President - ISSMGE

President - ISSMGE

Organization of the conference Organisation du congres OFIGANIZING COMMITTEE / COMITE D'ORGANISATION H.Bolton Seed Chairman/ President R.T.Lawson Wc...

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Organization of the conference Organisation du congres OFIGANIZING COMMITTEE / COMITE D'ORGANISATION

H.Bolton Seed Chairman/ President

R.T.Lawson Wce-Chairman for Organization /Woe-President pour l'Organisation J.K.Mitchell Woe-Chairman tor Program/ Woe-President pour le Programme C.Ries & PTTringale Secretaries / Secretaires

Elizabeth Yee Manager/ Administrateur


R.B. Peck Program Committee / Comité de Programme J.M.Duncan Bulletins Committee/ Comité des Bulletins G.M.Reynolds Finance Committee/ Comité des Hnances

WFMarcuson, lll Conference Proceedings Committee/ Comité des Comptes Rendus du Congres

B.B.Gordon Committee on Exhibits/ Comité des Expositions

R.Lundgren Home Hospitality Committee / Comité d'Accueil a Domicile VlLEnkeboll Simultaneous Translation Committee/ Comité de Traduction Simultanée R.M.Pyke Post-Conference Tours Committee/ Comité des Excursions suivant le Congres J.Lysmer, TL.Brekke Banquet Committee / Comité de Banquet

N.Sitar Program Support Committee/ Comite de Support du Programme R.D.Darragh Reception Committee / Comité de Reception H.Bolton Seed & `l1L.Brekke Entertainment Evening Committee/ Comité de Soirée de Spectacle N.D.Marachi Poster Sessions Committee / Comite de Forum

Mme.J.K.Mitchell Companions' Program Committee / Comite des Programmes pour Personnes Arcompagnantes

R.L.Volpe Local Technical Wsits Committee/ Comite des Wsites Techniques Locales R.C.Harlan Wine Country Picnic Committee / Comité de Picnique dans la Region Wgnicole Raymond B.Seed Edward Kavazanjian, Jr Patrick C.Lucia & Eva Lucia

Local Housing Committee/Comité du Logement Local Registration Committee/ Comité d'lnscription Plenary Sessions Program Arrangements /Arrangement du Programme pour les Seances Plenieres


PS.Davis \LPDrnevich A.G.Franklin G.RHale M.E.Hynes-Griltin S.RMiller \AH.Torrey, lll

R.D.Woods TL.Youd


Wctor Mello, President/ President R.H.G.Pany Secretary-General / Secretaire-General C.B.Crawlord, Woe-President, North America / \/ice-President, Amerique du Nord U.Lindblom, Sweden / Suede E.Tamez, Mexioo / Mexique H.Bolton Seed, USA/ EU R.B.Peck, USA/ EU

Sponsors Parrains Association of Soil and Foundation Engineers (USA) Geotechnical Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers US National Science Foundation US Bureau of Reclamation US Am1y Corps of Engineers

These organizations as well as many other individuals and engineers, too numerous to name, made enormous contributions to the success of the conference by willingly contributing financial support or enormous amounts of time to the planning and organization of the conference. To them all go the most grateful thanks of the Organizing Committee. Ces organisations, ainsi qu’un nombre considerable de personnes et d'ingénieurs, ont fait des effons énormes pour faire reussir ce congres sur le plan financier ou sur le plan personnel, en donnant bénévolant leur temps pour concevoir et organiser le congres. C'est a eux tous que le Comité d‘Organisation présente ses remerciements les plus chaleureux.


Conference program Programme du congres

2:30 3:30

Theme Lecture on "New Developments

3:30 3:45


Registration in the Gold Room of the

3:45 4:45

4:45 6:00


Theme Lecture on "Geotechnical Aspects of Environmental Control" by N. R. Morgenstern (Canada) Poster Session No. 1 in the Peacock Court of the Mark Hopkins Hotel (wine will be served)

6:30 9:00



1:00 5:00

Registration in the Gold Room of the P111

Fairmont Hotel AUGUST 11


10:00 6:00


Fairmont Hotel

2:30 8:00


Get-Acquainted Picnic at the Charles Krug Winery and Vineyards in the

Napa Valley, the heart of the California Wine Country. Buses will leave the Fairmont Hotel at 2:30 pm and return about 8:00 pm.

8:00 am' Registration at the Fairmont Hotel 5:00 P111 am: Gold Room; pm: Mezzanine Floor


First Plenary Session - Masonic Chairman: H. Bolton Seed (U.S.A.) Introductions

9:30 10:00

Welcoming Address


ISSMFE Presidential Address

by Victor F. B. de Mello (Brazil)

11:00 11:30


11:30 12:30


1:30 2:30

Terzaghi Oration

on "Amuay Landslides" by T. W. Lambe (U.S.A.) Pm

8:00 am­ Registration at the Fairmont Hotel-­ 5:00 pm Mezzanine Floor 5:30

by Richard W. Karn, President of the American Society of Civil Engineers

Exhibition open in the Masonic Auditorium Exhibition Hall

Lunch for all registrants in the

Grand Ballroom of the Fairmont Hotel

Second Plenary Session - Masonic Auditorium Chairman: E. E. de Beer (Belgium) Theme Lecture on "Soil Mechanics -­ Property Characterization and Analysis Procedures" by C. P. Wroth (U.K.)




10:00 11:00

12:30 1:30

Reception for all registrants at the

Fairmont Hotel, hosted by the U.S. National Society



12:00 6:00

in Field and Laboratory Testing of Soils" by M. Jamiolkowski (Italy)

Third Plenary Session - Masonic Chairman: G. Gudehus (F.R.G.) Theme Lecture on "Piles and Other



Deep Foundations"

by John A. Focht (U.S.A.) Theme Lecture on "Geotechnical Engineered Construction" by F. Schlosser (France)

9:30 10:30


10:30 11:00 11:00 12:00

Theme Lecture on "Evaluating Seismic

10:00 6:00

am pm

12:15 1:15


1:30 1:30 2:30


Risk in Engineering Practice" by I. M. Idriss (U.S.A.) Exhibition continues in the Masonic Auditorium Exhibition Hall

Lunch for all registrants in the

Grand Ballroom of the Fairmont Hotel

Fourth Plenary Session - Masonic Chairman: E. Togrol (Turkey) Theme Lecture on "Seismic Stability of Natural Deposits" by K. Ishihara (Japan)




2:30- Theme Lecture on "Comparison of Pre­ 3:30 diction and Performance of Earth Structures" by E. W. Brand (S.E. Asia)

3:30- Break 3:45

3:45- Theme Lecture on "Geological Aspects 4:45 of Geotechnical Engineering" by G. Ter Stepanian (U.S.S.R.)

4:45- Poster Session No. 2 in the Peacock 6:00 Court of the Mark Hopkins Hotel (wine will be served)

6:30- Organ Recital at Grace Cathedral 7:30 pm This organ recital is being performed especially for participants in the Xlth ICSMFE and accompanying family members. The site for the perfor­ mance is Grace Cathedral, a majestic Gothic cathedral located atop Nob Hill, one block west of the Fairmont Hotel.

6:30- Home Hospitality for Overseas 12:00 pm Visitors WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 14

8:00 am- Registration area open on the 5:00 pm Mezzanine Floor of the Fairmont Hotel

8:30 Fifth Plenary Session - Masonic Auditorium Chairman: S. Hansbo (Sweden)

Reports on Recent Failures and Near Failures

B:30- “The Carsington Dam Slide" 8:55 --A. W. Skempton (U.K.) B:55- “The San Luis Dam Drawdown Slide"

9:20 --L. Von Thun (U.S.A.)

9:20- "The Tablachaca Dam Slide Problem"

9:45 --P. Repetto (Peru)

9:45- “Soil Liquefaction Problems in 10:15 Recent Japanese Earthquakes"

in the Registration Area. Tickets for specific tours will be issued in exchange for a voucher contained in the registration package. Since the number of people who can be accommo­ dated on each tour is limited, tickets will be issued on a first­ come, first-served basis. Tour No. 1: U.C. Berkeley Soils Laboratory

Tour of the U.C. Berkeley Soil Mechanics Laboratory with a discus­

sion of current research projects.

Maximum attendance: 180.

Round trip time: about 5 hours. Tour No. 2: U.C. Davis Soil Mechanics and Centrifuge Testing Facilities

A visit to the proposed site of the

National Geotechnical Centrifuge and demonstrations of the centrifuge modelling technique on three smaller centrifuges at the Center for Geo­ technical Modelling at U.C. Davis. Some of the centrifuge model test packages shown will be for piezo­ electric earthquake simulation, effects of fault movement beneath dams, pollutant transport in soil, foundation vibration simulation, and

simulation of blast loading on struc­ tures. In addition unique testing equipment for automatic triaxial and torsion testing systems for cyclic

and monotonic shear tests, dielec­ tric and conductivity measurements

for soil characterization and in­ situ testing, and hydraulic erosion testing will be seen in the U.C. Davis soil mechanics laboratories.

Maximum attendance: 45.

Round trip time: about 6 hours.

Tour No. 3: The Geysers The Geysers, owned and operated by the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, is the largest operating geothermal plant in the world. Located in Napa County, the Geysers area has a high

incidence of landslides. This tour will visit the construction area and review the preventative design and construction measures for landslide control.

--Y. Yoshimi (Japan) 10:00 am- Exhibition continues in the Masonic 6:00 pm Auditorium Exhibition Hall

Maximum attendance: 90.

12:00 noonFilms on Geotechnical Engineering in -6:30 pm the Gold Room of the Fairmont Hotel. Films to be shown include: 1. The Rissa Landslide 2. The Safety of Dams 3. The Tarbela Dam Project 4. Design and Construction of Safe Dams 5. A Debris Flow Slide in Japan 10:30 am- Local Technical Tours - Please note 7:00 pm that special reservations must be made for each tour at the Tour Desk

Tour No. 4: San Luis Canal Project The San Luis Canal Project, currently under construction by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has been planned to supply about 216,000 acre-feet (266 million cubic meters) of water annually to the four counties immedi­ ately south of the San Francisco Bay Area. The conveyance facilities for the project include 59.2 miles (95.4 kilometers) of tunnels and conduits, 2 large pumping plants, and one


Round trip time: about 8 hours.


reservoir. This tour will include a slide presentation and visits to the

Pacheco Tunnel Reach 2 and the Pacheco Pumping Plant sections of

the projects.

Maximum attendance: 90.

Round trip time: about 6 hours.

Tour No. 5: Oroville Dam The Oroville Dam, a 760-foot (230­ meter) high earth fill dam owned and operated by the California Depart­ ment of Water Resources, is the

highest earthfill dam in the United States. This tour will in­ clude a slide presentation on the construction of the dam, and visits to the dam and powerhouse. Maximum attendance: 45.

Round trip time: about B hours.

Tour No. 6: Stanford Linear Accelerator and Stanford University The Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), one of the most powerful accelerators in the world is located on the Stanford Campus about 40niles south of San Francisco. Construction at the SLAC facility involves a 2­ mile long steel-fiber reinforced shotcrete tunnel and a deep under­ ground experimental hall that will use a permanent tie-back support system. This tour will visit the SLAC facility and current construc­ tion site, then continue with a brief tour of the Stanford University Campus.

Maximum attendance: 45.

Round trip time: about 5 hours.

Tour No. 7: San Andreas and Hayward Faults and U.S. Geological Survey The San Andreas and Hayward faults

are two major earthquake faults on opposite sides of the San Francisco Bay. Several major earthquakes have occurred on these faults in the past 200 years. The tour will begin with a slide presentation of the faulting history of the Bay Area, will visit two locations that offer excellent observation points of the faults, and will include a visit to the United States Geological Survey in Menlo Park for a discussion on cur­ rent earthquake-related research. Maximum attendance: 90.

Round trip time: about 5 hours.

Tour No. B: Corps of Engineers Bay

which is at a scale of l:l,000 and covers an area of 85,000 square feet (7,900 square meters), is used for

most hydraulic studies involving con­ struction in or around San Francisco Bay. The Corps' Geotechnical Labora­ tory is the principal laboratory for the Corps of Engineers in the north­

west United States. The lab has a full suite of testing facilities, including large diameter triaxial cells and permeameters, and dynamic testing capabilities. Maximum attendance: 90.

Round trip time: about 4 hours.

Tour No. 9: San Francisco Bay Bridges

This tour will include a visit to several of the bridges that span the

San Francisco Bay Area. Movies will be presented showing the construc­ tion of the Golden Gate and the San Francisco-Oakland bay bridges. A talk will be given on the founda­

tion conditions for these bridges, plus the investigation, design, and post-construction observations of the recently completed Dumbarton

Bridge, one of the longest highway bridges in the United States, which crosses the bay about 20 miles south

of San Francisco. Participants

should assemble in the French Room

of the Fairmont Hotel at 11:00 am. Maximum attendance: 180.

Round trip time: about 4 hours. Tour No. 10: Remedial Construction for Earth Dams

This tour will visit two dams located in the East Bay, a short drive from San Francisco, which were recently renovated to improve their seismic stability. These dams, one with a hydraulic filled core, were built more than 50 years ago, and were recently re-evaluated for seismic stability. A brief slide presenta­ tion will be given to explain the methods of seismic analysis used and the types of improvements constructed at the dams. Maximum attendance: 90

Round trip time: about 6 hours.

Tour No. ll: Local Foundation Practice

This tour will feature a slide pre­ sentation of underpinning and tie­

back techniques used on a number of high-rise buildings in downtown San Francisco. A talk will also be given on types of foundations used on some of San Francisco's most

This tour will include a visit to

famous highrise buildings. The tour will visit one or more construction sites. Participants should assemble in the California Room of the

located in Sausalito. The Bay Model,

Round trip time: about 3 hours.

Model and Soil Laboratory

the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Bay Model and Geotechnical Laboratory

Fairmont Hotel at 11:00 am. Maximum attendance: 90.



Tour No. 12: San Luis Dam and the California Aqueduct The California Aqueduct, which was

completed in 1972, delivers 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet (2 billion cubic meters) of water per year to the agricultural areas of the Central Valley and the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles. The design of the aqueduct was complicated by the presence of collapsible deposits along much of the alignment in the San Joaquin valley. This tour will visit a reach of the California Aqueduct, and will include a slide presentation of the design, con­ struction, and post-construction observations of the aqueduct. In addition, the tour will visit the San Luis Dam, which is a major off­ stream storage reservoir for the system. A major slide occurred in the upstream shell of the dam in 1981. A presentation will be given covering the investigation and

repair of the dam after the slide.

Maximum attendance: 45.

Round trip time: about B hours.


Registration area open in the

Mezzanine Floor of the Fairmont Hotel 9.00 am­ Discussion Sessions as follows: Pm



Session lA: "Constitutive Relation­ ships for Soil Behavior" - Gold Room,

Fairmont Hotel Chairman: S. Murayama (Japan) Discussion organized by ISSMFE Com­ mittee on Constitutive Relationships Topic: Recent Advances

Session 2A: “In-Situ Testing Tech­ niques - Terrace Room,Fairmont Hotel Chairman: W. R. Mackechnie (Zimbabwe) Discussion Leader: M. C. Ervin (Australia) Topic: Practical Determination of In-Situ Stress and Deformation


Session 3A: “Motion of Landslides and Debris Flows" - Venetian Room Fairmont Hotel Chairman: P. LaRochelle (Canada) Discussion organized by ISSMFE Committee on Landslides Topic: Engineering for Flows and Avalanches: Instrumentation, Warning Systems, Predictions, Control Measures

Session 4A: "Pile Foundation Design

Methods” -Peacock Court, Mark Hopkins Hotel Chairman: N. Janbu (Norway) Discussion Leader: A. F. Van Weele (Netherlands)

Topics: Piles in Silts; Static vs. Impact Capacity


Session 5A: "Influence of Earthwork Constructions on Structures" - Room of the Dons, Mark Hopkins Hotel Chairman: A.J.C. Mineiro (Portugal) Discussion Leader: D. Resendiz (Mexico)

Topic: Predicting Displacements and Their Effect on Adjacent Structures Session 6A: "Seismic Geology and Risk Analysis" -California Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: V. A. Illyichev (U.S.S.R.) Discussion Leader: F. Muzzi (Italy) Topic: Earthquake Recurrence Deduc­ tion from Historical Seismicity and Geologic Slip Rate Session 7A: "Soil Liquefaction During Earthquakes" -Hunt Room Fairmont Hotel Chairman: T. Iwasaki (Japan) Discussion Leader: W.D.L Finn (Canada) Topics: Liquefaction of Soils Other Than Clean Sands; Dynamic Effective Stress Analysis Session BA: "Prediction and Perfor­ mance of Earth and Rockfill Dams" ­ Crystal Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: E. Souto (Brazil) Discussion Leader: P. Anagnosti (Yugoslavia)

Topics: Critical Factors for Predic­ tion of Stresses, Displacements and Pore Pressures: Relationship between Performance, Predictions and Instru­

mentation Layout

Session 9A: "Geologic Aspects of Slope Stability Problems" - French Room; Fairmont Hotel Chairman: T. L. Brekke (U.S.A.) Discussion Leader: S. Cavounidis (Greece)

Topic: Three-Dimensional Effects; Progressive Failure; Effects of Oriented Discontinuities Exhibition continues at the Masonic Auditorium Exhibition Hall

Lunch for all registrants in the

Grand Ballroom of the Fairmont Hotel Discussion Sessions as follows: Session lB: "Numerical Methods" ­ Gold Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: W. Wolski (Poland) Discussion Leader: M. Pender (New Zealand)

Topic: Engineering Analysis of Non­ Linear Deformation Due to Yield,

Failure, Strain Softening, and Repeated Loading

Session 2B: "Laboratory Testing -New Procedures and Data Acquisition Techniques" -Terrace Room,Fairmont Hotel Chairman: E. Jarvio (Finland) Discussion Leader: A. F. Tinoco (Venezuela)

Topics: Measurement of Anisotropy and

Cyclic Loading Properties; Testing Special Soils

THURSDAY, AUGUST 15 (COntd.) FRIDAY, AUGUST 16 Session 3B: "Seepage Control in Environmental Geotechnical Engineer­ ing" -Venetian Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: J. Narain (India) Discussion Leader: J. Hurtado (France) Topic: Retained Fluid Effects on Permeability and Choice of Seepage Barrier Session 4B: "Pier Foundations" ­ Peacock Court, Mark Hopkins Hotel Chairman: Z. Bazant (Czechoslovakia) Discussion Leader: M. Stocker (F.R.GJ Topics: Bored Pile Capacity Predic­ tions From In-Situ Tests; Group Capacity

Session 5B: "Earth Strengthening" ­ Room of the Dons, Mark Hopkins Hotel Chairman: H. Brandl (Austria) Discussion Leader: D. Evstatiev (Bulgaria) Topic: Design of Earth Reinforcement Session 6B: “Seismic Safety of Earth

Structures" -Hunt Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: G. Noguera (Chile) Discussion Leader: W. F. Marcuson (U.S.A.)

Topic: Permanent Deformations: Allowable, Predicted and Measured

Session 7B: “Seismic Stability of Natural Slopes" - French Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: Z.-Q. Wong (China)

Discussion Leader: S. Prakash (India) Topic: Strength Evaluation for Stability Analysis Session BB: "Prediction and Perfor­ mance of Excavation Support" ­ Crystal Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: V. Escario (Spain) Discussion Leader: J. Studer (Switzerland) Topic: Simplified Methods forworking Load and Deformation Predictions

Session 9B: "Geological Aspects of Earth Dam Engineering" - California

Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: A. Van Schalkwyk (S.Africa) Discussion Leader: K. Schetelig (F.R.G.) Topics: Foundation Erosion under High

Gradients: Suitability of Soils and Rocks with Changeable Properties as

Embankment Dam Materials

Evening Pops Concert in the Masonic Auditorium featuring the Oakland Symphony Orchestra.

Post-Concert Part with light refresh­ ments in t e Gran Ballroom of the Fairmont Hotel. Post-Concert Dance in the Terrace Room of the Fairmont Hotel. All registrants and family members are invited as guests of the U.S.National Society and the U.S. Association of Soil and Foundation Engineers.

9:00 am­ l2:OO noon

Discussion Sessions as follows:

Session lC: "Factor of Safety and

Risk Analysis" -Gold Room, Fairmont Hotel

Chairman: F. Baguelin (France) Discussion Leader: R. J. Mair (U.K.) Topic: Influences of Analysis Method, Parameter Assessment, and Failure Consequences

Session 2C: "Centrifuge Testing and Its Application" - Crystal Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: A. Schofield (U.K.) Discussion organized by ISSMFE Com­ mittee on Centrifuge Testing Topic: State-of-the-Art of Centrifuge Modeling

Session 2D: "Field Instrumentation and Field Measurements" -Terrace Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: A. S. Rico (Mexico)

Discussion Leader: J.E.B. Hartlen (Sweden)

Topics: Evaluation of Piezometers and Pressure Cells; Automated Data Acquisition Systems Session 3C: "Tailings Dams and Other

Waste Impoundment Systems" - Hunt Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: O. Mejia (Colombia)

Discussion Leader: J. A. Caldwell (S. Africa) Topic: Placement Methods and Geo­ technical Performance Session 4C: "Foundations for Off­ Shore Structures, Peacock Court, Mark Hopkins Hotel Chairman: J. A. Jimenez-Salas (Spain) Discussion Leader: K. Hoeg (Norway) Topic: Frictional Capacity of Piles in Calcareous Sands and Very Dense


Session SC: "Applications of Geo­ textiles" - Room of the Dons, Mark Hopkins Hotel Chairman: J. P. Giroud (U.S.A.) Discussion organized by ISSMFE Committee on Geotextiles Topics: Design; Applications; Research

Session BC: "Prediction and Perfor­

mance of Foundations" -Venetian Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: O. Varde (Argentina)

Discussion Leader: J. S. Steenfelt (Denmark)

Topic: Relevance and Implementation of New Developments in Analysis and Theory in Design Practice

Session BD: "Professional Practice of Geotechnical Engineering" -California Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: G. Calabresi (Italy)

Discussion Leader: D.V.Roberts (U.S.AJ

Topic: Professional Liability in Geotechnical Engineering


FRIDAY, AUGUST 16 (Contd.)

Session 9C: "Problems in Areas with Special Geologic Conditions” -French Room, Fairmont Hotel Chairman: G. Petrasovits (Hungary) Discussion Leader: A. Komornik


Topic: Foundation Problems in Arid Zones

Lunch for all registrants in the

Grand Ballroom of the Fairmont Hotel

Sixth Plenar Session - Masonic

Au itorium Chairman: M. Fukuoka (Japan)

Special lectures on the History and Development of Geotechnical Engineering by the Past Presidents of the International Society. Introductions by Masami Fukuoka (Japan)

"The History of Geotechnical Engineering Until 1700" by Jean Kerisel (France)

"A History of Soil Properties 1717­ 1927" by A. W. Skempton (U.K.)

"The Last Sixty Years" by Ralph B. Peck (U.S.A.) Closing Ceremonies - Masonic Auditorium

Rece tion for Ban uet in the Terrace Room o the Fairmont Hotel

Banguet with light entertainment in the Grand Ballroom of the Fairmont Hotel

Photographic report of preconferenoe and conference events Rapport pnotograpnique des evénements qui ont eu lieu avant et pendant Ie congres

Conterence participants leaving the headquarters hotel (Fairmont) forthe wine country picnic in Napa Valley, California, Sunday, August 11, 1985.


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ISSMFE President, Presidential Address, Victor Mello (Brazil).

‘The lirst Terzaghi Oratlon: Am uay Landslides', by T.William Lambe (USA). (Paper published in Golden Jubilee Volume) XXII

Second Plenary Session: Chairman and lecturers Deuxieme Seance Pleniere: President et conferenciers Beer (Belgium), Chairman.

C.PWroth (UK): 'Soil mechanics - Property characterization and analysis procedures‘. (Paper published in Volume 1)

M.Jamiolkowski (Italy): ‘New developments in field and laboratory testing ol soils’. (Paper published in Volume 1)

N.R_Morgenstern (Canada): ‘Geotechnical aspects ol environmental control'. (Paper published in Volume 1)

Third Plenary Session: Chairman and lecturers Troisieme Seance Pleniere: President et conferenciers

G.Gudehus (PPG), Chairman. John A.Focht (USA): ‘Piles and other deep loundalions’. (Paperpublished in Volume 1)

l.M.|driss (USA): ‘Evaluating seismic risk in engineering F_Schlosser (France): ‘Geotechnical engineered construction

practice'_ (Paper published in Volume 1) (Paper published in Volume 1 and English translation in this volume) XXl\/

Fourth Plenary Session: Chairman and lecturers Ouatrieme Seance Pleniere: President et conferenciers

E.Togrol (Turkey), Chairman.

K.lshihara (Japan): 'Stability of natural deposits during earthquakes. (published in Volume 1)

E.WBrand (SE Asia): 'Predicting the performance of residual soil slopes'. (Paper published in this volume)

\LPetrukhin (USSR) presented: 'Geological aspects of geotechnical engineering, paper by G.Ter-Stepanian. (Paper published in Volume 1)

Fifth Plenary Session: Chairman and reporters General reports on recent failures Cinquieme Seance Plenierez President et rapporteurs Ftapports genéraux sur des ruptures récentes


r at

S.Hansbo (Sweden), Chairman.

A.WSkempton (UK): ‘The Carsington dam slide‘. (Paper published in this volume)

L_Von Thun (USA): 'The San Luis Dam drawdown slide'. (Paper published in this volume) XXVI

P.Plepetto (Peru): ‘The Tablachaca Dam slide N° 5 problem`. Y.Yoshimi (Japan): 'Soil liquelaction problems in recent

(Paper published in this volume) Japanese eanhquakesi (Paper published in this volume)

PMassalai (ltaly): 'Recent Italian earthquake problemsi (No wrinen repon)


Session 1A: Constitutive relationships for soil behaviour Séance 1A: Relations constitutives du comportement des sols

G_Gudehus (FRG), Chairman.

Session 1B: Numerical methods Seance 1B: Méthodes numériques

,.,(__ _

` .~! s


\ f A ` `-~~.\_.t IR WW0|Ski (P0|and). Chaifman- M_Pender (New 7ealand\ Dinmigsinn I parlor

Session 1 C: Decision theory and probability Seance 1C: Probabilité et théorie de la decision


/ EBague|in (France), Chairman. Fi.J.Mair (UK), Discussion Leader.


Session 2A: In-situ testing techniques Seance 2A: Techniques de tests ‘in-situ'

WFt.MacKechnie (Zimbabwe), Chairman. M.C.Ervin (Australia), Discussion Leader.

Session 2B: Laboratory testing - New procedures and data acquisition techniques Seance 2B: Tests en iaboratoire -Techniques nouvelles et méthodes de Vacquisition de |'information

E-J3fVi0 (Fif\|3V\d). Chairman. A.ETinooo (Venezuela), Discussion Leader. xxx

Session 2C: Centrifuge testing and its application Seance 20: Essai de centrifugation et ses applications

A.Schotield (UK), Chairman.

Session 2D: Field instrumentation and field measurements Séance 2D: Instrumentation et mesures sur terrain


/\.S.Flico (Mexico), Chairman. J.E.B.HartIen (Sweden), Discussion Leader. XXXI

Session 3A: Motion of landslides and Session 3C: Tailings dams and waste

debris flows containment structures

Séance SA: Mouvement des glissements de terrain et Seance 3C: Barrage en dechets et structures pour

Veoouiement des déchets Ventrepot des déchets

¢a.v»= f", RLa Rochelle (Canada), Chairman. J.A.Ca|dweII (South Africa), Discussion Leader.

Session 3B: Seepage control Seance 3B: Controle de |‘infiltration

J.Narain (India), Chairman. J.Hurtado (France), Discussion Leader. xxxn

Session 4A: Pile foundation design methods Séance 4A: Methodes de caloul de fondalion sur pieux


N.Janbu (Norway), Chairman. A.FVan Weele (Netherlands), Discussion Leader.

Session 4B: Pierfoundations Séanoe 4B: FOI1d3liOnS SUV caissons

Z.BaZant (Czechoslovakia), Chairman. M.Stocker (FRG), Discussion Leader. XXXIII

Session 4C: Foundation for offshore structures Séance 4C: Fondations pour les structures 'offshore'

J.A.Jimenez-Salas (Spain), Chairman. K.Hoeg (Norway), Discussion Leader.


Session 5A: Influence of earthwork construction on structures Séance 5A: Influence des travaux de terrassement sur les structures

A.J.C.Mineiro (Portugal), Chairman. D.Ftesendiz (Mexico), Discussion Leader.

Session 5B: Earth strengthening Seance 58: Fienforcement des ouvrages en terre

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H.Brand| (Austria), Chairman. D_Evstatiev (Bulgaria), Discussion Leader. XXXV

Session 5C: Application of geotextiles Séance 5C: Applications de géotextiies

J.PGiroud (USA), Chairman.


Session 6A: Seismic geology and risk analysis Séance 6A: Geologie sismique et analyse des risques

\£A_Ilyichev (USSR), Chairman. FMuzzi (Italy), Discussion Leader.

Session 6B: Seismic safety of earth structures Séance 6B: Sureté sismique des ouvrages en terre

G.Noguera (Chile), Chairman.

WEMarcuson (USA), Discussion Leader. XXXVII

Session 7A: Soil Iiquefaotion during earthquakes Seance 7A: Liquefaction des sols pendant les tremblements de terre


Tlwasaki (Japan), Chairman.

WD.L.Finn (Canada), Discussion Leader.

Session 7B: Seismic stability of natural slopes

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Session 8A: Earth and rockfill dams Seance 8A: Barrages en terre et en enrochement


RAnagnosti (Yugoslavia), Discussion Leader.

Session 8B: Excavation support Seance 8B: Soutenement des excavations




VEscario (Spain), Chairman. J.Studer (Switzerland), Discussion Leader. XXXIX

Session 8C: Foundations Seance 8C: Fondations

O_Varde (Argentina), Chairman. J.S.Steenie|t (Denmark), Discussion Leader

Session 8D: Professional liability in engineering practice Seance 8D: Fiesponsabilité professionnelle dans Ia pratique de |`ingenierie

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Session QB: Geologic aspects in earth dam engineering Séance 9B: Aspects géologiques dans le genie des barrages en terre

A.Van Schalkwyl-< (South Africa), Chairman. K.Schete|ig (FRG), Discussion Leader. XL

Session QC: Problems in areas with special geologic conditions Séance 9C: Problemes dans les regions aux conditions géologiques spéciales



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G.Petrasovits (Hungary), Chairman. A.Komornil< (Israel), Discussion Leader.




J.K.Mitchel|, Vice-Chairman lor Program.


