POLITICAL - Sharing History

POLITICAL - Sharing History

Timeline / Before 1800 to 1880 / ITALY / POLITICAL CONTEXT Date Country Theme 1815 - 1860 Italy Political Context Italian “Risorgimento” (moveme...

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Timeline / Before 1800 to 1880 / ITALY / POLITICAL CONTEXT Date

Country

Theme

1815 - 1860

Italy

Political Context

Italian “Risorgimento” (movement for national unification).

1815

Italy

Political Context

The Congress of Vienna decides the restoration of pre-Napoleonic monarchies: Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont, Genoa, Sardinia); Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Southern Italy and Sicily), the Papal States (part of Central Italy), Grand Duchy of Tuscany and other smaller states. Much of northern Italy (Milan, Venice, Trieste etc.) is under the Austrian empire.

1820 - 1831

Italy

Political Context

In 1820–21 and 1830–31, uprisings in different parts of Italy in favour of national unification and constitutional rule. They meet harsh repression.

1831

Italy

Political Context

Giuseppe Mazzini founds the republican movement for national unification, Giovine Italia (Young Italy).

1848 - 1849

Italy

Political Context

Uprisings in different parts of Italy demand constitutional rule and national unification. In Rome and Venice, short-lived republics are proclaimed. King Carlo Alberto (Kingdom of Sardinia) grants a constitution and wages war against the Austrian Empire, but he is defeated.

Date

Country

Theme

1852

Italy

Political Context

Cavour (Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, 1810–61), the architect of the diplomatic strategies that allowed Italian unification, becomes prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia (he will remain prime minister until his death).

1855

Italy

Political Context

The Kingdom of Sardinia participates in the Crimean war as part of the AngloFrench alliance against Russia.

1859 - 1861

Italy

Political Context

The Kingdom of Sardinia, backed by France, wages war against the Austrian Empire and annexes Milan. Pro-unification insurrections in central Italy; Garibaldi leads an expedition of 1,000 volunteers in Southern Italy. Italy is unified under King Victor Emanuel II (formerly King of Sardinia) as a constitutional monarchy.

1860

Italy

Political Context

The right to vote is reserved for a small elite of men who have certain levels of income and education: only 2.2% of the Italians can vote.

1866

Italy

Political Context

Italy participates in the Austro-Prussian War on the side of Prussia and annexes Venice.

1867

Italy

Political Context

Date

Country

Theme

Uprising in Rome demanding unification with Italy. At the same time, Garibaldi leads an expedition of volunteers that enters the Papal States and tries to seize Rome. Roman rebels are defeated and executed. Garibaldi is defeated by Papal troops backed by a French expeditionary corps (France protects the Papal States).