Polio and Historical Inquiry

Polio and Historical Inquiry

Polio and Historical Inquiry Author(s): Karen L. Wellner Reviewed work(s): Source: OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 19, No. 5, Medicine and History (Sep...

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Polio and Historical Inquiry Author(s): Karen L. Wellner Reviewed work(s): Source: OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 19, No. 5, Medicine and History (Sep., 2005), pp. 54-58 Published by: Organization of American Historians Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25161982 . Accessed: 19/10/2012 19:48 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

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Lesson

Plan

Karen

Polio

It was

the robber

and

a

of hope for

Historical

several

generation,

L.Wellner

generations

of children.

Inquiry There

were

...

diseases

that were more

devastating,

more

affecting

children,

more deadly than polio. But polio left kids crippled, and thatwas an image that this big strongpostwar country simply couldn't abide. We had children lining up inwheelchairs, in iron lungs,whose very vitality [was drained] and everyone's hopefor theirfuture was.. .[shaken]right at themost critical time in their childhoods. And that'swhy polio seemed like such a horrible scourge,far more so than any number of other diseases or accidents that, any way you want to measure it,were more deadly and were fatal. And the image of a child in an iron lung is about as tearful and wrenching as we could imagine at that time, and any time certainly in this century. There were many other diseases thatwere badfor America, but polio broke its heart. ?Mark

Writing about the teaching of history, Zachary Osofsky suc cinctly captures the purpose of a history classroom by ask ing this question: how is the past different from the present (2)? In the case of polio, medicine, and public health, the answer is: a lot different. Before the arrival of the polio vaccine in the mid-1950s, Americans lived for many years in fear of this dread disease. As sum mer appeared, so too did the specter of polio. And for the most part, for which

the virus,

are

humans

in epidemic

deliver?sometimes

the only

natural

proportions

never

host,

failed

to

less

so.

sometimes

and

Students todaymay have difficulty comprehending the fear that polio elicited in that era (although AIDS provides a useful analogy). How have we gone from heightened anxiety to complacency in such a brief period of time? Since large polio outbreaks occurred throughout the 1940s and 1950s,

students

your

will

have

grandparents

and

older

relatives

or ac

quaintances who are familiar with polio and may have been directly affected by it. Collecting their accounts will familiarize your students with qualitative and quantitative analyses and demonstrate how they can be useful tools in historical inquiry. In addition, this lesson will help establish your classroom as a learning community by providing opportunity

for

interaction

and

can

success

Time This lesson should take two to three class periods, with homework. Student Objectives 1. To draw

upon

quantitative

and

qualitative

data

to formulate

gen

eralizations about polio in the United States during themid-i900s. 2. To evaluate the implementation of a vaccine study by analyzing 54 OAH Magazine of History

September 2005

(i)

story.

Background The year 2005 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the announce ment that clinical trials of the Salk polio vaccine had proved successful across the United States. Before this discovery, polio knew relatively no boundaries. The March of Dimes's successful poster campaigns of the 1950s made use of clean and wholesome children in braces to drive home the point: polio must be stopped, and itwould be done so with public support. The same citizenry that had been called upon to pitch in to help win World War IIwould be called upon again, only this time was polio. could attack polio slums and immigrants

the enemy While lieved

even

higher such ignored

to good

health.

rates

played

be many its spread.

that affluent suburban dwellers suffered

than

evidence

A backlash

at any time, anywhere, a role in significant

anyone,

evidence

Despite mounting often

National Standards This activity will fulfill the following standards in the National Stan dardsfor United States History: Standard 4 in Standards in Historical Thinking: Historical Re search Capabilities Era 9: Postwar United States (1945-early 1970s) Standard iB: Demonstrate understanding of how social changes of the postwar period affected various Americans.

survivor

polio

the interests served and ethical dimensions of the study. 3. To recognize that science in the era immediately following the Second World War was seen as a powerful and objective tool, best left in the hands of experts. 4. To identify why the eUmination of polio is considered an Ameri

from

discourse.

Sauer,

inner

did

because

city or cleanliness

urban,

against

rural

residents,

was Eastern

poor,

people to lead

expected

im

European

followed. In Dirt and Disease (1992), Naomi Rogers notes that

migrants the power

of dirt,

and

disease,

overrode

disorder

the

germ

theory

of

disease; and nothing spoke to those three D's like immigrants (3). In addition, with so little known about how the virus spread, there were those

own

cold war

in the

Americans. share

era who

Never mind of polio

saw

polio

as a communist

that the Soviet Union

plot

against

also suffered from its

epidemics.