Sixth Plenary Session: Special lectures on the history and development of geotechnical engineering Sixieme Seance Pleniere: Conferences speciales sur l'histoire et le développement de genie geotechnique

Masami Fukuoka (Japan), Chairman Jean Kerisel (France). (Paper published in Golden Jubilee Volume)

Volume) Volume)

A.WSkempton (UK). (Paper published in Golden Jubilee Ralph B_Pecl< (USA). (Paper published in Golden Jubilee


Entertainment by Flichard Clark of the Metropolitan Opera.


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Conlerence Chairman, H.Bolton Seed. Farewell address by Maria Luiza de Mello. XLIV

COf1fBI'B9S Bmbafk on T9C|'lf1iCa| Tour.

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\ “ “U ‘ Conferees during Plenary Session. XLV

Victor Mello (Brazil) passing gavel to President Elect Bengt Broms (SE Asia).

Greetingsfrom President Elect Bengt Broms.

President Victor Mello (Brazil) presenting Kevin Nash Gold Medal to H.Bo|ton Seed (USA). XLVI

Evening pops concert by Oakland Symphony Orchestra, Thursday, August 15, 1985.

Conference banquet, Terrace Room of the Fairmont Hotel, Friday, August 16, 1985. XLVII

International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering: Executive Committee Meetings Societe Internationale de Mécanique des Sols et des Travaux de Fondations: Fiéunions du Comité Exécutif

President Victor Mello presiding at the Executive Committee Meeting preceding the Conierence.

Executive Committee Meeting in session.


Opening and closing sessions Séances d’ouverture et de cléture

Presidential address Disoours présidentiel WCTOREBDEMEMO

For most of us, most of the time, it is heartening that the poet declared, "They also serve who only stand and wait." Then, sud­ denly, when the moment comes, to stand and serve, there is the humbling weight of infin­ ity to whisk us into nothingness. Inscrutable designs of destiny have called me to stand before you, formally opening this Golden Jubilee International Conference, charged with historic significance. Arising out of the deep respect for the past, and bursting out towards the grandeur of visions

and responsibilities for the future, there is the hiatus, the infinite density of the iota of the present, living, livable, going, gone.

Prodded and awed by the traditions set by illustrious predecessors, I stand entrusted with conveying a message. In this world over­ stocked with printed communication, I should only presume to rob you of the continually irrecoverable present, if it be exchanged for'a living message, a message of constant renewal. Fortunately, many are the messages that were collectively contributed by yourselves to me and through me, as being perennial in our society: My hope is that I may be able to express them as you would

like to live them. Gratitude and Recognition. Our Host Society, the U. S. Member Society and Her Patrons.

Firstly, on behalf of our truly international brotherhood of geotechnical engineering service to all mankind, I thank our hosts, the U. S. member society and the conference Organizing Committee, for an effort incalculable, that will doubtless be crowned with every success during this week and the post-conference tours. Gratitude is a living, ever-renewing sentiment It would be foolish to presume to repay him who gave of himself, to give to the giver: instead, one renews the sentiments and actions by passing the bequest down the line to the next one in need, gratifying the first donor immeasurably by respectful emulation of the example.

As a token of our faith that such gestures of

gratitude ennoble and enrich us, it is appro­ priate to recall that the start of my mandate had been beclouded by the sad and untimely loss of Kevin Nash as Secretary General.

However, the Executive Committee at the Xth International Conference, Stockholm l9Bl, promptly instituted the Kevin Nash Gold Medal to commemorate his contribution to the society

and to foster his ideals.

"The medal should be awarded to a person who,

through his distinction as an engineer, his international contributions to engineering practice and education, his contributions to international good will, and his service to the society, has made a major contribution to fostering the ideals and goals of this International Society throughout the world." I now have the privilege and pleasure to announce that, by the coincidence dictated by the consensus of an inner conscience of brotherly geotechnicians across the world,

the first Kevin Nash Gold Medal has been awarded by the committee of past presidents to Professor Harry Bolton Seed. Harry, would you please come forward to receive this token? Although it is strictly individ­ ual, and so merited, would you kindly allow me to use it also as a symbol of our worldwide gratitude to the conference Organizing Committee, and to all our U. S. hosts who, at this Golden Jubilee Conference, repeat the

efforts and hospitality with which our fra­

ternity started on its trek at its first

oasis, in Harvard 1936? First Key-Word, International. Far too many thoughts press our minds for a

chance to occupy some place on such momentous

occasions. I choose as the second one the truly international aspect.

If we need some form of grouping to bridge the

gap between the infinite of reality and the finite of our individual and social grasp, let it be for our betterment and never to our

detriment. At the Harvard 1936 Conference we were recorded as members (geographical

entities), 21 present and 13 absentee, totalling 3M. Presently we are grouped as

57 member societies, one of them, the Southeast Asian society, representing an exemplary group society of considerable impact and geotechnical productivity. One should ponder on what might have been the unifying principle spontaneously generated for identifying "members" in 1936. Every


authoritative pronouncement throughout our history has emphasized the need for efficient use of groupings, recognizing geographical, geological and geotechnical differentiations, to improve our cognizance of the pervading technological principles, by enriching experi­ ments and experiences with their exteriorized local peculiarities. So it is out of the wealth of variety that we draw the exhilarating richness of unifying principles. To the bafflement and real marvel of our myriads of individual and collective differences, our answer is to identify them, and to delight in recognizing them. The world's tendency to develop overridingly along compartmentalized vertical columns, geographical, cultural, pseudo-racial, religious, political, etc. demands from societies such as ours a priority dedication to the horizontal cross-linkage that preserves the promising matrix: Within our profession, it is the calling to serve the advancement of civil engineering for all of humanity, in its needs fo geotechnical support. we have grown immensely, but still have big areas to cover. For instance, in comparing with the National committees in the interna­ tional committee on large dams, we must regrettably list areas that do have large dams, without having geotechnical member societies of ISSMFE. Are we not indispensable to civil works as heavily dependent on geotechnology as dams? Honestly, whose failing is it, if any area of the world still remains unconvinced of possible benefits in having geotechnicians Join our company for open exchange of experi­ ences, advances, misbehaviors, and failures? Terzaghi and Early Mentors. Nurturing Their Ever-Renewed Lessons.

Man needs occasions such as this, of pomp and circumstance, of mixed nostalgia and euphoria, to set the milestones that mark his wayfaring. Hundreds of thousands of years of our neuro­

logical and cultural evolution are associated with the Bayesianly perfected ability to regis­ ter, retain and transmit things memorable. Under this century's precipitous pressure to dismiss the place of memory, because of the flood of print and especially modern instan­ taneous all-embracing communications and computers, we shall be emphasizing the present

crucial demand for forgetting as a very prerequisite for sanity and liberated creativ­ ity. Nevertheless, we must emphasize that both for memories and for the purgings of for­ getting, it is the exercise of selection that will preserve and stimulate us. "Choose your love, and love your choice." Let me summarize a few dominant examples.

Terzaghi. It has been the privilege of my mandate to have witnessed worldwide commem­ orations of the centenary of Terzagh1's birth, 1883. His unchallengeable place in the realm of geotechnical engineering was promptly conse­ crated (1963) by our U. S. colleagues: The Geotechnical Engineering Division of ASCE instituted the yearly Terzaghi lecture, and the Karl Terzaghi Award, essentially biennial, "For outstanding, continuing contribution to the field of geotechnical engineering in the United States..." 2474

Simultaneously the Brazilian member society

created as its highest tribute to local geo­

technicians the biennial Terzaghi prize award, in recognition either of the greatest cumula­ tive contribution to the date, or of the most outstanding published contribution in the given two-year period. The first awards were given in August 1966, at the close of the l96U-66 mandate of the Society's directors. Everybody agreed, however, that Terzaghi's spe­ cial position regarding modern soil mechanics, and particularly in fathering this Internation­ al Society, merited an outstanding independent tribute by the worldwide community. As pro­ fessor at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna, Austria, he opened the Harvard 1936 Interna­ tional Conference with the words "The opening of this conference is an event of unusual sig­ nificance. It represents the first interna­ tional council in the perpetual war of the civil engineer against the treacherous forces concealed in the earth." By coincidence, in holding this Golden Jubilee Conference in San Francisco, subjected to the treachery of a major fault (San Andreas) we are profiting of the prudence of saintly names that may intercede with God for our guaranteed comfort in the forthcoming days. His presidential guidance of the Soc1ety's first twenty-five years imposed on us a debt that we now propose to redeem and perpetuate by the creation of the Terzaghi oration of the international confer­ ence of this worldwide family of his. I shall leave for later more specific mention of the Terzaghi oration and first orator chosen, to follow me on this podium shortly. Honouring Special Predecessors and Mentors. I am sure that one of the most stimulating and rewarding technical sessions of any interna­ tional conference will be the session entrusted to our past presidents, special lectures on the history and development of geotechnical engineering. We will be shown that in the civil engineer's history of harnessing nature‘s mysteries and whims, the anonymous "unknown soldier" was ever a most important contributor. However, we need to select some to symbolize

the best in us: and we must be frugal in distributing honours lest they degenerate in

significance. From the start of my presidential term, a call was sent to all member societies to submit information and proposals so that at this special occasion of the Golden Jubilee Confer­ ence, our recognitions of the meritorious past might be brought to the fore. The following summary expresses the result. If any signifi­ cant mention is found missing, it is due to my not having received the information on time. I wish to recall that in the few inaugural words allotted to me at the end of the closing session in Stockholm, I redeemed a personal debt by dedicating my term of office to the memory of Donald W. Taylor as my "guru."

l. Firstly one must mention the Rankine lecture as essentially "hors-concours." The

successful outcome of the London 1957 ISSMFE

Conference furnished the means for sponsoring

an "annual lecture by a person of distinction

in the field of soil mechanics," in tribute to

Hankine who in 1857 had submitted to the Royal

Society a paper "on the stability of loose earth." 2. within the Terzaghi era, the principal internationally known recognitions are:

(1) The R. F. Legget Award, 1969 on, annual, Canada.

(ii) The Nabor Carrillo Lecture, 1972 on, biennial, Mexico.

(iii) The Laurits Bjerrum Memorial Lecture, 1975 on, biennial, Norway.

(iv) The J.E.B. Jennings Award, 1978 on, yearly, South Africa. (v) The John Jaeger Memorial Medal, 1979 on, quadriennial, Australia. (vi) The Arthur Casagrande Lecture, 1983 on, quadriennial, South America. To be delivered at the Pan American Confer­ ence from 1987 on.

(vii) The Casagrande Fellowship Award, 1985, yearly, U. S. Member Soc./ASCE Geotech. Division.

Token Recognitions to Society Officers. Most societies start with the trappings and trim­ mings of organizations that distribute both

functional attributions to the officers and some certificates of recognition at the conclusion of the term of offices. Our 5ociety's historical aim was dominantly con­ centrated on the congenial technical and social quadriennial family gatherings, such as will be the hearty pursuit of all this venue too. Indeed, one of the great tributes to our Society's parentage lies in the fact that we have grown very much, without losing the spirit of a small family, within which, despite widely varied domestic and cultural customs, the pervading reality has been the unmeasured, anonymous service.

To you wives, who have wondered at this

absorbing extracurricular activity of your husbands, and to all children who had fathers dashing off to some conference on bored piles in lieu of taking them to the football game, to my own wife and children, I must submit an apologetic and deeply grateful message in the name of the importunate world-spread family. None of the past officers of our Society, our friendly and kindly senior rela­ tives, could ever visualize any sense in receiving a scroll of recognition for the services rendered in his own time. Their cumulative effort brought us to this magnif­ icent Golden Jubilee. It is the Society that pleads to feel a little more elated by having reminded itself of this minimal overdue gesture, to embrace all past presidents and vice-presidents. In the name of all, I have the pleasure of approaching our senior past president, Professor Skempton, Dear Skem, to hand him his scroll at this opening ceremony. This will symbolize the distribution to be made forthwith to all others. Members Present at the First Conference. "The moving_hand writes and having writ moves on." I received an enthusiastic letter from Profes­ sor Christian Veder (Austria), less than six

months ago, eagerly planning to be with us. He had been present in Harvard 1936, and had attended, with contributions, all subsequent conferences; I last met him, enviously active as always, at the European Conference in Helsinki, June 1983. Unfortunately, a few weeks ago the light was suddenly put out, and we are deeply bereaved. This is not an occasion for sadness, but the very close coincidence of the case, involving one of the few remaining main pillars of our Soc1ety's first gathering, does invoke special feelings. All the greater is, concomitantly, our Joy and pride at signalling the presence of the following illustrious members who participated in the first conference: to each of them our hearts pour out with filial respect and affection, with best wishes that they may enjoy both the reminiscences, our present bustle, and enduring prospects of accompanying us along the challenging uncharted road ahead. The names I now have

are: Dr. R. F. Legget and Professor J.


Accounting for My Mandate: A Fleeting Message of the Dynamics of Life. Four years ago a sufficient number among your

delegates kindly expressed the trust that I might be of some service to the International Society. You yourselves rendered the initial service to the key-word international by breaking the barrier of the Boston-Paris parallel, the understandable Mason-Dixon line that in our subconscious limbic system or R-complex, separated the northern neo­ cortex from the big underlying body that needed some stimulus of recognition that it had absorbed the signals eagerly sought and gratefully received from the brain centers. However, I was and am not entirely deaf to the whispers concerning a certain rebel, somewhat unpredictable. Neither had I been unaware of the presumed fact that, south of the Tropic of Cancer, people are branded as allergic to correspondence. Truly speaking, what are "facts"? when do rebels become revolutionaries and later victorious? when do they, through representing the "establishment," progress into dogma and domination, nonetheless finally regressing into decay? I am sorry if I failed any predictions of unpredictability. while recording my penance for actions and omissions undesired, I dare submit that your friendly mandate and your trust in calculated risk, made me strive, at a difficult but challenging time. Having lived long periods in the colonies of Goa

and British India, as well as in the U. S., incalculable privilege of closely-knit contacts with almost every country, region and culture of the world, I had to shoulder the challenge to stir the giant within our Society, as stated by an enviably great rebel Europe and South America, and having the

turned victor, Terzaghi, Rotterdam l9U8: "Regional developments. Hence the geographic distribution of the principal soil types alone calls for regional development and for interchange of regional experience on

an international scale."


within the Society, as a simple engineering decision, this irrepressible urge required simultaneous activity along: (i) Organizing and strengthening of the head office, and coordinating bodies and policies. (ii) Stirring younger geotechnicians from all quarters to feel that they must and can participate effectively, for the good of the entire body. (iii) Stimulating increasing activity through the individual member societies and their first-stage international links, the regional vice-presidencies. (iv) Guaranteeing increasing technical cross-linkages through technical committees and regional technical subcommittees, the drive and core­ work for each to be volunteered by individual member societies, but carefully avoiding dominance. Again quoting Terzaghi, Rotterdam l9H8: "Geologic aspects of soil mechanics. ... Exploration of these deposits by means of the same procedure would be

utterly wasteful. Each one calls for

a different technique . ........... . ...We need in each one of the principal soil formations .......... A great number of complete and reliable case histories .......... This fact alone

calls for a division of labour in a geo­ graphical sense ...“ I shall not exert your patience by expatiating on these internal initiatives within ISSMFE. One basic aim in accepting a function is to do the best one can; the other one, no less important, is to do everything to make oneself unnecessary. We are well reminded that the cemeteries are full of people who

were presumed indispensable: yet humanity moves onward. As usual there is the problem of delicately balancing extremes, in order to optimize results. Within the horizontal space of one's own term, one should minimize one's own action, hoping to catalyse others to act in one's stead. Thereupon, within the vertical dimension of successive presi­ dential terms, in respecting the need for a balance between conservatism and change, one should never go beyond creating the instruments in lieu of the end-products. Through the rest of my allotted time I shall dedicate my talk to some of the items that strike me as dominant or dormant. During this time by protocol you are expected to listen. Hopefully we shall complete our tasks concur­ rently. Third Key-word, "For Geotechnique." Purpose: Engineering, Through Geotechnique.

what is engineering? Is it a science? Is it

rational? Is it an art? Is it logical? In

fact, is there such a thing as unqualified "logic," or does it always truly have a prefix, such as analogic, philologic, geologic, psychologic, sociologic, etc.? Did not every period of human history attribute to its "clear" line of thinking the unqualified attribute "log1cal"? How far is it an innate unperceived assumption of the thinker, that


he is able to abstract himself from his inner and outer self, and is not part of the experi

mental world he would presume to dissect in perfect, reciprocal uncontamination? Do we need to be reminded of Daedalus (Lit. "The Cunning worker") whose son Icarus went one step too far, and flying too near the sun, plummeted into the sea because his wax wings


Is an Engineer a Cunning worker? what is the place and contribution of geotechnical engi­ neering? Is not geomechanical a more restric tive implication than geotechnical? Is geotechnique fundamentally the "rational" application of applied mechanics to materials of somewhat more heterogeneous, complex, untamable and unpredictable behaviours than were associated with the steel and concrete of our structural engineering colleagues of the early days of soil mechanics? Besides, when dispersions harass our computations, is it basically a question of applying mathema­ tically idealized, statistical computations of averages, standard deviations, and confi­ dence limits? To me, engineering is a purposeful effort of cunning workers who always have a why and a

what for. Walking at l.00 < factor of safety
all these are means. But the end is creativ­ ity, often inventiveness, ingenious. Engi­ neering is the end-product of design (1.e.

intent drawn-up) + construction + operation (a live function to be continually reviewed and revised in order to preserve or enhance the intent). As a community of engineers we must urgently repel the widespread notion of our acting on certainty, and providing static, permanently valid projects. In repeatedly re-reading the history of discovery and development, I find myself ever more forced to take questioningly the firm theoretical, scientific, beliefs of any given person. I insist on the immense difference between (1) the need to have strong convictions to be able to give and

transmit, and (2) the inner certainty that "all the world's at stage, and all the men

and women merely players." I must confess that I have begun to doubt of myself, whether

my self-diffident ironical interpretation is not too subjective and pessimistic. The fact is that even in carefully re-reading successive general pronouncements by Terzaghi I only feel a definite strong trend of change To the diffidence in belief the engineer counters with positive action. To myself, not a single one of our great mentors can

be associated with any static theory, however

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brilliantly advanced beyond its time, but rather, with the stubborn revitalizing habit of continued retheorization.


Am I becoming old and grouchy when I complain


that universities are no longer producing the civil geotechnical engineers, but mostly young technocrats who are absolutely sure of their theories, and armed with computers, absolutely sure of their numbers, to several decimal places?

Creativity is not created in frequency, and is not generally taught. It is difficult to institutionalize an academic structure whereby creative students are instigated to question, challenge, disagree, and propose other solutions, presumably more elegant. Yet, we cannot deny the preeminence of

engineering creativity as a physical visual­ ization of a solution that so elegantly and superabundantly sets aside or dominates a set of problems, that calculation and analysis

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with the hips .... in other words, one must be able to arrive at correct conclusions without preceding logical reasoning ...," except that I would revise the words "correct" and "logical" as somewhat more relative. Quoting again ..."During the earlier stages I used extensively theoretical procedures some of which I had to invent myself, but during the last decades I solved almost all of my practical problems without elaborate compu­ tations." To myself, he is describing the

30 _1 sl

successfully, one must possess the capacity ascribed to Theodore Roosevelt, for thinking

process by which something becomes logical to someone, and although he mentions "last decades," it is evident that he was referring to problems repeatedly faced, and not to chronological age, because the spirit and procedures of youthful challenge and courage at facing new problems, accompanied him to the very last years of his life. Quoting "... the knowledge accumulated in a human brain has no practical value unless its owner has the moral courage to use it as a

basis for decisions." Logical, rational, theoretical, are thus developed and transitory, applicable to problems already faced; and engineering is decision. I have found an object lesson in the interna­ tional competition held some years ago for a design-construction turn-key solution for the famous leaning tower of Pisa (Figure l). Best supported international civil engineering companies, aided by elite geotechnical con­ sulting services, participated. Figure 2 (drawn from a paper by Professor Schultze) shows some of the many different physical solutions submitted. when faced with a problem of high ratio of responsibility/ feasibility, it is not in better analytical work that engineers seek solutions, but

rather in different physical solutions, often by lateral thinking, seeking different statistical universes in order to set aside quite definitely the possible histogram of degrees of undesirable behavior.


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Have you not often woken up in the middle of the night with the flash of a brilliant solution to a problem that only becomes fuzzy during the day? If you are somewhat uncertain of being awake, I am with you: in Figure 2, it does become patent that dreams and night­

mares intermingle, requiring careful selection.

Next Key-Words. Decisions and Actions. Human Engineering at the Service of ISSMFE, and

Through ISSMFE.

The four-year presidential term is too short to achieve anything but the possible imprint

of one's priority preoccupations. I shall try

to summarize my intents by roughly grouping the technical committees that have served during my term. Man and His Environment. The Civil Engi­ neering Geotechnician, Facing Time, Nature,

and Society. I submit that the most important question facing the geotechnical engineer is for him to reassume a position as the founda­ tion instrument of every civil engineering orchestra, and for the civil engineer himself to reassume,hls position as the most influ­ ential element of human society in affecting environment. Time was when engineers (i.e. cunning workers on decision and action) were

subdivided into but two categories, the civil (the constructor) and the military (the destructor). Specializations arose for exponentially increasing the capacities of different instruments of the orchestra, but I do not believe that they challenge the need of the conductor and the compos1tion‘s score: is it to be symphonic or martial? All engi­ neering efforts, of all engineering profes­ sions, separated in the past_fifty years, con­ tinue to_be for only one purpose .. the better civil life of humans and societies. In recent years in every walk of life as a citizen and professional, I have been increasingly stunned at the proportion of emergency calls regarding failures. I am not particularizing on geotechnical failures: for instance, some of the most devastating to society are of planning and banking, wherein it appears as if eminent citizens are bent on getting something out of nothing, or on clinging to the medieval ph1losopher's-stone complex of a single, simple method of turning everything into gold. Among ourselves, the worst occurrences reflect an unfortunate lack of comprehension of the scale in which we affect natural conditions, by action or omission. Indeed, under conditions that are average or somewhat worse, most often, by design, we provide favorable solutions. Visualize then, how serious is our responsi­ bility in inducing people to believe that everything will be definitely and permanently well; whereupon, suddenly when a really ex­ treme condition occurs, we helplessly watch catastrophe submerge those who over-trusted

us? Is it enough to claim, rightly, the "acts of God" attenuant? Is it not our

collective duty, together with law-makers and responsible leaders of society, to correct the century-old deterministic misconception that civil engineering belongs among the "exact sciences"? The most disheartening


fact is that often the great mishaps overtake

professionals who presumed they were correctly following correct lessons well learned twenty or thirty years ago. In fact, despite all emphatic admonitions of the past, that every

single case must be considered significantly different, until proved otherwise, i.e. until proved acceptably analogous to others, we must sound the alarm that the adoration of computation has resulted in most unfavourable misuses of appropriate and inappropriate

theorizations to absolutely inapplicable situations. what is the psychological refuge that induces so many to prefer pets to

fellow-humans, and nowadays, among pets, an occasional dedication to the one most mechan­ ically predictable and controllable, the machine, the computer, the robot. would such psychologies match the zest emphasized by Terzaghi (Rotterdam l9UB) "These features keep us alert regardless of the scope of our experience in space and time, and the lure of the unexplored never wears off.."? Three technical committees and one regional subcommittee stand witness of the starting initiatives within the area of enhancing the development of all-round cultured geotechnicians. Man needs to stand proud and humble in the knowledge of his historical roots and time,

in order to acquire stature as a citizen of

the world. The least we could do was to stim­ ulate the effort of the technical committee on preservation of old monuments and cities. I hope that this and similar initiatives grow and perpetutate. Besides the enrichment to ourselves, I envisage such a technical commit­ tee as a magnetic link with the big, wide world of culture, tourism and internation­ alism. I had eagerly visualized the unques­ tionable interest in sponsoring cultural TV renditions of the three historical lectures of our past presidents, for the sake of

the upper echelon of the public whom we serve, somewhat in the manner in which Galbraith's l2 chapters of the "Age of Uncertainty" were memorably televised. It is impossible to emphasize technical com­ mittees more important than the ones on landslides, and stabilization of landslides in Europe, both because of the tremendous impact such natural events have on society, and because of the service such committees

render to us internally in forcing a close working relationship with our sister soci­

eties, engineering geology IAEG, and rock mechanics ISRM, and with the broad civil engi­ neering aspects of meteorology, hydrology, and professional branches with big public works, highways, etc. Quoting Terzaghi (Rotterdam l9UB): - The most important areas of contact between soil mechanics and geology are encountered in connection with problems involving the stability of slopes and the foundation of storage dams. Hence the time may come when it will be appropriate to combine soil mechanics and engineering geology into one unit, under a name such as geotechnology." How revolting to find the great frequency with which geotechnicians routinely conduct circular slide stability analyses without even having investigated

the geology! A society cannot acquire dignity or stature without accepting the heavy burden of internal judgments, for criticism or praise: the necessary proviso is that the judgment be of facts rendered anonymous, and not of people, whom charity recognizes as mere instruments. An important technical committee relating us to the public is that of allowable deformations of buildings, and damages. I recall Dr. Golder at the Pan American Conference, Puerto Rico 1971, who caustically reminded us "who does the allowing?" and "is it not really 'unallowable settlements' that should be discussed, and at what cost to whoever pays?" Mexico City's developed ability to live with big settlements and special underpinning inventiveness (e.g. by pilotes control) is legendary. Finally, it is indis­ pensable to recognize that damages are caused by excessive differential deformations, of heave or lateral displacement, and not merely of settlements. I am especially gratified that at the Vth International Conference on Expansive Soils, Adelaide, Australia, we concluded in favor of conducting future work of this able, independent group, as an ISSMFE technical committee, side by side with those of other "problem soils." Two extremely important technical­ administrative committees were postulated and

pressed, but await implementation. The topics of both of them are felt in very damaging conditions and proportions in the developing countries. Firstly, the committee on policy regarding manuals, standards and codes. Terzaghi (London 1957) should rise from his tomb to shout again his deriding statement "... tables of allowable bearing values which can still be found on exhibit, like paleon­ tological specimens, in the building codes of some cities." Some mummies continue being exported, and I understand recent experiments have succeeded in reviving the DNA life principle from a mummy. Three weeks ago I was urgently called to a huge project that was failing all along because of the misuse of a questionable imported codified recommen­ dation! Of the billions owed, a big percent­ age is due to such situations, all of them generated by the best of intentions. The road to hell is supposed to be paved with good intentions. The second one, on professional practice, ethics and responsibilities in the conduct of design and consulting in foreign areas, was intended to emphasize that our image to the public is transmitted much more by what our wandering apostles do, than by what the gospels say. I insist that as an inter­ national society, we should discuss and estab­ lish recommendations for companies and persons going to apply their expertise in other areas. we must be very cautious not merely regarding the variabilities of soils across geography, but also of laws and practices from country to country. Alongside with the l0OO-word basic lexicon pocketbook that a foreigner recognizes as needed, should not we have some minimum suggestions to preserve foreign

colleagues from professional pitfalls?

If there has to be a choice, let us not forget that our priority allegiance is to humanity, and not to misplaced solidarities that deteriorate our action and image. Geotechnicians Intensifying Relationships

with Sister Societies, Collateral Societies, User Societies, and Others in General. It is unnecessary to spend more than a second on this obvious point. We are a society because

we wish to preserve and foster the simple function attributed to the conference, Harvard l936,“establishing personal contacts between those who are interested in the subject from a theoretical or a practical point of view, and in stimulating exchange of experience"; having grown, we now perpetuate, in between conferences, the otherwise episodic experience Moreover, we are a society principally to promote the interest in our all-important subject and its use. Obviously we must draw strength from our gatherings at the hostels: but if we have a purpose, it is for mingling effectively and convincingly with others. Just as in the pilgrimages to Rome, in the 7th Century, the roaming of enterprising faithful generated hcstels and cultural intermingling, let us now greatly increase our pilgrimages to the big homes of all human endeavours! In 1936 Terzaghi considered that "soil mechanics is already old enough to have acquired the modesty which springs from experience." I appeal to all, at this Golden Jubilee Conference, to recognize that geotechnical engineering has reached the age of the grandmother that may well have the serenity to transmit experience merely by an emanating presence within the big gatherings of the human family.

Let us be especially alert with regard to the explosively growing industries and their drive. Let us recognize their immense potentialities, and let us always rush to make ourselves present in their scouting excursions. By professional temperament and reality they exhale achievement, and the subconscious certainty of the perfect industrial regularity of multiples: both psychological backgrounds can be (and have often alread proved) disastrous to geotechni­ cal engineering. Let us never be tardy in

mingling with them, in the same manner as an uncle can be of tempering influence on a boisterous young boy. I am happy to mention our initiatives in sponsoring of the techni­ cal committee on geotextiles and geomembranes, essentially simultaneous with the independent

creation of the International Geotextile Society. As civil engineers, we must avoid splintering, and, at the least, guarantee walking through the forests side by side.

Repositories of Knowledge. Storaggj Broad Exchange; Retrieval. Judgment and Courageous Rejection. One of the most important func­

tions of professional societies in the modern world is that concerning pertinent literature and its handling for efficient use. It occupied the entire presidential address

of Arthur Casagrande, Montreal 1965. I myself have been intensely occupied with the problem ever since l9UU-U5 when working in the M.I.T. library stacks for my upkeep


as a student. In 1955-55, during 8 3'm0nth post-doctoral fellowship, I had the privilege of intense participations with Manuel Rocha, Director of the National Civil Engineering Laboratory of Lisbon, the ultimate center of civil engineering in the world for a couple of decades, himself very personally committed to the problem, and in 1966-67 once again as senior visiting professor at M.I.T., had the privilege of keen discussions while they were working on Project Intrex for the U. S. Dept. of Commerce, the computerized library of the future, interconnecting all libraries of the northern world for instantly viewed

retrievals, etc.

Drawing on the sap from some of my roots I could rapidly conclude that as a dictator, benevolent of course, I would have solved all the problems in a few months, all the more so because as an engineer I believe in optimizing the good-enough for a start, and then applying the design-as-you-go method of inexorable revisions by the

observational method. The truth is, however, that any such effort must begin from the broadest base of cooperation by volunteers from all member societies sending in the papers produced in their areas. Rapid key­ word classification for easy retrieval accompanies and follows.

