuaig, Franklin D. "Pu-Zr alloy for high-temperature foil-type fuel" U.S. Patent 4059439 (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=4059439), Issued on November 22, 1977 [42] Jha, D.K. (2004). Nuclear Energy (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=L79odes2ihEC& pg=PA73). Discovery Publishing House. p. 73. ISBN 8171418848. . [43] plutonium 1965 (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=8r8NAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA456). Taylor & Francis. 1965. p. 456. . [44] Miner 1968, p. 541 [45] DOE contributors (2004). "Oklo: Natural Nuclear Reactors" (http:/ / www. ocrwm. doe. gov/ factsheets/ doeymp0010. shtml). U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. . Retrieved November 16, 2008. [46] Curtis, David; Fabryka-Martin, June; Paul, Dixon; Cramer, Jan (1999). "Nature's uncommon elements: plutonium and technetium". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63 (2): 275–285. Bibcode 1999GeCoA..63..275C. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(98)00282-8. [47] Hoffman, D. C.; Lawrence, F. O.; Mewherter, J. L.; and Rourke, F. M. (1971). "Detection of Plutonium-244 in Nature". Nature 234 (5325): 132–134. Bibcode 1971Natur.234..132H. doi:10.1038/234132a0. Nr. 34. [48] Peterson, Ivars (December 7, 1991). "Uranium displays rare type of radioactivity" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m1200/ is_n23_v140/ ai_11701241/ ). Science News. . [49] Holden, Norman E. (2001). "A Short History of Nuclear Data and Its Evaluation" (http:/ / www. nndc. bnl. gov/ content/ evaluation. html). 51st Meeting of the USDOE Cross Section Evaluation Working Group. Upton (NY): National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. . Retrieved January 3, 2009. [50] Fermi, Enrico (December 12, 1938). "Artificial radioactivity produced by neutron bombardment: Nobel Lecture" (http:/ / www. nobel. se/ physics/ laureates/ 1938/ fermi-lecture. pdf) (PDF). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. . [51] Darden, Lindley (1998). "Enrico Fermi: "Transuranium" Elements, Slow Neutrons" (http:/ / www. philosophy. umd. edu/ Faculty/ LDarden/ sciinq/ ). The Nature of Scientific Inquiry. College Park (MD): Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland. . Retrieved January 3, 2008. [52] LBNL contributors. "Elements 93 and 94" (http:/ / acs. lbl. gov/ Seaborg. talks/ 65th-anniv/ 14. html). Advanced Computing for Science Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. . Retrieved September 17, 2008. [53] Glenn T. Seaborg. "The plutonium story" (http:/ / www. osti. gov/ bridge/ purl. cover. jsp?purl=/ 5808140-l5UMe1/ ). Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California. LBL-13492, DE82 004551. . [54] This was not the first time somebody suggested that an element be named "plutonium." A decade after barium was discovered, a Cambridge University professor suggested it be renamed to "plutonium" because the element was not (as suggested by the Greek root, barys, it was named for) heavy. He reasoned that, since it was produced by the relatively new technique of electrolysis, its name should refer to fire. Thus he suggested it be named for the Roman god of the underworld, Pluto. (Heiserman 1992) [55] Clark, David L.; Hobart, David E. (2000). "Reflections on the Legacy of a Legend: Glenn T. Seaborg, 1912–1999" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00818011. pdf) (PDF). Los Alamos Science 26: 56–61, on 57. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [56] As one article puts it, referring to information Seaborg gave in a talk: "The obvious choice for the symbol would have been Pl, but facetiously, Seaborg suggested Pu, like the words a child would exclaim, 'Pee-yoo!' when smelling something bad. Seaborg thought that he would receive a great deal of flak over that suggestion, but the naming committee accepted the symbol without a word."

Plutonium

19 Clark, David L.; Hobart, David E. (2000). "Reflections on the Legacy of a Legend: Glenn T. Seaborg, 1912–1999" (http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/pubs/00818011.pdf) (PDF). Los Alamos Science 26: 56–61, on 57. . Retrieved February 15, 2009.

[57] PBS contributors (1997). "Frontline interview with Seaborg" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ reaction/ interviews/ seaborg. html). Frontline. Public Broadcasting Service. . Retrieved December 7, 2008. [58] NPS contributors. "Room 405, George Herbert Jones Laboratory" (http:/ / tps. cr. nps. gov/ nhl/ detail. cfm?ResourceId=735& ResourceType=Building). National Park Service. . Retrieved December 14, 2008. [59] Room 405 of the George Herbert Jones Laboratory, where the first isolation of plutonium took place, was named a National Historic Landmark in May 1967. [60] Miner 1968, p. 540 [61] LANL contributors. "Site Selection" (http:/ / www. lanl. gov/ history/ road/ siteselection. shtml). LANL History. Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos National Laboratory. . Retrieved December 23, 2008. [62] During the Manhattan Project, plutonium was also often referred to as simply "49": the number 4 was for the last digit in 94 (atomic number of plutonium), and 9 was for the last digit in plutonium-239, the weapon-grade fissile isotope used in nuclear bombs.

Hammel, E.F. (2000). "The taming of "49"  – Big Science in little time. Recollections of Edward F. Hammel, pp. 2–9. In: Cooper N.G. Ed. (2000). Challenges in Plutonium Science" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/lanl/pubs/00818010.pdf). Los Alamos Science 26 (1): 2–9. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. Hecker, S.S. (2000). "Plutonium: an historical overview. In: Challenges in Plutonium Science" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ number26. htm). Los Alamos Science 26 (1): 1–2. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [63] Sublette, Carey. "Atomic History Timeline 1942–1944" (http:/ / www. atomicheritage. org/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=288& Itemid=202). Washington (DC): Atomic Heritage Foundation. . Retrieved December 22, 2008. [64] The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) established B Reactor as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark in September 1976.

Wahlen, R.K. (1989) (PDF). History of 100-B Area (http:/ / www. hanford. gov/ doe/ history/ files/ HistoryofBArea. pdf). Richland, Washington: Westinghouse Hanford Company. p. 1. WHC-EP-0273. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. In August 2008, B Reactor was designated a U.S. National Historic Landmark.

"Weekly List Actions" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ history/ nr/ listings/ 20080829. HTM). National Park Service. August 29, 2008. . Retrieved August 30, 2008. [65] Wahlen, R.K. (1989) (PDF). History of 100-B Area (http:/ / www. hanford. gov/ doe/ history/ files/ HistoryofBArea. pdf). Richland, Washington: Westinghouse Hanford Company. pp. iv, 1. WHC-EP-0273. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [66] Rincon, Paul (March 2, 2009). "BBC NEWS – Science & Environment – US nuclear relic found in bottle" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 7918618. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved March 2, 2009. [67] Gebel, Erika (2009). "Old plutonium, new tricks". Analytical Chemistry 81 (5): 1724. doi:10.1021/ac900093b. [68] Schwantes, Jon M.; Matthew Douglas, Steven E. Bonde, James D. Briggs, Orville T. Farmer, Lawrence R. Greenwood, Elwood A. Lepel, Christopher R. Orton, John F. Wacker, Andrzej T. Luksic (2009). "Nuclear archeology in a bottle: Evidence of pre-Trinity U.S. weapons activities from a waste burial site". Analytical Chemistry 81 (4): 1297–1306. doi:10.1021/ac802286a. PMID 19152306. [69] Sublette, Carey (July 3, 2007). "8.1.1 The Design of Gadget, Fat Man, and "Joe 1" (RDS-1)" (http:/ / nuclearweaponarchive. org/ Nwfaq/ Nfaq8. html#nfaq8. 1. 1). Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions, edition 2.18. The Nuclear Weapon Archive. . Retrieved January 4, 2008. [70] Malik, John (September 1985). The Yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Explosions (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ docs1/ 00313791. pdf). Los Alamos. p. Table VI. LA-8819. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [71] The efficiency calculation is based on the fact that 1 kg of plutonium-239 (or uranium-235) fissioning results in an energy release of approximately 17 kt, leading to a rounded estimate of 1.2 kg plutonium actually fissioned to produce the 20 kt yield. On the figure of 1 kg = 17 kt,

Garwin, Richard (October 4, 2002). "Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Materials to State and Non-State Actors: What It Means for the Future of Nuclear Power" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ rlg/ PNWM_UMich. pdf). University of Michigan Symposium. Federation of American Scientists. . Retrieved January 4, 2009. [72] DOE contributors (2001). Historic American Engineering Record: B Reactor (105-B Building) (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ pu50yb. html#ZZ13). Richland (WA): U.S. Department of Energy. p. 110. DOE/RL-2001-16. . Retrieved December 24, 2008. [73] Cochran, Thomas B. (1997). "Safeguarding nuclear weapons-usable materials in Russia" (http:/ / docs. nrdc. org/ nuclear/ nuc_06129701a_185. pdf). International Forum on Illegal Nuclear Traffic. Washington (DC): Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. . Retrieved December 21, 2008.

Plutonium [74] Much of this plutonium was used to make the fissionable cores of a type of thermonuclear weapon employing the Teller–Ulam design. These so-called 'hydrogen bombs' are a variety of nuclear weapon that use a fission bomb to trigger the nuclear fusion of heavy hydrogen isotopes. Their destructive yield is commonly in the millions of tons of TNT equivalent compared with the thousands of tons of TNT equivalent of fission-only devices.(Emsley 2001) [75] Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2007). SIPRI Yearbook 2007: Armaments, Disarmament, and International Security (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=2M0C6SERFG0C& pg=PA567). Oxford University Press. p. 567. ISBN 0199230218, 9780199230211. . [76] Gadolinium zirconium oxide (Gd2Zr2O7) has been studied because it could hold plutonium for up to 30 million years.(Emsley 2001) [77] Press Secretary (July 23, 2002). "President Signs Yucca Mountain Bill" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080306193653/ http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. archives. gov/ news/ releases/ 2002/ 07/ 20020723-2. html). Washington (DC): Office of the Press Secretary, White House. Archived from the original (http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. archives. gov/ news/ releases/ 2002/ 07/ 20020723-2. html) on March 6, 2008. . Retrieved January 4, 2009. [78] "Department of Energy Files Motion to Withdraw Yucca Mountain License Application" (http:/ / www. energy. gov/ news/ 8721. htm). Department of Energy. March 3, 2010. . [79] Moss, William; Eckhardt, Roger (1995). "The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments" (http:/ / library. lanl. gov/ cgi-bin/ getfile?00326640. pdf) (PDF). Los Alamos Science (Los Alamos National Laboratory) 23: 188, 205, 208, 214. . Retrieved June 6, 2006. [80] Voelz, George L. (2000). "Plutonium and Health: How great is the risk?". Los Alamos Science (Los Alamos (NM): Los Alamos National Laboratory) (26): 78–79. [81] Yesley, Michael S. (1995). "'Ethical Harm' and the Plutonium Injection Experiments" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00326649. pdf) (PDF). Los Alamos Science 23: 280–283. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [82] Martin, James E. (2000). Physics for Radiation Protection (1st ed.). Wiley-Interscience. p. 532. ISBN 0-471-35373-6. [83] FAS contributors (1998). "Nuclear Weapon Design" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ nuke/ intro/ nuke/ design. htm). Federation of American Scientists. . Retrieved December 7, 2008. [84] WNA contributors (2006). "Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX)" (http:/ / www. world-nuclear. org/ info/ inf29. html). London (UK): World Nuclear Association. . Retrieved December 14, 2008. [85] DNFSB staff (2004) (PDF). Plutonium Storage at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site: First Annual Report to Congress (http:/ / www. hss. energy. gov/ deprep/ 2004/ fb04y28b. pdf). Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. pp. A–1. Public Law 107-314, Subtitle E. Retrieved February 15, 2009. (public domain text) [86] Breakdown of plutonium in a spent nuclear fuel rod: plutonium-239 (~58%), 240 (24%), 241 (11%), 242 (5%), and 238 (2%). (Emsley 2001) [87] Besmann, Theodore M. (2005). "Thermochemical Behavior of Gallium in Weapons-Material-Derived Mixed-Oxide Light Water Reactor (LWR) Fuel". Journal of the American Ceramic Society 81 (12): 3071–3076. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02740.x. [88] WNA contributors (2009-03). "Plutonium" (http:/ / www. world-nuclear. org/ info/ inf15. html). World Nuclear Association. . Retrieved February 28, 2010. [89] "BGU combats nuclear proliferation" (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ HealthAndSci-Tech/ ScienceAndEnvironment/ Article. aspx?id=134591). March 1, 2010. . Retrieved March 5, 2009. [90] "Science for the Critical Masses: How Plutonium Changes with Time" (http:/ / www. ieer. org/ ensec/ no-3/ puchange. html). Institute for Energy and Environmental Research. . [91] ARQ contributors (2005). "From heat sources to heart sources: Los Alamos made material for plutonium-powered pumper" (http:/ / arq. lanl. gov/ source/ orgs/ nmt/ nmtdo/ AQarchive/ 05spring/ heart. html). Actinide Research Quarterly (Los Alamos (NM): Los Alamos National Laboratory) (1). . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [92] Voyager-Spacecraft Lifetime (http:/ / voyager. jpl. nasa. gov/ spacecraft/ spacecraftlife. html) [93] Venkateswara Sarma Mallela; V. Ilankumaran; and N.Srinivasa Rao (2004). "Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries". Indian Pacing Electrophysiol 4 (4): 201–212. PMC 1502062. PMID 16943934. [94] Defunct pacemakers with Pu power source (http:/ / www. orau. org/ ptp/ collection/ Miscellaneous/ pacemaker. htm) [95] ORAU contributors (1974). "Plutonium Powered Pacemaker" (http:/ / www. orau. org/ PTP/ collection/ Miscellaneous/ pacemaker. htm). Oak Ridge (TN): Orau.org. . Retrieved September 12, 2008. [96] Bayles, John J.; Taylor, Douglas (1970). SEALAB III – Diver's Isotopic Swimsuit-Heater System (http:/ / oai. dtic. mil/ oai/ oai?verb=getRecord& metadataPrefix=html& identifier=AD0708680). Port Hueneme (CA): Naval Civil Engineering Lab. AD0708680. . [97] ATSDR contributors (2007). "Toxicological Profile for Plutonium, Draft for Public Comment" (http:/ / www. atsdr. cdc. gov/ toxprofiles/ tp143. html). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). . Retrieved May 22, 2008. [98] PMID 19454804 [99] Plutonium (http:/ / www. atsdr. cdc. gov/ substances/ toxsubstance. asp?toxid=119), CAS ID #: 7440-07-5, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [100] DOE staff. "Radiological control technical training" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070630190114/ http:/ / hss. energy. gov/ NuclearSafety/ techstds/ standard/ hdbk1122-04/ part9of9. pdf). U.S. Department of Energy. Archived from the original (http:/ / hss. energy. gov/ NuclearSafety/ techstds/ standard/ hdbk1122-04/ part9of9. pdf) on June 30, 2007. . Retrieved December 14, 2008. [101] Cohen, Bernard L.. "The Myth of Plutonium Toxicity" (http:/ / russp. org/ BLC-3. html). . [102] Cohen, Bernard L. (May 1977). "Hazards from Plutonium Toxicity". The Radiation Safety Journal: Health Physics 32 (5): 359–379.