The first well-documented polio epidemic in the United States occurred in New York City in 1916. At the time the polio virus was known

to be

the

causative

but

agent,

it remained

a mystery

as

to how

one "caught" polio. Did it have something to do with the new method and house of pasteurizing milk? Was it carried by flies, mosquitoes, hold then

cats? Was easily

the virus

transmitted

carried

on clothes,

to humans?

Was

coal dust, polio

or street

waterborne,

grit, and contribut

ing to the likelihood that exposure to pond water, drinking fountains,

and

tap water

ordinary

would

in polio?

result

so many

since

Or,

are

school

so many

With

fountains,

swimming

bizarre.

Retarded

to leave

encouraged

their

children

home.

Cats,

whether

household

to avoid

naps

stress

(4).

And yet, even with and

sterilizing,

ing,

to grow the most in countries and sanitation programs

to what

contrary

Sabin

immunization

enough,

perhaps,

for

S., children

the

was

had

people or

polio

50

medical

to special

In

country

would

with

facilities

. J????? ill.. V-...,,

polio

as

patients.

s approach

Salk and Sabin, revolving

to vaccine

Salk

production.

favored

using a killed virus for polio vaccination while Sabin believed that a weakened, but still live, virus would offer more antibody production and longer-lasting protection. Salk and his University of Pittsburgh on

of monkeys

served

a killed

virus

vaccine

from

as Salks

as test animals,

1947 team

to

1952. to

sought

identify how many types of poliovirus existed (there are three) and to test the vaccine. At the end of 1951, the NFIP granted Salk approval to begin

vaccine

testing

on humans.

But which

testing

children cohort?isolated

and

complet

incidence

about

rate?only

people,

to

compared

that

children

many

Each jail inmates. from the media,

the

size must be. sample a tremendous required and logistical support.

the

larger

who

group easy

can

doctors

after

school

county con con

as children

too,

immunization,

prin

and

required to had

Support

planning.

child

the vaccine,

of parents, state nurses, and

officials,

siderable tinue

efforts

teachers,

cipals, health

receive

would

in experimental and control groups had to be

tracked

and

community

physicians

to report

needed

po

suspected

lio cases promptly. Costs of the 1954 field trials were funded largely

remained

were

tax dollars

used.

Jonas Salk was receiving most of the publicity, Albert Sabin

While vaccine

to the NFIP?no

donations

public

through

in the background, the 1950s throughout

continuing and 1960s.

his

research

with

also was

Sabin

a weakened funded

heavily

by the NFIP but once word of the Salk vaccine's success spread, Sabin had

to redirect

his

to locate

efforts

another

where

country

he

could

test

his work. The Soviet Union provided such an opportunity. Sabirfs live but weakened polio vaccine had an advantage: it could be administered

orally,

in the form

of a sugar

cube.

vaccine

The

entered

the digestive system in the same manner

that the polio virus did. Only

a

be no

single

dose

was

There

required.

would

need

rather

as was

than weeks,

Although in the Soviet

it seems Union

the case with

strange during

that Sabin the

cold war,

the Salk was

and

in days

vaccine.

allowed

he was

for boosters

antibodies

Sabin predicted that the body would begin making

to test his

given

vaccine

permission

in

1956 to visit and speak with Soviet virologists and health officials. He

humans?

Traditionally, human testing had been accomplished using institu tionalized

...V-MM

a dose of the "dead virus" vaccine to a Jonas Salk administers Division of child. (Image courtesy of the History of Medicine the National Library of Medicine.)

polio such

V^^U; ;'.:.-...

^MMt

A rift subsequently emerged between

laboratory Hundreds

per

the unpaid

and

to prevention. Enter for polio, attention shifted Jonas Salk, Albert on medical researchers who drew break and a host of other Sabin, as tissue vaccine and flu such culture production techniques throughs to advance their work. help

staff worked

be

testing

In addition to the nearly half million

the public and

accept

scientist

a low

volunteers

cure

each

the

large sample amount of planning

At first, the NFIP tackled the growing problem of patient care and physical rehabilitation. As it became apparent that there would be no

around

the

that

(6).