Casagrande insisted on adequate pre-selection of the papers meriting being registered. I question such thinking on pragmatic grounds of delay, and principally because of the risk of the Galileo Galilei complex, rejecting papers that might seem odd to the "establishment." Establishments have strong tendencies for inbreeding for self­ perpetuation, and succumb in degeneration. Moreover, a judgment should neither be hurried, nor remain static. The most important modern need is for the garbage collector to make his periodic rounds. The need for forgetting, denying, recanting, rejecting is the most crucial need of today; it is continuous, because a paper accepted as valid in 1980 might well be invalidated by 1990. There are vested interests in books, and it may seem difficult enough to emit revised editions. Even these, however, are dangerously insuf­ ficient. Because of man's innate difficulty at recognizing anything but discontinuity, responsible technical publications should

emit revised editions by featuring inserts

of impact, that list in separate the errata,

corrigenda, and addenda. The Information Advisory Committee has made

big efforts but often seems to be walking on desert sands with lead shoes. Several agencies duplicate commercial efforts several-fold, in listing the selfsame publications, of the best known sources. The real need is to go beyond the obvious literature coverage, to explore the production from areas that are not at the crossroads of communications. Similar problems afflict the committees on geomechanical computer programs, on definitions-units-symbols-correlations, and on the lexicon. Without being any Cassandra, I can foresee that the Trojan Horse that within a decade


may bring destruction into our fold will be the lawsuits against books and authors, as responsible for the errors and omissions that, in good faith, will have generated disasters and damage litigations. we should all reflect on such pretentious prospect. we teach methods and transitorily accepted information, but each professional, once "graduated", is fully responsible for his thinking, whether conventional, or creative, or discrepant. Internal Professional Problems. A society such as ours draws its strength for facing the outer world of projects and clients, by maximizing internal discussions of topics of immediate and advanced interest. Any member society should be encouraged to postulate topics, not merely for coordination by the Research Cooperation Committee. but also for development by speciality seminars

under the guidance of continued core-work by technical committees. The society membership has reacted very slowly and shyly to this magnificient opportunity of permanent exchange with fellow specialists across the world, by correspondence, by occasional discussion meetings “en petit comité," and, finally, by plenary discussion sessions, with the committee membership facing a worldwide audience that has, for consecutive years, been informed of the work undertaken and the persons involved.

Presently the special topics faced have been

(l) penetrability and drivability of piles, (2) filters, (3) tunneling in soils. Many

prospects arise continually, such as (M) offshore geotechnical engineering, (5) hydrau­ lic fill dams and tailings dams, and so on. we must be speedy in any rapidly growing area, to preserve the essence of the geotechnical eng1neer‘s approach. Special mention is made of a prospective technical committee on case

histories revisited. At least two important situations need emphasis. Firstly, the case of major and/or catastrophic failures,

which can only be reexamined objectively, a considerable time after the public and personal pressures have been forgotten. The other important situation involves two extremes brilliantly represented: on the one hand, the outstanding case generated by Terzaghi's own recommendation in Sweden l9N6, the 35-year careful research study "long term consolidation beneath the test fills at Vasby, Sweden“; on the other hand, by his own strong recommendation (Rotterdam, l9M8) "to increase the usefulness of our semi-empirical procedures we need in each one of the principal soil formations ... a great number of complete and reliable case histories," a recommendation that was filled far beyond expectation by the Tokyo 1977 Conference Special Volume on Case Histories. To me it seems that both extremes

were carried too far, to a soberingly low profit to the practising professional. Sobering indeed it may be to ponder that in engineering our efforts are dictated by benefit-cost reasonings: between decisions­ actions and quest-knowledge-wisdom; between

estimated knowledge and researched data; be­ tween laboratory and field, model and

prototype; and so on. And the optimum points generally lie in a carefully balanced compen­ sation of extremes, between statistical gener­ alizations from groups of but modestly­ analogous case histories, and almost deterministically-controlled research efforts on single cases. Mental Models and Computations. Older col­ leagues shudder at the thought of the appeal that computers and finite element methods, on the one hand, and statistical computations, on the other, have had on the younger

energetic professionals. The transparent silken veils covering reality are most seductive. Intense numerical computations have lured many of the best brains, and pseudo-statistical mathematically idealized formulations seduce others; they are, indeed, much more attractive than dirtying one's hands with diverse muds, and much less frustrating than being tripped by the "minor geologic details." Yet, we must not behave as the ostrich is claimed to: the numerical compu­ tational storm is here to stay. we attach great importance to our mental models for computations - thus the importance of the technical committee on constitutive equations, and of the efforts we have made to coordinate with the very successful ICASP Conference Group (International Conference

on Applied Statistics and Probabilityi. In the field of statistics, the engineering needs have been emphasized of:­

(1) Distinguishing between statistics of extremes and statistics of averages;

(ii) Engineering decisions based on upper and/or lower confidence

bands, either of averages or of individual points;

(iii) Real vs. mathematically simplified histograms;

(iv) Inexorable tendency for assymetrical

trends. In Bayesian probability decision, revising prior to posterior probability estimates, we must introduce adjustments because of the innate psychology that most engineers are far more afraid of failure, than eager for possible success, while a few optimists clearly gamble in the other direction. The more powerful the weapons, the more

careful we must be in their aim and use: such are the challenges facing numerical computation and statistics and probabilities, in the wake of a decelerated interest in analytical solutions. As Peck emphasized (Moscow l973), "Nature, however, did not create deposits (or residual soil horizons) by random processes."

Special Testing. Brief but all the more

emphatic is our mention of the recognition of the immense potentialities introduced by centrifuge testing. The Technical Committee on Centrifuge Testing has been producing very revealing insights into the behaviors of prototypes by a really ingenious modelling technique.

Site Investigation and Differentiated Soils and Geotechnical Problems. It is inexorable and natural that the work of technical committees should overflow from one presiden­ tial term to the following. However, as an engineering practice of self-disciplined efficiency, one should demonstrate the ability to subdivide into partial tasks and progress reports. I am coming to the end of my allotted

time. If a bid on a big project is set for

3 p.m. on August 12, no amount of squealing will open the doors to someone arriving at 3:05 p.m. Moreover, a society should thrive from the imprint of varying philosophies, through different terms of office. "The old order changeth, yielding place to the new." The European Penetration Testing Committee, with slightly revised terms of reference, became the International Committee on the

same subject. The Site Investigation case histories on the topic, in lieu of any proposals tending towards a manual. Do not underestimate the stifling dominance of any Committee is producing a compendium of

document printed under the aegis of ISSMFE as a would-be manual. The Field and Laboratory Soil Testing Committee has temporarily lowered

its sights merely into recognizing differen­ tiated optimized techniques in different soils, and thus concentrating firstly on the closed-cycle of undisturbed sampling and testing, as inseparable in each case. Of the many principal soil subdivisions visualized, for the present the only ones taken up were the residual soils and saprolites. and the soft rocks and indurated soils. In both, there is close interaction with geology, and in the latter, further close coordination with rock mechanics.

Finally, to return to the origins of our

society, the enrichment to be developed from exchanges of experiences with regard to

widely different soils, I report with special pride the contribution made by the first International Conference on Tropical Laterites and Saprolites. Moreover, the so-called special soils often discussed at international conferences, the expgnstve soils and collapsive so1ls, have been received with big geotechnical family. We are sure that such steps favouring interaction with other specialists facing quite different problems, is the one fundamental purpose of our international society. open arms as cherished members of the same

Final Key-Word, Humility.

Have I said anything but what has been said repeatedly before? what of our future? "If I have the gift of prophecy and know all mysteries and all knowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing." Let us take ourselves jovially and jokingly, as participants in a game of peace. "Peace hath her victories No less renowned than war." (Milton) The observational method? ...Yes, but it 2481

often degenerates into a trial-and-error sequence, wherein you hope that there will be (1) for yourself, one more trial than errors,(2) for others, occasionally the

reverse, from which we learn.

Are we still together as we finish our concurrent tasks? No function merits being recognized as vital if it is not very much alive, creative, progressive, therefore self-effacing. If there is some creativity, the true seed of engineering, be it gratefully attributed to God or the Karma. The effort, which is up to us to contribute, derives from the philosophy of life that parents and teachers instilled, of loving our profession and its potential of service to all. The attempt to balance the extremes of some pride in a temporal achievement, and the immense humility at its true nothingness, is what I leave as my


Let us move onwards towards a very cheerful and successful conference. San Francisco

is lovely. People are lovely. The

conference program and arrangements are

lovely. Meeting friends and colleagues is lovely. And "Beauty is truth, and truth beauty. That is all we know on earth, and all we need to know."




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Closing address Discours de cléture VCTOREBDEMEMD

This afternoon‘s session, so remarkably chaired by Professor Fukuoka, and filled to over­ flowing by the three lectures by Professors Kerisel, Skempton and Peck, has itself been loaded with so compact a charge of historic significance, both in the magnificient overview presented of soil and foundation engineering through the ages from antiquity to the present, and in the establishment of a milestone unrivalled in the past, and impossible to imagine matching in the future, that we can fully understand the Organizing Committee's kind planning, recommendation, and request, of a closing session restricted to the minimum. Indeed, silence, and reflection, is the only adequate enraptured sequel, when each minute and word added steals from something intimate, that each of us has already collected for treasuring. We have reached the end of so golden a Golden Jubilee Conference, that the same feelings pervade with regard to the entire week of events, as with regard to this grand finale. It seems difficult to judge how the composer of a magnificient symphony decides when the moment has ripened for a definite stop, when total silence is the only manner to avoid bathos. How can we express thanks, admira­ tion, happiness, and any exteriorized feelings, without risking reducing the sublime to the


Thus, in this last formal function in my dual position of guest and host, I prefer to enjoy the privilege of the guest, of biding by the real hosts' wishes, which find resonance with the feelings that I myself have right now, and that I believe I would also have if I were in their place. In chairing this final formal session I shall have to break some precedents, informal as they have been; and among them the one

mutually agreed to, is to limit the formalities to the transfer of office. As decided by the Organizing Committee we

have at the head table only the ISSMFE

officers who by tradition formalize the

transfer of office at the International Conference's closing session. Through the four years of the term of office about to close, and through the week of this magni­ ficient conference with its technical and

social events and receptions, the persons and entities to whom we stand deeply indebted (as deeply indebted as to the Soc1ety's

officers) are so many, that to extend the recognitions at the head table would create a problem truly and completely indeterminate to any engineer. We are unfortunately running against time, with a late start and a very tight schedule. Imagine if we attempted to give due recognition to all the technical committees, their chairmen, and secretaries and hard-working members and their sponsoring member societies; to the member societies that brought their

magnificient Commemorative Volumes; to

the colleagues and companies that maintained throughout the week a high pitch of intensity of work and interest through the exhibits and poster sessions; to the theme lecturers and discussion leaders who gave weeks and months of intense effort; to the chairmen

and panelists; and finally, principally, to the silent majority that furnishes the

real hard work behind the curtains: where

would we begin, and when would we stop?

My immediate duty and pleasure is to thank each of the Regional Vice-Presidents who served ISSMFE and myself through the past four years. As a formal memento of recognition I am happy to be able to hand to each one of them the token scroll. I am sure that they individually know how deeply grateful I am, and all the ISSMFE membership is, for the efforts and wisdom that they so generously

gave towards the conduct of the affairs of the Society. It has been a period of great enthu­

siasms and intense efforts, and if some worth­ while results have been achieved, very much

is due to the unstinted support given to the Soc1ety's initiatives, by the Vice-Presidents, that I now request to step forward to receive the scroll of parting recognition:­

(i) Les Wilson, for Africa; (ii) Professor Chin, for Asia;

(iii) Roy Northey, for Australasia; (iv) Arrigo Croce, for Europe; (v) Carl Crawford, for North America and;

(vi) Juan Carlos Hiedra-Lopez, South America.

Next, a brief mention of the next International Conference. As you know, at the Paris 1983 Executive Committee meeting, Brazil was elected to host the 1989 XIIth ICSMFE. Now,

according to our traditions, may I call


on the head of the Brazilian delegation, Professor A. J. da Costa Nunes, to say a few words regarding the conference planning, and the invitation for your enthusiastic participation. Taking over again, I come to my last formal act. On my side I have our President-Elect, Professor Bengt Broms whom I have introduced

to yourselves right from the start, at the

Opening Session. I hope that many of you have profited of the many opportunities through this week, to establish the contacts that will enrich the Society's activities through the coming years. Beside him are seated the new Regional Vice-Presidents, who take office together with himself. The time has thus come for me to hand over the symbol of office to my successor, Professor Broms. This gavel is one of the important symbols of the Society, the first one offered to perpetuate, through present and future, the respect for the past. This silver-headed gavel donated by the late President Laurits Bjerrum and the Norwegian Geotechnical Society, at the Paris 1961 International Conference, is about to cele­ brate its Silver Jubilee, its handle made out of pine taken from a wood pile from the foundations of the Xlth Century Santa Maria church in Oslo rings many a bell of coin­ cidences of good omen at this gatrering. I have taken this symbol of the Presidency. with me to conferences all over the world,

since it is not easy for the younger geotech­ nicians to travel to our International Conferences. For a more pervading fully at the working level that really matters, we

democratic symbol of our worldwide community,

now have the LOGO chosen during the past

term: hopefully it will be intensely used,

and serve to broaden the spectrum of fond recognition of our Society's worldwide action and influence. Professor Broms, I now have the pleasure of handing over to you the Presidential gavel, as the symbol of the transfer of the Presidency. May your term of office and service enrich your personal and professional experiences with our fellow geotechnicians, as much as mine did for me. And may these symbols, and such inspiring experiences as this week's events and celebrations, guide your presidential program in unflinching support of our statutory obligations and

our aim. Kindly take over the Chair for the remainder of this session. All good

wishes to yourself and the future of ISSMFE in such good hands.


Closing remarks Remarques finales VICTOR EB.DE MELLO

Mr. Chairman, dear Past-President Professor

Masami Fukuoka, would you kindly allow me to

intervene at this moment, before you call this most memorable session to a close? I have yet a compelling function to perform on behalf of all of the membership of ISSMFE through the roughly fifty years of her history, and I am sure that there is no more appropriate time to do it than now, at this very special session that has gathered our Past-Presidents, and

each and every one of the audience for the enthusiastic support, that assures me that to each of us what matters in such a token gesture is the deep personal feeling that accompanies it.

given us the opportunity to hear their bril­ liant and stimulating presentations. At the opening session I mentioned our desire to use this Golden Jubilee Conference as the

opportunity to distribute to all past officers, the scrolls of recognition of their formal service to the Society, a service that ex­ tending far beyond the fulfillment of their statutory functions provided us the leadership that brought us to our present status. In mere symbolism for this small and overdue gesture of perennial gratitude, I limited myself to handing to Professor Skempton, senior past president, his scroll. I shall now respectfully call on each of the other past presidents, in order of seniority in the function, and the audience will Join me in the unanimous applause and thanks, repre­ senting also all the colleagues across the world who benefited from the Society's activ­ ities and spirit, and who unfortunately were

not able to Join us at this gathering.

Professor Ralph Peck, would you kindly step forward and receive this scroll as a memento

of our appreciation of your Presidential

guidance, from Mexico to Sydney to Moscow, 1969 to 1973.

Professor Jean Kerisel, may I have the priv­ ilege to hand you the scroll on the 1973-77 Presidential term, that shepherded us from Moscow to Istanbul to Tokyo, in our growing enthusiasm to embrace all cultures across the world.

Finally Professor Masami Fukuoka, immediate past-president, to whom we basically owe very much of the organization of both the out­ standing conferences of Tokyo 1977 and

Stockholm 1981, despite the unexpected diffi­ culties that preceded both, may I now enjoy the privilege of belatedly handing you this scroll of gratitude for your Presidential term, 1977 to 1981.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and many thanks to 2491

Farewell address Disoours d'adieu VETOREBDEMEMO

Thank you very much, Professor Lysmer, for

calling on me for some farewell words at the close of this magnificient banquet with its delightful entertainment. In fact, on finding ourselves interrupted in savouring the beauti­ ful renditions of song favourites that tran­ scend time but evoke nostalgia, I shudder at the call to speak, since all of you must confide in unison that if "heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter," where can there be any place for prose? But there are fond duties and irrepressible urges. As we were hearing "Figaro," having been reminded of the ubiquitous figure that proclaimed himself the center of all social life in town, I permitted my mind's flashing thought to counter with the present case of a truly ubiquitous person, the center of gravity to everything of this conference venue, always available for every detail from the most

crucial surgery to the enchanting frivolity of decoration: a person who, altogether distinct from the aria's self-airing loud-voiced baritone, has remained central as the heart, self-effacing in service indispensable,

throbbing inaudibly except to those who reached very near. Well, it is to such a heart of the conference, and of its Organizing Committee, working as a synchronized body that made this whole week of events very much alive, hearty and endearing; to this heart I now render my tribute, together with that of all ourselves. It has been "Harry Seed here...,“ "Harry Seed there...," "Harry Seed everywhere...,“ and it is we who proclaim it aloud in chorus, giving him a long, loud, standing ovation and vote of thanks.

I knew that I would but start mention of it, and you would all Jump up, beating me at the call to Join in this heartfelt standing ovation

to Harry Seed and to the Organizing Committee. I surely need the microphone to make myself heard over the applause and cheers, as I mention but a few of the names: Elizabeth Yee, Jim and Mrs. Mitchell, Tor Brekke, Bill Marcuson, Ray Lundgren, so many names, each and everyone, names and faces and smiles that have endeared themselves to us all through an unrivalled performance of one long, tirelessly prepared, short, packed, unforgettable week.

what more can one say, Harry, ... and each and every one to whom we are so indebted and endeared? To say "thank you," a million-fold, might seem insufficient, since similar

expressions have been used so often, often with so much less feeling. Permit me, Harry, to recall a beautiful thought expressed in Rabindranath Tagor's poetic prose, in Gitanjaliz "Woman, look not for your beauty in your mirror, But in the eyes of the man who loves you."

I extend it metaphorically_to the present situation, and ask you Harry, and your team, not to look for the measure of our appreciation in the reflections of phrases and speeches, but in the eyes of those that have come to love you all for everything that you have

given us. The Secretary General, Dr. Parry, and the General Secretariat, must be singled out for a special word of thanks by myself on behalf of ISSMFE. You are all aware of, and thankful for, the much more extensive and intensive activities and efforts that have been borne by our General Secretariat during

this term of office. I request a special

round of applause to signify the Society's gratitude. There is an inevitable mixture of elation and melancholy to the closing of a chapter. Since I have most frequently heralded the dynamics of life, and the continually enticing wayfaring, permit me to close my words with

a candid tribute to the beauty of a still picture that, in the running or galloping of time, is the special blessing to our lives, evoked by such unrivalled memorable events

as to this closing banquet and other highlights of the past few days. None could express it better than the romantic poet John Keats, in his "Ode on a Grecian Urn":­ "Bold lover, never, never canst thou kiss Though winning near the goal. Yet do not grieve; She cannot fade. Though thou hast not thy bliss ­ For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair." Yes, as we recall such magnificient past performances as the banquet at the Versailles Orangerie, Paris 1961, and other events of unmatched beauty and happiness that have dotted our lives, as does this evening, we cannot but thank God for the privilege of our selective memory, wherein the still picture in our minds stays with us, unchanging 2493

and unfading except generally. br further enchantment. Neither can the images of tonight fade, nor can our love wither: for ever will we love the memories of this week and night and for ever will they be

fair as the maiden of our first love. As I bid you all farewell, with deepest thanks and fondness, I ask you yet for a few more minutes of your attention. Through these

four years, countless conferences and coun­ tries, and every endearing moment and ac­ quaintance, my wife has accompanied me with a dedication to ISSME that only she can explain. "Au revoir," until always, every­ where, may our friendship and God's blessing accompany us all.


Farewell address Disoours d'adieu MARIA LUIZA DE MELLO

Dear Friends, Mes Tres Chers Amis, Some of you may remember how anxious I was in Stockholm in 1981 awaiting my husband who

committee on preservation of old monuments

us to the outstanding ruins of Palmyra and had to be patient with my endless enthusiasm. Patricia and Nordie Morgenstern that invited us for an unforgettable Journey through the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Ergun Togrol that made Istanbul even more beautiful than it is already. As for Dr. Lu, who went beyond all expectations to kill our curiosity about historical details of the Forbidden City in Peking. We have been globe-trotters all our lives, but during these U years 1t's not that what counts, but the warmth of dear friends that were not entertaining the President and his wife, but Victor and Maria Luiza. Sharing with my husband his presidential term has also brought me an unexpected and incredible burden. Few of you can imagine how much additional work, in extensive and inten­ sive details, is required in working in coun­ tries that do not use English or French as regular languages. So I have been helping Victor with all foreign correspondence, by reading, summarizing the points requiring immediate action, filing and retrieving. There were many periods of desperate overwork. How­ ever, through reading all the correspondence received and sent, I gained a measure of the real dimensions of ISSMFE and of the depth of dedication required.

merely for geotechnicians, but for all of us with varied cultural interests. My per­ sonal enthusiasms were fulfilled by dear

It is not difficult to perceive how these feelings of dedication became the pervading mark of our society. I, myself, have developed

had decided to hedge-hop via a consulting job in Mauritius and was delayed seventy hours by an incredible sequence of airplane misconnec­ tions, and you felt with me how relieved I was when he finally arrived just a few minutes before the presidential election. Moreover, some even gratified me with the mention that, through those difficult hours, I had been instrumental in helping Victor to be elected. Although that is obviously far­ fetched, I have never hidden the fact that ever since we were married, I have accom­ panied the development of his career with keen enthusiasm and support. This co-participation of mine has given me great pleasure of making a wider spectrum of close friends throughout the world. My

own personal interests are in fine arts, antiques, as well as in personal contacts. Because of these particular inclinations, I was simply delighted to have heard the three special historical lectures by Kerisel, Skempton and Peck. I also proudly confess having had a keen interest in the technical and cities which Jean Kerisel meant not

friends that in the tremendous number of countries to which we were invited provided carefully chosen programs. For instance, in a recent trip to Malaysia, thoughtfully arranged by my friend Tan Shri Prof. Chin I visited twice the historical site of Malacca where I saw St. Francis Xavier's first place of burial. This had a special significance for me since my husband is from Goa where the sa1nt‘s sarcophagus was taken four centuries ago. How many stimulating dinner conversations I can recall, as for instance, when I heard a friend­ ly lesson on British silverware, or, on another occasion, in which I discussed old rugs and antique porcelain with my neighbour - in Alan Me1gh's office in Windsor. I cannot possibly thank all of them but want to mention some to symbolize all. Farid Malwai took his precious time to take

a very special affection for persons whose names a few years ago represented personalities almost of the scale of myths. I take the liberty of including in such honoured friends as Professors Skempton, Kerisel, Fedorov, and De Beer. In fact, I emphasize particularly Professor De Beer, who, when he hardly knew us, had to bear for a few consecutive days a boisterous Latin American group singing loudly in the bus during one of the technical tours after the

Mexico City conference.

A ce moment Je voudrais dire a mes chers amis Marie et Edouard combien J'ai eté emue et combien Je vous remercde les gentiles paroles que vous m'avez ecrites a plusieures occasions. Je garderai tout soigneusement une en particulier, en outre geetgarden danslettre mon coeur les mots d'une amitie bonte que nous ont beaucoup touchéi It is not only from the few I have mentioned 2495

that the affectionate feelings emanate. As the four years of my husband's term of office come to an end, what is the dominant feature that I have taken with me? It is the singular

experience of having been so hospitably and affectionately received and befriended by yourselves everywhere. This spirit is what really marks the society's membership, far beyond the measures of specialized technical knowledge and interests. As a woman with a personal life of many facets I would like to emphasize some striking and remarkable ladies from whom I learned some­

thing special of their different life interests. First, Ruth Terzaghi with a full life as a geologist, always so dynamic and active.

Mrs. Nabor Carrillo, a patroness of artists,

with whom I had a personal visit with an incredible human being, Diego Rivera's widow.

Recalling the Mexico Conference again, Nancy Skempton choosing to spend her time painting at the Chapultepec Park. Mrs. Manuel Rocha, who has always shared with her late husband, our dear Manuel Rocha, his intense international career besides her work at the Gulbenkian Foundation.

Evelina Bloem Souto, full of zest as a lady geotechnical: now also an actress and always with a positive attitude towards life. Giovanna Croce, with whom I went shopping for bargains in Paris. We laughed so much, it was too good.

Miette Sanglerat, la francaise - demi ­ brésilienne qui, comme moi, aime la plage et le bon soleil tropical. At this moment I recall a beautiful night dancing barefoot with John Burland on a beach in Durban. Brother John, that night is unforgettable. Mrs. Tza Chie Moh, Diana, so gentle, so feminine and so raffinee. So many have left us. Among whom I lost a dear friend that always stood by her husband. Elizabeth Meyerholf, and I render her my


To the wives of the young geotechnicians, I wish to conclude by stating that there is much to learn from human relationships, whether from an eclectical, or an interna­ tional, or a professional, or from a gentle personality. Only thus can life become really rich, worthwhile and full of meaning. Finally I want to congratulate Karina the new first lady of soil mechanics with my best wishes. I want also to congratulate most heartily Harry Seed and Jim Mitchell for the organi­ zation of this wonderful conference. It was, by far, one of the best ever held, and we owe it all, to the smallest personal details, to their deep and friendly dedication.


God willing, I shall be in Brazil in 1989 and with great pleasure shall greet you in

my home country. \

Merci beacoup a tous; au revoir. Thank you very much; for this wonderful Golden Jubilee Conference at the Golden Gate City.

Theme lectures Conferences

List of participants Liste des participants



Bolognesi, Arnoldo J.L. James, Peter M. Maragoto, Carlos H.

Beyrer, C.H. Brandi, Heinz & Annerose Buhl, Krista & Natascka Fross, Manfred Fuchsberger, Martin & Andreas Golser, Johann J. 8- Sieglinde Hillisch, Christian A. Martak, Lothar Victor Metz, Peter & Irene Poguntke, Reingard Schober, Walter & Margarethe Schuetz, Friedrich H. & Edit Sochatzy, Gerhard

Moll, Lorenzo L.

Moretto, Oreste 8. Elena Nunez, Eduardo Pocai, Maria Celia Trevisan, Silvano J. Varde, Oscar A. & Maria Luisa Visente, Ernesto E.

Australia Andrews, David C.

Brown, PeterT. Chapman, Gary A. Chowdhury, Robin N. Coleman, Ron A. Donald, lan B. 8. Marie Dunbavan, Michael Ervin, Max C.

Frydman, Sam Hausmann, Manfred R. Hollingsworth, Peter C. & Margaret Ingles, Owen G. Johnston, lan W. Kay, Neil

Khorshid, Mohamed S.E.D. MacGregor, John S. MacLeod, Jettrey H. & Jan Mitchell, Peter W. Moore, Peter J. & Mary Morgan, Jack R. 8. Wendy Noonan, Gerald M. & Beverley Parkin, Alan K. & Karin

Poulos, Harry George Press, Martin J. & Vivienne Raisbeck, Don Rodway, Bruce L. Rowe, Ronald K. Seddon, Keith D. Smith, Denis M. Tchepak, Slav

Termont-Schenk, Steven C. Wagstall, John P. Wiesner, Terence J.

Belgium Bernard, Alain

Bonvoisin, Jacques Carpentier, Roland L.P. De Beer, Edward 8. Mrs. E. De Wolf, Peter Eduard Goelen, Edgard H.G. Holeyman, Alain E. & Bev Hulet, Fernand & DeMuyter

Legrand, Christian & Marie-Francoise Lousberg, Emmanuel Luppens, Eugene Maertens, Jan F.A.

Nomerange, Jules Raedschelders, Hubert Simon, Georges A.G. Thijs, Marc Van lmpe, William Frans & Roe|andtJenny Welter, Philippe Zaczek, Yammick

Brazil Berberian, Dickran & Maria Teresa Bogossian, Francis Botelho, Henylzio & Henedina Coelho Castello Branco, Maria B. Costa De Mello, Jayme Ricardo Costa Nunes, Antonio J.

Decourt, Luciano & M. Ellzabeth De Matos, Waldo Duarte de Mello, Victor F.B. & M. Luiza Dias Machado, Clovis Fernando Ferreira, Helena Foradini Campos, Norma Godoy, Nelson S. & Sylvla Golombek, Sigmundo & Thelma Guatteri, Giorgio

Guimaraes, Roberto Bastos Gusmao, Jaime Hachich, Waldemar C.

Juca, Jose Fernando Junqueira, Sandoval Leme, Clovis R.M. & Marcia Da Carmo Levy, Paulo M. Lopes, Paulo Cesar & Nina Masahiko, Okay Mori, Rui T.

Munarski, Casemiro Jose & Helena Daniel Munarski, Roberta Napoles Neto, Antonio Dias F. Rossi, Guilherme M. & Olgarina Sa Salioni, Clovis & Ruymar Souto, Evelyna E.B. Tavares, Arinos Xavier Velloso, Dirceu Vianna, Ivan L. Yamagata, Anna H.


Horvath, Robert G. Howie, John Hughes, John M. Jarrett, Peter M. Keenan, Gerard H. & Maura Konrad, Jean-Marie Kozicki, Peter Ladanyi, Branko & Neva Lafleur, Jean LaRochelle, Pierre L. & Rachel Law, Tim

Lee, Chack F. Lefebvre, Guy & Carole Legget, Robert F. Le Lievre, Brian & Marle Leroueil, Serge Lou, J.K. Matich, Fred & Helen Matyas, Elmer L. & Violet McRostie, Gordon C. Meyerhof, Geoffrey G. & Ingrid Milligan, Victor & Mary Ann Moran, Kate

Morgenstern, David Morgenstern, Norbert R. & Patricia Norbert, Jean Novak, Milos Ouimet, Jean-Marc & Liliane Patton, Frank D. & Wendy K. Pickering, Dennison J. Pinzariu, Solomon M. Pollock, Donald H. & Marian

Raiot, Jean-Pierre Ripley, Charles F. Gi Dorothy A.

Abadjiev, Christo B. Georgiev, Dimcho E. Stefanoff, Georg S. Toshkov, Emil Tihomirov

Canada Aalto, Lisa

Begin, Jean-Rene & Elisabeth Bell, George K. Berkovitz, Barry C. Boncompain, Bernard & Shirley Bozozuk, Michael & Marcelle Brooker, Elmer W. Byrne, Peter M. Campanella, Richard G. Crawford, Carl B. & Adah Crawford, Henry S. & Linda De Boever, Herman Devata, Murty S. Devenny, Dr. David W. 8| Marguerita

Emery, John J. Fair, Alan E.


Robertson, Peter K. Sabatini, P. Samson, Laval Sego, Dave C. Sitar, Nicholas Watson, George H. Weinreb, Daniel Wilkinson, John C. Wu, Peter L.T. & Sally

Chile Acevedo, Pedro Miguel Fengtian, Mr. Kort, lssa Lu, Zhao-Jun Martinez, Fernando Musante, Horacio M. Noguera, Guillermo Retamal, Eugenio Sch. Rodriguez-Roa, Fernando Troncoso, Jorge H.