20

Plutonium

21

[103] Brown, Shannon C.; Margaret F. Schonbeck, David McClure, et al. (July 2004). "Lung cancer and internal lung doses among plutonium workers at the Rocky Flats Plant: a case-control study" (http:/ / aje. oxfordjournals. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 160/ 2/ 163). American Journal of Epidemiology (Oxford Journals) 160 (2): 163–172. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh192. PMID 15234938. . Retrieved February 15, 2009. [104] ANL staff (2001). "ANL human health fact sheet—plutonium" (http:/ / consolidationeis. doe. gov/ PDFs/ PlutoniumANLFactSheetOct2001. pdf). Argonne National Laboratory. . Retrieved June 16, 2007. [105] "Radiation Protection, Plutonium: What does plutonium do once it gets into the body?" (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ radiation/ radionuclides/ plutonium. html). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. . Retrieved March 15, 2011. [106] Bernard L. Cohen. "The Nuclear Energy Option, Chapter 13, Plutonium and Bombs" (http:/ / www. phyast. pitt. edu/ ~blc/ book/ chapter13. html). . Retrieved 2011-03-28. (Online version of Cohen's book The Nuclear Energy Option (Plenum Press, 1990) ISBN 0306435675). [107] Voelz, G. L. (1975). "What We Have Learned About Plutonium from Human Data" (http:/ / journals. lww. com/ health-physics/ Abstract/ 1975/ 10000/ What_We_Have_Learned_about_Plutonium_from_Human. 11. aspx). The Radiation Safety Journal Health Physics: 29. . [108] Welsome, Eileen (2000). The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War. New York: Random House. p. 17. ISBN 0-385-31954-1. [109] Miner 1968, p. 546 [110] Roark, Kevin N. (2000). Criticality accidents report issued (http:/ / www. lanl. gov/ news/ index. php/ fuseaction/ home. story/ story_id/ 1054/ view/ print). Los Alamos (NM): Los Alamos National Laboratory. . Retrieved November 16, 2008. [111] LANL contributors. "Raemer Schreiber" (http:/ / www. lanl. gov/ history/ people/ R_Schreiber. shtml). Staff Biographies. Los Alamos (NM): Los Alamos National Laboratory. . Retrieved November 16, 2008. [112] McLaughlin, Thomas P.; Monahan, Shean P.; Pruvost, Norman L. (2000). A Review of Criticality Accidents (http:/ / www. csirc. net/ docs/ reports/ la-13638. pdf). Los Alamos (NM): Los Alamos National Laboratory. p. 17. LA-13638. . [113] DOE contributors. "Plutonium" (http:/ / www. hss. energy. gov/ nuclearsafety/ ns/ techstds/ standard/ hdbk1081/ hbk1081d. html#ZZ281). Nuclear Safety and the Environment. Department of Energy, Office of Health Safety and Security. . Retrieved December 7, 2008. [114] DOE contributors (1994). "Primer on Spontaneous Heating and Pyrophoricity – Pyrophoric Metals – Plutonium" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070428220410/ http:/ / www. hss. energy. gov/ NuclearSafety/ techstds/ standard/ hdbk1081/ hbk1081d. html#ZZ281). Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Safety, Quality Assurance and Environment. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. hss. energy. gov/ NuclearSafety/ techstds/ standard/ hdbk1081/ hbk1081d. html#ZZ281) on April 28, 2007. . [115] There was a major plutonium-initiated fire at the Rocky Flats Plant near Boulder, Colorado in 1969.

Albright, David; O'Neill, Kevin (1999). "The Lessons of Nuclear Secrecy at Rocky Flats" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080708220510/ http:/ / www. isis-online. org/ publications/ usfacilities/ Rfpbrf. html). ISIS Issue Brief. Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS). Archived from the original (http:/ / www.isis-online.org/publications/usfacilities/Rfpbrf.html) on July 8, 2008. . Retrieved December 7, 2008.

Citations

References • CRC contributors (2006). David R. Lide. ed. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. • Emsley, John (2001). "Plutonium". Nature's Building Blocks: An A–Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. pp. 324–329. ISBN 0-19-850340-7. • Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford (UK): Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. • Heiserman, David L. (1992). "Element 94: Plutonium". Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. New York (NY): TAB Books. pp. 337–340. ISBN 0-8306-3018-X. • Miner, William N.; Schonfeld, Fred W. (1968). "Plutonium". In Clifford A. Hampel (editor). The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York (NY): Reinhold Book Corporation. pp. 540–546. LCCN 68-29938. • Stwertka, Albert (1998). "Plutonium". Guide to the Elements (Revised ed.). Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508083-1.

Plutonium

External links • Sutcliffe, W.G.; et al. (1995). "A Perspective on the Dangers of Plutonium" (http://web.archive.org/web/ 20060929015050/http://www.llnl.gov/csts/publications/sutcliffe/). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Archived from the original (http://www.llnl.gov/csts/publications/sutcliffe/) on September 29, 2006. • Johnson, C.M.; Davis, Z.S. (1997). "Nuclear Weapons: Disposal Options for Surplus Weapons-Usable Plutonium" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/report/crs/97-564.htm). CRS Report for Congress # 97-564 ENR. Retrieved February 15, 2009. • IEER contributors (2005). "Physical, Nuclear, and Chemical, Properties of Plutonium" (http://www.ieer.org/ fctsheet/pu-props.html). IEER. Retrieved February 15, 2009. • Bhadeshia, H.. "Plutonium crystallography" (http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2006/Plutonium/ Plutonium.html). • Samuels, D. (2005). "End of the Plutonium Age" (http://discovermagazine.com/2005/nov/end-of-plutonium). Discover Magazine 26 (11). • Pike, J.; Sherman, R. (2000). "Plutonium production" (http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/plutonium.htm). Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved February 15, 2009. • Nuclear Weapon Archive contributors. "Plutonium Manufacture and Fabrication" (http://nuclearweaponarchive. org/Library/Plutonium/). Nuclearweaponarchive.org. • Ong, C. (1999). "World Plutonium Inventories" (http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/ nuclear-energy/issues/world-plutonium-inventories-ong.htm). Nuclear Files.org. Retrieved February 15, 2009. • LANL contributors (2000). "Challenges in Plutonium Science" (http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/ pubs/number26.htm). Los Alamos Science I & II (26). Retrieved February 15, 2009. • NLM contributors. "Plutonium, Radioactive" (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+ hsdb:@[email protected][email protected]+plutonium,+radioactive). NLM Hazardous Substances Databank. Retrieved February 15, 2009. • Alsos contributors. "Annotated Bibliography on plutonium" (http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch. aspx?browse=science/Plutonium). Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues. Retrieved February 15, 2009. • Chemistry in its element podcast (http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/podcast/element.asp) (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Plutonium (http://www.rsc.org/images/ CIIE_plutonium_48kbps_tcm18-121120.MP3)

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23

Allotropes Allotropes of plutonium Even at ambient pressure, plutonium occurs in a variety of allotropes. These allotropes differ widely in crystal structure and density; the α and δ allotropes differ in density by more than 25% at constant pressure. Plutonium normally has six allotropes and forms a seventh (zeta, ζ) under high temperature and a limited pressure range.[1] These allotropes have very similar energy levels but significantly varying densities and crystal structures. This makes plutonium very sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, or chemistry, and allows for dramatic volume changes following phase transitions.[2] Unlike most materials, plutonium increases in density when it melts, by 2.5%, but the liquid metal exhibits a linear decrease in density with temperature.[3] Densities of the different allotropes vary from 16.00 g/cm3 to 19.86 g/cm3. A diagram of the allotropes of plutonium at

The presence of these many allotropes makes machining plutonium ambient pressure. Atomic volumes in cubic angstroms.Baker, Richard D.; Hecker, Siegfried very difficult, as it changes state very readily. For example, the α phase S.; Harbur, Delbert R. (Winter/Spring 1983). exists at room temperature in unalloyed plutonium. It has machining "Plutonium: A Wartime Nightmare but a characteristics similar to cast iron but changes to the plastic and easy to Metallurgist's Dream". Los Alamos Science (Los work β phase (beta phase) at slightly higher temperatures. The reasons Alamos National Laboratory): 148, 150–151. . for the complicated phase diagram are not entirely understood; recent research has focused on constructing accurate computer models of the phase transitions. The α phase has a low-symmetry monoclinic structure, hence its poor conductivity, brittleness, strength and compressibility.[1] Plutonium in the δ phase (delta phase) normally exists in the 310 °C to 452 °C range but is stable at room temperature when alloyed with a small percentage of gallium, aluminium, or cerium, enhancing workability and allowing it to be welded in weapons applications. The delta phase has more typical metallic character, and is roughly as strong and malleable as aluminium. In fission weapons, the explosive shock waves used to compress a plutonium core will also cause a transition from the usual delta phase plutonium to the denser alpha phase, significantly helping to achieve supercriticality.[4] The plutonium-gallium alloy is the most common δ-stabilized alloy. Gallium, aluminium, americium, scandium and cerium can stabilize the δ phase of plutonium for room temperature. Silicon, indium, zinc and zirconium allow formation of metastable δ state when rapidly cooled. High amount of hafnium, holmium and thallium also allows retaining some of the δ phase at room temperature. Neptunium is the only element that can stabilize the α phase at higher temperatures. Titanium, hafnium and zirconium stabilize the β phase at room temperature when rapidly cooled.[2]

Allotropes of plutonium

References [1] Baker, Richard D.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Harbur, Delbert R. (Winter/Spring 1983). "Plutonium: A Wartime Nightmare but a Metallurgist's Dream" (http:/ / library. lanl. gov/ cgi-bin/ getfile?07-16. pdf). Los Alamos Science (Los Alamos National Laboratory): 148, 150–151. . [2] Hecker, Siegfried S. (2000). "Plutonium and its alloys: from atoms to microstructure" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00818035. pdf) (PDF). Los Alamos Science 26: 290–335. . [3] Miner, William N.; Schonfeld, Fred W. (1968). "Plutonium". In Clifford A. Hampel (editor). The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Reinhold Book Corporation. p. 544. [4] Plutonium Crystal Phase Transitions (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ wmd/ intro/ pu-phase. htm). Globalsecurity.org (2005-04-27). Retrieved on 2010-02-08.

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25

Isotopes Isotopes of plutonium Actinides 244

Cm

241

Pu f

232

U  f

4n

Cf  f

243

238

f is for 69–90 y fissile 141–351

Cf

242

Amf

4n

229

246

243

245

250

239

233

230

231

Th Cmf U    f

4n+1 248

237

Np

236

U

Cm Cm

Am

Sr

85

Kr

151

Sm nc➔

No fission product has half-life 102 to 2×105 years

5–7 ky

32–160

4n+3

211–290

99

Pu

340–373

Long-lived fission products

4n+2

1–2 my

93

234

U

4n+1

Zr

Cmf 6–23 my 80 my

238

U

235

U    f 0.7–12by

126

Tc

247

Pu Th

90

Pa

Th

244 232

Cs

Pu f 8–24 ky

242

Cm

137

251

Am

Pu

Fission products

Cf  f 431–898

241 240

Cmf 10–30 y

250

Pu

249

Half-life

Sn

Se

135

Cs nc➔

107

129

>5%

>1% >.1%

Pd

>7%

79

I

fission product yield

Plutonium (Pu) is an artificial element, except for trace quantities of primordial 244Pu, and thus a standard atomic mass cannot be given. Like all artificial elements, it has no stable isotopes. It was synthesized long before being found in nature, the first isotope synthesized being 238Pu in 1940. Twenty plutonium radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are Pu-244, with a half-life of 80.8 million years, Pu-242, with a half-life of 373,300 years, and Pu-239, with a half-life of 24,110 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 7,000 years. This element also has eight meta states, though none are very stable (all have half-lives less than one second). The isotopes of plutonium range in atomic weight from 228.0387 u (Pu-228) to 247.074 u (Pu-247). The primary decay modes before the most stable isotope, Pu-244, are spontaneous fission and alpha emission; the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before Pu-244 are isotopes of uranium and neptunium (neglecting the wide range of daughter nuclei created by fission processes), and the primary products after are isotopes of americium.