100,000

dence,

The Home for Incurables or The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled. As late as 1939, only 300 hospitals in the entire

that

This

for rehabili

Those

treatment

work

Salks

moreover,

publicized,

100,000?required

to treat

insurance,

were often isolated from taken

Because

of volunteers. highly

the incidence of cancer today at 566 per to

for

unprepared

research.

and ones

be part of the testing. The lower the inci

there was little federal money tation

vaccine,

such

had

thousands of crippled children and adults. Few

in

The fact that polio in the United States

constituted

Foundation

and

Depression

enormous

to prove the safety since earlier

the

tions required ed in one year

fantile Paralysis (NFIP) began in 1938, the United States was still deeply mired in the Great

was

testing

vaccine would work and laboratory's Such be quickly available. expecta

his

of the disease

the National

children.

of

so

would

childhood viral infections. When

stim

public already had high expectations

thereby but leav

severity worse?a trait common

infancy, often much

vaccine

in the 1930s had triggered the disease in a

to susceptible polio. When at this time of life rath occurred

exposure er than was

six to nine

aged

and

nationwide.

the killed-virus

administered

number

most

the group

agreed

57,000

clinical

efficacy

ing them vulnerable as they aged? In the U.

school

be

(5).

in infants completely or partially fought off the disease? Were children in the United just too clean and protected, to infant exposure polio reducing

testing.

both scope and design. A field trial had to

Early antibodies

States

that

The

to the virus?

that maternal

authorities

recorded?over

believed,

Did crowded and unsanitary conditions aid in early

the

ulated high and long-lasting antibody production. Such encouraging findings paved theway for the design of amassive inoculation program

with

water

sound

ever

to climb. Ironically, it

of polio continued seemed

S. was

in the U.

incidence

the

state

Pennsylvania

all of this clean

resting,

of

Initial experiments proved that the vaccine did protect against polio and,

or stray,were killed by the thousands. Children were forced to take after noon

Feeble-Minded.

and

cases

polio

during the summer months. Mothers who had to go grocery shopping were

to the dangers

oblivious

testing began in June of 1952, the same year that the highest number of

libraries, public were shut down

Many theaters

and movie

pools,

strat

and preventive

avoidance

transmitters, suspected if not somewhat numerous,

were

egies water

often

and

transient,

rarely

Salk convinced the NFIP that a group of volunteers awaited him at the D.T. Watson Home for Crippled Children and the Polk School for the

children suffered from polio, could itbe due to the posture necessitated by bending over their school desks? (4)

serve

to track

as an since

"ideal"

subjects

spent mission ing.

one month

return in Leningrad, and upon his per requested to the Soviet Union strains of polio virus for test concerns Defense about warfare Department biological

to send Despite

his

OAH Magazine of History

September 2005

55

the

dangers,

State

Department

approved

to the

the virus

of

shipment

over

vaccine

the Salk vaccine.

a handful

year, however,

Every

of children

contracted polio from the Sabin live vaccine and in 2000 the Centers for Disease Control recommended returning to the Salk vaccine for childhood immunization.

answers

or

tions

the

after

completing to their responses. the mid-i900S.

to add

occurring during stand the context

in which

to correct

lesson

Then

ask

lowing

information

tracted;

the year

It is important feared and

for

was

polio

section

increased

to mass

accessibility

media.

Television,

and

radio,

2: Post

of this

new

the war was

cold war

with

charged

answer"

The

the

As

it was

such,

was

science

scientists

bold

the

possessed

as a

viewed and

"can-do"

of the American

triumph

and

innovative, attitude

that

American

form

stronger

once

generalizations

the

interview

data

1:

Interviewing

occurs

when

II technology?a about powerful and

War read about polio and post-World merely is something truth in the text. There quite ready-made a person he or she was when tell you where po having

point

your out

"Yes, but

that

the

thaf s not

I have

each

adolescents

had

students enter

not

could

father

text

offers

the

same

"You could

tell me,

for months.

the house

similar

information

the

be quarantined ..." When students

of

I

reply,

scripted, and there is a potential danger with each approach. A loose script beginning with the question "Tellme about polio" can prove rich if the respondent is comfortable talking with students. But if that in or her

answers,

students

may

not

know

how

to pursue questioning. A heavily scripted interview may lose insightful information and

because

the

students

concentrate

to the

script sticking I suggest the written questions. role-playing, beyond probe to start the students before you act as an interviewee, allowing

do not

in which

on

56 OAH Magazine of History

September 2005

this

Then

lesson.)