Fellenius, Bengt H. Fredlund, Del G. Fusco, Amintore & Elisabetta


Garga, Vinod K. Gohl, W. Blair Hayes, John A. & Sally

Chang, King-Ko Chen, Hui

Chen, Lin Hsln Chen, Yu Jlong Chen, Zhong-Yi Chi, Benjamin Feng, Guo Dong Geo-Yi, He Hu, Ting Ji, Ma Jiann-Shi, Yang Lin, Sung-Maw Liu, Cheng-Yu Liu, Jin Li Lu, Shi Shen Lu, Zhong Wei Pu, Jia-Liu Qian, Hongjin Shen, Dao Min Siu, Lam Kong & Beatrice Sun, Guo-Dong Tsai, Menq Shing Tsien, Shau-I Wang, Zhong Qi Xikang, Wang Yu, Wu-Chang Zeng, Guoxi Zhang, Guoxia

Colombia Alvarez, Angela Bernal, Jairo A. Caiiao, Ricardo De Sanabria, Lucia Echandia Duran, Jorge Enrique Garcia-Lopez, Manuel

Gutierrez-Villegas, Josue Hernandez, Diana Maldonado, Roberto & Maria Del Pilar Rodriguez, Jorge A. Romero, Victor & Cecilia Sanabrio Pabon, Diego R.

Czechoslovakia Bazant, Zdenek Josef Hulla, Jozef

Denmark Bagge, Gunnar Clausen, Carl J.F. & Chakee A. Denver, Hans & Lene Franck, Biarne Green & Vibeke Franck, Freddie Green & Maj Fuglsang, Leii David Hansen, Bent & Kirsten Hansen, Per B. & Uila

Jacobsen, Moust Knudsen, Borge

Lorange, Jan Lundgren, Helge Mortensen, Grethe Oiesen, Niels Krebs Romhild, Carl J.

Steenfelt, Jorgen S. Steensen-Bach, Jens Ole van Deurs, Christine van Deurs, Gert E. & Bente

Ecuador Chavez, Miguel Angel

E9YPt Abdel Salam, Mohamad Mamdouh El Ghamrawy, Moustala K. & Laila El-Hussaini, Amani Elleboudy, Azza M. El-Okdah, Salah El-Din EI-Sohby, Mohamed A. Hamza, Mamdouh M. Mahmoud, Morad Mohamed Mohamed Mazen, Said Ossama Moussa, Abdelmonem A. Yahmoud, Ibrahim Ibrahim

Finland Ampuja, Helge Avellan, Kari Crister & Liisa Eerola, Lasse Olavi Hartikainen, Jorma & Sinikka Hartikainen, Kaisa Heikkila, Jaakko Tapani & Mervi Jarvio, Eero J. & Vappu Korhonen, Kalle-Heikki Korhonen, Osmo Koskisto, Osmo J. Kuiala, Kauko Laitinen, Timo Tapani & Minna Laapotti Natukka, Antti E. & Liisa Olavi, Juhola Mauno Rathmayer, Hans G. Ravaska, Olli Tapani Saarinen, Leo & Lea Slunga, Eero Leo & Christina Tammirinne, Markku J. & lrmeli Venhola, Jukka Tappio & Tuula West, Katri

France Abaga-Ollomo, Gaston Amar, Samuel Baguelin, Francois


Bardet, Michel Binquet, Jean Boisard, Patrick Bolle, J. Gerard Boller, Andre Pierre & Jacqueline Bonazzi, Darius Simon Bonnard, Christophe A. Boutillier, Andre & Jeanne Brucy, Francoise

Corte, Jean-Francois de Garidel, Robert Detrey, Herve Detry, Veronique Dulour, Claude Dupeuble, Paul Faure, Rene-Michel Florentin, Pierre H. Frank, Alain

Gandais, Michel Goulois, Alain Marcel Guillaud, Andre Maurice & J. Habib, Pierre A. Hicher, Pierre-Yves Hurtado, Jean & Mrs. Juran, Ilan Kerisel, Jean Launay, Jean Lellaive, Etienne Le Tirant, Pierre Le Xuan, Thao Liausu, Philippe Lind, Michel Lino, Michel Londez, Michel

Magnan, Jean-Pierre Oudin, Michel & Anne Marie Parez, Louis Albert & Simone Plumelle, Claude Poupart, Michel 8. Jacqueline

Salencon, Jean C. Sanglerat, Guy Cesar Saugnac, Sanpierre & Marie-Blanche Savey, Pierre & Michele Schlosser, Francois & Nicole Schlosser, Herve St. Remy Pellissier, Charles 8. Josiane Tcheng, Yuan & Oolile Trak, Andre Antoine Tran, Nhiem

Horn, Armin

Jessberger, Hans L.

John, Klaus W. & Susanne Kany, Manfred Klapperich, Herbert D. Mayer, Bernhard K. Meseck, Holger H. Meyer, Klaus & Christa Nendza, Helmut Quast, Peter & Ursel Rizkallah, Victor Salden, Dieter Schetelig,Kur1 Schmidt-Schleicher, Companion Schmidt-Schleicher, Hermann Schuetz, Hermann & Christel Smoltczyk, Ulrich Sommer, Florian Sommer, Heinrich & Gisela Sommer, Matthias Thomann, Gunter J.W. Weiss, Klaus M.

German Democratic Republic Besarat, Hossein Magar, Kurt M. & Ruth

Rosenstock, Wintried

Greece Athanasopoulos, George A. Cavounidis, Spyros Christoulas, Stavros & Melina Panagopoulos, Panos D. Platis, Athanasios D. Sotiropoulos, Elias & Margaret

Hungary Petrasovits, Geza Rozsa, Laszlo

Varaksin, Serge

Iceland Federal Republic of Germany Amann, Peter L. & H. Arz, Petru & Irene Balthaus, Hans G.

Brauns, Josef Franke, Aberhard Gudehus, Gerd Gussmann, Peter Hanisch, Juergen Henkel, Helga

Holzlohner, Ulrich

Bjornsson, Bjorn J. Gunnarsdottir, Gunnhildur lnglmarsson, RagnarG. Sigursteinsson, Haraldur & Erla

lndla Chawla, Kanwarjif Singh Desai, Mahesh Deshmukh, Anil Madhao

Deshpande, Sudhir C. Gulhati, Shashi K. Iyengar, Murli Jain, G.Fl.S. Katti, Flamanath K. Kulkarni, K.Fl.

Mohan, Dinesh & Mrs.

Narain, Jagdish Prakash, Shamsher Flanian, Gopal Sudhindra, C.

Venkatachalam, Krishnaswamy Viiayvargiya, R.C.

Indonesia Gultom, S.H. Hambo, Daud Mohammad Kurniawan, Paulus Zanussi, Fransiscus X.

||’8l'| Alipour, Keramatollah Amirsoleymani, Touradii Behnla, Cambyse Flezvan, Kamran Sadegh-Azar, Madiid Touran, All

Ireland Farrell, Eric R. Grace, Martin F. Hartford, Des N.D. Mehigan, Patrick J. Orr, Trevor L.L. & Diane Widdis, Thomas F.

Israel Amir, Joram M. & Maya Baker, Rafael David, David Glowinsky, Zvi & Kati Komornik, Amos 8- Rivka Mazurik, Ami Flaviv, Uri & Dr. S.

Wiseman, Gdalyah & Esther Zeitlen, Ann Kraus Zeitlen, Joseph G. & Frances Fl. Zelikson, Amos Zolkov, Eli

Italy Albert, Luigi F. & Juliana Amagliani, Ugo Angeli, Maceo-Giovanni Antonio, Federico Antonio, Garbin Antonio, Sanella Appendino, Mario & Companion Arrigoni, Enrico L. & Antonia Baldi, Gualtiero Baldovin, Ezio Belletti, Laura Belletti, Matteo Belletti, Paolo & Franca Belloni, Luigi G. Bellotti, Floberto & Franco Belviso, Flenato Beomonte, Mario Bergonzini, Rina

Bertacchi, Paolo Bilotta, Eduardo Bosco, Giovanni Botto, Giuseppe & Maria Bramati, Luigi Bruzzi, Domenico Calabresi, Giovanni Cancelli, Andrea C. Cazzufti, Daniele A. Ceccotti, Valerio Ceretti, Paolo Vittore & Maria

Cesareo, Bianca Cicala, llluminato & Anna Vetta Cividini, Annamaria Coppolecchia, Mauro

Cotecchia, Prof. Croce, Arrigo V. 8| Giovanna Cutruzzula, Bruno D'Elia, Beniamino Demontis, Guido De Nichilo, Clorinda Dorlano, Pacchiosi Ferrari, Pietro Fossa, Cesare & Piera Gabriele, Del Bo A. Galasso, Antonielta Garzonio, Carlo Alberto Ghionna, Vito Nicola Gioda, Giancarlo Godone, Floberto Grisolia, Massimo Jamiolkowski, Michele B. 8| Edvige Jembenelli, Piero Lancellotta, Renato Lanzizlo, Massimo Lea, Muggia Leggeri, Maurizio Lizzi, Fernando Loielo, Leonardo & Barbara Mambrini, Mario Maniredini, Giovanni Marazio, Altredo & Maria Marchetti, Silvano

Martinetti, Sandro Martinoli, Donato


Maugeri, Michele Mazzalai, Paolo Messeri, Rita Mongilardi, Ermann & Grazlella Muzzi, Francesco Newburg, Steven & Lea Glucker Nossing, Ludwig Nova, Roberto Ogna, Piero Ottaviani, Mario Paoliani, Paolo & Sabrina Paolinai, Paolo & Sabrina Pedini, Fabio Pisanelli, Antonio Poggio, Massimo Postpischl, Daniele Radaelli, Ermimio Riccioni, Roberto & Maura Robotti, Franco & Carmen Rognoni, Bruno Rossi, Sergio Rossi-Doria, Martino Sabatini, Armando Sansoni, Renato Scalorbi, Roberto Sciortino, lgnazio Sechi Germani, Adriana Sigot, Companion & Companion Sigot, Fiorenzo Simonetti, Salvatore Soranzo, Maurizio E. Stentella, Marcella Termine, Giovanna Tidici, Ugo Tornaghi, Renato & Maria Trevisani, Gianluigi Tripiciano, Lucio & Nadia Ugo, Tidici Verganti, Luigi Viggiani, Carlo Wolf, Enrico & Maria Teresa Wolf, Francesca

Japan Abe, Hiroshi Adachi, Toshihisa & Yoshie Akagi, Hirokazu Akagi, Toshinobu Aoi, Minoru M.A.

Asaoka, Akira Cheung, Raymond K.H. Chida, Shohei Fujii, Hiroaki Fujii, Toshiyuko

Fujimoto, Hiroshi Fujita, Keiichi & Yoshi Fukuoka, Masami & Kimiko Fukuwaka, Masakazu Fukuya, Toshinobu Fuyuki, Mamoru Gushima, lwao Hamada, Masanori


Harumoto, Shigeru Hashiguchi, Koichi Hashimoto, Tadashi Hatanaka, Munenori Hayashi, Shlngenori Hirao, Kazutoshi Hisatake, Masayasu Hitoshi, Arai Hitotsubashi, Shuzl Hoiuchi, T. Hoki, Kanshiro

Honda, Takashi Horii, Katsumi Horiuchi, Takahide Iai, Susumu lmamura, Yoshinori lmano, Makoto Ina, Kuniyoshi lseda, Tetsuya Ishihara, Kenji 8. Miyoko Ito, Tomio lwasaki, Kimitoshi

lwasaki, Toshio lwasaki, Tsuneaki lwazaki, Yoshinori Kamon, Masashi Kan, Michael M.K. Kawakami, Keiji Kawamura, Kunio Kimura, Tsutomu Kishida, Hideaki & Setsuko Kitamura, Ryosuke Kitanaka, Takehiko Kobayashi, Hideo Kobayashi, Kenji Kobayashi, Yoshiharu Kobayashi, Yoshio Kohno, Iichiro Kokusho, Takeji Kosaka, Masaaki Kotoda, Kikuo Kusakabe, Osamu Makihara, Yorio Masuda, Tamio Matsui, Tamotsu Matsumoto, Tatsunori Matsuo, Minoru Matsuoka, Hajime Mikasa, Masato Miki, Gosaburo Mimura, Mamoru Mitsunari, Takashi Miura, Norihiko Miyata, Yoshiyuki Mori, Kenji

Morichika, Yoshihiko Morita, Yukio Murayama, Sakuro Nada, Katsuhiro Nagura, Katsuhiro Nakagawa, Kiyoshi Nakai, Kimiya Nakata, Keiichi Nasu, Makoto Nishi, Koichi

Nishiara, Takashi Nishida, Kazuhiko Nishida, Yoshichika Nishihara, Akira & Elko Oaku, Satoshi Ochiai, Hidetoshi Ohta, Hideki Ohtsuki, Tomoo Ohya, Satoru Oka, Fusao Okada, Junii Ono, Hideo Ozawa, Yoshio & Toshiko Saitoh, Kunio Sakimoto, Junji Sasaki, Yasushi Sassa, Kyoii Sato, Kiyoshi Sato, Satora Sawaguchi, Masatoshi Seikichi, lshihara Sekiguchi, Hideo Shibuya, Heihachiro & Masako Shimizu, Eiii

Shirasuna, Takeshi Singh Pradhan, Tei Bhakta Sugano,Yasuo Suzuki, Hisashi Takada, Naotoshi Takami, Kuniyuki

Takemura, Hidekasu Takemura, Jiroh Taki, Osamu Tamura, Takeshi Tanaka, Fumiaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanimoto, Kiichi Togashi, Taiji

Tohda, Jun Toki, Shosuke & Fumiko Tokimatsu, Kohii Tominaga, Masanari Tsuiino, Shuichi Uchiyama, Katsuyoshi Uesugi, Morimichi Ueta, Yasuhiro Uto, Kazuma Viyakoshi, Ichiroh Watanabe, Hiroshi Wong, Greg C-Y

Yabuuchi, Sadao Yamagami, Takuo Yamagata, Kunio Yamaguchi, Hareyuki Yamakawa, Masao Yamamoto, Kaichiro & Emiko Yamashita, Shimpei Yashima, Atsushi Yasuluku, Noriyuki Yasuhara, Kazuya Yokoya, Hideo Yoshida, Hidenobu Yoshida, Nozomu Yoshimi, Yoshiaki

Luxembourg Fliemer, Wynlrith H.Fl.

Weber, Lucien

Malaysia Han, Chua Sin Meng, Dr. Gan Eng

Mexico Aguirre, Luis M. & B.

Alpuche, Rafael J. Ayon Alvera, Jose M. Bello Maldonado, Arturo A. & Yolitzma Bonilla, Hector M. Casales Galvan, Carlos Damy, Julio H. Diaz-Rodriguez, Abraham Eduardo, Soto Y. Ellstein, Abraham & Selma Ellstein, Anita Flores-Berrones, Flaul Girault, Pablo Juarez-Badillo, Eulalio 8| Bertha Elena Leon, Jose L. 8. Nancy Mandoza, Manuel J. Montanez, Luis E. Moreno, Hector A. Orozco, Juan M. Pecero, Gabriel Moreno Flesendiz, Daniel & Josefina Rico-Rodriguez, Alfonso & Carmen Ftomo, Miguel P.

Schmitter, Juan M. Simpser, Boris Springall, Guillermo A. & Maria Springall, Saidee Tamez, Enrique 8. Yolanda

Morocco Eddarai, Mohamed & Mrs.

Netherlands Brassinga, Henk E. Calle, Ed O.F. De Jager, Willem F.J. De Leeuw, Egbert H. Den Hoedt, Gert G. De Fluiter, Jaap Elprama, Fladianto Heiinen, Willem J. Hendriks, Hans Holtus, Flutger K.M. 2871

Joustra, Kornelis & Sophia S. Kramer, Gert-Jan Kruizinga, Jan Mazure, Piet P.C. Richards, Adrian F. & Efrosine Schokking, Floris Schotman, Gerald Termaat, R.J. Vandenberg, Cor van der Veen, lr C. Van lperen, Joost J. van Tol, Ary Frits Van Weele, Abraham Verruyt, A.

Lovholt, John H. Lunne, Tom A. Moen, Tore lngar & Sissel Marie Myrvoll, Frank Nordal, Steinar Nowacki, Fritz E.H. Olafsdottir, Hildigunnur Riaunet, Ada M. Rolfsen, Egil Nordahl & Kirsten Roti, Jan A. & Marit Sbeland, Marianne Senneset, Kaare G. & Inger S.

Viergever, Marinus Antonie Volders, Robert H. Withers, Nick N.J.

Skulason, Jon Stenhamar, Per Stordal, Arne Thorn, Espen Valstad, Tore

New Zealand


Evans, Guy L. & Jennifer Mitchell, Mark T. Northey, Roy D. 8. Gretchen J. Pender, Michael J. Thomas, R. Fletcher Travers, John H. & Gillian

Agha, Amiad M. & Rubina Aiaz, Arif

Danish, Jamshed Akhtar Saeed, Irfan

Paraguay Nigeria

Andrada, Miguel A. & Nora B. De

Akinyede, Joseph Balogun, Lawal A. Folayan, Dr. Joseph l. & Connie

George, Enoch A.J. Madedor, Anthony O.

Peru Carrillo, Arnaldo Meza-Cardenas, Lindbergh A.

Repetto, Pedro C.

Norway Aas, Gunnar& Kari Amundsen, Tomm Andersen, Knut H. Andresen, Arild Aamodt & Ingrid Arvesen, Harald Biolseth, Ellen By, Tore Lasse Digernes, Kaare Dyvik, Rune & Tove Elisabeth Eggestad, Asmund & Kirstin K.

Fredheim, Per 0. Hoeg, Kaare

Janbu, Nilmar O.Ch. 8- Gerd

Poland Dembicki, Eugemiusz W. Wolski, Woiciech

Portugal Carduso, Mario Lourenco Guedes de Melo, Fernando A. Lemos, Luis J.L. Mineiro, Antonio C.

Josang, Tormod Karlsrud, Kjell & Aud Kiekstad, Oddvar & Torny Kummeneie, Ottar & Randi Kvaerner, Eva

Kvalstad, Tore J.

Lacasse, Suzanne Leirvik, Karl & Inger-Mari

Lieng, Jon T.


S. Afrlca Blight, Geoffrey E. & Rhona Cleaver, Colin H. Donaldson, George W. East, Donald R. & Di

Elges, Henrich Hendry, Roger W. Jeragh, Abdul Maieed A. Lourens, Johan P. & Veronica Lyell, Kenneth A. Mackechnie, W. Ronald & Catherine H. Marius, De Wet Rea, Charles E. Sabahi, Riazolla Sampson, Leslie R. Steyn, Gawie P. Tabatabaie-Raissi, Amir Mohammad Taylor, William L. & Victoria V.

Van Schalkwyk, Alfonso Williams, Antony A.B. Wilson, Leslie C. & Daphne

Saudi Arabla Al-Junaini, Abdallah Hamood

S.E. Asla Balasubramaniam, A.S. Bergado, Dennes T. Brand, Edward William Broms, Bengt B. 8. Carina B. Chan, Andrew K.C. Chan, Dr. S.F. & Sally

Chandra, Sarvesh Cheung, Chan Yun

Chin, F.K. & Mrs. F.K. Choa, Victor

Gunawan, Budhihartanto Hadiudin, lman Mulyana Hartodikoro, Dioko Sardiono Khan, Ahmed Mukhtar Klan, Ng Beh Kim, Sang Kyu Kuan, Poh Chee Kuen, Yu Kumara, Paul Benny & lndrawati Kusuma, Suryo Embing

Kusumahhani, Companion Kusumahhani, Rismantoio Mahasandana, Taweesak Malone, Andrew William Mantjanegara, Hoesni & Mrs. Hoesni Moh, Za-Chieh & Diana Mohamad, Ramli bin

Parasian, Siregar Bedaard Parikesit, Bambang Hendart Peng, Mun Kwai Rahulan, Govindan Rudianto, Sindhu

Sew, Gue See Siu-Mun, Woo

Sutardio, Atmadipraia Tampubolon, lr Muslim & Lily Teck, Ng Quee

Tesasen, Jumsak

Toha, Franciscus X. Ueng, Tzou-Shin Wah, Hung Chi Widayatmoko, Koko & Wati

Wigniosaiono, Sawarso & Mrs. Sawarso Wong, Jimmy P.K. Yamashita, Thomas l. Yap, Leong P. & Kim Yong, Dr. Kwet Y.

Spain Albaiar, Marta Escario, Ventura Fernandez-Renau, Luis F. 8. Adelina Gens, Antonio

Hinoiosa, Jose-Antonio C. Jimenez-Salas, Jose A. & Theresa Justo, T.L. Lloret, Antonio Lorente De No, Carlos R. & Pilar Maza Machin, lsidro Monte, Jose L. Perez de Agreda, Eduardo E. Rodriguez-Ortiz, Jose & Mrs. Jose Romano, Manuel

Sagaseta, Cesar Sanchez-Barbudo, Lourdes R. Soriano, Antonio Uriel Ortiz, Angel

Sweden Andersson, Erland Benntsson, Per-Evert Bergdahl, Ulf B. Berggren, Bo S.D. Bernander, Stig & Sonia Blumenberg, Jan F. Bohm, Hakan U. Bredenberg, Hakan E.G. Brink, Roll A. & Katarina Brorsson, Inge E.E. & Karin E.

Busk, Gunnar Ericson, Gosta S. Eriksson, Hakan L.E. Eriksson, Hikan Flodin, Nils O.

Gravare, Carl-John Hallin, Axel J. Hansbo, Sven G. & Lena Hartlen, Jan E.B. 8. Agneta

Hermansson, lngemar H.


Holm, Goran B.

Soelarno, Dr. D.S. Soemargo, lrJ.B. & Mrs. Surya, Ibrahim

Johannesson, Lars-Erik Kallstrom, Roll l.G. & Carina Laremark. Gote


Lindblom, Ulf E. & Karin

Ansal, Atilla M.

Lindeborg, Svante Lindstrom, Marten E. Linquist, Hans

Bekaroglu, Ozhan Dadasbilge, Klrhan & Duygu Durgunoglu, Turan H. Egin, Dincer Ersoz, Huseyin Grantay, Bedii & Tuba

Lundahl, Biorn E. & Anneli Lundstrom, Rune B. & Margit l. Magnusson, Ove G. & Chris Malmborg, Bo S. Massarsch, K. Rainer & Marianne Molin, lngvar B. Myles, Bernard Nord, Bertil E. & Mrs. Bertil E. Nord, Companion Norstedt, B. Urban B.

Odenstedt, Sven H.G. Olsson, Connie N. Paulsson, Christer B. Pramborg, Bengt O. Pusch, Roland Riise, Per 8. Ruth Rosen, Rolf G.

Runstedt, Cecilia Sahlberg, Olol K-H & Majken

Sandegren, Erik Sandqvist, Goran N. Schalin, Jan O. Sellgren, Eskil Steen, Bengt G. Stierngren, Ulf Bertil & Mona Svensk, lngmar Svensson, Per Lennart B. & Benita Widing, Svante G.

Mut, Taner & Kristin Mutluoglu, Mete & Soda Ozaydin, Kutay I. Tezan, Bugra M. Togrol, Ergun

United Kingdom Anderson, William F. Andrawes, Kamal Z. Bassett, Richard H. Bickerdike, John Boden, J. Barry Bolton, Malcolm Boyce, John C. Brown, Stephen F. Burland, John B.

Chettleburgh, Maurice John Child, Kenneth T. Christie, lan F. Clayton, Christopher R. Cole-Baker, John R. Cook, David A. Craig, William H. Green, Philip A. & Lucinda


Greenwood, John R. & Glyn Habibian, Ahmad

Brenner, Peter

Hight, David Houlsby, Guy T.

Deriaz, Pierre & Margrit

Despond, Jean-Marie Horler, Johannes Th. Jaecklin, Felix P. Jost, Studer Oboni, Franco Otta, Ladislav

Schaerer, Charles Steiger, Felix R.

Syria Ghehadeh, Waddah Hajjar, Abdul-Aziz Kayyal, Kasim M. & Hind Mawlawi, Farid S. 8. Sahar Murtada, Akram K. & Mrs. Akram K.

Murtada, Companion Roumani, Ghada

Turkey Alpay, Hasan Erdal Si Zeferl


Hutchinson, John N. Hyde, Adrian F.L.

Jardine, Richard J. Jefferis, Stephan A. Jewell, Peter John & Mrs. P.J. Jewell, Richard A. Jones, Colin J.F.P. Jones, Peter D. Larnach, William J. Leach, Bernard A. Macwilliam, Roger Mair, Robert J. & Margaret McGown, Alan Meigh, Alan C. & Joyce Milligan, George William Milne, Anthony & Marigold Murray, Richard T. Nixon, Ivan K. & Hilda Parry, R.H.G. & Mrs. R.H.G. Penman, Arthur D.M. & Joyce Randolph, Mark F. Rigden, William J. & Barbara Ann Sarsby, Robert W. Schofield, Andrew N. & Margaret Scoville, John A. & Elizabeth Serafim, Jaoquim Laginha Shibuyu, Satoru

Simpson, Brian Skempton, A.W. Smith, Denzil T. & Megan Socarras, Manuel & Maria del Pilar

Steedman, Dr. R. Scott Subramaniam, A. Siva Sutherland, Prof. Hugh B. & Sheila Symes, Matthew John Symons, lan F. Ternikar, Mohamed K. Thompson, Roger P. Thorburn, Sam Vaughan, Peter R. Venter, Karl Waite, Dennis Wareham, Brian F. Wheeler, Simon J. Williams, David Williams, Geoffrey M.J. & Margaret Wood, Colin E.J. 8| Mary Wroth, Charles Peter & Mary

United States of America Abdelghaffar, Magdy E.M. Acar, Yalcin B. Ackenheil, Alfred C. & Polly Acker, Patricia P. & Will Ahmed, Syed Aldinger, Paul B. Aldrich, Harl P., Jr. & Lois G. Allen, Junius D. & Lou Alusi, Hesham R. Anandaraiah, Annalingam Anderson, Edward K. 8. Vivian M. Anderson, Loren R. Archuleta, Kenneth L. Arita, Arleen A. Arman, Ara Arulanandan, Kandiah Azzouz, Amr S. Bachus, Robert C. Baker, Clyde N., Jr. & Jeanette Baker, Wallace Hayward Baligh, Mohsen M. Baneriee, Sunirmal

Bardet, Jean-Pierre Barksdale, Richard D.

Bell, J.R. Benoit, Jean Benson, Thomas C., Jr. Berk, Morris Bevier, Garry R. Bhanii, Azmeena Bhatia, Shobha S.K.

Billings, HerbertJ. Bingham, William D. Bloomquist, David

Bosscher, Peter J. Botz, James J. Box, Denise Boyajian, Ralph R. Boyce, Steven C.

Bradford, Joe M. Brekke, Tor L. & Joyce Briaud, Jean Louis Brown, Dan A. & Anita Bryant, Keith E.

Buchignani, Albert L. Buckles, Carol E. Budhu, Muniram Bunnell, Daniel B. Burch, Garland L. & Wendy Burke, Jack W. & Loretta Bushell, Ted D. Caldwell, Daniel S. Carrier, W. David, lll & Lilian H.

Cavallin, James E. & Margaret Kelly Chameau, Jean-Lou A. Chan, Clarence K. Chaney, Ronald C. Chang, Jeng l. Chang, Y.C.E. Charlie, Wayne A. Chassie, Ronald G. Chedsey, George L. Chen, Albert T.F. Chen, Fu Hua 8| Edna

Cheney, James A. Cheney, Richard S. Chou, Nelson N.S. Choudry, Tauseef l. & Tallat Christian, John T. Clemence, Samuel P. & Carolyn Clough, G. Wayne Cluff, Lloyd S. Colbaugh, E. David Connell, David H.

Cording, Edward J. Corvino, Claude Costa, Raymond Cotton, David M. Crapps, David K.

Creegan, Patrick J. Crosby, Jo K. & Consuelo Cunningham, Charles H. Cunningham, James A. Cyganiewicz, John Daniel, David E. D‘Appolonia, Elio & Tina Darling, Jeffrey W. Darragh, Robert D. Das, Braia M. & Janice Dash, Umakant & Mira Davidson, John L. Davidson, Larry K. Davies, Trevor G. Deal, Clifton E. De Alba, Pedro A.

deBecker, John A. Deen, Robert C. & Carol Demars, Kenneth R. Demeny, Darwin D. Denby, Gordon M. Deo, Purushottam DiBernardo, Albert Dietrica, Rudy J. Donovan, Neville C. & Judie

Dougherty, John J.

Guido, Vito A.

Doyle, Earl H. & Bobbie Drnevich, Vincent P. & Roxanne M. Druebert, Tex H. Drumm, Eric C. Duncan, Donald M. & Diana Duncan, James M. & Ann Dunn, R. Jeffrey Dunnigan, Cecilia Dunnigan, Lorn P. Ealy, Carl D.

Guild, Charles L. Gupton, Charles P. Hadi-Hamou, Tarik Hale, Gene P. Hall, Howard W. Hammond, William D. handlelt, Leo D. Handy, Richard L.

Hardcastle, James H. Harder, Leslie F., Jr.

Eccles, Dennis E. Edgar, Thomas V. Edil, Tuncer B.

Hardin, Bobby O. & Kenneth O Harlan, Richard C. & Florence Harr, Milton E. 8| Florence S. Hawks, Neil F. Hayes, Richard D. & Ruth W. Heagler, John B. Helfrich, Steven C. Heller, Robert A. & Ceclle Herbold, Keith D.

Edwards, William G. Eid, Walid K. Elmer, Henry W. & Arlene El Sakhawy, Nagua I. Elton, David J. Enkeboll, William Enzler, Y-Nhi D. Esrig, Melvin l. Fang, Yung-Show Farmer, Ronald B.

Feldsien, Lawrence F. Ferguson, E. Glen Ferree, Wayne E. Figueroa, J. Ludwig Finn, William D.

Finno, Richard J. Fleming, Lorraine N. Focht, John A., Jr. & Edith Foott, Roger Forte, Edward P. Fragaszy, Richard J. Franklin, Arley G. & Lois Franklin, Richard T. Fries, Howard F. Frobel, Ronald K. Gardner, Donald T.

Gardner, Sherrill A.

