Political Parties Federalist Party: 1790-1800; American political party of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It originated in the groups advocating the creation of a stronger national government after 1781. Its early leaders included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, and George Washington. These men provided much of the impetus and the organization behind the movement to draft and ratify the federal Constitution to secure the revolution on an orderly and stable basis. Their support came from the established elites of old wealth in the commercial cities and in the less rapidly developing rural regions. Anti-Federalists: 1788-1800; early political party of the United States, precursor of the Democratic-Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson. Originally, the term designated the opponents in the United States to the ratification of the federal Constitution following its adoption by the Constitutional Convention, which met in Philadelphia in 1787. Subsequently, the term was meant to signify the advocating of states’ rights. Democratic-Republican Party: Early political party in the United States, originally led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the 1790’s in opposition to the Federalist Party and the ideas of Alexander Hamilton. The party was also known as the Republican Party and the Jeffersonian Republican Party, in fact it was the forerunner of today’s Democratic Party. The philosophy of the Democratic-Republican Party favored states’ rights, rather than a strong national government; rural, agricultural interests; and supported the legitimacy of the French Revolution (1789-1799). The party opposed ties with Britain as well. Goal is to protect the rights of people. Method to achieve that goal switches after Industrialization. Laissez faire in agricultural America to strong central government in Industrial America Democratic Party: One of the two main political parties of the United States. Its origins can be traced to the coalition formed by Thomas Jefferson in the 1790s to resist the policies of George Washington’s administration. This coalition, originally called the Republican, and later the Democratic Republican Party, split into two factions during the presidential campaign of 1828. One, the National-Republican Party, was absorbed into the Whig Party in 1934; the other became the Democratic Party. National-Republican Party: A short-lived political party opposed to Andrew Jackson. In the election of 1828, which Jackson won, some of the supporters of the opponent, President John Quincy Adams, called themselves National-Republicans. It was under this name that, following the lead of the Anti-Masonic Party, they held a national nominating convention at Baltimore in December 1831 and chose Henry Clay to oppose Jackson in the 1832 election. The adherents of the National Republican Party constituted a mixture of industrialists, business leaders, farmers, laborers, and mechanics, who believed in Clay’s program of high tariffs, internal improvements, and a national bank. The main issue of the campaign was Jackson’s veto of the Second Bank of the United States Charter. Clay was badly beaten, and by 1836 the National-Republicans had combined with other groups opposed to Jackson to form the Whig Party. Whig Party: One of the two dominant political parties in power in the U.S. from the mid-1830s to the mid-1850s. The party was formed in 1834 by members of the defunct National-Republican Party and others opposed to the policies of President Andrew Jackson. It was composed of many factions, united only in their opposition to the Democratic Party. Liberty Party: First anti-slavery political party in the United States. It was formed in 1839 by a group of individuals who broke away for the militant American Anti-Slavery Society. Free-Soil Party: American political party organized in 1848 on a platform opposing the extension of slavery. Know Nothing’s Party: Also known as the American Party, it was the popular name of a secret political party that existed from 1849 to 1860. The party organized in clandestine societies that discriminated against immigrants and members of the Roman Catholic Church. Such societies included the Order of the Sons of America in Pennsylvania and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner in New York. Republican Party: One of the two major United States political parties, founded by a coalition in 1854. The coalition was composed of former members of the Whig, Free-Soil, and Know-Nothing(American) Parties, along with Northern Democrats who were dissatisfied with their party’s conciliatory attitude on the slavery issue. The early Republicans were united in their opposition to extending slavery into the western territories. In 1856, they nominated John Charles Frémont for the presidency. He won a third of the popular vote, but alienated many potential supporters by his failure to oppose immigration. Typically support big business. Goal is the protection of property. Achieve goal in industrial America through laissez faire. Greenback-Labor Party: Popular name for the National Party, a political party organized in 1878 by workers and farmers as a means of relieving their economic difficulties resulting from the depression of the 1870s. The party was formed by Greenbacks, members of the defunct Greenback Party. People’s Party or Populist Party: Political party active in the United States between 1891 and 1908, supported mainly by farmers in the South and West. A product of the Populist movement, the people’s party was the successor of the Greenback-labor party of the 1880s. Bull Moose Party: The first Progressive party, know as the Bull Moose Party, was founded after a bitter fight for the Republican presidential nomination among the incumbent president William H. Taft, the Wisconsin Senator Robert M. LaFollette, and the former president Theodore Roosevelt. Most Progressives soon rejoined the Republican Party, and the Progressive Party died out in 1917. Progressive Party: In 1924 a liberal coalition, frustrated by conservative domination of both major parties, formed the League of Progressive Political Action, popularly called the Progressive Party. Nominating Senator Robert M. LaFollette for president and Montana Democratic Senator Burton K. Wheeler for vice-president, the party, which also drew support from the Socialists, advocated government ownership of public utilities and labor reforms such as the right to collective bargaining.