a class

into

data

the demographic

or ask

spreadsheet

stu

the spreadsheet further in the mapping

return

the

interviews

and

ask

the

students

part what

If this is where the lesson is collected, and returned. ends, graded, to go beyond their own data. For a will never get the chance to know to succeed, students need historical they will inquiry approach

thing." at least young two who were interview people one In a interview the mid-^oos. class, per large

his

Arizona.

students

at that time knew most and adults the interviewees, teenagers ly affect or will and avoidance remember who had polio of someone strategies or can be either news interview The the vaccine. about loosely heavily

is short with

in Phoenix,

should be done with the collected data. All too often this type of student

student works fine. The biggest concern that students initially have is that they will not find anyone who knows anything about polio. From my experience, this problem will not occur. Even if polio did not direct

dividual

lives

work

student

during

now

enter

either

students

I have

relatives.

"question and

easier

coding

dents to do it. (I discuss

lio shots became available in 1954 or how polio affected their friends and

in

their

Students follow the same format for all their interviews, which typically are one to three pages long. Collect and review the interviews before using them for the next part of the lesson. At this point you can

Jean Piaget, the noted psychological theorist, believed that "a ready made truth is a half-truth" (7).While he generally had the development of logical thinking inmind, I contend this half-truth style of learning also

out

to write

been

collected and categorized. Part

want

may

I:What can you tellme about polio? A: Well, when Iwas little we couldn't go swimming at all. The park pool was shut down during the summer andmy mother would not letme and my brother swim in the pond behind our house.

life af

has

He

school.

ter the Second World War. With this background knowledge, students aremore apt to ask good questions during their interviews. Italso helps them

students

1, 2004

September

system. American

dedicated

typified

will

interviewees

Albert is my grandfather who grew up in Chicago, Illinois. He was in sixth grade when the polio shots were given out at his

vaccine became an affirmation of American scientific and technological progress. American

most

experience,

Example: An Interview with Albert Smith

for a polio

search

some

makes

format

and prevention. tensions.

From my

or friends who contracted polio.

terviews in paragraph form, I have found the following

important was the fact that the scientific atmosphere

Perhaps most after

treatment

for polio

developments

contracted;

Procedures

Interview

press played a large role in advertising the March of Dimes and report ing

was con age when polio gender; and the city and state where

the patient: was

lesson.

typed. While

possible,

reason

One

why the spread of polio was halted when it was is due to the rapid growth of science and technology afterWorld War II. Another factor was

about that polio

I usually give students one week to complete their interviews. At that point, all questions and responses need to be organized and, if

to under

students

combated.

to ask

to redirect

the individual lived at that time. This information is used in themap

Part

any misconcep what else was

students

see how

and how

an interviewee back to the topic of polio. Students should begin their interviews with the statement "What can you tellme about polio?" If the interviewee identifies someone that he or she knew who had polio, the student will need to collect the fol

identify family members

Before beginning the lesson, ask your students what they know about polio. Keep track of student responses on the board and return

can

the process, students to probe for answers,

By modeling when questions,

open-ended

ping Procedure

to their

interviews.

their

Soviet Union. With Sabin's help, the Soviets produced the vaccine and inoculated tenmillion children during the first five months of 1959. In i960, the incidence of polio in the Soviet Union dropped dramatically. In 1964, the American Medical Association endorsed the Sabin

ideas with

their

share pate

in a discussion I suggest

each

other

that you

allow

groups

their data. With highlighters to devise

a

and

that

entire

the

class

will

partici

of the work.

or category

coding

of three

to four

students

to combine

and large pieces of paper, they will need to

system

organize

their

as

information

they sift through interviews, looking for key words, events, and pat terns. While the number of categories they will require depends on the questions

asked

and

responses

received,

I recommend

five

to six.

Categories need to be general enough to subsume but specific enough to tease out different quotes. This process is not easy, and you will be busy facilitating and suggesting at this point in the lesson. come up with at least these students event; categories: My usually use scissors to cut out quo and science. social structure; They strategy, the category and tape them under tations from their interviews heading

that they have written on their large pieces of paper. Using students

to move

the quotations

from

one

category

tape allows

to another.