Gazetas, George Germaine, John Gill, James D. & Janet Giroud, Jean-Pierre Glynn, Edward F. Goble, George G. Goldberg, Donald T. & Joan M. Gomm, Richard T. Gonzalez, Luis Rojas Gonze, Pierre Gordon, Bernard B. & Dorothy Gottschall, Carl L. Gould, James P. Grant, W. Paul Gray, Donald H. Gray, Richard E. & Audrey

Greenstein, Jacob

Greenway, Daryl R. Grefsheim, Frank D. & Suzanne Griffin, Patrick M. Gronowicz, Albin T. & Una Groves, Eldon L. & Betty Guerin, Paul C. Guertin, Joseph D.


Hernandez, Jose Herndon, Alfred J., Jr. Hervert, George E. & Margaret Herzog, Donald Higgins, Jerry D. Hillis, Richard M. & Susan E. Hindo, Kal R. & Lois

Hokanson, Lawrence D. Holbrook, R. Michael Holder, T. Samuel Holloway, D. Michael Holtz, Robert D. Horn, Harry M. Horvitz, Garry E. Hovland, H. John Hsiung, Guan S. Htay, Allen B. Huff, Winnie Humphrey, Dana N. Hutson, Robert William Hynes-Griffin, Mary Ellen ldriss, l.M.

lshibashi, lsao Jantos, Carl T. Javete, Donald F. Jeyapalan, Jey K. Johnson, Bill S. Johnson, Gary W.

Jonas, Ernest Jones, Jeanine A. Jones, Walter V. Kaldveer, Peter Kalia, Sharda R. Kane, William F. Kanner, Zvi Kao, T.C.

Kastner, Richard Kavazanjian, Edward, Jr. Keshian, Berg King, Kenneth B. Kinney, Thomas C. Kleiner, David E.

Kleinfelder, James H. Knodel, Paul C. Knott, Randy A.

Knutson, Arthur T. Ko, Hon-Yim

Koerner, Robert M. Korbmacher, Bruno Kovacs, William D.

Kraemer, Steven R. Kramer, Richard W. Kramer, Steven L. Kuenzli, James R. Kulkarni, Shyam S. Kumar, Narender Kupferman, Michael & Barbara Kuppusamy, Thangavelu Kutter, Bruce L. Ladd, Charles C. & Carol Lade, Poul V. Lambe, Philip C. & Catherine V. Lambe, T. William & Mrs. T. William landau, Henry G. Lang, Thomas A. 8- Amy H. Law, Steven T.C. Lawson, Robert T. & Bebe

Ledbetter, John F., Jr., P.E. Ledbetter, Richard H. Lee, Homa J. Lee, Peter Y. Leonard, Roy J. & Edythe Leonards, G.A. Leong, Peng K. Leps, Thomas M. & Catherine Lohnes, Robert A. Long, Dennis V. Long, James H. Long, Richard P. Loughney, Richard W. & Mary E. Lowe, John, lll Lowry, C. Lee Lucas, Clifford V. Lucia, Eva S. Lucia, Patrick C. Luckman, Paul G. Ludwig, Harald P. Luebbers, Michael J. Lukas, Robert G. Lukins, Peter J. Luna, Joseph D. Lundgren, Ray & Kay Luscher, Ulrich Lutenegger, Alan J. Lyons, John E. & Mrs. John Lysmer, John & Dolores Mann, Brian Mann, Gerald D. & Edna Mann, Glen Marciano, Eugene A. Marcuson, William F., Ill Marr, W. Allen & Victoria Martin, Clarence K. & Jo Ann Martin, Geoffrey R.

Martin, James Wm. Matheny, John D. Mayne, Paul W. & Mrs. Paul W. McClelland, Bramlette & Mrs. McCusker, Terence G. McElroy, Charles H.

McKean, Jim A. McKittrick, David P. McVay, Michael C. Mensah-Dwamah, Francis K. Mesri, Reza Meyer, Jerome C. & Judy Millet, Richard A. Mindess, Mervyn Minnitti, Anthony Mitchell, Burke M. Mitchell, James K. & Virginia W. Morgan, Cricket Morin, W.J. Munoz, Andy, Jr. Murff, James D. Murphy, William G. & Eunice Musacchio, John M. & Peggy Neely, William J. Nelson, John D. & Darlene M. Nelson, Mark Newby, John E. Nogami, Toyoaki Noorany, lrai Norris, Gary M. Okcuoglu, Cetin A. & Judy G. O‘Leary, Lynn M. Olsen, Hal W.

Olsen, Joseph M. Olson, Roy E. & Vicki

Omelchenko, Victor O'Neill, Michael W. Osterberg, Jori O. & Ruth

Pacheco, Marcus Peigas Paduama, Joseph A. Painter, William T. Palaniappan, Ellappalayam A. & Jayalakshmi

Papayotti, Gregory Partos, Antal J. Peck, Ralph B. & Marjorie E. Pelletier, John H. Perisho, Ronald J. & Kathy Perrone, Vincent J. Perry, Edward B. Pfrang, Edward O. Pischer, David A. Poepsel, Patrick H. Poulos, Steve J. & Theodora Power, Maurice S. Praszker, Michael Pschunder, Bert B.R. Puri, Vijay K.

Pyke, Robert Quevedo, Ermel B. Rahilly, Michael R. Rahman, M.S. Raines, Richard D.

Rathbun, Charles B. Reavis, Gordon T. & Carol Reese, Lymon C. Reginatto, Aldo R. & Emilia Rehn, Charles C. & Mary J. Reiter, Leon Ressi Di Cervia, Arturo L. Reyes, Gilbert J. Reynolds, Gardner M. & Kay


Richart, Frank E., Jr. & Betty Ricketts, David A. Ries, Carol Riggins, Michael Rinne, Edward E. 8- Maureen Roberts, Don V. & Charleen Roderick, Companion Roderick, Gilbert L. Rogers, Gary K. Rogers, Robert B. Rokhsar, Andushiravan Rollins, Ralph L. Rolston, Jack W. Romig, Glenn A. Roodsari, Abbas T. Roth, Lawrence H. Saada, Adel S. & Nancy H. Salama, Mohamed Sandford, Thomas C. Sanglerat, Thievvy R. Sargand, Shad M. Satyapriya, Coimbatore K. Saxena, Soren K. Saye, Steven R. Sayre, Robert D., Schiffman, Robert L. 8| Edith G. Schmertmann, John H. & Pauline S. Schmertmann, Joy S. Schmidt, Birger Schnabel, Harry, Jr. & Joan

Schnabel, James J. & Joan Schoustra, Jack J. & Hermine Schuster, Robert L. Schwantes, E. Douglas, Jr. Schwartz, Stanley A. Screwvala, Farrokh N.

Seed, Harry B. & Muriel J. Seed, Raymond B. Selig, Ernest T. Shannon, William L. & Ellen N. Shen, Chih-Kang Shen, Ya-Hu Sherman, Walter C. Shofstall, Robert L. Siddharthan, Rai Silva, Dr. Arlyn S. Silva-Tulla, Dr. Francisco Smith, Alec D. & Cathy B. Smith, Dean W. Smith, Edwin S. Snethen, Donald Ray & Cheryl

Sowers, George F. 8| Frances Squier, David Squier, L. Radley & Jean

Squier, Shana Steedman, David W. Stettler, Dennis R. & Beverly Stilley, Al J.

Stocker, Manfred F. Stoetzer, Erwin Stokoe, Kenneth H., ll Storch, Herbert & Carmel Storch, Laurence & Virginia Sture, Stein Su, Hon-Hsieh


Sullivan, Michael J. Sunara, Vlasta

Sussingham, Gerard Sussingham, Peggy Sutherland, Herbert J. Swiger, William F. & Mary B.

Symons, Monte G. Talbot, James R. Tand, Kenneth E. Templeton, Jack & Land Thompson, RobertW_ Thomsen, Bent L. Thrall, Frederick G. Threlkeld, H. Ray & Lois Torrey, Dr. Victor H. Townsend, Frank C. Trehuba, Cecilia K. Tringale, Philip T. Troxell, David E. & Ann Ullrich, Charles R. & Vicky A.

Vais, James

Vallejo, Luis E. Vandre, Bruce C. Vanikar, Suneel N. Van Zyl, Dirk J.A. Van Zyl, Dr. Dirk Verigin, William M. & Carol F. Vinson, Ted S. Volin, Herbert R. Volpe, Richard L. & Laurie Wahler, William A. Wahls, Harvey E. & Margaret Wakeman, Richard G.

Walberg, Francke C. Walkinshaw, John L., P.E. Warder, David L. & Linda Wargo, Richard H. Weeks, Olaf L. Wegrzyn, Mikola]

Welsh, Joseph P.

Whitman, Robert V. Wigginton, William B. Williams, Ronald C. Willibey, Gary L. Willoughby, Donald F. Wilson, Stanley D. Wiltshire, Richard Wirth, John L. Withiam, James L. Woods, Richard D. Wortley, C. Allen

Wright, Stephen G. Wu, Ming-Jiun Wu, Tzong H.

Yamane, George & Charlotte Yoakum, Delmar D. Yokel, Felix Y. York, Donald L. Youd, T. Leslie

Zaccheo, Philip F.

U.S.S.R. Aleksandrovich, Ilychev V. Georgievich, Shikhatov V. Grigorievich, Trolimenkov Y. lvanovich, Yakovlev Piotr Petrovich, Petrukhin V. Vladimirovich, Zhukov Nikola]

Venezuela Abi Saab, Jacinto

Berroteran, HectorJ. d‘Escrivan, Ernesto & Betty d‘Escrivan, Geraldine Hiedra, Ana Isabel Hiedra, Beatriz Hiedra-Cobo, J. Hiedra-Cobo, Juan C. Hiedra-Lopez, J.C. & Juan Murria, Juan Silva, Alvaro A.

Sully, John P. Tapia, Manuel & Gloria Tinoco, Fernando H. Troconis, Cruz M.

Yugoslavia Anagonosti, Petar Battelino, Darinka Coric, Slobodan S. Cvetkovic, Milena Gotic, Ivan Grobler, Vladimir M.

Livada, Nedegka Majes, Bojan Maksimovic, Milan M. Milovic, Dusan Skarae, Gojko Slunjski, Jura] Sovinc, lvan Szavits-Nossan, Antun

Soto Villalobos, Allonso J.

Other participants Autres participants



Rocca, Ricardo J.

Kamgueu, Vincent



Baker, Anthony Bradley, Tony Frobel, Flon Groh, Bob Groh, Mike Lehner, Helmut Schneider, Helnrich Werner, Gerhard

Beck, Dave Belshaw, Doug

Cramer, James Dougherty, John Flecknoe-Brown, Tony Gadsby, John


Jones, Martin Jordan, Jim Lumsden, Alistalr

Besarat, Hossein Black, BIII

Heald, Erlc

Harris, Rob Nomerange, J. Welter, Ph.

Brazll Correa, Jairo, Jr.

McKelvle, John Morgan, Charlie Patton, Frank Phillips, Steve Pugh, Lynn Flehtlane, Erik Flipley, Bruce D. Smlth, Flod Stewart, Monica

Van WoudenberQ,Walter 2879

von Stedlngk, Vlcko Warren, Jlm Wllllams, Brian Zagorski, George

Flavio, Galli


Garavelll, Giuliano Hehman, Rlchard Kleler, Tony Lampertl, A. Lamperti, R. Mambrinl, Marlo Mambrlnl, Paola Marazio, Alfredo Muzzi, Francesco Nanzl, A. Patraw, G. Pauly, S. Plerluigl, Ravlolo Pietro, Ferrari Ralfo, E. Riccionl, Roberto Robotti, C. Robotti, F. Ross, Robin

Bardet, Michel Benoit, Mr. Benoit, Mrs.

Sasso, R. Silver, Marshall Trevisani, Gianluigi Triggs, J. Fred, Jr.

ChHe Karzulovic, Antonio L.

Federal Republic of Germany Guettler, Ulrlch

Bordes, Jean-Louis Llausu, Mr. Llausu, Mrs. Mariotti, Mr.

Perie, Pierre-Jean Varaksin, Mr. Varaksin, Mrs.

HODQ Kong Tak-Chung Yeung, Albert

Jamama Bryce, Roderick O.

Japan Nishiyama, Michio Ross, Robyn Silver, Marshall L.


Stoneberg, Donald Takahashi, Tatsuki Utsugi, Keisuke

Al Mohamadi, Nuri Moosa Alnouri, llham A. Al Shammari, Nidhal Hadi

Lebanon Jaber, Makram

|Sf36| Katzir, Moshe & Companion

Malaysia Low, Bak-Kong

Mdy Albano, Pera Baldl, Gualtiero Beomonte, Mario Bernard, R. Bruzzl, Domenlco Carlnl, Claudio Dasdla, L. Edgardo, Benassi Fabrizio, Vannelli


N6t|'lBf|8l'ld3 Cortlever, Hester Cortlever, Nico Cortlever, Nicolette Cortlever, Rob Joustra, Kees Mann, Ad

Middendorp, Peter Reldlng, Fokke


Van Den Berg, Arle F.P. Van Den Berg, Arie P. Voiders, Robert H.

Archibald, Eva Archibald, John Berglund, Per

Hermansson, lngemar NOFWBY


M rvoll Frank Nordskag, Farle Sorum, Hans

Jlgler, Sven-Erlk Kallerea, Lars Llw, Bengt-Erlk Mollerstrom, Nlls Petsonk, A.M. Rydell, Benett Sands, Martin J. Torstensson, B.A.

Oman Gorman, Alastair & BB|il‘lda

Syrla Adm, Mazen

PeopIe's Republlc of China Deng, Nan

Thalland Chirapuntu, Suphon

Republic of China Hselh, Hsli-Sheng Jong, Hsing-Llan Liang, Robert Y.K. Ou, Chang-Yu Tseng, Dar-Jen Wang, Jaw-Nang Wang, Yeh David


Turkey Alpay, Hasan Erdal Aslansan, Aysel Aslansan, Esat Dadasbilge, Kirhan Egin, Dincer Ersoz, Huseyin Mut, Taner Taspinar, Nilufer Hatun Taspinar, Zeynep Tezan, M. Brigva

Teck Chee, Goh Anthony

United States of America South Africa Cleaver, Colin

Acosta, Alex C. Adkins, Charles

Agostini, Jules Albrecht, Dr. E.D.

South Yemen Anwar, Hossain

Anderson, Gery Angle, Randy Anthony, K.S. Armour, Tom

Armstrong, Robert Arnold, J. Auxt, Jay A.


Bachner, John P. Bachner, Marcia

de Santayana, Fernando Pardo

Baum, David Bell, Bob

Bergqulst, Rich Berry, R.L.

Bessette, John 2881

Bldner, John Boley, Dennls L. Bolt, B.

Bonaparte. Rudy Bonomo, Ronald Botslord, Susan Ellzabeth Bourbonnals, Jacques Bowen, Richard Boyesen, Allen Bradfleld, Dean Brelvlk, Erlk

Brenner, Gordon M.

Brunner, Joseph Brush, E.E. Brylawski, Ed Buckley, Georgl Buergey, Ted Bullard, Bob Bumala, Tom Burgess, D.E.

Cameron, James T. Canier, R. Capelle, J.F. Carpenter, Jack Carroll, Bob Carter, Doug Carvllle, Chester Cawlfield, Jelf D.

Chern, Shiann-Jang Cherrington, Grant Gheski, Richard E. Cline, Willie

Collin, James G. Collins, T.G. Conatore, Paul Condrasholl, George Constant, Mae

Cotecchla, Susanna Coteccuia, Federica Coteccuia, Maria Cowell, Michael Crabtree, Marlan Cullum, Andy Daleng, Pawanni Daley, Jean H. Davis, Deb Dean, Diane M. Dean, Gary R. Denny, David Denton, R.C. Dobson, Tom Dondelanger, Marc Donohoe, John F. Drew, George DziubinskYi. Dan Edmunds, M.E. Edwards, S.F. Egan, Phlllp Erickson, Mlke Evans, Mark D. Fisher, J.R. Fletcher, Colln Foley, Kelth Forte, Ed


Furtado, Oscar L.P.A. Gardner, Bruce H. Gardner, Pat Glass, L. Glenn, A.J. Goble, George G. Golding, R.F. Goodman, Robert Gordon, Lance Gravare, Carl-John Grieg, James Grove, Bob Grunow, Bruce Gularte, Francls B. Guros, Frank Guzowskl, Rlchard Hall, Ann

Hall, Rosemary Halton, Brlan Hancock, Charlle Handy, Dr. Rlchard L. Handy, Kathryn Hanley, Paul Hanna, Tom Harris, Dick Hart, Alan Hart, David Hart, Harry

Heidt, James Heller, Karen Henoch, Leanne Herbst, Thomas

Hermansson, lngemar Hess, John D. Hlll, Christopher Hoedt, G. Den Holcomb, Jlm Holt, Cynthia Holtus, R.K.M. Hunt, Rae lmazumi, Robert

Jacobs, Paul Johansson, Lennart Johns, David Johns,Luann Johnson, Kenneth A. Jones, Roy Kammerer, Otto Keats, Douglas Keaveny, Joseph M. Kelley, Terrl Kln, Robert Kuhn, Matthew R. Kullberg, Robert LaFrance, Paul Lamberson, E.A.

Lang, Christopher Lang, Jordan Laron, Ygal Latlmer, Bob Leon, Eric Leonardl, Lou Leoncavallo, Rlch

Letterman, Ernle

Likins, Garland Lloyd, John Lucy, John Maas, Bill Maclntosh, Oliver

Madsen, Jack Magall, Shachar Mahony, Robert Mancuso, Jeanne Mancuso, Laura Mancuso, William Mangrum, Howard Marques, Rul M.C.S. Martin, Geoffrey R. Martinez, Elizabeth

Matheson, Bruce McCann, Joseph McCorsley, Curtis McGill, Chuck McKittrick, David P.

Mead, Steve Mikkelsen, Erik Miller, Stephen Milnor, Stefan Miner, Robert Mitchell, Mark Mizener, Rod Montgomery, T.H. Moore, Don Morgan, Keith L. Mullarkey, Ray

Newby, Jack Nicholson, A.J., Sr. Nicholson, Peter J. Nolan, Thomas A., Jr. Noren, Anders Nussbaumer, Roger O'Flynn, John Orduna, Tom Ostergren, Lars Pack, John Padilla, Manuel Pagano, Michael A. Papayoti, Greg Parkinson, Joe Patel, L.C. Paul, Jlm Philpotts, Jacqueline Philpotts, Lain Plaehn, Jurgen L. Price, J.T. Pujol-Rius, Alberto Pulos, Richard Pyke, Robert Rackers, John Reeves, Bruce Reitman, Chrls Relzine, Francois Reynolds, Gardner M. Rickert, H.C. Riggs, Charles Riggs, Gail Riggs, Joshua Roberts, Donald V.

Robinson, P. Rogers, Wllllam C. Rolllns, Kyle M.

Salmon, Linda Savage, Kathleen Scheller, Rlchard Seller, Mrs. Anouk Sellgren, Eskll Seybold, Robert Shewbrldge, Scott E. Shlels, Noel Shrlnlvasan, Krlshnan Shuster, John A. Shuster, Llnda Shuster, Susan H. Sllvls, Dlck Sllvls, Richard N. Slwek, Paul Smethurst, Arlene Smethurst, Ev Smith, Lanty Sobeckl, Eugene R. Solomon, Mlke Sousa Antunes, Elisabeth Staab, Fred Stanek, Edward Stark, Timothy D. Stasyshan, Rlck Stelnberger, Paul W.

Stephens, Llnda Stephens, T.C. Stevenson, Peter Stocker, M. Stoetzer, Erwln Strom, Miles Strutynsley, Andrew Stuhlreyer, Mark Svihra, S.J.

Sweeney, Sue

Tallard, Gilbert Tcmernlavsky, Bernard Tljmann, Blll Trabblc, Mlchael Tseng, H. Walte, Warren Walker, Steve Wallace, Jack Wang, Paul Ward, Lynn Waugh, Stu Weaver, Jeff Wetterllng, Staffan Whaley, Mlke Whiteaker, C.C. Wlgren, Merlin Wlttstock, Glen Wogellus, Jack Wong, K.K. Woodbury, Jerry Young, Gary Zellnka, Frank

Zerneke, J.L.

Unlted Kingdom Beatty, Davld Belshaw, D.J. Dalton, J.C.P. Evans, Fred Green, Malcolm Hawklns, P.G.

Jetley, G.


Jetley, Gilbert

Jones, Peter

Morrlson, J.G. Myles, Bernard Nlxon, Ivan

Parsons, M.A.G Salton, Mrs. S. Sllvls, Richard Sutton, John Uprlchard, S.T.

lndex of authors (Volumes 2, 3, 4, 5) Index des auteurs (Volumes 2, 3, 4, 5)

Abadjiev, C.B. (Bulgaria): 1231, 1235 Abd-El-Meguid, M.A. (Egypt): 1023 Abouleid, AF (Egypt): 965 Acar, YB. (USA): 1237 Acevedo, RM. (Chile): 2151 Adachi, T. (Japan): 709, 2619 Addo-Abedi, FY (Ghana): 2297 Adikari, G.S.N. (Australia): 713 Adolfsson, K. (Sweden): 1241 Agarwal, S.L. (India): 2397 Agha, A. (Pakistan): 1965 Agha, A.M. (Pakistan): 1817 Aguirre, L.M. (Mexico): 2381 Ahmed, M. (Pakistan): 1817 Ahpatelov D.M. (USSR): 937 Ah-Teck, C.Y (UK): 1117 Ajayi, L.A. (Nigeria): 969 Ajaz, A. (Pakistan): 1965 Akagi, H. (Japan): 1667 Akinyede, J.O. (Nigeria): 2447 Albert, L.F (Italy): 1581 Alencar, J.A. (Brazil): 859 Alfaro, H.M. (Mexico): 2722 Alonso, E.E. (Spain): 557, 813 Amar, S. (France): 2155 Amir, J.M. (Israel): 1329 Anagnosti, R (Yugoslavia): 2793 Anderson, WF (UK): 1333 Andrawes, K.Z. (UK): 1735 Angell, M.-G. (Italy): 2301 Antonsen, P (Norway): 603 Appendino, M. (ltaly): 2703 Arcones, A. (Spain): 1677 Arman, A. (USA): 2773 Armbruster, H. (FRG): 837 Arrigoni, E.L. (Italy): 2723 Arslan, U. (FRG): 443 Arz, P (FRG): 2827

Asaoka, A. (Japan): 2159 Ashby, J.R (New Zealand): 2307 Athanasopoulos, G.A. (Greece): 979 Atkinson, J.H. (UK): 983, 2630 Aubry, D. (France): 1849, 1969 Aufaure, M. (France): 1969

Azcue, F (Spain): 2239 Azzouz, A.S. (USA): 841

Binquet, J. (Netherlands): 2821 Blight, G.E. (South Africa): 1265, 1321

Babchia, M.Z. (France): 781 Bachner, J.P (USA): 2283 Bachus, R.C. (USA): 2658 Bagge, G. (Denmark): 393 Baguelin, F (France): 1587, 2155 Baker, R. (Israel): 1179 Bakholdin, BV (USSR): 1337 Balasubramaniam, A.S. (SE Asia):

1641 Baldi, G. (Italy): 1891 Baligh, M.M. (USA): 841 Balthaus, H.G. (FRG): 1341

Bansod, RS. (India): 1545 Baranski, T (Poland): 699 Barata, FE. (Brazil): 2163 Barla, G. (ltaly): 729 Barrett, A.J. (South Africa): 1347 Bartolomey A.A. (USSR): 1517 Batereau, C. (GDR): 1773 Battelino, D. (Yugoslavia): 1729 Bauer, E. (Austria): 695 Bazant, Z. (Czechoslovakia): 1469, 2737, 2744 Beine, R.A. (FRG): 1193 Belloni, L. (Italy): 2311 Bellotti, R. (Italy): 1891

Bengtsson, RE. (Sweden): 1521 Ben-Khayal, H.A. (USA): 1289 Bergado, DI (SE Asia): 1641 Bergdahl, U. (Sweden): 2167 Berggren, B. (Sweden): 1521 Berman, VI. (USSR): 1337 Bernander, J. (Sweden): 987 Bernander, S. (Sweden): 397, 987 Bernard, A. (Belgium): 1687 Berntson, J.A. (Sweden): 719 Berre,`l1 (Norway): 887 Bertrand, Y (France): 1969, 2621 Bhandari, R.K. (india): 1123 Bichara, M. (Brazil): 1369 Biernatowski, K. (Poland): 799 Biesiadecki, G.L. (USA): 1777 Bilz, P (GDR): 401, 629

Blondeau, E (France): 1649 Boehler, J.R (France): 407 Boesinger, E. (FRG): 2083 Bogossian, E (Brazil): 1001, 2859 Bolognesi, A.J.L. (Argentina): 2791 Bolton, M.D. (UK): 1845 Bonazzi, D. (France): 2793 Boncompain, B. (Canada): 2049 Bondesen, E. (Denmark): 1821 Bonnard, Ch. (Switzerland): 2317 Booker, J.R. (Australia): 725, 1293 Borja, R.l. (SE Asia): 535 Botea, E. (Romania): 1275 Bouchard, G. (France): 2209 Bourdeau, RL. (Switzerland): 803 Bovet, D. (Switzerland): 1225 Bozinovic, D. (Yugoslavia): 2385,

2846 Bozozuk, M. (Canada): 879, 1407 Brackley l.J.A. (South Africa): 1265 Branco, R (Canada): 2067 Brand, E.W (SE Asia): 991, 2541 Brandl, H. (Austria): 1525, 2761, 2764, 2776 Brassinga, H.E. (Netherlands): 687 Brauns, J. (FRG): 2359, 2793, 2828 2831 Brenner, R.R (Switzerland): 991 Briaud, J.L): 1275 Broms, B.B. (SE Asia): 1531, 2737, 2755, 2802 Brons, KF (Netherlands): 1683 Bros, B. (Poland): 1183 Brucy E (France): 845, 1607 Brunsden, D.K. (UK): 1163 Budiman, J.S. (USA): 1061, 1801 Burghignoli, A. (Italy): 1245 Burland, J.B. (UK): 51 1, 2678 Bustamante, M. (France): 1357, 2740 Butt, G.S. (Pakistan): 1973 By, `lTL. (Norway): 2171

Byrne, PM. (Canada): 2630


Caers, C.J. (Canada): 1293 Caki, L. (Yugoslavia): 2385, 2846 Calabresi, G. (Italy): 411 Calle, E.O.F (Netherlands): 633, 809 Campanella, R.G. (Canada): 849

Canepa, Y (France): 2155 Capata, V (italy): 2057 Carmo Ribeiro, J.VM.R (Brazil): 903 Carpentier, R. (Belgium): 1687 Carrillo, A. (Peru): 1937 Carruba, R (Italy): 1831 Cartier, G. (France): 2345 Casales G., C. (Mexico): 733 Cassinis, C. (Italy): 2057 Castillo, E. (Spain): 813 Cavalera, L. (ltaly): 415 Cavounidis, S. (Greece): 2813 Ceriani, G. (Italy): 2311 Chameau, J.L. (USA): 1861

Chan, SF (SE Asia): 2740 Chandra, S. (SE Asia): 1641 Chandrasekaran, VS. (India): 1113 Chang, C.S. (USA): 419 Charles, J.A. (UK): 201 1 , 2265 Charlie, WA. (USA): 997 Chen, X.Q. (China): 2389 Chen, YJ. (China): 1977, 2687, 2769 Chi, BRC. (SE Asia): 1693 Chin, C.H. (SE Asia): 21 17 Chin, FK. (SE Asia): 1361 , 2741 Chin, YK. (SE Asia): 1671 Choa, V (SE Asia): 1661 Choi, S.K. (Australia): 1397 Choi, YK. (USA): 587 Chouvet, D. (France): 1849 Chow WY (USA): 1615 Chowdhury, R.N. (Australia): 819 Christiansen, M. (France): 1649 Christie, l.F (UK): 423 Christoftersen, H.R (Norway): 907 Christoulas, S.G. (Greece): 1365 Chua, E.W (SE Asia): 1619 Chudnovsky, A. (USA): 637 Cichy W (Poland): 737 Cividini, A. (Italy): 729

Clausen, C.J.F (Norway): 1589 Clayton, C.R.l. (UK): 2235, 2695, 2819 Clerdouet, D. (France): 1969 Clough, G.W (USA): 1993 Clyde, C.G. (USA): 1203 Coleman, R.A. (Australia): 2175 Corio, B. (Yugoslavia): 2385, 2846 Coric, S. (Yugoslavia): 2385, 2846 Costa Nunes, A.J. (Brazil): 1369 Costopoulos, S.D. (Greece): 2063 Cragg, C.B.H. (Canada): 1853 Craig, WH. (UK): 1 101


Crooks, VE. (Canada): 1293 Cummins, PJ. (Australia): 713 Dakoulas, R (USA): 1865 Dallo, K.F (USA): 2179 Dalmatom B.l. (USSR): 855 Damov, K. (Bulgaria): 2001 Damy R., J. (Mexico): 733 Dannenberg, F (FRG): 2371 Danziger, FA.B. (Brazil): 2163 Dapena, J.E. (Spain): 2247 Darragh, R.D. (USA): 1615 Das, B.M. (USA): 2179 da Silva, A.B. (Brazil): 1631 David, D. (Israel): 2393 Davidson, J.L. (USA): 2676, 2699 De Beer, E.E. (Belgium): 2724 de Buhan, P (France): 1749 de Kruijff, H. (Netherlands): 1683 Delgado, A. (Spain): 2199 D'E|ia, B. (Italy): 1943 Delmas, Ph. (France): 1769 Dembicki, E. (Poland): 737 de Mello, J.R. (Brazil): 1631 de Mello, M.L. (Brazil): 2495 De Mello, R.N. (Brazil): 1001 , 2859 de Mello, VEB. (Brazil): 2473, 2489 Demeneghi, A. (Mexico): 741 Demirev A. (Bulgaria): 1837 den Haan, E.J. (Netherlands): 1575 den Hoedt, G. (Netherlands): 2834 Dennhardt, M. (GDR): 427 Denver, H. (Denmark): 2183, 2797 De Rouck, J. (Belgium): 1687 Desai, C.S. (USA): 433 Descoeudres, F (Switzerland): 2063 Deshmukh, A.M. (India): 2397 De Simone, R (Italy): 1373 Despond, J.M. (Switzerland): 803 De Wolf, R (Belgium): 1687 Dias Machado, CF (Brazil): 1001, 2859 Dierichs, D. (GDR): 437 Dietrich, I (FRG): 443 Dimitriu, D.V (Romania): 1553 Dobie, M.J.D. (Netherlands): 1575 Dobrescu, Gh. (Romania): 1553 Dobry, R. (USA): 1865 Dolezalova, M. (Czechoslovakia): 2099