Isotopes of plutonium

26

Notable Isotopes • Plutonium-238 has a half-life of 87.74 years[1] and emits alpha particles. Pure Pu-238 for radioisotope thermoelectric generators which power some spacecraft is produced by neutron capture on neptunium-237 but plutonium from spent nuclear fuel can contain as much as a few percent of Pu-238, from either 237Np, alpha decay of 242Cm, or (n,2n) reactions. • Plutonium-239 is the most important isotope of plutonium, with a half-life of 24,100 years. Pu-239 and Pu-241 are fissile, meaning that the nuclei of its atoms can break apart by being bombarded by slow moving thermal neutrons, releasing energy, gamma radiation and more neutrons. It can therefore sustain a nuclear chain reaction, leading to applications in nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors. Pu-239 is synthesized by irradiating uranium-238 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, then recovered via nuclear reprocessing of the fuel. Further neutron capture produces successively heavier isotopes. • Plutonium-240 has a high rate of spontaneous fission, raising the background neutron radiation of plutonium containing it. Plutonium is graded by proportion of Pu-240: weapons grade (< 7%), fuel grade (7–19%) and reactor grade (> 19%). Lower grades are less suited for nuclear weapons and thermal reactors but can fuel fast reactors. Pu-240 is not fissile, but is fertile material like U-238. • Plutonium-241 is fissile, but also beta decays with a halflife of 14 years to americium-241. • Plutonium-242 is not fissile, not very fertile (requiring 3 more neutron captures to become fissile), has a low neutron capture cross section, and a longer halflife than any of the lighter isotopes. • Plutonium-244 is the most stable isotope of plutonium, with a half-life of about 80 million years, long enough to be found in trace quantities in nature. It is not significantly produced in nuclear reactors because Pu-243 has a short halflife, but some is produced in nuclear explosions.

Production and uses Pu-239, a fissile isotope which is the second most used nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors after U-235, and the most used fuel in the fission portion of nuclear weapons, is produced from U-238 by neutron capture followed by two beta decays. Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242 are produced by further neutron capture. The odd-mass isotopes Pu-239 and Pu-241 have about a 3/4 chance of undergoing fission on capture of a thermal neutron and about a 1/4 chance of retaining the neutron and becoming the following isotope. The even-mass isotopes are fertile material but not fissile and also have a lower overall probability (cross section) of neutron capture; therefore, they tend to accumulate in nuclear fuel used in a thermal reactor, the design of all nuclear power plants today. In

A pellet of plutonium-238, glowing under its own light, used for radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

Isotopes of plutonium

plutonium that has been used a second time in thermal reactors in MOX fuel, Pu-240 may even be the most common isotope. All plutonium isotopes and other actinides, however, are fissionable with fast neutrons. Pu-240 does have a moderate thermal neutron absorption cross section, so that Pu-241 production in a thermal reactor becomes a significant fraction as large as Pu-239 production. Pu-241 has a halflife of 14 years, and has slightly higher thermal neutron cross sections than Pu-239 for both fission and absorption. While nuclear fuel is being used in a reactor, a Pu-241 nucleus is much more likely to fission or to capture a neutron than to decay. Pu-241 accounts for a significant proportion of fissions in [2] Transmutation flow between 238Pu and 244Cm in LWR. Transmutation speed not 245 248 thermal reactor fuel that has been used shown and varies greatly by nuclide. Cm– Cm are long-lived with negligible decay. for some time. However, in spent nuclear fuel that does not quickly undergo nuclear reprocessing but instead is cooled for years after use, much or most of the Pu-241 will beta decay to americium-241, one of the minor actinides, a strong alpha emitter, and difficult to use in thermal reactors. Pu-242 has a particularly low cross section for thermal neutron capture; and it takes four neutron absorptions to become another fissile isotope (either curium-245 or Pu-241) and fission. Even then, there is a chance either of those two fissile isotopes will fail to fission but instead absorb the fourth neutron, becoming curium-246 (on the way to even heavier actinides like californium, which is a neutron emitter by spontaneous fission and difficult to handle) or becoming Pu-242 again; so the mean number of neutrons absorbed before fission is even higher than 4. Therefore Pu-242 is particularly unsuited to recycling in a thermal reactor and would be better used in a fast reactor where it can be fissioned directly. However, Pu-242's low cross section means that relatively little of it will be transmuted during one cycle in a thermal reactor. Pu-242's halflife is about 15 times as long as Pu-239's halflife; therefore it is 1/15 as radioactive and not one of the larger contributors to nuclear waste radioactivity. 242Pu's gamma ray emissions are also weaker than those of the other isotopes.[3] Pu-243 has a halflife of only 5 hours, beta decaying to americium-243. Because Pu-243 has little opportunity to capture an additional neutron before decay, the nuclear fuel cycle does not produce the extremely long-lived Pu-244 in significant quantity. Pu-238 is not normally produced in as large quantity by the nuclear fuel cycle, but some is produced from neptunium-237 by neutron capture (this reaction can also be used with purified neptunium to produce Pu-238 relatively free of other plutonium isotopes for use in radioisotope thermoelectric generators), by the (n,2n) reaction of fast neutrons on Pu-239, or by alpha decay of curium-242 which is produced by neutron capture from Am-241. It has significant thermal neutron cross section for fission, but is more likely to capture a neutron and become Pu-239.

27

Isotopes of plutonium

28

Manufacture Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 The activation cross section for 239Pu is 270 barns, while the fission cross section is 747 barns for thermal neutrons. The higher plutonium isotopes are created when the uranium fuel is used for a long time. It is the case that for high burnup used fuel that the concentrations of the higher plutonium isotopes will be higher than the low burnup fuel which is reprocessed to obtain weapons grade plutonium.

The formation of 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu from 238U Isotope

Thermal neutron cross section Capture

halflife

Fission α

4.47 x 109 years

239

β

23 minutes

239

β

2.36 days

238

U

2.7

decay mode

U Np

239

270

α

24,110 years

240

289

α

6,564 years

241

362

β

14.35 years

242

18.8

α

373,300 years

Pu Pu Pu Pu

Pu-239 Plutonium-239 is one of the three fissile materials used for the production of nuclear weapons and in some nuclear reactors as a source of energy. The other fissile materials are uranium-235 and uranium-233. Plutonium-239 is virtually nonexistent in nature. It is made by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Uranium-238 is present in quantity in most reactor fuel; hence plutonium-239 is continuously made in these reactors. Since plutonium-239 can itself be split by neutrons to release energy, plutonium-239 provides a portion of the energy generation in a nuclear reactor.

Isotopes of plutonium

29

A ring of weapons-grade electrorefined plutonium, with 99.96% purity. This 5.3 kg ring is enough plutonium for use in an efficient nuclear weapon. The ring shape is needed to depart from a spherical shape and avoid criticality.

The formation of 239Pu from 238U[4] Element

Isotope

Thermal neutron capture cross section (barn)

Thermal neutron fission Cross section (barn)

decay mode

halflife

U

238

2.68

5·10-6

α

4.47 x 109 years

U

239

22

15

β

23 minutes

Np

239

30

1

β

2.36 days

Pu

239

271

750

α

24,110 years

Pu-238 There are small amounts of Pu-238 in the plutonium of usual plutonium-producing reactors. However, isotopic separation would be quite expensive compared to another method: when a U-235 atom captures a neutron, it is converted to an excited state of U-236. Some of the excited U-236 nuclei undergo fission, but some decay to the ground state of U-236 by emitting gamma radiation. Further neutron capture creates U-237 which has a half-life of 7 days and thus quickly decays to Np-237. Since nearly all neptunium is produced in this way or consists of isotopes which decay quickly, one gets nearly pure Np-237 by chemical separation of neptunium. After this chemical separation, Np-237 is again irradiated by reactor neutrons to be converted to Np-238 which decays to Pu-238 with a half-life of 2 days.

Isotopes of plutonium

30

The formation of 238Pu from 235U Element

Isotope

Thermal neutron cross section

decay mode

halflife

U

235

99

α

703,800,000 years

U

236

5.3

α

23,420,000 years

U

237

-

β

6.75 days

Np

237

165 (capture)

α

2,144,000 years

Np

238

-

β

2.11 days

Pu

238

-

α

87.7 years

Pu-240 as obstacle to nuclear weapons Pu-240 undergoes spontaneous fission as a secondary decay mode at a small but significant rate. The presence of Pu-240 limits the plutonium's nuclear bomb potential because the neutron flux from spontaneous fission, initiates the chain reaction prematurely and reduces the bomb's power by exploding the core before full implosion is reached. Plutonium consisting of more than about 90% Pu-239 is called weapons-grade plutonium; plutonium from spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors generally contains at least 20% Pu-240 and is called reactor-grade plutonium. However, modern nuclear weapons use fusion boosting which mitigates the predetonation problem; if the pit can generate a nuclear weapon yield of even a fraction of a kiloton, which is enough to start deuterium-tritium fusion, the resulting burst of neutrons will fission enough plutonium to ensure a yield of tens of kilotons. Pu-240 contamination is the reason plutonium weapons must use the implosion method. Theoretically, pure Pu-239 could be used in a gun-type nuclear weapon, but achieving this level of purity is prohibitively difficult. Pu-240 contamination has proven a mixed blessing to nuclear weapons design. While it created delays and headaches during the Manhattan Project because of the need to develop implosion technology, those very same difficulties are currently a barrier to nuclear proliferation. Implosion devices are also inherently more efficient and less prone toward accidental detonation than are gun-type weapons.

Table nuclide Z(p) N(n) symbol

isotopic mass (u)

half-life

excitation energy 228

Pu

94

134 228.03874(3)

1.1(+20-5) s

decay daughter nuclear representative [5] [6] [7] spin isotopic mode(s) isotopes composition (mole fraction) α (99.9%) β+ (.1%)

224

U

228

Np

229

94

135 229.04015(6)

120(50) s

α

225

230

94

136 230.039650(16)

1.70(17) min

α

226

Pu Pu

231

Pu

94

137 231.041101(28)

8.6(5) min

U U

β+ (rare)

230

β+

231

α (rare)

0+

3/2+# 0+

Np Np

227

U

3/2+#

range of natural variation (mole fraction)

Isotopes of plutonium

94

232

Pu

94

233

Pu

94

234

Pu

94

235

Pu

94

236

Pu

31 138 232.041187(19)

139 233.04300(5)

140 234.043317(7)

141 235.045286(22)

33.7(5) min

20.9(4) min

8.8(1) h

25.3(5) min

142 236.0460580(24) 2.858(8) a

EC (89%)

232

α (11%)

228

β+ (99.88%)

94

Pu

143 237.0484097(24) 45.2(1) d

237m1

145.544(10) keV

180(20) ms

237m2

2900(250) keV

1.1(1) µs

Pu Pu

94

238

Pu

144 238.0495599(20) 87.7(1) a

[8]

239

Pu

[9]

94

145 239.0521634(20) 2.411(3)×104 a

233

Np

229

EC (94%)

234

α (6%)

230

Np

α (.0027%)

231

α

232

Np

(5/2+)

U U

0+

(various)

CD (2×10-12%)

208

β+β+ (rare)

236

Pb Mg

28

U

EC

237

α (.0042%)

233

Np

7/2-

U

IT

237

α

234

Pu

U

1/2+

0+

(various)

CD (1.4×10-14%)

206

CD (6×10-15%)

180

SF (3.1×10-10%)

0+

U

235

α

5/2+#

U

β+ (99.99%)

SF (1.9×10-7%)

0+

U

α (.12%)

SF (1.37×10-7%)

237

Np

Hg Si

32

Yb Mg 28 Mg 30

235m

U

1/2+

(various)

239m1

391.584(3) keV

193(4) ns

7/2-

239m2

3100(200) keV

7.5(10) µs

(5/2+)

Pu Pu

240

Pu

94

146 240.0538135(20) 6,561(7) a

α SF (5.7×10-6%) CD (1.3×10-13%)

236

U

(various)

206

Hg Si

34

0+

Isotopes of plutonium

[8]

241

Pu

94

32 147 241.0568515(20) 14.290(6) a

β- (99.99%) α (.00245%) SF (2.4×10-14%)

241m1

161.6(1) keV

0.88(5) µs

241m2

2200(200) keV

21(3) µs

Pu Pu

94

242

Pu

148 242.0587426(20) 3.75(2)×105 a

[8]

Pu

243m

Pu [10]

244

Pu

94

149 243.062003(3)

383.6(4) keV 94

150 244.064204(5)

4.956(3) h

Am

237

U

(various)

α

β-

238

U

0+

(various)

243

Am

330(30) ns 8.00(9)×107 a

5/2+

1/2+

SF (5.5×10-4%) 243

241

7/2+ (1/2+)

α (99.88%) SF (.123%)

240

U

0+

(various)

β-β(7.3×10-9%)

244

Cm

245

94

151 245.067747(15)

10.5(1) h

β-

245

246

94

152 246.070205(16)

10.84(2) d

β-

246m

0+

247

94

153 247.07407(32)#

2.27(23) d

β-

247

1/2+#

Pu Pu Pu

[11]

Am Am

Am

(9/2-)

[1] ieer.org (http:/ / www. ieer. org/ ensec/ no-3/ puchange. html) [2] Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Nicolaou, Giorgos; Papaioannou, Dimitri (April 2004). "Neutron and Gamma Ray Source Evaluation of LWR High Burn-up UO2 and MOX Spent Fuels" (http:/ / www. jstage. jst. go. jp/ article/ jnst/ 41/ 4/ 448/ _pdf). Journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY 41 (4): 448–456. doi:10.3327/jnst.41.448. . [3] "PLUTONIUM ISOTOPIC RESULTS OF KNOWN SAMPLES USING THE SNAP GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS CODE AND THE ROBWIN SPECTRUM FITTING ROUTINE" (http:/ / www. wmsym. org/ abstracts/ 2001/ 21B/ 21B-18. pdf) (PDF). . [4] Miner 1968, p. 541 [5] http:/ / www. nucleonica. net/ unc. aspx [6] Abbreviations: CD: Cluster decay EC: Electron capture IT: Isomeric transition SF: Spontaneous fission [7] Bold for stable isotopes [8] Fissile nuclide [9] Most useful isotope for nuclear weapons [10] Primordial radionuclide [11] Occurs in trace quantities in nature

Isotopes of plutonium

Notes • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References • Isotope masses from: • G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf). Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from: • J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Böhlke, P. De Bièvre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman and P. D. P. Taylor (2003). "Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://www.iupac.org/ publications/pac/75/6/0683/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 75 (6): 683–800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683. • M. E. Wieser (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://iupac.org/ publications/pac/78/11/2051/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 78 (11): 2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051. Lay summary (http://old.iupac.org/news/archives/2005/ atomic-weights_revised05.html). • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from the following sources. See editing notes on this article's talk page. • G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf). Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. • National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.1 database" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/). Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved September 2005. • N. E. Holden (2004). "Table of the Isotopes". In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). CRC Press. Section 11. ISBN 978-0849304859.