While

I

offer examples below, the approach to historical inquiry will be lost if students are not able to sift through their data and come up with their own

unique

categories.

Event Category Students will find quotes addressing who got the disease, how severe

the disease

ments

was,

where

was

the disease

treat

and

contracted,

14 or

about

losing feeling inmy

legs and felt extremely

allows

lung for several weeks. from the neck down."

When

iron

lyzed

he

he was

recovered

para

in this work everyone's and differences between

wall. Presenting to see commonalities

students

Part 3:Mapping The

"My best friend in high school had a severe case and was put in

to a classroom

affixed

group.

to my

complaining

ill."

an

be

each I remember

old.

15 years

that Iwas

mother

can

manner

offered for polio:

"I was

The public health history of polio is filled with ironies. The generalizations should be written on large pieces of paper that

of

purpose

data

collecting

about

and

year,

age,

gender,

geo

graphic location is to plot this information on amap and enter it into a spreadsheet. Iuse a large political map of North America, and each students

year's

own

their

plot

on

data

the map.

After

several

the

years,

map provides students with additional data to use while working on their

In this

students quotations category place whether enforced by mothers strategies,

ance

that

deal

(you will

with

avoid

tiple

for

sum

the whole

stickers

were

die

on

placed

for

treatments,

Kenny polio "I was a polio

pioneer

polio ....

shots,

the virus

I remember

polio

the front

itself, when

the map

can

and

Jonas Salk: nurses or doctors

and

as a whole

then

class.

see

meaningful

Once

the

became

Number

paralyzed.

For example,

data.

patterns

and

themes

polio

appeared Disease

was

spread

was

initially

students

assump

the

unknown,

these

the

that

images

theater

Spreadsheet

| Yearof Onset

male

Early 1950s

19

male

1948

*9

female

Location

LittleRock,AR

Needham,

MA

male

1948

Detroit,

MA

female

1942

Warren,

OH

through the March of Dimes and

collections,

DC

Washington,

to door

door

collecting.

poster children, The

image

of a

child in braces, facing adversity with dogged determination, motivated to open

Americans

their wallets

Such strategies revolutionized

of many

power knowledge

individual

within

are

and

and organized of philanthropy

volunteers, concept

like

pocketbooks

never

before.

the way in which charities raised mon with

chapters available

local,

to everyone,

grass-roots no matter

how large or small their donation, created a new model of giving in the United States (9).

groups

the categories

and

no

age

Conclusion to it is difficult understand themassive Today

they have

can

lead to the following generalizations: Polio affected everyday life during the 1940s and 1950s and gener ated changes in behavior. How

as more

erroneous

certain

then,

Why,

I Gender

Age

its cure to Americans

ey, recruited This efforts.

the cure [amis

devised distinct categories and placed quotations in each, theymay be gin making generalizations about polio, backing them up with inter view

infant age groups: are adult. The stickers

be updated

simply

spreadsheet,

Sample

movie

must be given time to analyze and discuss their findings, first among themselves

and

doors."

it."

"I think Salk got the Nobel Prize for finding taken impression] (8)."

their students interviews, By pooling to construct voices. students To enable

that can

on a spreadsheet

patient

Map

came to the school and lined us up to give us the experimental shot and after that the certificate. It says polio pioneer and I still have

three and

years;

we have? The NFIP focused tremendous attention on polio, marketing

sure."

Science and Technology Category this category, interviewees discuss iron lungs, the Sister

With

students

undertake the activity. A sample spreadsheet is shown below.

taken." quarantine

allows

numbered and placed on the city or town where the particular individ ual contracted polio. By numbering the stickers you can keep track of

"The news in Chicago in the 1950s had a special segment every night about certain infectious diseases. They would talk about how many people were infected that day and where these people were "Yellow

to denote

color sticker particular seven to years eighteen

In using

Iwould

meant

disease

It also

polio.

tions about polio begin to fade. For example, not every polio victim was young. Nor did polio suddenly appear in the 1950s, and not every

Social Category This category addresses how interviewees dealt with the threat of polio on a day-by-day basis and how society stigmatized those with polio. polio

a

to six years;

the data

of people." against gatherings me made take a nap every day "My mother in the tenth and Iwas mer, grade!" restrictions

contracting

about

generalizations

sources. I use

a strong

find

emphasis on the mother's duty to protect the family during in this period) or by local public health officials: "During this time all the public pools were closed along with