Donaghe, RI (USA): 1073 Donald, LB. (Australia): 2041 Donchev, P (Bulgaria): 2435 Dontchem R (Bulgaria): 925 Dormieux, L. (France): 1049 Doyle, E.H. (USA): 1595 Du-Thinh, K. (Sweden): 2191 Dysli, M. (Switzerland): 747 Dyvik, R. (Norway): 1003

Ebel, W (FRG): 1193 Edil, TB. (USA): 681, 1007 Egorov, K.E. (USSR): 449 Eisenberger, M. (Israel): 793 Eisenstein, Z. (Canada): 2067 Eivemark, M.M. (Canada): 1739 Elleboudy A.M. (Egypt): 2321 Elprama, R. (Netherlands): 687 El Sharnouby B. (Egypt): 1449 El-Sohby, M.A. (Egypt): 2401 Ervin, M.C. (Australlia): 1377, 2660 Esu, F (Italy): 1943 Evstatiem D. (Bulgaria): 1127, 2435, 2761 Eyoubov, J.A. (USSR): 2443

Fages, R. (France): 2103 Farkas, J. (Hungary): 925 Farrar, D.M. (UK): 983 Faruque, M.O. (USA): 433 Favaretti, M. (Italy): 1035

Fay J.-B. (France): 845 Fayoux, D. (France): 1791 Federico, F. (Italy): 1207 Fedorova, S. (USSR): 937 Felix, B. (France): 451 Feng, Guo-dong (China): 1381 Fernandes, M. Matos (Portugal): 2073 Field, S.D. (USA): 1273 Figueroa, A.R. (Chile): 2151 Figueroa, L. (USA): 951 Filho, PR. (Brazil): 859 Finayeva, Tl. (USSR): 449 Finn, WD.L. (Canada): 751 Finno, R.J. (USA): 1993 Fiodorom l.S. (USSR): 1105 Focardi, P (Italy): 2325 Focht, J.A. Jr. (USA): 2855 Formazin, J. (GDR): 455, 459, 1773 Forster, W (GDR): 427, 437 Fourie, A. (UK): 511

Frank, R. (France): 2155, 2740 Franke, D. (GDR): 401 Franke, E. (FRG): 647, 1011, 2725,

2741, 2743 Fredlund, D.G. (Canada): 465 Fredriksson, A. (Sweden): 1383 Friis, J. (Non/vay): 2127 Fritzsohe, E. (GDR): 1805

Frossard, E. (France): 1969 Fry, J. (France): 1969 Fuchsberger, M. (FRG): 2801 Fuglevand, RF (USA): 2145 Fukuwaka, M. (Japan): 2137 Gabener, H.-G. (FRG): 597 Gandhi, N.S.VVS.J. (India): 669 Garbulewski, K. (Poland): 699 Garcia, E. (Peru): 1937

Garcia-Paredes, I. (Spain): 2247 Garneau, R. (Canada): 2049 Garzonio, C.A. (Italy): 2325 Gazetas, G. (USA): 1865 Gens, A. (Spain): 473, 1919 Gentil, R (Spain): 2199 Germaine, JI (USA): 2853, 2653 Germanov, I (Bulgaria): 2407 Ghionna, V (Italy): 1891 Gholly, A.V (USSR): 855 Ghosh, A. (india): 1 123 Gianeselli, L. (France): 1357, 2740 Glen/vielaniec, J. (Poland): 2331 Giglio, l.A. (Italy): 1315 Gillespie, D.G. (Canada): 849 Gioda, G. (ltaly): 729 Giroud, J.R (USA): 2773 Goel, M.C. (India): 1081 Goelen, E. (Belgium): 863 Goldin, A.L. (USSR): 477 Golombek, S. (Brazil): 1369 Gong, X.N. (China): 2291 Gonin, H. (France): 2209 Gonzalez, A. (Spain): 769

Goinéalez-Garcia, 7 A.J. (Colombia): Gourc, J.F! (France): 1769, 1791 Gouvenot, D. (France): 1249 Grant, VVP (USA): 2079 Gray, D.H. (USA): 1091 Greenwood, J.E. (UK): 2770 Grieg, J. (Canada): 849 Grigoruk, RD. (USSR): 2457 Grivas, D.A. (USA): 1951 Gryczmanski, M. (Poland): 487 Gual, R.A. (Mexico): 2748 Gudehus, G. (FRG): 489, 1697, 2083, 2620, 2704, 2772 Gudgeon, D.L. (UK): 1981 Guedes de Melo, FA. (Portugal): 1985 Guichaoua, A. (Canada): 1421 Guido, VA. (USA): 1777 Guler, E. (Turkey): 677 Gulhati, S.K. (lndia): 2397 Gunn, M.J. (UK): 2622 Gurtowski, `l1M. (USA): 1507 Gussmann, R (FRG): 825 Gwizdala, K. (Poland): 1479

Habib, R (France): 2681 Hagenaar, J. (Netherlands): 1599 Halkola, H. (Finland): 1717 Halleux, L. (Belgium): 863 Hallowes, G.R. (Pakistan): 1965 Hamamdshiew K.B. (Bulgaria): 2409 Hamelin, J.-R (France): 929 Hansbo, P (Sweden): 757 Hansbo, S. (Sweden): 2191 Hansen, B. (Denmark): 1387

Hansteen, O.E. (Norway): 1589 Harper, TG. (Canada): 2419 Harr, M.E. (USA): 1861 Hartford, D.N.D. (lreland): 495,

2339, 2622 Hartikainen, J. (Finland): 1535 Har1len,J. (Sweden): 583, 2696, 2702 Hanley G.A. (Canada): 1299 Hashiguchi, K. (Japan): 2623

Hashimoto, I (Japan): 2137 Hassinen, P (Finland): 1535 Hatanaka, M. (Japan): 1927 Haugen, T (Nonivay): 1401 Hausner, H. (GDR): 455, 459

Haws, EI (UK): 1253 Hayashi, S. (Japan): 503, 2782 He, X.F (China): 2389 Heikal, A.H. (Egypt): 1023 Heikkila, J.`l1 (Finland): 1499 Helander, R. (Finland): 2349 Henau, A. de (Belgium): 867 Hendry R.VV (South Africa): 1257 Heneghan, J.J. (USA): 1701 Hergarden, H.J.A.M. (Netherlands)


Heritier, B. (France): 2091 Herrmann, R. (FRG): 1129 Hight, D.VV (UK): 1919

Holeyman, A. (Belgium): 761 Holloway, D.M. (USA): 1615 Holmberg, G. (Sweden): 987 Holtz, R.D. (USA): 579, 2499, 2729 Holzlohner, U. (FRG): 507 Horeni, A. (Czechoslovakia): 2099 Horiuchi, T (Japan): 1393 Horn, A. (FRG): 1989 Horvath, Gy. (Hungary): 925

Horvath, R.G. (Canada): 2739 Horvitz, G.E. (USA): 2145 Houis, J. (France): 2821 Houlsby, G.`l1 (UK): 2624 Huang, Shao-keng (China): 1381 Huder, J. (Switzerland): 2095 Hueckel, `lT (Poland): 415 Huergo, PJ. (Belgium): 2195 Hughes, R.E. (UK): 1163 Hulla, J. (Czechoslovakia): 2099 Hulman, R. (Czechoslovakia): 765 Hult, G. (Sweden): 2167 Hurtado, J. (France): 2711 Huynh, R (France): 2367 Hyde, A.FL. (UK): 2682 Hytiris, N. (UK): 1735

ldriss, l.M. (USA): 2857 llyicheV VA. (USSR): 2785

lsacsson, K. (Sweden): 987 lshihara, K. (Japan): 1015 lshola, A. (Ghana): 1199

lvanov, PL. (USSR): 1905 lwashita, F (Japan): 2733 lzbicki, R.J. (Poland): 2331 lzharul, H. (Pakistan): 1185

Jaaskelainen, H. (Finland): 2415 Jacobsen, H.M. (Denmark): 1781 Jamiolkowski, M. (Italy): 1891, 2653, 2853 Janbu, N. (Norway): 941 Jaramillo, A. (Spain): 769, 2199 Jardine, R.J. (UK): 511 Jefferis, S.A. (UK): 2714 Jellev, J. (Bulgaria): 937, 2435 Jesenak, JR (Czechoslovakia): 1189 Jessberger, H.L. (FRG): 1193 Jewell, R.A. (UK): 1705 Jeyapalan, J.K. (USA): 2710, 2791 Jezequel, J.F (France): 1587 Jimenez-Salas, J.A. (Spain): 2745 Johannesson, L.E. (Sweden): 871 Johnston, l.VV (Australia): 515, 1397 Jones, C.J.FP (UK): 1709 Jones, D.K.C. (UK): 1163 Jong, H.-L. (SE Asia): 535 Joss, D.A. (South Africa): 2121 Josseaume, H. (France): 451 Juarez-Badillo, E. (Mexico): 519, 933 Juran, I. (France): 1713 Justo, J.L. (Spain): 769, 2199 Kabbaj, M. (Canada): 407, 2691 Kaino, T (Japan): 1541 Kalteziotis, N.A. (Greece): 531 , 773, 1657 Kany, M. (FRG): 1129 Karachorov, P (Bulgaria): 1127 Karatchorov, R (Bulgaria): 925 Karlsrud, K. (Norway): 1401 Karunaratne, G.P (SE Asia): 1661 Kast, K. (FRG): 2359, 2828 Kastner, R. (France): 2103 Katti, D.R. (India): 1545 Katti, R.K. (India): 1545, 2848 Kavazanjian, E. Jr. (USA): 535, 2625 Kawamura, K. (Japan): 1155 Kay, J.N. (Australia): 913 Keenan, G.H. (Canada): 1407 Kenana, A. (France): 451 Kennedy, M.R. (USA): 637 Kerreit, M. (GDR): 1805 Khaliq, A. (Pakistan): 1185 Khan, l.H. (UK): 1603 Khanin, R.E. (USSR): 1489 Kharaka, VK. (USA): 1203 Khomenko, VR (USSR): 2457 Kielbratowska, D. (Poland): 777


Kimura, T (Japan): 1109, 2780 King, G.J.W (UK): 1113 Kirov B. (Bulgaria): 2407 Kirwan, R.W (Ireland): 495 Kishida, H. (Japan): 1413 Kitazume, M. (Japan): 1757 Kjekstad, O. (Norway): 1589 Klapperich, H. (FRG): 1873 Kleiner, D.E. (USA): 2363 Klepikov, S.N. (USSR): 2457 Klohn, E.J. (Canada): 2419 Klos, J. (Poland): 1479 Knodel, RC. (USA): 1653 Knudsen, B. (Denmark): 2427 Ko, H.-Y (USA): 1061

Kobayashi, Y (Japan): 2223 Koerner, R.M. (USA): 875 Kogure, K. (Japan): 2461 Kohler, R (Switzerland): 1883

Kokusho, T (Japan): 1897 Koiymbas, D. (FRG): 489, 2083, 2626 Komomik, A. (Israel): 2393, 2835 Komulainen, H. (Finland): 1535 Konderla, H. (Poland): 1065 Konnov, A.V (USSR): 1511 Konrad, J.-M. (Canada): 879 Korhonen, K.-H. (Finland): 539,

2205 Korhonen, O.E. (Finland): 1795 Korkiala, L. (Finland): 2205 Kosaka, M. (Japan): 2223 Kosar, K.M. (Canada): 653 Koudelka, R (Czechoslovakia): 2431 V

Kovac, L. (Czechoslovakia): 2099 Koyama, H. (Japan): 575 Kreutz, B. (FRG): 1441 Krizek, R.J. (USA): 1217 Kruizinga, J. (Netherlands): 1417 Kryzhanovsky A.L. (USSR): 543 Kuberan, R. (India): 691 Kujala, K. (Finland): 1717 Kulhawy FH. (USA): 1549 Kulkami, D.G. (India): 2003 Kulkami, K.R. (India): 1113 Kulkami, M.V (India): 2003 Kulkami, R.R (India): 2003 Kumapley, N.K. (Ghana): 1199 Kumbasar, V (Turkey): 1159 Kuppers, J.A.G. (Netherlands): 1455 Kuppusamy T (USA): 1993 Kusakabe, O. (Japan): 1109 Kuzma, J. (Czechoslovakia): 765 Kyrou, K. (Greece): 773, 1657 Kysela, Z. (Czechoslovakia): 2431

1 ( >­

Laaksonen R. Finland '539 Lacasse, S. (Non/vay): 887, 1003, 2663, 2683


Lacerda, WA. (Brazil): 567 Ladanyi, B. (Canada): 1421, 2627 Ladd, C.C. (USA): 2653, 2853 Lade, RV (USA): 549 Lahtinen, R (Finland): 1717 Lakshmanan, J. (France): 921 Lam, YC. (USA): 785 Lambe, TW (USA): 2035 Lancellotta, R. (ltaly): 2653, 2853 Landazuri, J.l. (USA): 1701 Landby A.R. (South Africa): 1265 Lang, H.J. (Switzerland): 2095 Larnach, WJ. (UK): 2273 La Rochelle, R (Canada): 2705 Larsson, R. (Sweden): 757 Law K.T (Canada): 879, 893, 1853 Leach, B.A. (UK): 673, 2666 Leblais, Y (France): 2209 Lechowicz, Z. (Poland): 699 Leclercq, B. (France): 1791 Ledbetter, R.H. (USA): 751 Lee, C_F (Canada): 1853 Lee, S.L. (SE Asia): 1661 Lee, YH. (SE Asia): 1649 Lefebvre, G. (Norway): 887 Leflaive, E. (France): 1787, 1791 Legge, J.D. (South Africa): 1347 Leguay, R (France): 995 Lelievre, B. (Canada): 1825 Lemos, L. (UK): 1955 Leon T, J.L. (Mexico): 933 Leonards, G.A. (USA): 2659, 2674 Leroueil, S. (Canada): 2691 , 2693 Leshin, G.M. (USSR): 1489 Le Tirant, R (France): 845, 1607 Leung, C_F (SE Asia): 1429 Lewin, Rl. (UK): 553 Lewis, K.H. (USA): 1289 Li, G.-X. (China): 621 Likar, J. (Yugoslavia): 1475 Lino, M. (France): 1901, 2621 Lisyuk, M.B. (USSR): 855 Liu, J.L. (China): 1433 Liu, Zu-de (China): 1381 Lloret, A. (Spain): 557 Lo, K.W (SE Asia): 1661

Lo, R.C. (Canada): 2419 Lojander, M. (Finland): 2205 Lopes, FR. (Brazil): 899 Lopes, RC.C. (Brazil): 903 Lopez, R.S. (Canada): 1299 Lord, A.E. Jr. (USA): 875 Loret, B. (France): 563 Lu,Z.J. (China): 1135 Lu, Z.W (China): 2389 Ludwig, H. (USA): 1721 Luger, H.J. (Netherlands): 1437,

1575 _

Lukas, R.G. (USA): 1725 Lundahl, B. (Sweden): 1521

Lundgren, H. (Denmark): 1821 Lunne, T (Nonfvay): 907 Luong, M.R (France): 563, 1019 Lutenegger, A.J. (USA): 2409, 2761

Madabhushi, G.V (USA): 1203 Magnan, J.R (France): 451 , 781, 2499 Magnussen, E. (Sweden): 1521 Mair, R.J. (UK): 1709, 2641 Majchrzyk, K. (Poland): 1055 Majes, B. (Yugoslavia): 1729 Makihara, Y (Japan): 1927 Makinen, R. (Finland): 2415 Maldonado, R. (Colombia): 2107 Malmborg, B.S. (Sweden): 1997 Malone, A.W (UK): 2647 Manie, B. (UK): 2235 Manoliu, I. (Romania): 1553 Manzanares, J.L. (Spain): 769 Maranha Das Neves, E. (Portugal): 2021, 2025 Marchetti, S. (Italy): 2667 Marciano, E. (USA): 1861 Marcuson, WF III (USA): 2788 Markom G. (Bulgaria): 2001 Markovic, G. (Yugoslavia): 2385, 2846 Martin, RL. (UK): 1253 Martin, R. (USA): 841, 1003 Martins, l.S.M. (Brazil): 567 Martins, J.B. (Portugal): 2335 Maslov, N.N. (USSR): 1905 Masrouri, F (France): 2103 Massad, F (Brazil): 21 13 Massarsch, K.R. (Sweden): 571 Maswoswe, J. (UK): 511 Matos, A.C. (Portugal): 2325 Matsuo, M. (Japan): 831 Matsuoka, H. (Japan): 575 Matthews, M.C. (UK): 2819 Matyas, E.L. (Canada): 1825 Maugeri, M. (Italy): 1831 Mayer, B.K. (FRG): 1441 Mayne, RW (USA): 579 Mazen, O. (Egypt): 2401 Mazet, Y (France): 921 Mazzucato, A. (Italy): 1035 McDonald, R (Australia): 2213 McGown, A. (UK): 1735 Medeiros, L.V (Brazil): 2031 Medina, F.J. (Chile): 2151 Mehigan, RJ. (Ireland): 2339 Meimon, Y (France): 1587 MeI'nik, VG. (USSR): 1105 Mendoza, M.J. (Mexico): 583 Mercer, FB. (UK): 1735 Merkler, G.R (FRG): 837 Meseck, H. (FRG): 1341 Mesri, G. (USA): 587, 2689

Mestchyan, S.R. (USSR): 2443 Metelyuk, N.S. (USSR): 2457 Mey, R. (Spain): 1559 Michel, A.G. (USSR): 477 Miki, G. (Japan): 2742 Milev, G. (Bulgaria): 1127 Milovic, D.M. (Yugoslavia): 591 Minkov, M. (Bulgaria): 925, 2435 Mitchell, RW (Australia): 913 Miura, N. (Japan): 1445 Moh, Z.C. (SE Asia): 1503 Mohamad, R. (USA): 1865 Mohan, D. (lndia): 2738 Moller, B. (Sweden): 1271 Mongiovi', L. (Italy): 1909 Monjoie, A. (Belgium): 863

Monnet, J. (France): 2103 Montarges, R. (France): 845 Moore, RJ. (Australia): 21 17 Moore, S.R. (UK): 2695 Moreno, R. (USA): 2179 Moreno-Barbera, F (Spain): 1565 Moretto, O. (Argentina): 2741 Mori, A. (Japan): 1667 Mori, S. (Japan): 2461 Morita, Y (Japan): 613 Morrison, M.J. (USA): 841 Motoki, M. (Japan): 503 Mouelhi, M. (France): 2367 Moussa, A.A. (Egypt): 1023 Moza, K.K. (lndia): 2849 Mulders, G.L.M. (Netherlands): 633 Murray, R.T (UK): 1117, 1709 Musante, H. (Chile): 917 Musso, A. (Italy): 1207

Mustafayev A.A. (USSR): 2443 Muth, G. (FRG): 1011 Muxfeldt, A.S. (Brazil): 1001, 2859 Muzas, F (Spain): 1565 Muzzi, F (Italy): 2785 Naborczyk, J. (Poland): 2453 Nada, K. (Japan): 2223 Nag, C.R (lndia): 1077 Nagarkar, RK. (lndia): 2003 Nagasaki, K. (Japan): 1897 Nakai, S. (Japan): 1413 Nakase, A. (Japan): 1109 Nanda, R.L. (Nigeria): 2447 Narayan, V (lndia): 2133 Naresh, D.N. (lndia): 1545 Nash, D.F.T. (UK): 1163

Nasu, M. (Japan): 1869 Nauroy, J.-F (France): 1607 Nelissen, H.A.M. (Netherlands): 1417 Nendza, H. (FRG): 597 Nene, A.S. (lndia): 1627 Netterberg, F (South Africa): 1041 Nilson, G. (Sweden): 1271

Nishida, Y. (Japan): 2731 Nishihara, A. (Japan): 613 Nisio, R (Italy): 2057 Niyama, S. (Brazil): 1631 Nogami, T. (USA): 785 Nomerange, J. (Belgium): 863 Noorany, I. (USA): 1611 Nordal, S. (Nonfvay): 603 Nova, R. (Italy): 607, 2629 Novak, M. (Canada): 1449 Novello, E.A. (Australia): 515 Nozawa, D. (Japan): 1869

Perrier, H. (France): 1769 Perrin, A.J. (UK): 2277 Pescatore, TS. (Italy): 1943 Peter, R (Czechoslovakia): 2015 Petrasovits, G. (Hungary): 925 Pfister, R (France): 929 Pietsch, C. (GDR): 401, 629 Pitano, l.A. (Venezuela): 2259 Pilot, G. (France): 2345 Pimenta, R (Portugal): 2335 Pinto, C.R (Brazil): 2163

Oboni, F. (Switzerland): 2317 Ochiai, H. (Japan): 503, 2782 Ochmann, H. (FRG): 825 Ohira, Y (Japan): 2461 Ohneda, H. (Japan): 1931 Oh-Oka, H. (Japan): 1927 Ohta, H. (Japan): 613 Okamoto, T (Japan): 1027 Okay, M. (Brazil): 1369 Okdah, S.M. (Egypt): 1023 Olivieri, I. (USA): 1237 Omori, H. (Japan): 2733 O'Neill, M. (USA): 2855 Ontuna, A.K. (USA): 1061 Oostveen, J.R (Netherlands): 1455 Ordemir, I. (Turkey): 2217 Orozco, J.M. (Mexico): 933 Orr, TL.L. (Ireland): 2648 Ortigosa, R (Chile): 917 Oteo, C.S. (Spain): 1559 Ottosson, E. (Sweden): 2167

Plumelle, C. (France): 2091 Poorooshasb, H. (Canada): 2619 Popovic, M. (Yugoslavia): 641 Post, G. (France): 1901, 2793 Posthumus, L.RM. (Netherlands): 2037 Potts, D.M. (UK): 2265 Pouget, R (France): 2345 Poulos, H.G. (Australia): 1619, 2742 Poupart, M. (France): 1969 Powell, J.J.M. (UK): 553 Prakash, S. (lndia): 1623 Prater, E.G. (Switzerland): 1959 Pregl, O. (Austria): 2227 Price, G. (UK): 2235 Priebel, H. (FRG): 1753 Prinzl, F (Austria): 695 Prochazka, R (Czechoslovakia): 2431 Pruska, L. (Czechoslovakia): 617 Pu, J.-L. (China): 621 Puig, J. (France): 1791 Pusch, R. (Sweden): 1221

Qzawa, Y (Japan): 2223 Qzaydin, I.K. (Turkey): 1159 Ozkan, Y (Turkey): 2217 Ozudogru, K.G. (Turkey): 1031

Paavola, RK. (Finland): 1499 Palka, J. (Poland): 2453 Pandey, Y (lndia): 1123 Paoliani, R (Italy): 1245 Pare, J.J. (Canada): 2049 Parez, L. (France): 2739 Park, T.K. (USA): 1615 Parkin, A.K. (Australia): 2007 Parylak, K. (Poland): 1183 Pasqualini, E. (Italy): 1891 Pavilonsky, VM. (USSR): 1213 Pecker, A. (France): 921 Pedler, l.\l (Australia): 2231 Pelkkikangas, M.K. (Finland): 1499 Pellegrino, A. (Italy): 1943 Pelletier, J.H. (USA): 1595 Pells, RJ.N. (Australia): 1377 Pender, M.J. (New Zealand): 2632 Penman, A.D.M. (UK): 2011 Perez, T (USA): 1217 Perlea, Y (Romania): 1275

Piygl, M. (France):>451 Plant, G.W (South Africa): 2121

Radhakrishnan, R. (SE Asia): 1429 Radulescu, N. (Romania): 1553 Raisbeck, D. (Australia): 2231 Rajani, B.B. (Venezuela): 2259 Ramamurthy, T (lndia): 1077 Rammer, L. (Austria): 2375 Randolph, MF (UK): 1 1 17, 2743 Ranjan, G. (lndia): 1623, 1627 Rathmayer, H.G. (Finland): 1795 Rattue, A. (Canada): 2049 Ravaska, O. (Finland): 2415 Ravinger, R. (Czechoslovakia): 2099 Razbegin, YN. (USSR): 625 Rea, C.E. (Zimbabwe): 1281 Recordon, E. (Switzerland): 1225 Reese, L.C. (USA): 2738 Rehman, Ch.A.U. (Pakistan): 1973 Repetto, RC. (Peru): 2599 Resendiz, D. (Mexico): 2753 Retamal, E. (Chile): 917 Reyad, M.M. (Egypt): 965 Ribeiro, A.TF (Brazil): 899


Ricceri, G. (Italy): 1035 Ricciardi, R (Italy): 1877 Richardson, D. (UK): 2630 Richart, F.E. Jr. (USA): 1091 Rickard, C.E. (UK): 2235 Rico, A.S. (Mexico): 2698 Rico R., A. (Mexico): 933 Ripper, R (FRG): 2253 Roberts, D.V (USA): 2283

Robertson, RK. (Canada): 849 Robinson, K.E. (South Africa): 1739 Rocchi, G.F. (Italy): 1581 Rocha, J.L.R. (Brazil): 1631

Rodriguez, C. (Switzerland): 1883 Rodriguez, J.E. (Spain): 769 Rodriguez-Roa, R (Chile): 789 Rojas-Gonzalez, LF (Chile): 1289 Romana, M. (Spain): 2822 Romero, S.U. (Spain): 2239 Romo, M.R (Mexico): 2753 Rondot, E. (France): 2367 Rosen, R. (Sweden): 1383 Rossetti, M. (Italy): 1877 Rossi, M.N. (Brazil): 2031 Rothenburg, L. (Canada): 1825 Roti, J.A. (Norway): 2127 Rowe, R.K. (Canada): 1293, 2632, 2635 Rozsa, L. (Hungary): 1459 Rudert, J. (GDR): 629 Ruiz De Temino, E. (Spain): 1677 Runesson, K. (Sweden): 757 Ruygrok, RA. (Netherlands): 633 Rydel, B.G. (Sweden): 1241

Saada, A.S. (USA): 637 Saeed, I. (Pakistan): 1965 Sagaseta, C. (Spain): 2632, 2637 Saini, S.S. (India): 1081 Saitoh, K. (Japan): 1 109, 2780 Saitoh, S. (Japan): 1745 Salden, D. (FRG): 1055 Salengon, J. (France): 1749 Salllors, G.B. (Sweden): 719, 1241 Salt, G. (New Zealand): 1167 Samol, H. (FRG): 1753 Sampson, L.R. (South Africa): 1041 Sanchez Del Rio, J. (Spain): 1559 Sanders, R.L. (UK): 1811 Santos, S.H.C. (Brazil): 2269 Sapio, G. (Italy): 1373 Sarac, Dz. (Yugoslavia): 641 Saran, S. (India): 1627 Sarfeld, W (FRG): 1873 Sarsby, R.W (UK): 531 Sassa, K. (Japan): 1173 Sato, S. (Japan): 2732 Saura, J. (Spain): 769, 2199 Saveri, E. (Italy): 1139 Savidis, S. (Greece): 1873


Savvina, VA. (USSR): 1105 Saxena, S.K. (USA): 1801, 2758 Scarpelli, G. (Italy): 411 Scheltler, H. (GDR): 1805 Schetelig, K. (FRG): 647, 2371. 2823 Schlosser, E (France): 1713, 2499 Schmidt, H.G. (FRG): 1569 Schnabel, H. (USA): 1721 Schober, W (Austria): 2375, 2700 Schulz, H. (FRG): 1441, 2243 Schwab, E. (Austria): 1049 Schwab, H.H. (FRG): 1913 Schwarz, W (FRG): 1697 Scott, J.D. (Canada): 653 Séco E.Pinto, RS. (Portugal): 2025 Sedlecky O. (Czechoslovakia): 1469 Seitz, J. (FRG): 1341 Sellgren, E. (Sweden): 1463 Sellner, R. (FRG): 2371 Selvadurai, A.RS. (Canada): 1299 Serrano, A.A. (Spain): 2247 Shafiee, S. (France): 1713 Shahanguian, S. (France): 451 Shanov, St. (Bulgaria): 1837 Sharma, K.G. (India): 691 Shcherbina, VI. (USSR): 1105 Shen, Z.J. (China): 659 Shibuya, S. (UK): 1919 Shirai, K. (Japan): 1745 Shulman, S.G. (USSR): 477 Shulyatjem O.A. (USSR): 855 Siddharthan, R. (Canada): 751 Sieradzki, M. (Poland): 737 Sikora, Z. (Poland): 737 Silva, F (USA): 2035 Silvestri, T (Italy): 1877 Simek, J. (Czechoslovakia): 1469 Simonetti, S. (Italy): 2716 Simonini, R (Italy): 1035 Simons, N.E. (UK): 2235 Simpson, B. (UK): 2630, 2632, 2639, 2650 Singh, B. (India): 1081 Skempton, A.W (UK): 1955, 2581 Slunga, E. (Finland): 1535, 2349, 2735 Small, J.C. (Australia): 725 Smith, A.C. (South Africa): 1265 Smith, D.M.A. (Australia): 663 Smith, E.S. (USA): 1307 Smith, TD. (USA): 1353 Smoltczyk, U. (FRG): 1055 Som, N. (India): 2133 Sommer, H. (FRG): 2253 Soranzo, M. (Italy): 1035 Soriano, A. (Spain): 1559, 1677 Sorochan, E.A. (USSR): 2457 Souflis, C. (USA): 1951

Souto, E. (Brazil): 2793 Sovinc, I. (Yugoslavia): 1475 Sridharan, A. (India): 669 Steedman, R.S. (UK): 1845 Steenfelt, J.S. (Denmark): 2806 Stefanoff, G. (Bulgaria): 937, 2435 Stocker, MF (FRG): 2737 Stordal, A. (Norway): 941 Studer, J.A. (Switzerland): 2790 Sture, S. (USA): 1061 Suchnicka, H.B. (Poland): 1065 Sulaiman, J.l. (UK): 1333 Sullivan, M.J. (USA): 1777 Sully, J.R (Venezuela): 2259, 2673 Sun, V-S. (China): 621 Sutjiadi, W (Netherlands): 1635 Suzuki, H. (Japan): 831 Suzuki, Y (Japan): 1413, 1745 Svensk, I. (Sweden): 987 Symes, M.J. (UK): 1919 Symons, l.F (UK): 2265, 2641 Szymahski, A. (Poland): 699

Takemura, J. (Japan): 2780 Tam, H.K. (SE Asia): 991

Tamura, T (Japan): 709 Tan, C.R (Austria): 2041 Tan, S.B. (SE Asia): 1671 Tan, S.L. (SE Asia): 1671