33

34

Compounds and mixtures Plutonium borides Several borides can be formed by direct combination of plutonium and boron powders in an inert atmosphere at reduced pressure. PuB was reported to form at 1200 °C with a range of 40–70% boron. It supposedly has a Pu-B bond length of 2.46 Å and the NaCl structure, as do TiB, ZrB and HfB.[1] The existence of PuB was contested later based on several arguments.[2] PuB2 is formed at 800 °C and has similar structure as most other metal diborides (see Category:Borides). At 1200 °C with 70–85% boron, mixtures of PuB4 and PuB6 are formed, with more of the latter as the temperature increases; PuB4 has the tetragonal structure (same as UB4), and PuB6 has cubic structure, same as all hexaborides (CaB6, LaB6 etc.).[1]

Structure of PuB2

The most remarkable plutonium boride is arguably PuB100. Its existence [2] demonstrates the importance of contamination in boride research as 1% of impurity is capable of changing the crystal structure.

References [1] B J McDonald; W I Stuart (1960). "The crystal structures of some plutonium borides". Acta Cryst. 13 (5): 447–448. doi:10.1107/S0365110X60001059. [2] Inorg. Chem. (1965). "Plutonium Borides". Inorganic Chemistry 4 (8): 1237–1239. doi:10.1021/ic50030a037.

Structure of PuB6 (boron atoms are red; bonding depiction is naive)

Plutonium carbide

Plutonium carbide Plutonium carbide comes in several stoichiometries (PuC and Pu2C3).[1] It can be used as a nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors in conjunction with uranium carbide. The mixture is also labeled as uranium-plutonium carbide (UPuC).

References [1] Emeléus, Harry Julius; Alan G. Sharpe (1968). Advances in inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry, Volume 12 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=-SnCsg5jM_kC& pg=PA206& dq="plutonium+ carbide"& hl=en& ei=QljCTL2vKJGksQO3vYDmCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q="plutonium carbide"& f=false). New York, New York: Academic Press. pp. 205–206. .

35

Plutonium hexafluoride

36

Plutonium hexafluoride Plutonium hexafluoride[1] [[Image:Plutonium hexafluoride.svg

Stereo structural formula of plutonium hexafluoride]]

Identifiers CAS number

13693-06-6

PubChem

518809

ChemSpider

452599

Jmol-3D images

Image 1

[2]

 

[3] [4]

 

[5]

Properties Molecular formula

F6Pu

Molar mass

358.05 g mol

Exact mass

357.990 g mol

Appearance

Dark red, opaque crystals

Density

5.08 g cm

Melting point

52 °C, 325 K, 126 °F

Boiling point

62 °C, 335 K, 144 °F

−1 -1

-3

Structure Crystal structure

Orthorhombic, oP28

Space group

Pnma, No. 62

Coordination geometry

octahedral (Oh)

Dipole moment

0D Related compounds

Related fluoroplutoniums

Plutonium trifluoride Plutonium tetrafluoride [6]

(what is this?)   (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Plutonium hexafluoride is the highest fluoride of plutonium, and is of interest for laser enrichment of plutonium, in particular for the production of pure plutonium-239 from irradiated uranium. This pure plutonium is needed to avoid premature ignition of low-mass nuclear weapon designs by neutrons produced by spontaneous fission of plutonium-240. It is a red-brown volatile crystalline solid;[1] the heat of sublimation is 12.1 kcal/mol[7] and the heat of vaporization 7.4 kcal/mol[7] . It is relatively hard to handle, being very corrosive and prone to auto-radiolysis.[8] [9]

Plutonium hexafluoride It is prepared by fluorination of plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF4) by powerful fluorinating agents such as elemental fluorine.[10] [11] [7] [12] Its further be obtained by fluorination of plutonium(III) fluoride or plutonium(IV) oxide.[11]

Hydrogen fluoride is not sufficient[13] ; it is itself a powerful fluorinating agent. Under laser irradiation at a wavelength of less than 520 nm, it decomposes to plutonium pentafluoride and fluorine[14] ; after more irradiation it decomposes further to plutonium tetrafluoride.[15]

Weblinks • webelements.com [16]

References [1] Lide, David R. (2009). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90 ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 4–81. ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=13693-06-6 http:/ / pubchem. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ summary/ summary. cgi?cid=518809 http:/ / www. chemspider. com/ 452599 http:/ / chemapps. stolaf. edu/ jmol/ jmol. php?model=F%5BPu%5D%28F%29%28F%29%28F%29%28F%29F http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ %3Aplutonium_hexafluoride?diff=cur& oldid=404346614 Alan E. Florin, Irving R. Tannenbaum, Joe F. Lemons: "Preparation and Properties of Plutonium Hexafluoride and Identification of Plutonium(VI) Oxyfluoride", Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 1956, 2 (5–6), p. 368–379; doi:10.1016/0022-1902(56)80091-2. [8] Ned E. Bibler: "α and β Radiolysis of Plutonium Hexafluoride Vapor", J. Phys. Chem., 1979, 83 (17), p. 2179–2186; doi:10.1021/j100480a001. [9] M. J. Steindler, D. V. Steidl, J. Fischer: "The Decomposition of Plutonium Hexafluoride by Gamma Radiation", Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 1964, 26 (11), p. 1869–1878; doi:10.1016/0022-1902(64)80011-7. [10] A. E. Florin (9. November 1950). "Plutonium Hexafluoride: Second Report On The Preparation and Properties (LA-1168)" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ lib-www/ la-pubs/ 00419717. pdf). Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. . [11] C. J. Mandleberg, H. K. Rae, R. Hurst, G. Long, D. Davies, K. E. Francis: "Plutonium Hexafluoride", Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 1956, 2 (5–6), p. 358–367; doi:10.1016/0022-1902(56)80090-0. [12] Bernard Weinstock, John G. Malm: "The Properties of Plutonium Hexafluoride", Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 1956, 2 (5–6), p. 380–394; doi:10.1016/0022-1902(56)80092-4. [13] "Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternatives for the Removal and Disposition of Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fluoride Salts" (http:/ / books. nap. edu/ openbook. php?record_id=5538& page=42). . [14] www.freepatentsonline.com: Photochemical Preparation of Plutonium Pentafluoride (http:/ / www. freepatentsonline. com/ 4670239. html); PDF (http:/ / www. freepatentsonline. com/ 4670239. pdf). [15] E. A. Lobikov, V. N. Prusakov, V. F. Serik: "Plutonium Hexafluoride Decomposition under the Action of Laser Radiation", Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 1992, 58 (2–3), C 54, p. 277; doi:10.1016/S0022-1139(00)80734-4. [16] http:/ / www. webelements. com/ compounds/ plutonium/ plutonium_hexafluoride. html

37

Plutonium hydride

38

Plutonium hydride Plutonium hydride Identifiers CAS number

17336-52-6

Jmol-3D images

Image 1

[1]

 

[2]

Properties Molecular formula

H2Pu

Molar mass

246.08 g mol

Exact mass

246.016 g mol

Appearance

Black, opaque crystals

−1 -1

[3]

(what is this?)   (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Plutonium hydride is the chemical compound with the formula PuH2. It is one of two characterised hydrides of plutonium, the other is PuH3.[4] PuH2 is non-stoichiometric with a composition range of PuH2 – PuH2.7. Additionally metastable stoichiometries with an excess of hydrogen (PuH2.7 – PuH3) can be formed.[4] PuH2 has a cubic structure. It is readily formed from the elements at 1 atmosphere at 100–200 °C:[4] Pu + H2 → PuH2 Studies of the reaction of plutonium metal with moist air at 200–350 °C showed the presence of cubic plutonium hydride on the surface along with Pu2O3, PuO2 and a higher oxide identified by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as the mixed-valence phase PuIV3−xPuVIxO6+x.[5] Investigation of the reaction performed without heating suggests that the reaction of Pu metal and moist air the production of PuO2 and a higher oxide along with adsorbed hydrogen, which catalytically combines with O2 to form water.[6] Plutonium dihydride on the surface of hydrided plutonium acts as a catalyst for the oxidation of the metal with consumption of both O2 and N2 from air.[7]

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=17336-52-6 http:/ / chemapps. stolaf. edu/ jmol/ jmol. php?model=%5BH-%5D. %5BH-%5D. %5BPu%2B%2B%5D http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ %3Aplutonium_hydride?diff=cur& oldid=405393807 Gerd Meyer, 1991, Synthesis of Lanthanide and Actinide Compounds Springer, ISBN 0-79231018-7. J. L. Stakebake, D. T. Larson, J. M. Haschke: Characterization of the Plutonium-water Reaction II: Formation of a Binary Oxide containing Pu(VI), Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 202, 1–2, 1993, 251–263, doi:10.1016/0925-8388(93)90547-Z. [6] J. M. Haschke, T. H. Allen, L. A. Morales: Surface and Corrosion Chemistry of Plutonium, Los Alamos Science, 2000, 252. [7] John M. Haschke Thomas H. Allen: Plutonium Hydride, Sesquioxide and Monoxide Monohydride: Pyrophoricity and Catalysis of Plutonium Corrosion, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 320, 1, 2001, 58–71, doi:10.1016/S0925-8388(01)00932-X.

Plutonium(III) chloride

39

Plutonium(III) chloride Plutonium(III) chloride [[Image:UCl3.png

]]

Identifiers CAS number

13569-62-5

ChemSpider

14483818

Jmol-3D images

Image 1

[1]

[2]

 

[3]

Properties Molecular formula

PuCl3

Molar mass

350.322 g/mol

Appearance

Green solid

Density

5.71 g/cm , solid

Melting point

767 °C (1040.15 K)

Boiling point

1767 °C (2040.15 K)

[4]

3

[4] [4]

Hazards EU classification

not listed Related compounds

Other anions

PuCl4, PuBr3, SmCl3 [5]

(what is this?)   (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Plutonium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula PuCl3.

Structure Plutonium atoms in crystalline PuCl3 are 9 coordinate, and the structure is tricapped trigonal prismatic.[6]

Safety As with all plutonium compounds, it is subject to control under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Due to the radioactivity of plutonium, all of its compounds, PuCl3 included, are warm to the touch. Such contact is not recommended, since touching the material may result in serious injury.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=13569-62-5 http:/ / www. chemspider. com/ 14483818 http:/ / chemapps. stolaf. edu/ jmol/ jmol. php?model=%5BPu%2B3%5D. %5BCl-%5D. %5BCl-%5D. %5BCl-%5D www.webelements.com: Plutonium(III) chloride (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ compounds/ plutonium/ plutonium_trichloride. html). http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ %3Aplutonium%28iii%29_chloride?diff=cur& oldid=400856591

Plutonium(III) chloride

40

[6] John H. Burns, J. R. Peterson, J. N. Stevenson: "Crystallographic Studies of some Transuranic Trihalides: 239PuCl3, 244CmBr3, 249BkBr3 and 249 CfBr3", Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry 1975, 37 (3), 743–749; doi:10.1016/0022-1902(75)80532-X.

Plutonium(III) fluoride Plutonium(III) fluoride [[Image:Kristallstruktur Lanthanfluorid.png

Unit cell, ball and stick model of plutonium(III) fluoride]]

Identifiers CAS number

13842-83-6

PubChem

139624

ChemSpider

123138

Jmol-3D images

Image 1

[1]

 

[2] [3]

 

[4]

Properties Molecular formula

F3Pu

Molar mass

301.06 g mol

Exact mass

300.995 g mol

Appearance

Violet, opaque crystals

Density

9.3 g cm

Melting point

1396 °C, 1669 K, 2545 °F (

Boiling point

2000 °C, 2273 K, 3632 °F [6] (decomposes )

−1 -1

-3

[5]

)

Related compounds Other anions

Plutonium(III) chloride

Other cations

Samarium(III) fluoride

Related fluoroplutoniums

Plutonium tetrafluoride Plutonium hexafluoride

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Plutonium(III) fluoride or plutonium trifluoride is the chemical compound composed of plutonium and fluorine with the formula PuF3. It forms violet crystals. Plutonium(III) fluoride has the LaF3 structure where the coordination around the plutonium atoms is complex and usually described as tri-capped trigonal prismatic.[7]