"...

and

categories

to see that good historical inquiry is often strengthened by using mul

Avoidance Category

group

the announcement companied For most ly been discovered.

that an effective of us,

the vaccine

sigh of relief that ac

had final polio vaccine In has always existed.

vestigating polio in depth allows students to see that this circumstance was

not

sources,

always students

the

case.

can

begin

interviews with other historical Combining the process of reaching their own conclu

sions about the multifaceted history of polio and where it belongs in the context of the history of public health, non-profit organizations, the funding of scientific enterprises, and the rapid rise of science and technology during and afterWorld War II.

immune. severity

was

inconsistent

and

treatments

varied.

Endnotes OAH Magazine of History

September 2005

57

A

BUILDING LASTING

LEGACY

FORTHE STUDY OF U.S. HISTORY Since 1907 OAH has promoted U.S. teaching and scholarshipy the broadest possible encouraging

while

history

resources and

to historical sive discussion

3. Naomi

inclu

history.

to commemorate. is something Longevity to celebrate what better way than history a for the future? provide legacy

And to

4.

9 (i99?): I3"I6. is to Invent: The Future of Education, 7. Jean Piaget, To Understand trans., reprint (New York: Viking Press, 1974,1973), Roberts, 8. Neither Jonas Salk nor Albert Sabin received the Nobel Prize with

and Thomas Weiler received polio. John Enders, Frederick Robbins, Prize in Physiology in 1954 for their breakthrough and Medicine growing polio virus in tissue culture.

at universities,

between

9. Oshinsky,

and college university school teachers.

public historians, and secondary professors, Promote

the dissemination

historical

research

of the best

in

historical understanding

Ensure

affordable

generation For more

and

Science

program

(TEAMS)

at Arizona

State

Her

University.

Recent

Scholarships

by the public, treatment

membership of historians.

information

of

0nlin<^ dues

for a new



exclusively Online"

to OAH

individual

is a searchable,

citations for articles history-related journals and for books, dissertations,

"Recent

members,

cumulative drawn

database

from over

of

1,100

and CD-ROMs.

Include:

visit

up to receive monthly Updates?sign to the latest scholarship, customized accord you have selected, months ing to the keywords and categories before they appear in the Journal of American History

or

Saved

emails

development manager Leslie A. Leasurey e-mail y

CENTENNIAL 1907-2007

phone (812) 855-7311.

ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN HISTORIANS

save, and edit your own

the entire database Search Interface?search Updated more quickly and with additional options Enhanced print version,

September 2005

E-mail

of citations

Bibliographies?create, for future access bibliographies

contact

58 OAH Magazine of History

Scholarship

Personalized

or giving remembering OAH and its many initiatives in your estate plans yplease

Available

Features

on annual

Ph.D.

degree isfrom the University of Iowa, and her research interests include the history and nature of science and the integration of oral history into

to historical

respectful and equitable and adjunct faculty.

part-time

Karen Wellner is coordinator of the Teacher Education for Arizona Math

and media.

government,

in

5.

the curriculum.

OAH works with the National interpretation. to foster Park Service and other organizations

Advocate

Polio,

interpretation.

in and access

excellence

the

colleges,

and secondary schools by bridging the gaps

Support

George-Anne 51. for their work

Nobel

education

and

and Disease: Polio Before FDR NJ: (New Brunswick, Press, 1992), 118. Jeffrey Kluger, Splendid Solution: Jonas Salk and the Conquest of Polio (New York: G.P. Putnam's 1; Jeffrey Kluger, Sons, 2004), chapter "Conquering Polio," Smithsonian 36 (April 2005): 82-89. University

5. David M. Oshinsky, Polio: An American Story (New York: Oxford Press, 2005), 6. 6. Paul Meier, "Polio Trial: An Early Efficient Clinical Trial." Statistics inMedicine

Your support will help: Improve history

Dirt

Rogers,

Rutgers

the most

our national

of

access

i. As quoted in Nina Gilden Seavey, Jane S. Smith, and Paul Wagner, A Paralyzing Fear: The Triumph Over Polio in America (New York: TV Books, 1998), 16. 2. Zachary Osofsky, "American History in American Classrooms," History Matters 16 (2003): 1.

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