Tanaka, Y (Japan): 1069 Tanimoto, K. (Japan): 1069 Tarallo, F (Belgium): 2141 Tavares, A.X. (Brazil): 945 Tavenas, R (Canada): 2691 , 2693 Tavoda, O. (Czechoslovakia): 2015 Tavora Pinho, J.C. (Brazil): 1369 Teitel'baum,A.l. (USSR): 1105 Tejchman, A. (Poland): 1479 Temporal, J. (UK): 1709 Terashi, M. (Japan): 1757 Termaat, R.J. (Netherlands): 633,

2045 Ter-Martirosyan, Z.G. (USSR): 543 Thiers, G.R. (USA): 1307 Thijs, M. (Belgium): 867 Thimus, J.R (Belgium): 863 Thompson, R.R (UK): 673, 2666 Tidfors, M. (Sweden): 1241 Tillard, C. (France): 2209 Ting, WH. (SE Asia):1483 Tjelta, Tl. (Norway): 907 Togrol, E. (Turkey): 677 Toh, C.T (SE Asia): 1483 Toha, FX. (Indonesia): 681, 1007 Tolmachyov, VV (USSR): 2457 Tominaga, M. (Japan): 2137 Tonks, D.M. (UK): 423 Tonnisen, JV (Netherlands): 1575 Tornaghi, R. (Italy): 1139 Torrey VH. (USA): 1073

Towhata, I. (Japan): 1015 Tremblay, M. (Sweden): 2702 Troconis, C.M. (Venezuela): 2035 Trofimenkov YG. (USSR): 1489 Troitzky, G.M. (USSR): 2457 Troncoso, J.H. (Chile): 1311 Tsai, J. (USA): 549 Tsien, S.l. (China): 2750 Tucker, L.M. (USA): 1353

Turcek, R (Czechoslovakia): 2099 Tyagi, G.R.S. (USA): 1623

Umehara, Y (Japan): 1931 Uriel, A. (Spain): 1565 Valenti, J.M. (Spain): 2239 Vallejo, L.E. (USA): 2353, 2709 Valore, C. (Italy): 1315 Valverde, S. (Brazil): 1631 Van Damme, L. (Belgium): 1687 Van lmpe, WE (Belgium): 1493,

2724, 2736 van Rijt, C. (Netherlands): 687 van Seters, A. (Netherlands): 1599 van Tol, A.F (Netherlands): 687


van Weele A.F Netherlands :2719 Van Zyl, D.J.A. (USA): 1149 Varadarajan, A. (India): 691 Varisco, D. (Italy): 1581 Vaughan, RR. (UK): 1955 Veder, Ch. (Austria): 695 Veiga Pinto, A. (Portugal): 2021 Velloso, D. de Alencar (Brazil): 2269 Venezia, B. (Italy): 2716

Venkatappa Rao, G. (India): 1077, 2397 Ventura, R (Italy): 1145 Verbrugge, J.C. (Belgium): 2195 Verdugo, R. (Chile): 1311 Vergeer, G.J.H. (Netherlands): 2045 Verma, N.S. (Canada): 2049

Vermeer, RA. (Netherlands): 1635, 2045 Veronelli, R (Italy): 1581 Veyera, G.E. (USA): 997

Viergever, M.A. (Netherlands): 947 Vigier, G. (France): 2367 VogrinZ:iE:, G. (Yugoslavia): 1475

Von Thun, J.L. (USA): 2593 Vuilleumier, F. (Switzerland): 1883 Vutkov, V (Bulgaria): 1837 Vutsel, VI. (USSR): 1105 Vyalov, S.S. (USSR): 625

Wahed Hassani, A. (India): 1081 Walbancke, H.J. (UK): 1981 Walter, A. (Poland): 777 Walter, J.R (France): 2141 Wardle, l. (UK): 2235 Wardwell, R.E. (USA): 1149 Weatherby, D.E. (USA): 1721 Webb, D.L. (South Africa): 1761 Welter, Ph. (Belgium): 863 Whalley, BF (UK): 1163 Whitman, R.V (USA): 1923 Wiberg, N.-E. (Sweden): 757 Widdis, TF (Ireland): 1085 Wlkstrom, R.G.M. (Finland): 1499 Williams, D. (UK): 1811

Wittmann, R (FRG): 2253 Wolski, W (Poland): 699 Wong, l.H. (SE Asia): 2737, 2755. 2802 Wong, K.S. (SE Asia): 2755 Wong, T (USA): 1149 Woo, S.M. (SE Asia): 1503 Wood, D.M. (UK): 703 Wood, L.A. (UK): 2273, 2277 Woods, A. (Zimbabwe): 1281 Woods, R.D. (USA): 979 Wrench, B.R (South Africa):

1321 ,1 347 Wright, D. (South Africa): 1257 Wu, M.J. (USA): 1507 Wu, S. (China): 1091 Wu, X.M. (China): 1135

Yajima, M. (Japan): 1757 Yakovleva, TG. (USSR): 1105 Yamada, Y (SE Asia): 1641 Yamaguchi, H. (Japan): 2461 Yamamoto, T (USA): 951 Yamane, G. (USA): 1507 Yamazaki, A. (Japan): 1015 Yang, J.-S. (SE Asia):1693 Yankelevsky D.Z. (Israel): 793 Yashima, A. (Japan): 709 Yasuhara, K. (Japan): 1095 Yong, K.Y (SE Asia): 1333, 1661 Yoshida, Y (Japan): 1897 Yoshima, Y (Japan): 1927, 2611 Yu, TH. (UK): 1253 Yuan, Z.L. (China): 1433 Yushkov B.S. (USSR): 1517

Zaczek, Y (Belgium): 1839 Zadroga, B. (Poland): 737 Zarate, M. (Mexico): 2381 Zelikson, A. (France): 955 Zen, K. (Japan): 1931 Zeng, G.X. (China): 2291 Zhang, FL. (China): 959 Zhang, G.X. (China): 959 Zhang, K.R (China): 1433 Zhang, N.R. (China): 959 Zhang, Z.S. (China): 1135 Zigman, F (Yugoslavia): 1475 Zimmermann, Th. (Switzerland): 1883 Zipper, J.E. (USA): 2145 Znamensky, VV (USSR): 1511


Minutes of the Executive Committee Meetings Proces-verbal des Reunions du Comité Exécutif

International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Minutes of the Executive Committee Meeting held at UNESCO Building, Place de Fontenov Paris (16 May 1983 from 13.30 to 18.20 and 17 May 1983 from 9.00 to 13.00 and 15.00 to 18.00) Société Internationale de Mécanique des Sols et des Travaux de Fondations Proces-verbal de Réunion du Comité Exécutif tenu dans |’UNESCO Building, Place de Fontenoy Paris (16 Mai

1983 de 13h30 a1an2oe117Mai de 9h a 13h etde 15h a18h)


President (Chairman)

Past Presidents Vice-Presidents

Prof. V.F.B. de Mello Prof. M. Fukuoka

Prof. J. Kerisel Mr L.C. Wilson

Prof. F.K. Chin

Mr R.D. Northey

Prof. A. Croce

Mr C.B. Crawford Prof J.C. Hiedra-Lopez

Other Steering Committee Member

Technical Committee Chairmen

Secretary P.C.S. IAEG Representative ICOLD Representative ISRM Representative

Secretary General

Prof Prof Prof Prof Prof Mr J

B. BI`0ll\S

Mr N


Africa Asia

Australasia Europe

North America South America

Z. Eisenstein P. La Rochelle E.E. de Beer M. Langer


Dr R .H.G.


Apologiesk Steering Committee

Dr E




Prof H. Lopez (VP)


Prof. de Beer Prof. H. Lopez (VP)

Prof. Lousberg

Prof G. Petrasovits

or. J-P. Remy

Prof Lu Zhao-Jun Prof H. Lopez (VP)

Mr Sun Jia-Zhi


Australia Austria Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria


Chile China Colombia

Costa Rica Czechoslovakia Denmark


Prof J.B. Burland

Dr R.D. Northey (VP) Prof U. Smoltczyk (FRG) Dr J. Gusmao

Mr A.G. Stermac

Dr B. Kamenov

Prof N.K. Ovesen

Dominican Republic Ecuador EQYPC

Finland France

Mr H. Wihuri

Mr L. Parez


Prof U. Smoltczyk


Dr Fyodorov (USSR)


Greece Hungary

India Indonesia Iran Ireland

Israel Italy


§r. Jorgen Steenfelt Mr Partio Mr P. Florentin

Mr O. Manos

Prof. G. Petrosovits Prof. S. Prakash

Prof. T. Ramamurthy

Dr T. Orr

Mr R. Manson

Prof. J.G. Zeitlen

Prof. G. Wiseman

Dr M. Dolcetta


Japan Mr DrC.B. T. Kimura Mexico Crawford (VP)

Morocco ' Leeuw Netherlands Mr E.H. de Nigeria MF L-AAjaYi Norway Mr. K. Senneset Pakistan Paraquay ­' Romania ­ S.E. Asia Ting Wen Hui

Dr Adachi

New Zealand Mr R.D. Northey (VP)

Peru ­ Poland

Prof. H. Holski


Mr Maranha des Neves

South Africa

Mr L.C. Wilson (VP)

Spain Prof. Jimenez Salas Sweden Prof. S. Hansbo Switzerland Prof. U. Smoltczyk (FRG)

Dr V. Escario

Syria Mr F. Mawlawi Turkey Prof. E. Togrol UK Mr P.H.E. Green USA Prof. Wahls USSR Dr B.S. Fyodorov

Mr N. Takriti Prof. P. Wroth Prof. H. Bolton Seed Dr Y.G. Trofimenkov

Venezuela (VP) YugoslaviaProf. Prof.H.D.Lopez Milovic

Zimbabwe ­

Prof. P. Anagnosti

Dr S.L. Agarwal of India was also in attendance

applications for membership pending at the moment, but efforts are being made to attract new members and

Opening Remarks by the President 1.

The President welcomed the delegates, particularly those who had not previously attended an Executive Committee meeting. He stressed that it was important

for delegates to be familiar with the Society‘s

these are likely to bear fruit over the next year or two.


Statutes and Minutes of previous Executive meetings. He extended a cordial welcome to Past President, Prof. M. Fukuoka and to the Secretary General of ICOLD, Mr J. Cotillon, the Secretary General of ISRM, Mr N. Grossman. The President of IAEG, Prof. M. Langer 5. joined the meeting later and was also cordially wel­ comed by the President. The President then traced

briefly the history of the Society in the two years since the Stockholm ICSMFE drawing particular attention to the debt owed by the Society to Prof. J.B. Burland for undertaking the task of Secretary General for the very difficult six month period following the death of Kevin Nash. He then explained to the meeting that as Prof. Burland had taken on the task only for a limited period, he had invited Dr R.H.G. Parry to become Secretary General after consulting with the Member Societies and various other people and that Dr Parry had accepted his invitation.

(Statute 35) for changes to the Statutes.


The Secretary General reported that the membership on 30 April 1983 comprised 56 Member Societies made up of 14581 individual members. Details are tabulated in Appendix 1. This compared with 54 Member Societies made up of 14122 Individual Members on 13 June 1981. The two new Member Societies are Costa Rica and Bolivia who, having submitted all the documents required by Statute, were admitted into membership in 1982 and 1983 respectively. There were no active


for 1982 and are thus ineligible to vote at the

present Executive Committee Meeting. They are Chile,

Pakistan, Peru and R omania. Reminders were sent out on 14 March 1983. F ive Member Societies owe dues for 1981 as well as 1982. These are Chile. Dominican Republic, Pakistan, Peru and Romania. Two of these, Pakistan and Romania still owe dues for years

previous to 1981 (la st payments - Pakistan 1977,

Romania 1975).


The President advise d of initiatives to encourage Jordan and Iraq and other countries in that region into membership. He was visiting Syria and nearby countries later in t he year, and would be building on these initiatives. He pointed out the possible advantages in some c ases of setting up Group Societies.


M. Parez reported that a group of geotechnical engineers in Tunisia had set up a Society and appointed a Chairman and a Secretary. They will shortly be making an application to the Secretary General for re-entry into membership of ISSMFE. He also referred to a recent meeting he had in Dakar with a group of about forty engineers from several French speaking West African countries, principally: Benin, Cap-Vert, Centrafrique, Gabon, Guinee, Haute-Volta, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Senegal and Togo. A paper had been signed expressing their purpose of setting up a Group Society to apply for

A roll call taken at the start of the meeting showed 37 Member Societies in good standing to be present. As there was a total of 47 Member Societies in good standing this number exceeded the l/3 requirement of 16 present (Statute 35) for general business to be conducted and the 2/3 requirement of 32 present

Eight other Member Societies have not paid their dues Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Morocco, Nigeria,

Confirmation of a Ouorum 2.

Although Iran is still included in the membership table in Appendix 1 there is apparently no recognisable Society operating in that country. Iran has not paid any dues since 1978 and the General Secretariat has no contact with anyone in Iran.

membership of ISSMFE. The President thanked M. Parez

for these initiatives.

Professor Togrol stressed that coercion should not


be used in attracting new members, because members joining under pressure would not be good members.

The President agreed entirely with Professor Togrol and emphasised that the aim was to increase our contracts with geotechnicans as widely as possible and acquaint potential members with the work of the Society.

Steering Committee and Executive Committee the following was proposed by Mr Stermac and seconded by

Professor E.E. de Beer: Chairmen of Technical Committees shall submit Progress Reports on the work of their Committees for the information of and/or discussion by the Society's Executives at their regular meetings. The reports to be submitted to the Secretary General three months prior to the meeting for immediate distribution to members of the Executive.” when put to the vote this motion was passed by 35 votes in favour, none against and 4 abstentions.

President's Report on the Technical Committees Of ISSMFE

The President presented his report which is attached in Appendix 2. He explained the philosophy of his approach in the setting up of Technical Committees under the authority given to him by Statute 42. Firstly the problem of financing the activities of

these committees had been met by having a Member Society sponsor each Technical Committee and to pro­

vide a core or task force consisting of the Chairman

and Secretary and perhaps one or two other members. Secondly a wide geographic distribution of sponsoring member societies had been sought and achieved. Thirdly

he felt that in the past the presentation of reports

Professor Fukuoka pointed out that the President's proposals did not satisfy the statutory requirement that Technical sub-committes should prepare reports for presentation to the Executive Committee. After some discussion about the presentation, in person or in writing, of the sub-committee report to the


to the Executive Committee only had meant that full justice had not been done to the work of the Committee

Professor Ovesen voiced some disquiet at the number of new Technical Committees created by the President

and at the possibility that a number would fail to complete their work. This could hurt the Society. The President replied that it was his job to ratify rather than create these committees. If the enthusiasm to set up such a committee existed it should not be

and that their efforts deserved the widest possible consideration by the Society as a whole. The benefits of such discussions had been well illustrated by the

success of ESOPT I and ESOPT II, which had arisen from the work of the European Sub-Committee on Penetration

stifled. Another point was that it could help to prevent splintering as a result of small specialist groups forming their own Societies. It should be

Testing. He was thus proposing that as far as possible

draft reports by Technical Committees should be subject to open discussion at suitable venues. Some of those discussions would take place at the XII ICSMFE in 1985 in San Francisco where the committee's work was sufficiently advanced and the subject matter was relevant to the general theme of the conference. Following these discussion sessions a final technical document would be prepared for publication in the name of the Society.

possible for Technical Committees to frame their terms of reference such that the task they undertake can be realistically completed in the time available during

the term of the present Presidency. Professor Eisenstein pointed out that in a dynamic society it

was inevitable that new Technical Committees would be

forming and others ceasing their work. Other speakers, including Professor Ramamurthy, Professor Anagnosti and Professor Smoltczyk raised the problem of the four year limitation on the work of a committee. The President pointed to the likelihood of the incoming President wishing to continue a Technical Committee which was doing useful work, but nevertheless insisted that Technical Committees should set themselves limited tasks which can be completed in the time

The President drew attention to the new use of the term Technical Committee for committees with a full international brief and Technical Sub-Committee for those set up on a Regional basis.

In answer to some criticism that he had set up too

available. The meeting returned to this point briefly under any other business at the end of the second day

many Technical Committees the President pointed out

that in many cases he had reacted to the initiative

when Professor La Rochelle briefly summarised the report on the Technical Committee on Landslides.

of Member Societies wishing to sponsor Technical Committees and felt that it would be quite wrong to

This is attached in Appendix 12. He pointed out that stifle such enthusiasm. Furthermore he pointed out in making up a work plan it was unavoidable to make that we were dealing with a subject having great some commitments beyond 1985. The President agreed breadth and also that wide geographical participation that the subject matter itself would clearly go on was essential; Finally, he said that the involvement indefinitely and that the importance of continuing of a large number of people in the activities of the the work of the Committee beyond 1985 was clearly Society must surely be the aim of the Society and above self evident. all it gave every opportunity to our younger members. 15. Professor Anagnosti asked for confirmation that it was The President also drew attention to administrative the responsibility of the President to set up Technical and policy sub-committees of the Steering Committee Committees. The President replied that it was but that which had been set up and also the Research Co­ he had delegated by proxy responsibility to Vice Operation Committee under the Chairmanship of Presidents to set up Regional Technical Sub-Committees Mr C. Crawford and co-chairmanship of Professor as the need arises. B. Broms. In the Steering Committee immediately pre­ ceding the Executive Committee Meeting it had been

decided to add all the Regional Vice-Presidents to this committee to ensure maximum effectiveness. The chairman also explained that owing to illness Dr Northey had not been able to reply to his invitation to Chair the sub-committee on Policy on Standards,

Manuals, Specifications and Codes. Dr Northey had now

confirmed that he would be pleased to chair this sub­ committee. Professor E.E. de Beer was co-chairman.


The following motion was proposed by Professor Trofimenkov and seconded by Professor Togrol:

"A group of sub-committee should be set up to prepare a document regulating the working procedure of Technical Committees.”

This motion was not carried, there being 3 votes in favour, 4 against and 32 abstentions.


17. A suggestion by Professor Broms that the Secretary General should summarise points made at past Executive Committee meetings regarding conduct of Technical Committees was agreed. Mr Grossman pointed out that ISRM had by-laws governing the work of their Commissions and these might be helpful to ISSMFE.

18. Some discussion took place between Professor Smoltczyk and the President regarding the Technical Sub-Committee

on Field and Laboratory Testing, set up in 1979, in which the President expressed some concern at the approach taken by the sub-committee to their work. Professor Smoltczyk drew attention to a document on Axial Pile Loading Test which he had distributed to the meeting. He felt their approach had followed the lines the President was suggesting, that they had first collected information on methods used by various

societies. He also stressed that their work was open to international discussion, and that they were pro­

ference in 1989. They had been assued by their Foreign Minister that there was no restriction on any foreign national entering the country, but that there were three categories of visas issued, based on reciprocity arrangements with the other countries. These were:

1. No visas 24 countries 2. Ordinary visas 17 countries

3. Visas for which consultation

was required before they were

issued (60 days notice required) 12 countries India stated that no restrictions on any nationals

from member countries of the U.N. There were some provisions for permits for entry to non-U.N. members, on special request to attend for purposes such as conference attendance.

ducing a set of recommended procedures, not a manual.

Mr Wilson cited Large Dams Conferences in both


mitted to attend. The Brazilian delegates replied that they had been able to obtain a visa for the

The President requested publication of this

Reports on Regional Activities by Vice Presidents

19. The Vice Presidents presented brief summaries of their reports, which are attached as the following

countries at which South Africans had not been per­

attendance of a South African at a conference although the person had not actually attended. India replied that South Africa was not a member of U.N., but Mr Wilson stated that South Africa was in fact a


member of the U.N.

Africa Mr Wilson Appendix 3 24 Asia Professor Chin Appendix 4

M. Parez sought assurance from both Member Societies

Australasia Dr Northey Appendix 5 Europe Professor Croce Appendix 6 N. America Mr Crawford Appendix 7

S. America Professor Hiedra-Lopez Appendix 8 25 20. Mr Wilson regretted that there were no delegates from African Members Societies present. (Mr L. Ajayi of Nigeria joined the meeting on the second day). He

voiced particular pleasure at learning of the initia­ tives being taken by the French Member Society with

respect to Tunisia and West Africa. He also advised the meeting that Brochure No. 1 for the 8th African Regional Conference to be held in Harare 4-7 June 1984 has been printed and is now being distributed.

21. Referring to Professor Croce's report, Professor

Smoltczyk said that there were many agencies concerning themselves with tunnelling and that in forming a Technical Sub-Committee on Tunnelling they had felt

it advantageous to set up a joint venture with the International Tunnelling Association. Professor Wroth asked that a List of Member Societies'activities

this was agreed. 26

should be appended to Professor Croce's report and

Presentations of Invitations to Host the 12th ICSMFE in 1989

22. Invitations to host the 12th ICSMFB in 1989 were presented by the Member Societies of Brazil and India. Both Societies distributed brochures to the delegates

describing the attractions their countries had to offer visitors and details of suitable conference facilities. These were reinforced by verbal presenta­

tions and both Societies showed short 16mm movie films.

Opportunity was also taken by Brazil and India to 27

inform the delegates of their country's experience in hosting similar events, particularly in the proposed venues of Rio de Janeiro and Delhi respectively. 23. In accordance with Statute 48 both countries stated the situation with respect to foreign nationals. Brazil stated that they had received authorisation from the President of their country to hold the con­


that they would provide for simultaneous translation at both Plenary and Speciality Sessions and was given


As far as timing was concerned Brazil indicated that they would be likely to hold the conference sometime

between May and September 1989, while India indicated they would probably wish to hold it in December 1989.

The President adjourned the meeting at 5.0 pm to allow both countries to show short movie films and pointed out that the vote would be taken the following morning to dedice the venue of the 12th ICSMFE. The Meeting reconvened at 9.30 Tuesday 17 May.

Past President Professor J. Kerisel was in attendance and was given a warm welcome by the President.

Report of the Secretary of the Permanent Coordinating Secretariat

Professor de Beer presented his report, given in

Appendix 9. Professor Hansbo reminded the meeting that ISO had formed 4 sub-colnlnittees to set up

Standards in Geotechnics and that this activity was

closely re lated to ISSMFE interests. A vote of

thanks to Professor de Beer was proposed by Professor Togrol, se conded by Professor Prakash and carried with acclamation. Report of Organising Committee on Arrangements for the llth I CSMFE to be held in San Franciso in 1985

Professor Seed presented his report, given in

Appendix 1 0.

He drew attention to the emphasis being given to practical applications at the conference although n ot to the exclusion of other matters, and also pointed out that several innovations were being introduced at this conference including a Past

Presidents' programme on the final afternoon in which papers on the history of Soil Mechanics were to be

presented. Finally, he reminded delegates that the

Secretary General had written to all Member Societies and Theme Lecturers asking for names of suitable session Chairmen and Discussion Leaders. A few had already responded, and he asked that those who had not to do so promptly, preferably handing the names to himself or the Secretary General at this meeting.

The President advised that he had suggested to all

Member Societies that they may wish to produce individual volumes containing outstanding papers of their Society which may or may not have been pre­ viously published. These could be made available for purchase at the time of the 12th ICSMFE, where arrangements would be made for display of the

volumes. Local firms may well wish to take the opportunity to place advertisements in these volumes and this would provide revenue. Professor Smoltczyk asked if space could be made

available for a small exhibition of early soil

mechanics work in Central Europe and Professor Seed

replied that he could see no difficulties in this.

Professor Smoltczyk also enquired of the final date to apply for a discussion session arising from the work of a sub-committee. The President replied that no such date exists and that-preference would be given to Committees likely to have completed a reasonable amount of work and also those for which the topics were generally relevant to the Conference Themes.

provision of by-laws, supporting the Statutes and properly cross-referenced to the Statutes, gave more flexibility and could be more easily changed to accommodate changes in the Society's activities or requirements. He explained that he had set up a sub-committee of the Steering Committee, consisting of Dr Burland, Dr Northey, Professor wroth, the Secretary General and himself. It was hoped to prepare a completely revised proposed Constitution for con­ sideration by the Executive Meeting to be held in San Francisco in 1985. In the meantime, he explained that some immediate changes to the Statutes were desirable and that he was consequently putting three motions before the meeting: lst Motion by the President: ‘§|l2ElEiE¥€ _SIEEEEE

In order to enhance the 5ociety's claim to Charitable Status, which carries considerable tax advantages, the following motion will be put to the meeting: 'Amendment to Statute 2: Replace:

"The aim of the Society is the promotion of international co-operation among engineers and scientists for the advancement of knowledge

of ..." with

Venue for 12th ICSMFE 1989

Before taking a vote to decide the venue of the 12th ICSMFE the President read out Statute 46. Professor Wroth pointed out that there had been no discussion of Conference Topic to which both the Member Societies issuing invitations replied that they would be seeking the views of the Society as a whole before making a decision on this. Both also replied that they would be including a topic of local interest as part of the programme.

A secret ballot was now conducted. Mr Crawford was

asked by the President toscrutinise the counting of the votes. In view of his own association with the Brazilian Member Society the President announced that,

in the event of a tie, he had requested Professor Kerisel to exercise a casting vote. Professor Kerisel agreed to this. The result of the ballot was:

"The aim of the Society is the advancement of public education in and the knowledge of ...”

Add to Statute 3:

"3(h). by doing such other things as are likely to be conducive to promoting inter­

national co-operation among engineers and

scientists practising in these or allied fields.”

Add Statutes 56, 57, 5B as follows: "Termination and Merger

56. If at any time the members of the Society decide (by at least a two thirds majority) that the purposes of the Society

Brazil 21 India 1B

could be more effectively and conveniently attained in conjunction with some other charity or charities the Committee may apply the cash investments and other property held on account of the Society with such other

Abstentions 2

amalgamation shall be legally possible.

The President announced that the l2th ICSMFE in 1989

would be held in Brazil. This was greeted with acclamation. Brazil thanked the delegates for their choice. India congratulated the Brazilian Member Society and promised to try and send a large delega­ tion to the conference. Revision of Statutes The President expressed his concern about the present constitution consisting only of Statutes with no support from by-laws or policy documents. This was an inflexible system as it inevitably meant that items were contained in the Statutes which would be fre­ quently coming under pressure for change. The Statutes

should state, as concisely as possible, the principles

governing the operations of the Society and should therefore be subject only to infrequent changes. The

charity or charities if and in so far as

57. If at any time the members of the Society decide (by at least a two thirds majority) that the purposes of the Society cannot in the circumstances be carried out then after satisfaction of all debts and liabilities all property whatsoever remaining shall be given or transferred to such other charitable institution as the Committee may determine having objects similar to those of the Society.

Proper Law

SB. These statutes and any interpretation thereof shall be governed by the law of England so long as the seat of the administra­ tion of the International Society is situated in England.””


The President pointed out that this motion arose directly from the Secretary General‘s wish for the Society to apply for Charitable Status, the advantage

of which was that any earnings from investments would

not then attract taxation. The Secretary General had retained a solicitor experienced in such applications and the proposed changes were those which the

solicitor advised were likely to be requested to achieve Charitable Status. There was considerable discussion of this motion. including written submission for the USSR Member

Society as follows:

"We think that there is no urgency in

adding Statutes 56, 57, SB. It is a

very important question - to what organizations all our property may be

transferred. We suppose it is appropriate to consider this problem later on when the proposed new constitution is

considered by Member Societies. We

believe that in the near two years the

problem of termination and merger of our

Society will not arise.”

The main concerns expressed during the discussion centred on the proposed new Statutes 56 and 57 rela­

ting to disposal of the Society's assets should it

cease to function or decide to operate in conjunction with some other charity or charities. The majority needed to make this decision was also disputed. Mr Green and Professor Wroth explained that the British Geotechnical Society had recently achieved

charitable status; Professor Wroth pointing out that this status had been sought primarily to avoid paying

should be prepared in sufficient numbers to distribute

to each individual member places an excessive burden on the General Secretariat and in future may place an intolerable financial burden on the Society. Conse­ quently the following motion is proposed: "Delete Statute 54”

It was pointed out by the President that even with this Statute deleted, there remained the requirement of Statute 31 that the Secretary General is respon­ sible for the reproduction and distribution of the List of Members in accordance with the Instructions outlined by the Executive Committee. It was in fact more satisfactory that the details of production

should be decided by the Executive Committee in accordance with changing conditions and requirements,

than to have specific, rigid statutory requirements. He stressed that a new proposal regarding the pro­ duction and distribution of a list of members, arising from the Steering Committee, was to be tabled under the next item on the Agenda. After some discussion he invited delegates to consider the Steering Committee‘s proposal before voting on the motion. Some concerns were expressed, particularly by the UK delegates about the proposal to cease producing a bound volume every four years as required by Statute 54. A suggestion by Professor Zeitlen that the feelings of the meeting regarding the general acceptability of the Steering Committee‘s proposal might be assessed before proceeding to a vote on the motion was agreed to by the President. An informal show of hands indicated that there was such general agreement and the President then put the Motion to the vote, with the result:

For 32

40\ Corporation Tax which was payable on money earned

from investments, after allowing for expenses. Mr Green also pointed out that a large number of Societies of a similar type in the UK enjoyed Charitable Status. Professor Anagnosti stated that

a similar situation existed in Yugoslavia. Several professional societies in his country had sought and obtained Charitable Status for the same reasons that were now being advanced by the President. He saw no grounds for opposing this proposal. Some concern was also expressed regarding proposed

new Statute 58, but it was pointed out by the Secretary General and others that Charitable Status was unlikely to be granted if the specific words “law of England” did not appear. In any case this restric­ tion would cease if the seat of the administration was removed to another country.

The motion was put to the vote with the result:

For 33

Against 3

Abstentions 0 As the total number voting exceeded the Statutory requirement of 32, the President declared the motion carried. On behalf of the Finnish Member Society the following motion concerning the delegation of votes at Executive Committee meetings was proposed by Mr Wihuri and

seconded by Professor de Beer:

“Neither delegates to the Executive Committee

nor Vice-Presidents are entitled to represent a voting power of more than four votes.”

After brief discussion the motion was put to the vote with the following result:

For 31

Against 0

Against 3

Abstentions 4

Abstentions O As the total number voting exceeded the Statutory requirement of 32 the President declared the motion carried. The second motion by the President regarding Special Members was withdrawn after some discussion, to allow further study.

The third Motion by the President:

As the total number voting exceeded the statutory requirement of 32 the motion was carried. A motion to be presented on behalf on the Finnish

Member Society proposing that the times of commence­

ment and termination of the Vice-Presidential period of office should coincide withtheRegional Conferences was withdrawn after some discussion in which a number of difficulties were raised particularly in relation to travel and the time of handover of office.