Plutonium(III) fluoride

Reactions A plutonium(III) fluoride precipitation method has been investigated as an alternative to the typical plutonium peroxide method of recovering plutonium from solution, such as that from a nuclear reprocessing plant.[8] A 1957 study by the Los Alamos National Laboratory reported a less effective recovery than the traditional method[9] , while a more recent study sponsored by the United States Office of Scientific and Technical Information found it to be one of the more effective methods[10] . Plutonium(III) fluoride can be used for manufacture of the plutonium-gallium alloy instead of more difficult to handle metallic plutonium.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=13842-83-6 http:/ / pubchem. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ summary/ summary. cgi?cid=139624 http:/ / www. chemspider. com/ 123138 http:/ / chemapps. stolaf. edu/ jmol/ jmol. php?model=%5BF-%5D. %5BF-%5D. %5BF-%5D. %5BPu%2B3%5D Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=lFjg0L-uOxoC& pg=PT1110& dq="Plutonium(III)+ fluoride+ ") (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 113, ISBN 0849305942, , retrieved 2008-06-20 [6] Chemistry: Periodic Table: Plutonium: compound data (plutonium (III) fluoride) (http:/ / 202. 114. 88. 54/ g/ web18/ wangluo/ webelements/ webelements/ compounds/ text/ pu/ f3pu1-13842836. html), WebElements, , retrieved 2008-06-20 [7] Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6. [8] Gupta, C. K.; Mukherjee, T. K. (1990), Hydrometallurgy in Extraction Processes (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=IV4iOAESyTMC& pg=PA206& lpg=PA206& dq="plutonium+ peroxide"), 2, CRC Press, pp. 206–208, ISBN 0849368057, OCLC 21197603, , retrieved 2008-06-20 [9] Winchester, R. S. (1957), written at Los Alamos, NM, Aqueous Decontamination of Plutonium from Fission Product Elements (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ lib-www/ la-pubs/ 00191208. pdf), Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California (published 1958), pp. 9–10, , retrieved 2008-06-20 [10] Martella, L. L.; Saba, M. T.; Campbell, G. K., Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods (http:/ / www. osti. gov/ energycitations/ product. biblio. jsp?osti_id=5318991), United States Office of Scientific and Technical Information (published 1984), , retrieved 2008-06-20

41

Plutonium(IV) fluoride

42

Plutonium(IV) fluoride Plutonium(IV) fluoride[1] [[Image:Kristallstruktur Uran(IV)-fluorid.png

]]

Identifiers CAS number

13709-56-3

ChemSpider

14074494

[2]

[3]

Properties Molecular formula

PuF4

Molar mass

320 g/mol

Appearance

reddish-brown monoclinic crystals

Density

7.1 g/cm

Melting point

1027°C

3

Structure Crystal structure

Monoclinic, mS60

Space group

C12/c1, No. 15

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Plutonium(IV) fluoride (PuF4), as for all plutonium compounds, is subject to control under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

References [1] Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 4–76, ISBN 0-8493-0594-2 [2] http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=13709-56-3 [3] http:/ / www. chemspider. com/ 14074494

Metallic plutonium is produced by reacting plutonium tetrafluoride with barium, calcium or lithium at 1200 °C.

Plutonium(IV) oxide

43

Plutonium(IV) oxide Plutonium(IV) oxide [[Image:Pudioxide.png

Unit cell, ball and stick model of plutonium(IV) oxide]]

Identifiers CAS number

12059-95-9

ChemSpider

10617028

Jmol-3D images

Image 1

[1]

[2]

 

 

[3]

Properties Molecular formula

O2Pu

Molar mass

276.06 g mol

Exact mass

275.990 g mol

Appearance

Dark yellow crystals

Density

11.5 g cm

Melting point

2400 °C, 2673 K, 4352 °F

Boiling point

2800 °C, 3073 K, 5072 °F

−1 -1

-3

Structure Crystal structure

Fluorite (cubic), cF12

Space group

Fm3m, No. 225

Coordination geometry

Tetrahedral (O ); cubic (Pu )

2–

IV

Hazards Main hazards

RADIOACTIVE [4]

(what is this?)   (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Plutonium(IV) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula PuO2. This high melting point solid is a principal compound of plutonium. It can vary in color from yellow to olive green, depending on the particle size, temperature and method of production.[5]

Plutonium(IV) oxide

44

Structure PuO2 crystallizes in the fluorite motif, with the Pu4+ centers organized in a face-centered cubic array and oxide ions occupying tetrahedral holes.[6] PuO2 owes utility as a nuclear fuel to the fact that vacancies in the octahedral holes allows room for fissile products. In nuclear fission, one atom of plutonium splits into two. The vacancy of the octahedral holes provides room for the new product and allows the PuO2 monolith to retain its structural integrity.

Synthesis Plutonium metal spontaneously oxidizes to PuO2 in an atmosphere of oxygen. Plutonium dioxide is mainly produced by calcination of plutonium(IV) oxalate, Pu(C2O4)2·6H2O, at 300 °C. Plutonium oxalate is obtained during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel.

Applications PuO2 is used in mixed oxide (MOX) fuels for nuclear reactors. Plutonium-238 dioxide is used as fuel for several deep-space spacecraft such as the 'New Horizons' Pluto probe. The isotope decays by emitting α-particles which then generate heat (see radioisotope thermoelectric generator). There have been concerns that an accidental orbital earth re-entry might lead to the break-up and/or burn-up of a spacecraft, resulting in the dispersal of the plutonium, either over a large tract of the planetary surface or within the upper atmosphere. PuO2 glow through the isotope plutonium-238 in it.

Physicist Peter Zimmerman, following up a suggestion by Ted Taylor, demonstrated that a low-yield (1-kiloton) nuclear bomb could be made relatively easily from plutonium oxide.[7]

Toxicology See also, Plutonium Toxicity Plutonium oxide is highly toxic to humans, especially via inhalation.[8] As with all plutonium compounds, it is subject to control under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Due to the radioactive alpha decay of plutonium, all of its compounds, PuO2 included, as well as plutonium metal, are warm to the touch.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=12059-95-9 http:/ / www. chemspider. com/ 10617028 http:/ / chemapps. stolaf. edu/ jmol/ jmol. php?model=%5BO--%5D. %5BO--%5D. %5BPu%2B4%5D http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ %3Aplutonium%28iv%29_oxide?diff=cur& oldid=403840273 "Nitric acid processing" (http:/ / arq. lanl. gov/ source/ orgs/ nmt/ nmtdo/ AQarchive/ 3rdQuarter08/ page3. shtml). Los Alamos Laboratory. . Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, A. (1984), Chemistry of the Elements, Oxford: Pergamon, p. 1471, ISBN 0-08-022057-6 Michael Singer, David Weir, and Barbara Newman Canfield (Nov. 26, 1979). "Nuclear Nightmare: America's Worst Fear Come True". New York Magazine. [8] "Toxicological Profile For Plutonium" (http:/ / www. atsdr. cdc. gov/ toxprofiles/ tp143. pdf). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2007-09-27. . Retrieved 2009-04-23.

Plutonium(IV) oxide

External links • Space Radioisotope Power Systems Safety (http://www.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/SRPS_safety.pdf)

Plutonium-gallium alloy Plutonium-gallium alloy (Pu-Ga) is an alloy of plutonium and gallium, used in nuclear weapon pits – the component of a nuclear weapon where the fission chain reaction is started. Metallic plutonium has several different solid allotropes. The δ phase is the least dense and most easily machinable. It is formed at temperatures of 310 °C to 452 °C at ambient pressure (1 atmosphere), and is thermodynamically unstable at lower temperatures. However, plutonium can be stabilized in the δ phase by alloying it with a small amount of another metal. The preferred alloy is3.0–3.5 mol.% (0.8–1.0 wt.%) gallium. This alloy was developed during the Manhattan Project. Pu-Ga is stable between at least −75 to 475 °C, and has very low thermal expansion. The presence of gallium also significantly lowers the susceptibility of plutonium to corrosion, to 4% of corrosion rate of pure plutonium. The alloy is more dense in molten state than in solid state, which poses an advantage for casting as the tendency to form bubbles and internal defects is decreased.[1] Stabilized δ-phase Pu-Ga is ductile, and can be rolled into sheets and machined by conventional methods. It is suitable for shaping by hot pressing at about 400 °C. This method was used for forming the first nuclear weapon pits. More modern pits are produced by casting. Subcritical testing showed that wrought and cast plutonium performance is the same.[2] [3] As only the ε-δ transition occurs during cooling, casting Pu-Ga is much less problematic than casting pure plutonium.[4] δ phase Pu-Ga is still thermodynamically unstable, so there are concerns about its aging behavior. There are substantials differences of density (and therefore volume) between the various phases. The transition between δ-phase and α-phase Pu, occurs at a low temperature of 115 °C and can be reached by accident. Prevention of the phase transition and the associated mechanical deformations and consequent structural damage and/or loss of symmetry is of critical importance. However, the phase change is useful during the operation of a nuclear weapon. As the reaction starts, it generates enormous pressures, in the range of hundreds of gigapascals. Under these conditions, δ phase Pu-Ga transforms to α phase, which is 25% denser and thus more critical. Gallium tends to segregate in plutonium, causing "coring" – gallium-rich centers of grains and gallium-poor grain boundaries. To stabilize the lattice and reverse and prevent segregation of gallium, annealing is required at the temperature just below the δ-ε phase transition, so gallium atoms can diffuse through the grains and create homogeneous structure. The time to achieve homogenization of gallium increases with increasing grain size of the alloy and decreases with increasing temperature. The structure of stabilized plutonium at room temperature is the same as unstabilized at δ-phase temperature, with the difference of gallium atoms substituting plutonium in the fcc lattice. Under 4 mol.% gallium the pressure-induced phase change is irreversible. Plutonium in its α phase has a low internal symmetry, caused by uneven bonding between the atoms, resembling (and behaving like) more a ceramic than a metal. Addition of gallium causes the bonds becoming more even, increasing the stability of the δ phase.[5] The α phase bonds are mediated by the 5f shell electrons, and can be disrupted by increased temperature or by presence of suitable atoms in the lattice which reduce the available number of 5f electrons and weaken their bonds.[6] The alloy is more dense in molten state than in solid state, which poses an advantage for casting as the tendency to form bubbles and internal defects is decreased.[1] [7]

45

Plutonium-gallium alloy During the Manhattan Project, the maximum amount of diluent atoms for plutonium to not affect the explosion efficiency was calculated to be 5 mol.%. Two stabilizing elements were considered, silicon and aluminium. However only aluminium produced satisfactory alloys. But the aluminium tendency to react with α-particles and emit neutrons limited its maximum content to 0.5 mol.%; the next element from the boron group of elements, gallium, was tried and found satisfactory.[8] [9] There are several plutonium and gallium intermetallic compounds: PuGa, Pu3Ga, and Pu6Ga. During aging of the stabilized δ alloy, gallium segregates from the lattice, forming regions of Pu3Ga (ζ'-phase) within α phase, with the corresponding dimensional and density change and buildup of internal strains. The decay of plutonium however produces energetic particles (alpha particles and uranium-235 nuclei) that cause local disruption of the ζ' phase, and establishing a dynamic equilibrium with only a modest amount of ζ' phase present, which explains the alloy's unexpectedly slow, graceful aging.[10] [11] The alpha particles are trapped as interstitial helium atoms in the lattice, coalescing into tiny (about 1 nm diameter) helium-filled bubbles in the metal and causing negligible levels of void swelling; the size of bubbles appears to be limited, though their number increases with time. Addition of 7.5 wt.% of plutonium-238, which has significantly faster decay rate, to the alloy increases the aging damage rate by 16 times, assisting with plutonium aging research. The Blue Gene supercomputer aided with simulations of plutonium aging processes.[12] Presence of gallium in plutonium signifies its origin from weapon plants or decommissioned nuclear weapons. The isotopic signature of plutonium then allows rough identification of its origin, manufacturing method, type of the reactor used in its production, and rough history of the irradiation, and matching to other samples, which is of importance in investigation of nuclear smuggling.[13] For reprocessing of surplus warhead pits into MOX fuel, majority of gallium has to be removed as its high content could interfere with the fuel rod cladding (gallium attacks zirconium[14] ) and with migration of fission products in the fuel pellets. In the ARIES process, the pits are converted to oxide by converting the material to plutonium hydride, then optionally to nitride, and then to oxide. Gallium is then mostly removed from the solid oxide mixture by heating at 1100°C in a 94% argon 6% hydrogen atmosphere, reducing gallium content from 1% to 200 ppm. Further dilution of plutonium oxide during the MOX fuel manufacture brings gallium content to levels considered negligible. A wet route of gallium removal, using ion exchange, is also possible.[15] Electrorefining is another way to separate gallium and plutonium.[16] For weapons use, the plutonium pit parts have to be coated with a layer of another metal. The first attempts used galvanically deposited silver. Subsequent pits were coated with nickel, by exposing the plutonium parts to nickel tetracarbonyl gas, which reacts with the plutonium surface and deposits a thin layer of nickel. Evaporation coating with aluminium and electroplating with zinc were shown to not work. Plutonium alloys can be produced by adding a metal to molten plutonium. However, if the alloying metal is sufficiently reductive, plutonium can be added in the form of oxides or halides. The δ phase plutonium-gallium and plutonium-aluminium alloys are produced by adding plutonium(III) fluoride to molten gallium or aluminium, which has the advantage of avoiding dealing directly with the highly reactive plutonium metal.[17]

46

Plutonium-gallium alloy

References [1] "The drama of plutonium" (http:/ / www. neimagazine. com/ story. asp?storyCode=2029280). Nuclear Engineering International. 2005. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [2] "Italian Stallions & Plutonium" (http:/ / www. armscontrolwonk. com/ 1525/ italian-stallions-plutonium). jeffrey. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [3] "Optical Pyrometry on the Armando Subcritical Experiment" (http:/ / www. lanl. gov/ p/ rh_ms_frankle. shtml). Los Alamos National Laboratory. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [4] "Plutonium (Pu)" (http:/ / www. centurychina. com/ wiihist/ japarms/ pu239. html). centurychina.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [5] "Scientists tackle long-standing questions about plutonium" (http:/ / www. innovations-report. com/ html/ reports/ physics_astronomy/ report-60741. html). innovations-report. 2006. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [6] Hecker, Siegfried S. (2000). "Plutonium and Its Alloys" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00818035. pdf). Los Alamos Science Number 26. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [7] Darby, Richard. "Modelling the Lattice Parameter of Plutonium – Aluminium Solid Solution" (http:/ / www. msm. cam. ac. uk/ phasetrans/ 2006/ Plutonium/ Project. pdf). . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [8] "First Nuclear Weapons: Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / nuclearweaponarchive. org/ Nwfaq/ Nfaq8. html). nuclearweaponarchive.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [9] "Dr Smith goes to Los Alamos" (http:/ / www. ias. ac. in/ resonance/ june2006/ p8-25. pdf). RESONANCE. June 2006. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [10] Martz, Joseph C.; Schwartz, Adam J.. "Plutonium: Aging Mechanisms and Weapon Pit Lifetime Assessment" (http:/ / www. tms. org/ pubs/ journals/ JOM/ 0309/ Martz-0309. html). The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [11] Wolfer, W. G.; Oudot, B.; Baclet, N. (2006). "Reversible expansion of gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium". Journal of Nuclear Materials 359 (3): 185–191.. Bibcode 2006JNuM..359..185W. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2006.08.020. [12] "U.S. Weapons Plutonium Ages Gracefully" (https:/ / www. llnl. gov/ str/ May07/ Schwartz. html). Science and Technology Reviews. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [13] Edwards, Rob (19 August 1995). "Fissile Fingerprints" (http:/ / www. newscientist. com/ article/ mg14719914. 300-fissile-fingerprints. html). New Scientist. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [14] "Gallium Interactions with Zircaloy Cladding" (http:/ / www. uraweb. org/ reports/ anrc9805. pdf). Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [15] Toevs, James W.; Beard, Carl A.. "Gallium in Weapons-Grade Plutonium and MOX Fuel Fabrication" (http:/ / www. ieer. org/ latest/ gallium. html). IEEE. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [16] "Method for plutonium-gallium separation by anodic dissolution of a solid plutonium-gallium alloy" (http:/ / www. freepatentsonline. com/ 6187163. html). frepatent. . Retrieved 2010-01-25. [17] Moody, Kenton James; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Grant, Patrick M. (2005-02-28). Nuclear forensic analysis (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=W3FnEOg8tS4C& pg=PA169). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849315138. .

47

MOX fuel

48

MOX fuel Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material. MOX fuel contains plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium. MOX fuel is an alternative to the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel used in the light water reactors that predominate nuclear power generation. For example, a mixture of 7% plutonium and 93% uranium reacts similarly, although not identically, to LEU fuel. One attraction of MOX fuel is that it is a way of utilizing surplus weapons-grade plutonium, which would otherwise be stored as nuclear waste and might be stolen to make nuclear weapons.[1] On the other hand, some fear that normalising the global commercial use of MOX fuel and the associated expansion of nuclear reprocessing will increase, rather than reduce, the risk of nuclear proliferation.[2] [3]

Overview In every uranium-based nuclear reactor core there is both fission of uranium isotopes such as uranium-235 ( and the formation of new, heavier isotopes due to neutron capture, primarily by uranium-238 ( fuel mass in a reactor is plutonium-240 ( nuclides.

U. This can become plutonium-239 (

Pu), plutonium-241 (

Pu and

Pu are fissile, like

Pu), plutonium-242 (

U). Most of the

Pu) and by successive neutron capture Pu) and other transuranic or actinide

U. Small quantities of uranium-236 (

Np) and plutonium-238 Pu)changed are formed similarly from or so, U. most of the Normally, with the fuel( being every three years behaves like

U),

U), neptunium-237 (

Pu is "burned" in the reactor. It

U, with a slightly higher cross section for fission, and its fission releases a similar amount of

energy. Typically about one percent of the spent fuel discharged from a reactor is plutonium, and some two thirds of the plutonium is Pu. Worldwide, almost 100 tonnes of plutonium in spent fuel arises each year. A single recycling of plutonium increases the energy derived from the original uranium by some 12%, and if the [4]

recycled by re-enrichment, this becomes about 20%.

U is also

With additional recycling the percentage of fissile (usually

meaning odd-neutron number nuclides) in the mix decreases and even-neutron number, neutron-absorbing nuclide increase, requiring the total plutonium and/or enriched uranium percentage to be increased. Today in thermal reactors plutonium is only recycled once as MOX fuel, and spent MOX fuel, with a high proportion of minor actinides and even plutonium isotopes, is stored as waste. Re-licensing precedes the introduction of MOX fuel into existing nuclear reactors. Often only a third to half of the fuel load is switched to MOX. The use of MOX does change the operating characteristics of a reactor, and the plant must be designed or adapted slightly to take it. More control rods are needed. For more than 50% MOX loading, significant changes are necessary and a reactor needs to be designed accordingly. The Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station near Phoenix, Arizona was designed for 100% MOX core compatibility but so far have always operated on fresh low enriched uranium. In theory the three Palo Verde reactors could use the MOX arising from seven conventionally fueled reactors each year and would no longer require fresh Uranium fuel. According to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), CANDU reactors could use 100% MOX cores without physical modification. AECL reported to the United States National Academy of Sciences committee on plutonium disposition that it has extensive experience in testing the use of MOX fuel containing from 0.5 to 3% plutonium.

MOX fuel

49

Current applications Reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel to make MOX is done in the United Kingdom and France, and to a lesser extent in Russia, India and Japan. China plans to develop fast breeder reactors and reprocessing. Reprocessing of spent commercial-reactor nuclear fuel is not permitted in the United States due to nonproliferation considerations. All of these nations have long had nuclear weapons from military-focused research reactor fuels except Japan.

A used MOX, which has 63 GW days (thermal) of burnup and has been examined with a scanning electron microscope using electron microprobe attachment. The lighter the pixel in the right hand side the higher the plutonium content of the material at that spot

The United States is building a MOX plant at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The Tennessee Valley Authority and Duke Energy are interested in using the reactor fuel from the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium.[5]

Thermal reactors About 30 thermal reactors in Europe (Belgium, Switzerland, Germany and France) are using MOX[6] and a further 20 have been licensed to do so. Most reactors use it as about one third of their core, but some will accept up to 50% MOX assemblies. In France, EDF aims to have all its 900 MWe series of reactors running with at least one-third MOX. Japan aimed to have one third of its reactors using MOX by 2010, and has approved construction of a new reactor with a complete fuel loading of MOX. Of the total nuclear fuel used today, MOX provides 2%.[4] Licensing and safety issues of using MOX fuel include:[6] • As plutonium isotopes absorb more neutrons than uranium fuels, reactor control systems may need modification. • MOX fuel tends to run hotter because of lower thermal conductivity, which may be an issue in some reactor designs. • Fission gas release in MOX fuel assemblies may limit the maximum burn-up time of MOX fuel. About 30% of the plutonium originally loaded into MOX fuel is consumed by use in a thermal reactor. If one third of the core fuel load is MOX and two-thirds uranium fuel, there is zero net gain of plutonium in the spent fuel.[6] All plutonium isotopes are either fissile or fertile, although plutonium-242 needs to absorb 3 neutrons before becoming fissile curium-245; in thermal reactors isotopic degradation limits the plutonium recycle potential. About 1% of spent nuclear fuel from current LWRs is plutonium, with approximate isotopic composition 52% Pu, 24% Pu, 15%

Pu, 6%

Pu and 2%

Pu when the fuel is first removed from the reactor.[6]

Fast reactors Because the fission to capture ratio of neutron cross-section with high energy or fast neutrons changes to favour fission for almost all of the actinides, including U, fast reactors can use all of them for fuel. All actinides, including TRU or transuranium actinides can undergo neutron induced fission with unmoderated or fast neutrons. A fast reactor is more efficient for using plutonium and higher actinides as fuel. Depending on how the reactor is fueled it can either be used as a plutonium breeder or burner. These fast reactors are better suited for the transmutation of other actinides than are thermal reactors. Because thermal reactors use slow or moderated neutrons, the actinides which are not fissionable with thermal neutrons tend

MOX fuel

50

to absorb the neutrons instead of fissioning. This leads to build up of heavier actinides and lowers the number of thermal neutrons available to continue the chain reaction.

Fabrication The first step is separating the plutonium from the remaining uranium (about 96% of the spent fuel) and the fission products with other wastes (together about 3%). This is undertaken at a nuclear reprocessing plant.

Dry mixing MOX fuel can be made by grinding together uranium oxide (UO2) and plutonium oxide (PuO2) before the mixed oxide is pressed into pellets, but this process has the disadvantage of forming lots of radioactive dust. MOX fuel, consisting of 7% plutonium mixed with depleted uranium, is equivalent to uranium oxide fuel enriched to about 4.5% U, assuming that the plutonium has about 60–65% Pu. If weapons-grade plutonium were used (>90% Pu), only about 5% plutonium would be needed in the mix.

Coprecipitation A mixture of uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate in nitric acid is converted by treatment with a base such as ammonia to form a mixture of ammonium diuranate and plutonium hydroxide. This after heating in 5% hydrogen in argon will form a mixture of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide. The resulting powder can be converted using a base into green pellets using a press. The green pellet can then be sintered into mixed uranium and plutonium oxide pellet. While this second type of fuel is more homogenous on the microscopic scale (scanning electron microscope) it is possible to see plutonium rich areas and plutonium poor areas. It can be helpful to think of the solid as being like a salami (more than one solid material present in the pellet).

Americium content Plutonium from reprocessed fuel is usually fabricated into MOX as soon as possible to avoid problems with the decay of short-lived isotopes of plutonium. In particular, Pu decays to americium-241 ( Am) which is a gamma ray emitter, giving rise to a potential occupational health hazard if the separated plutonium over five years old is used in a normal MOX plant. While Am is a gamma emitter most of the photons it emits are low in energy, so 1 mm of lead, or thick glass on a glovebox will give the operators a great deal of protection to their torsos. When working with large amounts of americium in a glovebox, the potential exists for a high dose of radiation to be delivered to the hands. As a result old reactor-grade plutonium can be difficult to use in a MOX fuel plant, as the Pu it contains decays with a short 14.1 year half-life into more radioactive

Am which makes the fuel difficult to handle in a production

plant. Within about 5 years typical reactor-grade plutonium would contain too much

Am (about 3%). But it is

possible to purify the plutonium bearing the americium by a chemical separation process. Even under the worst possible conditions the americium/plutonium mixture will never be as radioactive as a spent-fuel dissolution liquor, so it should be relatively straight forward to recover the plutonium by PUREX or another aqueous reprocessing method. Also, Pu is fissile while the isotopes of plutonium with even mass numbers are not (in general thermal neutrons will usually fission isotopes with an odd number of neutrons, but rarely those with an even number), so decay of Pu to

Am leaves plutonium with a lower proportion of isotopes usable as fuel, and a higher proportion of

isotopes that simply capture neutrons (though they may become fissile isotopes after one or more captures). The decay of Pu to U and subsequent removal of this uranium would have the opposite effect, but Pu both has a longer halflife (87.7 years vs. 14.3) and is a smaller proportion of the spent nuclear fuel. Pu all have much longer halflives so that decay is negligible. (

Pu,

Pu, and

Pu has an even longer halflife, but is unlikely

MOX fuel to be formed by successive neutron capture because

51 Pu quickly decays with a halflife of 5 hours giving

Am.)

Curium content It is possible that both americium and curium could be added to a U/Pu MOX fuel before it is loaded into a fast reactor. This is one means of transmutation. Work with curium is much harder than work with americium because curium is a neutron emitter, the MOX production line would need to be shielded with both lead and water to protect the workers. Also, the neutron irradiation of curium generates the higher actinides, such as californium, which increase the neutron dose associated with the used nuclear fuel; this has the potential to pollute the fuel cycle with strong neutron emitters. As a result, it is likely that curium will be excluded from most MOX fuels.

Thorium MOX MOX fuel containing thorium and plutonium oxides has also been studied. According to a Norwegian study, "the coolant void reactivity of the thorium-plutonium fuel is negative for plutonium contents up to 21%, whereas the transition lies at 16% for MOX fuel." The authors concluded, "Thorium-plutonium fuel seems to offer some advantages over MOX fuel with regards to control rod and boron worths, CVR and plutonium consumption."

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

Military Warheads as a Source of Nuclear Fuel (http:/ / www. world-nuclear. org/ info/ inf13. html) Is U.S. Reprocessing Worth The Risk? (http:/ / www. armscontrol. org/ act/ 2005_09/ Fetter-VonHippel) Plutonium proliferation and MOX fuel (http:/ / www. nirs. org/ factsheets/ moxproliferation. htm) "Information from the World Nuclear Association about MOX" (http:/ / www. world-nuclear. org/ info/ inf29. html). . TVA might use MOX fuels from SRS (http:/ / chronicle. augusta. com/ stories/ 2009/ 06/ 10/ met_527123. shtml), June 10, 2009 (PDF) NDA Plutonium Options (http:/ / www. nda. gov. uk/ documents/ upload/ Plutonium-Options-for-Comment-August-2008. pdf), Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, August 2008, , retrieved 2008-09-07

External links • Technical Aspects of the Use of Weapons Plutonium as Reactor Fuel (http://www.ieer.org/sdafiles/vol_5/5-4/ moxmain4.html) • Synergistic Nuclear Fuel Cycles of the Future (http://canteach.candu.org/library/20054702.pdf) • Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper 42 (http://www.uic.com.au/nip42.htm) • Burning Weapons Plutonium in CANDU Reactors (http://www.ccnr.org/nas_mox.html) • Program to turn plutonium bombs into fuel hits snags (http://www.shns.com/shns/g_index2. cfm?action=detail&pk=NUCLEAR-03-08-06)

52

Environment Plutonium in the environment Part of the actinides in the environment series. Plutonium in the environment since the mid-20th century has primarily been due to human activity. The majority of plutonium isotopes are short-lived on a geological timescale.[1] It has been argued that some natural plutonium (the very long lived 244Pu isotope) can be found in nature.[2] This isotope has been found in lunar soil,[3] meteorites,[4] and in the Oklo natural reactor.[5] But in general it is normally considered that the bulk of all plutonium is man made. According to one paper on marine sediments for plutonium in marine sediments, bomb fall out is responsible for the majority of the 239Pu and 240Pu (66% and 59% respectively of that found in the English Channel) while nuclear reprocessing is responsible for the majority of the 238Pu and 241Pu present in the sea (bomb tests are only responsible for 6.5 and 16.5% of these isotopes respectively).[6]

Bomb detonations About 3.5 tons of plutonium have been released into the environment by atomic bomb tests. While this might sound like a large amount it has only resulted in a very small dose to the majority of the humans on the earth. Overall the health effects of the fission products are far greater than the effects of the actinides released by a nuclear bomb detonation. The plutonium from the Pu fuel of the bomb is converted into a high fired oxide which is carried high into the air. It slowly falls to earth as global fallout and is not soluble, hence as a result it is difficult for this plutonium to be incorporated into an animal if taken by mouth. Much of this plutonium will become tightly absorbed onto sediments of lakes, rivers and oceans. However, about 66% of the plutonium from a bomb explosion is formed by the neutron capture of uranium-238; this plutonium is not converted by the bomb into a high fired oxide as it is formed more slowly. As a result this formed plutonium is more soluble and more able to cause harm when it falls to earth.[7] Some of the plutonium can be deposited close to the point of detonation. The glassy trinitite formed by the first atom bomb has been examined to determine what actinides and other radioisotopes it contained. A recent paper[8] reports the levels of long lived radioisotopes in the trinitite. The trinitite was formed from feldspar and quartz which were melted by the heat. Two samples of trinitite were used, the first (left hand side bars) was taken from between 40 and 65 meters of ground zero while the other sample was taken from further away from the ground zero point.

Plutonium in the environment

Levels of radioactivity in the trinitite glass from two different samples as measured by gamma spectroscopy on lumps of the glass. The americium content is the current content while all the other isotopes have been back calculated to shortly after the moment of detonation.

The 152Eu and 154Eu was mainly formed by the neutron activation of the europium in the soil, it is clear that the level of radioactivity for these isotopes is highest where the neutron dose to the soil was larger. Some of the 60Co is generated by activation of the cobalt in the soil, but some was also generated by the activation of the cobalt in the steel (100 foot) tower. This 60Co from the tower would have been scattered over the site reducing the difference in the soil levels. The 133Ba and 241Am are due to the neutron activation of barium and plutonium inside the bomb. The barium was present in the form of the nitrate in the chemical explosives used while the plutonium was the fissile fuel used. It is interesting to note that the 137Cs level is higher in the sample which was further away from the ground zero point. This is thought to be because the precursors to the 137Cs (137I and 137Xe) and the caesium to a lesser degree are volatile. The natural radioisotopes in the glass are about the same in both locations. In this paper a sample of the glass was digested and the plutonium extracted from it, and the mass ratio of the isotopes was calculated from the radiometric measurements. In light green the isotopic signature for the plutonium used for making the bomb is shown, and on the right in dark green the signature of the plutonium in the trinitite glass is shown. It is very clear that 238Pu and 241Pu were generated during the detonation, so it is reasonable to conclude that some 240Pu was formed during the detonation.

53

Plutonium in the environment

54

Isotropic signatures of the plutonium before and after the detonation.

As the 239Pu/240Pu ratio only changed slightly during the detonation, it has been commented[9] that this isotope ratio for the majority of atom bombs (In Japan the 239Pu/240Pu ratio in soil is normally in the range 0.17 to 0.19)[10] is very different than from the bomb dropped upon Nagasaki, so the forest soil[10] and the lake sediment layer containing the local fallout from World War II bomb is very different from the layers due to global fallout from bomb tests conducted later.[9]

Bomb safety trials One form of release of plutonium into the environment has been safety trials in these experiments nuclear bombs have been subjected to simulated accidents or have been detonated with an abnormal initiation of the chemical explosives. An abnormal implosion will result in a compression of the pit which is less uniform and smaller than the designed compression in the device. Such an abnormal implosion could result from an accident which triggers one or more of the detonators which trigger the chemical explosive charges. As a result of these experiments (where no or very little nuclear fission occurs) plutonium metal has been scattered around near the site of the experiment. While some of these tests have been done inside holes in the ground, other such tests were conducted in open air. A paper on the radioisotopes left on an island by the French nuclear bombs tests of the 20th century has been printed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and a section of this report deals with plutonium contamination resulting from such tests.[11]

Plutonium in the environment

55

The two basic fission weapon designs.

Other related trials were conducted at Maralinga, South Australia here both normal bomb detonations and "safety trials" have been conducted. While the activity from the fission products has decayed away almost totally (as of 2006) the plutonium remains active. A report (warning it is very big) can be read at[12] while a smaller report can be seen at.[13]

Atomic batteries Space

Diagram of an RTG used on the Cassini probe

Plutonium in the environment

56

Another potential source of plutonium being introduced into the environment is the reentry of artificial satellites containing atomic batteries. There have been several such incidents, the most prominent being the Apollo 13 mission. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package carried on the Lunar Module re-entered the atmosphere over the South Pacific. Many atomic batteries have been of the Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) type.

Image of (mostly) thermally isolated, RTG pellet glowing red hot because of incandescence.

Chain reactions do not occur inside RTGs, so such a nuclear meltdown is impossible. In fact, some RTGs are designed so that fission does not occur at all; rather, forms of radioactive decay which cannot trigger other radioactive decays are used instead. As a result, the fuel in an RTG is consumed much more slowly and much less power is produced. RTGs are still a potential source of radioactive contamination: if the container holding the fuel leaks, the radioactive material will contaminate the environment. The main concern is that if an accident were to occur during launch or a subsequent passage of a spacecraft close to Earth, harmful material could be released into the atmosphere. However, this event is extremely unlikely with current RTG cask designs. In order to minimise the risk of the radioactive material being released, the fuel is typically stored in individual modular units with their own heat shielding. They are surrounded by a layer of iridium metal and encased in high-strength graphite blocks. These two materials are corrosion and heat-resistant. Surrounding the graphite blocks is an aeroshell, designed to protect the entire assembly against the heat of reentering the Earth's atmosphere. The plutonium fuel is also stored in a ceramic form that is heat-resistant, minimising the risk of vaporization and aerosolization. The ceramic is also highly insoluble. The US Department of Energy has conducted seawater tests and determined that the graphite casing, which was designed to withstand reentry, is stable and no release of plutonium should occur. Subsequent investigations have found no increase in the natural background radiation in the area. The Apollo 13 accident represents an extreme scenario due to the high re-entry velocities of the craft returning from cislunar space. This accident has served to validate the design of later-generation RTGs as highly safe. The Plutonium-238 used in RTGs has a half-life of 88 years, as opposed to the plutonium-239 used in nuclear weapons and reactors, which has a half-life of 24,100 years.

Plutonium in the environment

Pacemakers Some heart pacemakers which are powered by RTGs using 238Pu have been made.

Nuclear fuel cycle Plutonium has been released into the environment in aqueous solution from nuclear reprocessing and uranium enrichment plants. The chemistry of this plutonium is different from that of the metal oxides formed from nuclear bomb detonations. One example of a site (military not civil) where plutonium entered the soil is Rocky Flats where in the recent past XANES (a X-ray spectroscopy) has been used to determine the chemical nature of the plutonium in the soil.[14] The XANES was used to determine the oxidation state of the plutonium, while EXAFS was used to investigate the structure of the plutonium compound present in the soil and concrete.[15]

The XANES experiments done on plutonium in soil, concrete and standards of the different oxidation states.

Chernobyl Because plutonium oxide is very involatile, most of the plutonium in the reactor was not released during the fire. (See also Chernobyl disaster.) However that which was released can be measured. V.I. Yoschenko et al. reported that grass and forest fires can make the caesium, strontium and plutonium become mobile in the air again. (Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2006, 86, 143-163.) As an experiment fires were set and the levels of the radioactivity in the air downwind of these fires was measured.

57

Plutonium in the environment

Nuclear crime One case exists of a German man who attempted to poison his ex-wife with plutonium stolen from WAK (Wiederaufbereitungsanlage Karlsruhe). WAK was a small scale reprocessing plant where he worked. He did not steal a large amount of plutonium, just some rags used for wiping surfaces and a small amount of liquid waste. This man was sent to prison for his crime.[16] [17] At least two people (besides the criminal) were contaminated by the plutonium.[18] Two flats in Rhineland-Palatinate were contaminated. These were later cleaned at a cost of two million euro. For photographs of the case and details of other nuclear crimes see[19] which was presented by a worker at the ITU. A general over view of the forensic matters associated with plutonium exists.[20] The details of how the two flats in Landau were cleaned has been recorded.[21] In addition it has been claimed that a house in Reading, Berkshire has been contaminated with plutonium.[22] [23] [24]

Environmental chemistry Overview Plutonium like other actinides readily forms a dioxide plutonyl core (PuO2). In the environment, this plutonyl core readily complexes with carbonate as well as other oxygen moieties (OH-, NO2-, NO3-, and SO4−2) to form charged complexes which can be readily mobile with low affinities to soil. • PuO2(CO3)1−2 • PuO2(CO3)2−4 • PuO2(CO3)3−6 PuO2 formed from neutralizing highly acidic nitric acid solutions tends to form polymeric PuO2 which is resistant to complexation. Plutonium also readily shifts valences between the +3, +4, +5 and +6 states. It is common for some fraction of plutonium in solution to exist in all of these states in equilibrium.

Binding to soil Plutonium is known to bind to soil particles very strongly, see above for a X-ray spectroscopic study of plutonium in soil and concrete. While caesium has very different chemistry to the actinides, it is well known that both caesium and many of the actinides bind strongly to the minerals in soil. Hence it has been possible to use 134Cs labeled soil to study the migration of Pu and Cs is soils. It has been shown that colloidal transport processes control the migration of Cs (and will control the migration of Pu) in the soil at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant according to R.D. Whicker and S.A. Ibrahim, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2006, 88, 171-188.

Microbiological chemistry Mary Neu (at Los Alamos in the USA) has done some work which suggests that bacteria can accumulate plutonium because the iron transport systems used by the bacteria also function as plutonium transport systems.[25] [26] [27]

Biology Plutonium ingested by or injected into humans is transported in the transferrin based iron(III) transport system and then is stored in the liver in the iron store (ferritin), after an exposure to plutonium it is important to rapidly inject the subject with a chelating agent such as calcium complex[28] of DTPA.[29] [30] This antidote is useful for a single one off exposure such as that which would occur if a glove box worker was to cut their hand with a Pu contaminated object. The calcium complex has faster metal binding kinetics than the zinc complex but if the calcium complex is used for a long time it tends to remove important minerals from the person. The zinc complex is less able to cause these effects.

58

Plutonium in the environment Plutonium that is inhaled by humans lodges in the lungs and is slowly translocated to the lymph nodes. Inhaled plutonium has been shown to lead to lung cancer in experimental animals.

References [1] "Plutonium" (http:/ / www. ead. anl. gov/ pub/ doc/ plutonium. pdf). Human Health Fact Sheet. Argonne National Laboratory, EVS. August 2005. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [2] P.K. Kuroda, Accounts of Chemical Research, 1979, 12(2), 73-78 (http:/ / www. osti. gov/ energycitations/ product. biblio. jsp?osti_id=6315763) [3] KURODA, P.K., MYERS, W.A., "Plutonium-244 Dating III Initial Ratios of Plutonium to Uranium in Lunar Samples." J. Radioanalyt Chem. 150, 71. [4] MYERS, W.A., and KURODA, P.K., "Plutonium-244 Dating IV. Initial Ratios of Plutonium to Uranium in the Renazzo, Mokoia and Groznaya Meteorite." J. Radioanalyt. Nucl. Chem. 152, 99. [5] KURODA, P.K., " Plutonium-244 in the Early Solar System and the Pre-Fermi Natural Reactor (http:/ / www. terrapub. co. jp/ journals/ GJ/ pdf/ 2601/ 26010001. PDF) (The Shibata Prize Awardee's Lecture)". Geochem. J. 26, 1. [6] O.F.X. Donard, F. Bruneau, M. Moldovan, H. Garraud, V.N. Epov and D. Boust, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2007, 587, 170-179 [7] Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, G. Choppin, J-O. Liljenzin and J. Rydberg, 3rd Ed, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002 [8] P.P. Parekh, T.M. Semkow, M.A. Torres, D.K. Haines, J.M. Cooper, P.M. Rosenberg and M.E. Kitto, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2006, 85, 103-120 [9] Y. Saito-Kokubu, F. Esaka, K. Yasuda, M. Magara, Y. Miyamoto, S. Sakurai, S. Usuda, H. Yamazaki, S. Yoshikawa and S. Nagaoka, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2007, 65(4), 465-468 [10] S. Yoshida, Y. Muramatsu, S. Yamazaki and T. Ban-nai, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2007, In Press doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2007.01.019 [11] THE RADIOLOGICAL SITUATION AT THE ATOLLS OF MURUROA AND FANGATAUFA (http:/ / www-pub. iaea. org/ MTCD/ publications/ PDF/ Pub1028_web. pdf). International Atomic Energy Agency. 1998. ISBN 92-0-101198-9. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [12] "Resources (martac report)" (http:/ / www. ret. gov. au/ resources/ Documents/ radioactive_waste/ martac_report. pdf). . [13] "Alan Parkinson - 2000 National Conference - MAPW Australia" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080201154126/ http:/ / www. mapw. org. au/ conferences/ mapw2000/ papers/ parkinson. html). . [14] Clark, David L. (2002-05-29). "Cleanup at Rocky Flats" (http:/ / www-ssrl. slac. stanford. edu/ research/ highlights_archive/ rockyflats. html). Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [15] "PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE PERMITS CONCRETE RECYCLE" (http:/ / www. wmsym. org/ archives/ 2002/ Proceedings/ 6B/ 188. pdf). . [16] WISE Nuclear issues information service (http:/ / www. antenna. nl/ wise/ ) [17] "Wise Nc; Germany: Plutonium Soup As A Murder Weapon?" (http:/ / www10. antenna. nl/ wise/ 555/ 5321. html). WISE News Communique. 2001-10-05. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [18] (http:/ / www. germnews. de/ archive/ dn/ 2005/ 02/ 24. html#16) [19] "European Commission - JRC -The Joint Research Centre" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071025203914/ http:/ / www. jrc. cec. eu. int/ more_information/ infodays/ 200210_speech/ ray. pdf). . [20] Maria Wallenius, Klaus Lützenkirchen, Klaus Mayer, Ian Ray, Laura Aldave de las Heras, Maria Betti, Omer Cromboom, Marc Hild, Brian Lynch, Adrian Nicholl, et al., Journal of Alloys and Compounds, In press doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.10.161 [21] "CLEAN-UP OF A GIGA-BQ-PU CONTAMINATION OF TWO APARTMENTS, CONTAMINATED BY THE PU THEFT AT THE WAK" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050104225759/ http:/ / ean. cepn. asso. fr/ pdf/ program7/ Session+ C/ C2_HOEFE. pdf). . [22] "A HOT PROPERTY" (http:/ / www. corporatewatch. org/ ?lid=2180). Corporate Watch. 27 December 2005. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [23] "NUCLEAR CONTAMINATION IN READING: A VERY BRITISH COVER-UP" (http:/ / www. corporatewatch. org/ ?lid=2407). Corporate Watch. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [24] Rowan, David (2003-11-29). "Daily Telegraph: Mysterious radiation in Reading" (http:/ / www. davidrowan. com/ 2003/ 11/ daily-telegraph-mysterious-radiation. html). . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [25] Neu, Mary P. (Number 26, 2000). "Siderophore-Mediated Chemistry and Microbial Uptake of Plutonium" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ pubs/ 00818042. pdf). Chemical Interactions of Actinides in the Environment (Los Alamos Science): 416–417. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [26] . doi:10.1021/es010590g. [27] "Bacterial Biotransformations for the In situ Stabilization of Plutonium" (http:/ / www. lbl. gov/ ERSP/ generalinfo/ pi_meetings/ PI_mtg_05/ 05_PI_Mtg_pdf/ Neu_NABIR05_pres. pdf) (PDF). April, 2005. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [28] "Pentetate calcium trisodium injection (Ca-DTPA)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070928012951/ http:/ / www. multum. com/ Ca-DTPA. htm). Cerner Multum. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. multum. com/ Ca-DTPA. htm) on September 28, 2007. . Retrieved 2009-07-06. [29] ORISE: Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (http:/ / www. orau. gov/ reacts/ calcium. htm) [30] "Pentetate zinc trisodium injection (Zn-DTPA)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070928012945/ http:/ / www. multum. com/ Zn-DTPA. htm). Cerner Multum. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. multum. com/ Zn-DTPA. htm) on September 28, 2007. . Retrieved

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Article Sources and Contributors Plutonium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=433055455  Contributors: .:CoReHaCk:., 130.94.122.xxx, 1stlegionarmy, 28bytes, 2D, 5 albert square, ACSE, ARTE, AWeishaupt, Aarchiba, Abalacha, Abcdefgy2, Acroterion, Action Jackson IV, Adzze, Afernand74, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Alan Peakall, Alansohn, Algebraist, [email protected], AlimanRuna, Alpha Quadrant (alt), AnakngAraw, Anclation, Andres, Andrewa, Andy M. 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Rccoms, Rcnet, Rdsmith4, Redfarmer, Remember, RexNL, Reyk, Rich Farmbrough, Riffsyphon1024, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, Roadrunner, Robert Foley, RobertG, Rockvee, Rogermw, Romanm, Ron Magic, Rreagan007, Ruffin' writer, Rune.welsh, Rursus, Rwendland, Rwflammang, Ryanrs, Saikiri, Sam Hocevar, SandyGeorgia, Saperaud, Sasper, Savant13, Sbharris, SchfiftyThree, Schneelocke, SchnitzelMannGreek, Science Focus, Sdaaw4g, Sean Goodwin, Sengkang, Sfuerst, Shaddack, Shanedidona, Shanes, Shenme, Shinkolobwe, Shoemaker's Holiday, Shoy, Sia15998, Simesa, Skier lad, Skoch3, Sl, Sladen, Smalljim, Snowolf, Snugggy, Soarhead77, Soralin, Speciman00, Spellmaster, Spencer, Spidaman23, Spiff, SpookyMulder, Squids and Chips, Starkrm, StaticGull, Stebbins, Steel, Stellar-TO, StephenHart, Stevertigo, Stone, Stratocracy, Stux, Sugarbat, Super8Guy, Supremeknowledge, Svante, Svick, Sweet smell of salami, Syrthiss, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Tagishsimon, Tanaats, Tbhotch, Tdent, Techman224, TedE, Tedernst, Tempodivalse, TenOfAllTrades, TerraFrost, Tetracube, Texboy, That Guy, From That Show!, The Cake is a Lie, The High Fin Sperm Whale, The Jacobin, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thedjatclubrock, Theseeker4, Thincat, Thingg, Thom.fynn, Thue, Thumperward, ToddFincannon, Tpth, Tresiden, Trojancowboy, Trần Nam Hạ 2001, Tstrobaugh, Tweenk, TwoWildnCrazyKids, Ulric1313, Ultramince, Uncle Dick, Ur mom sux, Uriber, Valentinian, VampWillow, Veemonkamiya, Versus22, Vsmith, WadeSimMiser, Walkinglikeahuricane, Wapcaplet, Warbeck, Warut, Watch37264, Wavelength, Wdfarmer, WereSpielChequers, Wertuose, Wervo, WhickityWhite, Whiner01, Whiteskin420, Whitneyjones, Whosasking, Wiki alf, Wiki fanatic, WikiDao, Wikipelli, William Avery, Wimt, WolfmanSF, Woohookitty, Wuhwuzdat, Wwoods, XinaNicole, Xiong Chiamiov, Yalbik, Yann, Yath, Yekrats, YouRang?, Yyy, Zenswashbuckler, Zidonuke, ZimZalaBim, Zizzybaluba, ZooFari, Zotel, சதீஷ், 1084 anonymous edits Allotropes of plutonium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390914781  Contributors: Arkuat, BoomerAB, David Buchan, Eubulides, JForget, John, Materialscientist, Mav, NawlinWiki, Nergaal, Plasticspork, Shaddack, 6 anonymous edits Isotopes of plutonium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=432437299  Contributors: Ardric47, Bryan Derksen, DexDor, Donarreiskoffer, Femto, Headbomb, JWB, JaGa, John, Mav, Merovingian, Nergaal, Nono64, Offtherails, Rjwilmsi, Shaddack, Urhixidur, Winston365, XinaNicole, 12 anonymous edits Plutonium borides  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430267451  Contributors: Christian75, Fivemack, Gene93k, JWBE, Lamro, Materialscientist, Mission Fleg, Tetracube, Thinking of England Plutonium carbide  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429375002  Contributors: Cardamon, Lamro, Mikespedia, Samwb123, Scsc123 Plutonium hexafluoride  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429375313  Contributors: Fivemack, JWBE, Lamro, Materialscientist, Plasmic Physics, Shoy, Stone, Tim Q. Wells, Whiner01, Wickey-nl, 1 anonymous edits Plutonium hydride  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429374970  Contributors: Anthony Appleyard, Axiosaurus, Benjah-bmm27, Bryan Derksen, Chem-awb, GngstrMNKY, JWBE, Lamro, Miss Madeline, Petri Krohn, Plasmic Physics, Polyamorph, Tetracube, 1 anonymous edits Plutonium(III) chloride  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=433109960  Contributors: Beetstra, Chem-awb, JWBE, Kaygtr, Lamro, 4 anonymous edits Plutonium(III) fluoride  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429375118  Contributors: Axiosaurus, Chem-awb, JWBE, Lamro, Plasmic Physics, Shaddack, Shoy Plutonium(IV) fluoride  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429375171  Contributors: Beetstra, Chem-awb, Daviesje, Howcheng, Hurricane Devon, JWBE, Keenan Pepper, Kjkolb, Lamro, Materialscientist, PDH, Panoptical, Parker007, Rifleman 82, Shoy, Stone, Tim Q. Wells, Wimvandorst, 1 anonymous edits Plutonium(IV) oxide  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=431091411  Contributors: Beetstra, Benbest, Benjah-bmm27, Bob Saint Clar, Cburnett, Chem-awb, JWBE, Jim Swenson, John, Kaygtr, Koavf, Lamro, Larsjo, M97uzivatel, Materialscientist, Member, Myfanwy, Ocdncntx, Pdcompto, Physchim62, Plasmic Physics, Rifleman 82, RyanJones, Shaddack, Singularity, Slastic, Smokefoot, Socrates2008, Tabletop, Tassedethe, Thus Blogged Anderson, Uwe W., 14 anonymous edits Plutonium-gallium alloy  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=420775275  Contributors: Materialscientist, Nergaal, Nick Number, Rrostrom, Shaddack, Stone, 1 anonymous edits MOX fuel  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430296074  Contributors: A5b, Arkuat, AstroHurricane001, Beagel, Birkett, Blackicehorizon, Bobblewik, Bryan Derksen, Cadmium, DV8 2XL, Debresser, Decora, DocWatson42, Dr. Morbius, Eft160, Elminster Aumar, Enr-v, Fallschirmjäger, Fig wright, Finell, Garmonbozia, Gintautasm, Goldom, Gurch, JWB, JaGa, Joelholdsworth, Jugger90, Kinema, Kjkolb, Lamro, Mak17f, Man with two legs, Materialscientist, Meeples, Mkweise, Molerat, NPguy, PaulHanson, Rayc, Rememberlands, Rich Farmbrough, Rich257, Rjwilmsi, Rod57, Rwendland, Shogun338, Simesa, Simon12, SkyLined, Slastic, Sleigh, Svartalf, Tanada, Timusca, Trojancowboy, Wangi, Wwoods, Zaphodia, 國王橋, 60 anonymous edits Plutonium in the environment  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426149161  Contributors: Alan Liefting, Alchimista, Ale jrb, Anticipation of a New Lover's Arrival, The, BeefRendang, Beetstra, Beginnersview, Bender235, Bryan Derksen, Cadmium, Cgingold, Chuckwatson, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Conscious, Cyfal, Darklilac, Dispenser, Download, Flo422, Footwarrior, Furrykef, Helix84, Hmains, Icairns, John, Koavf, LittleOldMe, MaxEnt, Oxymoron83, Rjd0060, Shaddack, Sj, Stbalbach, SteveChervitzTrutane, Stone, StoneCold89, Tsange, Velella, Wavelength, Welsh, Wwheaton, 13 anonymous edits

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors file:Plutonium3.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium3.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Department of Energy, File:Loudspeaker.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Myself488, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, The Evil IP address, Wouterhagens, 9 anonymous edits File:Plutonium density-eng.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium_density-eng.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Plutonium_density.svg: HarDNox derivative work: Materialscientist (talk) File:Plutonium ring.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium_ring.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Los Alamos National Laboratory File:PuIsotopes.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PuIsotopes.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Изотопы.svg: HarDNox derivative work: Materialscientist (talk) File:Plutonium in solution.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium_in_solution.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Los Alamos National Laboratory File:Plutonium pyrophoricity.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium_pyrophoricity.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Los Alamos National Laboratory File:96602765.lowres.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:96602765.lowres.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Berkeley-Laboratory File:Glenn Seaborg 1964.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Glenn_Seaborg_1964.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Atomic Energy Commission. (1946 01/19/1975) File:B-Reactor Hanford.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:B-Reactor_Hanford.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Hydrargyrum, Murderbike File:Fission bomb assembly methods.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fission_bomb_assembly_methods.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fastfission File:Yucca Mountain emplacement drifts.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yucca_Mountain_emplacement_drifts.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Department of Energy File:Nagasakibomb.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nagasakibomb.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: The picture was taken from one of the B-29 Superfortresses used in the attack. File:Plutonium pellet.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium_pellet.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adam Cuerden, D-Kuru, Fastfission, Mav, Uwe W., Vanished user 001 File:Partially-reflected-plutonium-sphere.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Partially-reflected-plutonium-sphere.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Los Alamos National Laboratory Image:Pu-phases.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pu-phases.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: original upload 28 April 2005 by Aarchiba on the English Wikipedia, Image:Plutonium pellet.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium_pellet.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adam Cuerden, D-Kuru, Fastfission, Mav, Uwe W., Vanished user 001 Image:Sasahara.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sasahara.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was JWB at en.wikipedia Image:Plutonium ring.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plutonium_ring.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Los Alamos National Laboratory Image:Magnesium-diboride-3D-balls.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnesium-diboride-3D-balls.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ben Mills Image:CaHexaboride.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CaHexaboride.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Materialscientist Image:X mark.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:X_mark.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Abnormaal, DieBuche, Gmaxwell, Kilom691, Kwj2772, MGA73, Mardetanha, Penubag, Pseudomoi, WikipediaMaster, 1 anonymous edits File:Yes check.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yes_check.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: SVG by Gregory Maxwell (modified by WarX) File:SEMofusedMOX.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SEMofusedMOX.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Cadmium, Colonies Chris, Remember the dot Image:Trinityglassactivity.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trinityglassactivity.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Cadmium at en.wikipedia Image:Pubeforeandaftertrinity.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pubeforeandaftertrinity.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: wikipedia:en:user:Cadmium Image:Fission bomb assembly methods.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fission_bomb_assembly_methods.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fastfission Image:Cutdrawing of an GPHS-RTG.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cutdrawing_of_an_GPHS-RTG.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Smallman12q, Uwe W. Image:Radioisotope thermoelectric generator plutonium pellet.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator_plutonium_pellet.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Deglr6328 at en.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Raeky, Johnny--Bravo, Aarchiba at en.wikipedia. Image:PuXANES.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PuXANES.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bkell, Cadmium

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License

License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

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