223392- !9l“PSE§

The present Statutory requirement that before an International Conference, a bound list of members


The Meeting adjourned at 13.30 and reconvened at 15.00

Matters Arising from the Steering Committee Meeting

The President reminded the Meeting that the Steering Committee had met during the two days immediately preceding the Executive Committee meeting. Many matters had been discussed at length and it had been decided to bring four motions to the Executive Committee to be proposed by the President.

affecting the technical proceedings of ISSMFE Regional and Affiliated Conferences and must be sent copies of Minutes of the meetings of the organising committees.

4. Any conference, symposium or similar activity

may seek affiliation with ISSMPE, but must have prior approval of the Secretary General and Vice President of the region. The Member should also be consulted.

Motion l

The matter of travel expenses (of officers) and sur­ charges on registration fees at ISSMFE International

and Regional Conferences having been reviewed as required in Minute 47 of the Stockholm meeting Minutes, the following Motion is proposed:

"Rescind the following Resolutions:

Minute 49 of the 1977 Tokyo meeting - “as part of its commitment in hosting International and Regional Conferences, the host country should pay all travel and out-of-pocket expenses of the President, Secretary General and Regional

Vice-President in relation to the planning and preparation of International and Regional Conferences, as well as all associated secre­ tarial salaries and expenses, and overheads”

Minutes 20(i), l9(ii) of the 1979 Oaxaca meeting “A surcharge of 10% be imposed on registration fees for and the cost of proceedings from

5. One copy of Proceedings of Regional and other ISSMFE Affiliated Conferences is to be donated to the ISSMFB General Secretariat and one to the Regional Vice-Presidency.

6. The extent to which the Regional Vice President need travel to discharge his responsibilities towards a Regional Conference should remain a regional matter.' After brief discussion this motion was carried nem. con. The President mentioned that this resolution should not be applied to the llth ICSMFE in so far as financial arrangements had already been agreed between ISSMFE and the US Organising Committee. Motion 2

The following Motion was proposed regarding revenues from ISSMFE Publications:

- this surcharge should be applied to individuals

'A small portion of revenues from sales of the Proceedings of the International Conferences of ISSMFE and from final, or state-of-the-art,

conference in question..."

accrue to ISSMFE. In view of the various types of arrangements which the International

International and Regional Conferences of ISSMFB

who have not been members in good standing of the ISSMFE during the last two years prior to the

Introduce the following Resolutions: International Conferences

l. A surcharge of 5% is to be added to the registration fee of the four yearly

International Conference on Soil Mechanics

and Foundation Engineering (ICSMFE) and

the revenue accruing from this surcharge

remitted to the ISSMFE.

2. An additional surface of 10% is to be added to the registration fee for non-members of ISSMFE and members whose payments are two

years or more in arrears, for remittance to ISSMFE.

3. One copy of the Proceedings of each ICSMFE is to be donated to the ISSMFE Secretariat

and one copy to each of the Secretariats of the ISRM and IAEG, and the Permanent

Co-ordinating Secretariat.

Regional and other ISSMFE Affiliated Conferences

l. No surcharge for remittance to ISSMFE should be placed on registration fees for Regional

reports of ISSMFE Technical Committees should

Conference Organisers or Chairman of Technical Committees may wish to enter into with the publishers, the amount and method of payment should be agreed between the Conference Organisers or Technical Committee Chairmen and the Secretary General of the ISSMFE. As a guideline the amount accruing to ISSMPE should be about 5%

of the total sales value of volumes sold or distributed. This does not apply to ICSMPE

proceedings supplied to the conference delegates

if the cost of producing these copies is included in the registration fee.”

Discussion on this item concentrated on possible problems relating to sales of small numbers of publications, perhaps even only occasional single

copies, and also the possibility of a publication making a loss. The Secretary General said that for these reasons a degree of flexibility had been built

into the Motion and that a sensible approach would have to be taken. The purpose of the proposal was to provide guidelines. Mr Nahls advised the meeting that the U5 Organising Committee for the llth ICSMFE had already agreed to share profits arising from the Proceedings with ISSMFE. The motion was put to the vote with the following result:

For 27

Conferences or other ISSMFE Affiliated Conferences for either members or non-members.

Against 3

Abstentions 4

2. The suitability of the proposed activity for endorsement as a Regional Conference is to be determined by correspondence between the Regional Vice-President, the Secretary General and the organising Member Society.

3. The Vice-President and Secretary General are to be kept fully informed of all decisions

The Motion was declared to be carried. Motion 3

The following Motion regarding List of Members was proposed:



Using the 1981 list as a base, Member Societies should be asked at an early stage to produce a

list of amendments to this list in a standard format on loose leaves for easy binding. These

amended lists should be submitted to the General Secretariat by 1 November 1983.

Member Societies would have in remitting payments

under the heading “Voluntary Contribution". In some cases where budgets had already been fixed it would not be possible to find the amount suggested. Professor Seed assured the meeting that the US Member Society would take the lead in ensuring the funding for the production of the first medal and hopefully


The General Secretariat will forward copies of the amendments to all Member Societies.

more than this. The President stressed that the word “voluntary” really meant just that. When put to the


All Member Societies will be asked to prepare a complete updated list of the members by l November 1984. These complete updated lists will there­ after be prepared every two years and held as

Co-ordination of Conferences, Symposia and Seminars

previous separates will be submitted to the General Secretariat.

Mr Stermac proposed the following Motion:

separates by the Member Societies. At the mediate 12 month period amendments to the

in the Geotechnical Field

inter- 51. After expressing concern at the proliferation of such

4. The separates will be available for anyone wishing a copy either direct from the Member Society or from the ISSMFE Secretariat, which will keep some copies. It may be appropriate to make a charge for supplying such copies. The Member Societies would automatically send their updated lists to their own members, and one copy to the Secre­ tariats of all other Member Societies.

5. A suitable standard form will be prepared by the Secretary General. The list should be of the type often supplied for conference papers, and then reduced to A4 size About 40 entries per page should be achieved. A full mailing address should be given for each Member together with

titles, telephone and telex number if any, but not necessarily the member‘s affiliation."

Mr Green objected fo this proposal firstly because he

had some evidence that many members of the British Geotechnical Society did make use of the present List of Members and secondly that the loose leaf approach as proposed was archaic. He recommended that the possible use of word processors should be pursued. The Secretary General assured the meeting that the proposed approach was essentially an interim one to ensure that up-to-date lists of members would continue to be available until a more modern solution could be implemented. After further brief discussion and some helpful remarks from delegates familiar with the usage of computers in applications of this sort Professor de Beer proposed the following addition to the Motion:

'6. The Secretary General will continue to explore more advanced systems.”

This was agreed by the President and the amended motion when put to the vote was carried nem. con. Motion 4

In order to fund the cost of producing the Kevin Nash

Gold Medal the following Motion was proposed:

A once only voluntary contribution of l Swiss franc per member is to be added to 1984 accounts sent out to Member Societies to fund the Kevin Nash Gold Medal which was instituted at the Executive Committee meeting held in Stockholm in 1981.

The Secretary General advised the meeting that he had obtained quotations for producing a minimum number of six 9ct. gold medals 38mm diameter. The die would cost E200 and at current gold prices each medal would also cost about E200 to produce. Discussion under this item was concerned with the difficulties some


vote the motion was carried nem. con.

events, leading to duplication and even competition,

"In the last few years, a large number of international events (conferences, workshops, symposia, seminars) on various topics have been organised. Unfortunately there seems to have been quite a lot of duplication or possibly even competition. The field of numerical methods

is the first to come to mind.

Organising such events requires a great deal of effort and often substantial financial resources. Often very limited amounts of new and original information are disseminated. Presently, the ISSMFE Secretariat publishes the dates and locations of such events it has know­

ledge of. It is suggested that possibly the

Secretariat could assume a more proactive role by co-ordinating these events thus making the efforts more cost-effective.” Professor Eisenstein expressed strong views concerning this matter and suggested an amendment, which was proposed by Professor Smoltczyk and seconded by Mr Green, as follows:

Delete the words at the end of the Motion,

“possibly the Secretariat could assume a more proactive role by co-ordinating these events thus making the efforts more cost­ effective” and replace by:

"the timing of any international event is first approved by the Secretary General before giving approval for ISSMFE sponsorship"

53. Professor de Beer pointed out that the PCS had

suggested that the word auspices should be used rather than sponsorship. The Secretary General while agreeing with the sentiment of the proposed amendment felt that it was better to use persuasion rather than imposition. The amendment was put to the vote with the following result:

For 6

Against 2l The amendment was not carried and the meeting

returned to the original motion.

The discussion showed strong support for the proposal. The Secretary General also expressed his approval and pointed out that he had already made some moves

on this. His letter in the next issue of ISSMFE News which had just gone to press was concerned

largely with this matter. When put to the vote the

motion was carried nem. con. ISSMFE Logo

The President informed the meeting that the Secretary General and he had separately sought suggestions for a logo from a wide cross section of the Society's members. Quite a number had been received. A short list of nine suggested logos had been selected by the Steering Committee and this list had been distributed to the Executive Committee delegates earlier in the day. A first choice by the Steering Committee was also indicated. Encouraged by the President a number of the delegates then produced some further ideas which were shown on the overhead projector.

expenses. In future it was hoped to prepare, in

addition, an Extraordinary Budget, made up of other revenues and expenses and Lexicon sales would be included in this. Revenue to ISSMPE from these sales were likely to be very small over the budget period and with little or no other expected revenue an Extraordinary Budget was not proposed for 1983-4. Mr Wilson proposed that the Budget for 1983-4 should be accepted and Mr Manos seconded this. This was carried nem. con.

The Secretary General drew attention to the paper given in Appendix 13 giving details of lexicon holdings and sales as at 31 December 1982. Appointment nf the Secretary General

In the discussion that followed a number of delegates expressed the view that the Society should use the services of a professional logo designer. The Secretary General voiced concern that there should

The President reported that he had requested the Secretary General to continue in office until the

as the US Member Society were proposing to issue Membership Certificates to their ISSMFE Members. Mr Wahls however pointed out that there was not any urgency on this account as the US Member Society

A vote of thanks was proposed to the Chair and carried with acclamation. The President thanked the Secretary General and the Secretary for their work.

not be further delay in selecting a logo, particularly

would be using a logo of their own.

The following Motion was proposed by Mr Stermac and seconded by Professor Hansbo:

next Executive Committee Meeting and that the

Secretary General had agreed to this.

The President closed the meeting of the Executive Committee at 5.50 pm.

"It is moved that the final choice of the logo of the Society be made by the President in consultation with the Secretary General and other persons of his choice. The choice to be made from alternatives prepared by an individual or organisations specializing

in the field of logo preparation.”

This motion was carried nem. con. Mr Crawford then suggested that the firm selected to produce the Kevin Nash Gold Medal may be able to assist with the logo design. Budget and Finance

The Secretary General presented the audited accounts of the Society for the periods 1 March 1981 to

28 February 1982 and 1 March 1982 to 31 December 1982

given in Appendix ll. He drew attention to the

change which had been made in the accounting periods which would coincide with the calender year in future. He then summarised briefly the notes accompanying the accounts.

A short discussion ensued in which some delegates urged the Secretary General to place funds in hand

into an interest bearing account as soon as possible. The Secretary General expressed the expectation that Charitable Status would be granted shortly and that he would prefer to hold the funds in the present accounts until then. If any undue delay appeared likely in the granting of Charitable Status he would take the action suggested. Mr Stermac proposed that

the accounts should be accepted and this was seconded by Professor Prakash. This was carried nem. con.

The Secretary General presented the budget for 1983-4 given in Appendix 12 and gave a brief summary of the attached notes. There was some suggestion that revenue from the Lexicon sales should be included in the budget, but the Secretary General explained that the budget presented was the Ordinary Budget based on Revenues from Membership fees and expenses of running

the General Secretariat and some of the President's



ISSMFE Membership 1983

Member Society Region

Argentina 6 B2 Australia 3 240 Austria 44 B5 64 Belgium Bolivia 6 17 Brazil 6 197 Bulgaria 4 . 92 Canada 5 745 Chile 6 30 China 2 100 Colombia 6 56 Costa Rica 6 67 Czechoslovakia 4 46 Denmark 4 243


Ecuador 6220 57 Egypt l 61 Finland 4 France 4 B49 FRG 4 1120 GDR 4 22 Ghana 1 55 Greece 4 B7 Hungary 4 25 India 2 259 Indonesia 273 58 Ireland 4 Israel 2 116 Italy 4 1151 Japan 2 79B Mexico 5 402 Morocco l 104 Netherlands 4 315 New Zealand 3 216' Nigeria 1 53 Norway 4 325 Pakistan 259 36 Paraguay 6 2B Peru 6 Poland 4 120 Portugal 4 90 Romania 27 South Africa l 470 S. E. Asia 2 596 Dominican Republic 6 43

Iran 2 ­

Spain 4 346 Sweden 4 421 Switzerland 4 237 Syria 2 16 Turkey 4 United Kingdom 457 775 USA 5 2000 USSR 4 356 Venezuela Yugoslavia 64 190 103

Zimbabwe 1 179

Member Societies 56 Individual Members 14581

Re ion MemberMembers Individual *ST Societies 1 Africa 6 922

234 Australasia Asia 9 1729 456 Europe 25 27249

65 North South America America 3ll3147 B26 2904




Regrettably at Stockholm, June 1981, there was no opportu­ nity given for the incoming President, elected on the Saturday morning preceding the Conference, to profit of the presence of conference participants and Member Society Delegates to initiate meetings regarding Technical Commit­ tees. The only public announcement regarding the new President occurred in the last few minutes of the Closing Ceremonies, at the exchanges of greetings of transfer of


From examination of the files of the General Secretariat at King's College, Sept. 1981, it was concluded that such inefficient turnover had been practically as prevailed on previous occasions.

of work.

No. 29 - Site Investigation - Production of a 500 page manual in preparation - Continuation of work. No. 30 - Symbols and Units - Task presumed concluded. Recommended continuation with new terms of reference.

No. 31 - Question of definition - presumed applicable to No. 29, but would possibly fit better in No. 30. No. 33 - Soil sampling - Book on Sampling of Soft Cohesive Soils completed, entitled “International Manual” - Continuation of work.

No. 34 - Code for Foundations EEC (EC-7) - Continuation of work.

No. 37 - Formation of new Committee on Landslides (Canada) - approved. No. 38 - Formation of Centrifuge Testing Committee ­ approved.

(a) Prior to the close of the Stockholm venue,

It is inconceivable that 2 out of 4 years of office should be permitted to go by, before the first broader gathering

Professor Bengt B. Broms, Chairman of the European Penetration Testing Committee

of new Technical Committee members.

requested that the entire committee be retained until the realization of the ESOPT II Conference, Amsterdam, May 1982. - It was agreed, with gratitude. (b) Dr Hiroshi Mori, Chairman of the Soil Sampling Committee submitted his resignation from his

On behalf of ISSMFE and our successors I have deemed fit to

propose, in the revision of Statutes under consideration, a paragraph: ”11.2. As soon as the President-elect has been recognized at the Council meeting, the widest publicity will be officially given at all social and public events of the Conference so that all members present may profit of the opportunity to exchange views on plans for the new term of office. The President-elect shall be formally invited to participate in all functions in such an incumbent capacity, and he shall be empowered to convene parallel meetings of all newly elected and appointed Officers,

position as Chairman of the Subcommittee.

(c) In general terms it may be noted that gpg essence of Statute 42 does not appear to

have been generally understood by the active ISSMFE Membership. Irrespective of the highest quality of work of a given Committee,

it is an inexorable gesture at any change of office that ill appointees place their posts at the disposal of the new government, even if no reshuffling turn out to be desired.

Board, and Technical Committees, for optimized preparatory

purposes.” 3 '

Although formalities do not place such a motion on the floor for discussion and vote as a revised Statute or By-Law, if the Executive Committee would favour such a motion and it pass as a Resolution, it would be of importance for the San Francisco Conference Organizing Committee to take into due consideration.

3 Some points of fundamental policy on Technical

Committees that have influenced heavily my decisions and

actions, derived from a careful study of all of the Minutes

of Executive Committee Meetings of the Society since

Harvard 1936. It is very reassuring indeed, to see how


DISBANDING (Statute 42 “Each Sub-committee shall be

formally disbanded at the end of the four year period”), AND RE-FORMING UNDER THE NEW PRESIDENT

Comprehensible difficulties happened to have accumulated

to the point that in essence none of these obvious require­ ments had been met to the level of enhancing the Society's efficiency. Minutes of the Stockholm Executive Committee meeting summarized:

No. 24 - Information Advisory Committee - Continuation of work.

No. 25 - Field and Laboratory Testing - Qualifying recom­ mendations: continuation.

very little there is to be said, discussed, and done, that has not been thoroughly debated earlier, often on repeated occasions. Indeed, the critical consideration is to distill part experience in such a manner as to minimize waste and

sterility in meetings such as this, at which it is important

to optimize the returns on a tremendously expensive cost per hour.

The creation of Subcommittees occurs in the period 1953-57: the London 1957 Conference reports on 3 Subcommittees

(a) Classification of geotechnical literature, (b) Notations

and Symbols, (c) Static and dynamic Penetration Methods: and a new one was created “Subcommittee on Undisturbed Sampling” (London, p. 75).

The obvious need to have the Technical Committee reports

in anticipation, to enhance adequate debate, is emphasized from the very beginning: e.g. Paris 1961, p. 82 "The President (Skempton) ... "date for the presentation of subcommittee reports be fixed at nine months in advance of

No. 26 - Geomechanical Computer Programs - Continuation of

the Conference".

No. 27 - European Penetration Testing - Transformation into worldwide Penetration Testing Committee. No. 28 - Research Cooperation - Difficulties - Continuation

Another crucial point repeatedly raised is the question of “Financial aid to subcommittees ...” (Paris, 1961, p. 82,




It was concluded that Technical Committees would work most

efficiently (under present world contingencies) by a three­ pronged approach: (1) a Member Society sponsorship, so as to have a local task force for work and discussion, and preparation of the preliminary drafts, (2) a broad Inter­ national ISSFME membership to act predominantly by corres­

pondence and occasional talks, etc., as opportunities might

arise, (3) a truly technical debate session of the circu­ lated “final progress report” at the International

Conference of turnover of office, with active members of the Technical Committee as panelists and others as dis­

cussers. The progress report, discussions, and closing discussion, would be saleablefor revenues to cover financial outlays.

A number of circulars were sent out explaining the manner of proposed work and asking for nominations of participants: appointments and ratifications rest with the President, as per Statute 42.

4 with such a preamble, I shall summarize the report on the various Committees under the following items: 4.1 Conference Advisory Committee

Comments are submitted in conjunction with the report by the Conference Organizing Committee, item 8 Agenda.

4.2 List of Members

with regard to "Manuals", "Standards" and so-called “International Codes of Soil Engineering Practice" I called attention to the very earnest concern by many

senior colleagues, and recalled specifically the letters

of 13 Sept. 1978 from Professor Arthur Casagrande, and 18 Sept. 197B from Professor Ralph Peck, both to President Fukuoka.

However, in consideration of the closing sentence of Appendix X “there will be a chance for a personal meeting at the European Symposium on Penetration Testing, May 24th - 2Bth, in Amsterdam” I hastened to write (LIS 031/Bl, 24 Aug. 1981) of my pleasure that the committee planned to mature its work by ESOPT 2, and therefore that "I am happy to ratify ... the present subcommittee for continuing work until ESOPT 2”, which might be "an appropriate time for the postponed formal disbanding and reforming". Moreover, agreeing with the absolute priority of Term of

Reference (i), “could I entreat you to try to prepare .. the drafts of all the proposed 'test manuals' (or their basic skeletons) rather than concentrating on taking to conclusion a part of them ... kind enough to alter the emphasis of the immediate effort".

The questions at stake were: (a) to bide by statutory principles; (b) in some respect, to bring to a profitable

halt the work agoing because of genuine concern and dis­ agreement with the concept of "manuals, standards, codesM

(c) to achieve the turn-about with all friendship and

recognition for the committee members, and in such a manner as to profit of the results collected as a PROGRESS REPORT.

At the Montreal 1965 Executive Committee Meeting it is already recognized (p. SB) "Printing of the membership

lists is at present the principal item of expenditure ...”

and proposed “that each National Committee should prepare its own list of Members on a standard format which would be reproduced and bound by the International Society".

Along this line, and for many other reasons as cogent or

more, I nominated a List of Members Committee, chaired by

the Secretary General, and with all Vice-Presidents as


The intent is to make a really dynamic system, preferably of loose-leaf addenda and errata, to keep up with the rates of changes: no binding; everything supplied by the Member Societies; their own yearly information is required any way for purposes of invoicing on dues. The measures finally resolved by the List of Members Committee, and to be implemented forthwith, are reported by the Secretary General. 4.2 Outgoing Subcommittees

In a nutshell, I proposed recognizing four steps (LIS 061/M

of 10 May, 1962):

"(6.l) through a collection and tabulation of existing different practices, country by country, and even, if need be, period by period (for proper interpretation of

publications, etc. ...);

(6.2) recommending a reference standard, merely for a

convenant of comparative communications: (6.3) presuming to establish a recommended standard;

(6.4) presuming to establish a working standard, to be promoted as far as possible. I think that in most matters we are already far behind time in promoting step (6.l), and even in urgent need of

step (6.2).”

By early October 1982 I had received a copy of: l Draft Proposal PILE LOAD TEST - Recommended Procedure,

(Circular Letter No. 10; 1982-02-Ol) 2 Danish discussion on the above, 1982-OB-18/PL/JBP 3 Japanese discussion on the above, 26 Aug. 1932.

Not having heard further on the priority terms of referenu above quoted, and fearing the prospects of an unsatisfactow of past Presidential terms of office, and, most particularly, close to the work, I took the liberty to address a circulu for the intense selfless work offered by dear and illus­ letter LISC 010/B2 of 12 Nov. 1932 again emphasizing the trious colleagues, upon careful study of the past and the committee's extending itself on borrowed time, hoping "tha at least we could have some reasonable collection and purposes of the Society, as interpreted by authoritative opinions and my own charge, I have had to take the follow­ tabulation of existing different practices, country by ing actions: country, etc.”, recognising that it "is being demonstrated as an insurmountable hurdle” , and suggesting the preparatiw 4-3-1 Ei219325-£eE<2£eE9£x_2s§§i22 and circulation of a simple tabulation which would entice broader-scale response. It was merely a suggestion, if in Notwithstanding the deep personal respect for determinations

As per Appendix X, Stockholm, the new sub-committee

initiated by President Fukuoka in April 1979 has as its terms of reference: (i) To determine the methods used by various National Societies to obtain the strength and deformation

characteristics of soils for design of structures, and (ii) to prepare a manual ... (plate loading tests and pile loading tests) and ... (unconfined compression, triaxial shear, and consolidation).


any way it helped.

By a recent letter (dated 1982-12-OB) from Dr. Ing. Smolnf‘ I have come to understand that the reasons for diametricalH

different approaches lie, as usual, in context of experienu and in communication. According to him in an early letter (26 July, 1979) he "asked the committee members for

potential national standards. What we got, then, was not complete, and of widely varying actuality. It was ' therefore decided preferable to start afresh and to ask

for national comments afterwards. I personally feel that I would arouse much national irritation if I started with a collection of national standards or codes in finding out how far they disagree with one another". Indeed, I would begin by meekly seeking information on "routine practices" (to which are attached the publications, experiences,

observations) and not for standards or codes. Indeed it is no surprise that "there are but very few codes whatso­ ever". The first code of communication is the more or less widespread practice, with which geotechnical engineering goes ahead, has been going ahead. And as each person responded, separately, how would he be able to suspect that his reply would be widely different for the others?

Moreover, my experience is diametrically opposite regarding

the presumed "irritation" (or “suspicion"). I find that if we blandly ask people to indicate their usual practice (using tabulations and drawings for greatest facility at

quick and wide response) we will tap more genuine informa­ tion. Later, if we propose a common nominal reference,

people will either react to defend theirs, or may test to check the adjustment factors between theirs and the reference. But if the reference is first circulated, with some connotation of being from "top-down", people either go their own way and don't bother, or, what is worse, go their own way and pretend that they follow the reference standard.

It has been a tough exercise to attempt to redirect the

course of the boat. The least that can be said is: (a)

It was understood that work had been pushed along towards the publication of roughly 500 page volume that could be called a "Compendium of recommendations for site investi­

gations, l9B3". I emphasized the desire to avoid calling it a Manual, or anything that could hint at manual, standards, codes, etc.

I further requested that details regarding title page,

preface, recognition of ISSMFE, copyrights, publicity, revenue distributions, etc., be settled with the Secretary General, in accordance with regulations that were in pre­ paration by an ad hoc committee. 4-3-3 §2§l_§EEEliEQ

Under the leadership of Dr Hiroshi Mori, Chairman of the sub-committee on Soil Sampling 1977-Bl, and supported largely by the dedicated efforts of the Japanese Member Society and some of its eminent collaborators in the Subcommittee, a volume was produced to record the state of the art, Jan. 1981, "For the Sampling of Soft Cohesive Soils". The Executive Committee commended the volume,

entitled "International Manual for the Sampling of soft cohesive Soils", and recommend the continuation of the committee.

The very fact that the Subcommittee had found it necessary

to restrict to one type of soil, and had inexorably resorted to laboratory testing procedures and results (p. 13-20) for confirming "quality evaluations" of the

a very deep vote of thanks to Professor Smoltczyk and his committee for their magnificent work; (b) the need to publish the prepared drafts for wide distribution in order to truly invite and entice discussions and contributions; (C) the need to record carefully the very candid and intense discussions, for the benefit of the Society‘s experience with questions of test procedures and standardizations.

samples reconfirmed in my mind the fact state-of-the-art reports on sampling of soils should be separated to some degree by soil types in order to avoid generalities and become useful to the practitioner with regard to specific experience; moreoever, sampling is for testing, and there­ fore a minimum of quality-evaluation-testing must needs

First drafts have since been received:

It was therefore resolved that in disbanding and reforming the sampling Committee, it should be subdivided into a

(a) Suggested international code of soil engineering practice for consolidated triaxial tests, by Toral Berre.


International code of consolidation test, by

G. Calabresi.

It is well demonstrated that any Technical Committee's work should be subdivided into partial tasks that can and will be completed within the term of office, and hopefully conceived so that the cumulative work of successive com­ mittees in successive terms will gradually build up to "complete" documents that permeate down to the entire membership. The difficulties faced by the Subcomittee on Field and Laboratory Soil Testing might not have existed

if the 2-year task had been limited to but one test of each category, as a trial.

Just as emphatically as I wish to give Professor Smoltczyk and his committee collaborators every support for an additional two years extension to complete to the satis­ faction of themselves and of ISSM E the tasks already advanced, I make it a point to emphasize that I should not like any of my committees to fail to finalize some sort of closed-package report on their work, as the statutory milestone to be accepted out of respect for the views that my successor may find himself bound to observe in his interpretation of his charge. 4-3-2 §iEE_£EYEEE§2EEi9E

Unfortunately both the Chairman, Stanley Wilson, and the Secretary, Mr Satoru Ohya, have been beset by severe personal problems, by virtue of which I have not received any information of the committee's work.

accompany the sampling.

minimum number of specific Sampling and Testing Committees

as reported below (cf. present Technical Co mittees). Separate consideration is also given herein to some of the formal aspects of such publications to be produced and distributed under ISSM E.

4'3°4 QQQE_EQE_§9EE§§E§9E§_§E_§§§_iggizl

Minute 34 of the Stockholm Executive Committee Meeting

records that "the continuation of this committee was recommended". However, it was felt that within the statutory aims of ISSM E of fostering to the utmost the advancement of Geotechnique in the worldwide community,

there will be many situations, occasions, and topics, which will have to be recognized as concerning specifically a certain Regional Vice-Presidency, or even a subregion or group of countries. Whatever may have been previous attitudes on the subjects of codes of Member Societies, and codes of a group of countries, etc., the fact is that during the present term of office it was concluded that the emphasis of ISSMFE towards the EEC work on a joint Code of Foundations (EC-7) should be changed. The work would be more appropriately and efficiently conducted through a group congregating eminent foundation engineers from each Member Society involved. ISSM E does wish to keep very close unofficial

contact will all such initiatives: the initiative belongs

more appropriately to another group, and ISSMFE trusts in its individual members, who are active in that group, to

maintain the desireable effective links.

It is hoped that the Secretary General will be kept

informed of developments, and on any such developments of interest to the worldwide ISSFME membership the appropriate


information will be communicated.

Pakistan, many projects in the Andean region, Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, etc., and so on).

It is understood that the committee composed of members designated by the individual Member Societies of the 9 countries included in the Rome Eurocodes agreements, is progressing under the chairmanship of Professor Ovesen.

Unfortunately the very difficult economic situations that have been hampering civil and geotechnical engineering works caused too great a delay in the confirmation of the sponsorship of the full-fledged

ISSMFE Technical Committee. In recent communications

4.4 Present Technical Committees

with the Regional Vice-Presidents it has been suggestm

Considerable correspondence has been conducted with regard to working conditions for the ISSMFE Technical Committees.

might begin as Regional Technical Subcommittes, in

tion between purely Administrative Committees, and the Committees that are truly Technical, for which administra­ tive submission of a summary report will continue to be to the Executive Committe, but the technical content of the


that such technical committees that start off too late

order not to transgress the time limits of the presidential term of office that makes the specific

One of the first points would be to recognize the distinc­

report should perforce be submitted to ample technical debate by persons concerned with the specific area of specialization.

The South American Regional Vice-Presidency has been

contacted regarding experimenting with the Gravel­ Sand Subcommittee as a regional subcommittee. (c)

I shall begin by summarizing questions concerning the Technical Committees. Some of the key points of policy adopted have been: (a) having each Committee spearheaded

(during the present term of office) under the volunteer

Sampling and Testing of Soft Rocks and Indurated Soils The Australian Geomechanics Society seemed especially indicated to spearhead the Technical Committee on Sampling and Testing on Soft Rocks and Indurated Soils and very promptly and graciously accepted the


sponsorship of some Member Society: (b) having a wide

distribution of appointees, fully realizing that the per­

centage activity would neither be continuous nor persis­ tently achieve significant contribution (N.B. The Society must open avenues for younger participants to grow); having a definite record of effective response and parti­

Once again, the response from the members invited to participate in the Committee has been relatively slow, and it is therefore hoped that the local Member Society's own task force on the subject has been able to begin work while awaiting for the correspondence from foreign committee members to pick up gradually.

4 -4-1 §‘E§£!i§§<1_§9‘1“E&S2225_9E_§9£L§i*‘l=El&E
Incidentally, such occurrences may serve to emphasize another advantage of having a given Member Society spearhead the work of a Technical Committee, with full

cipation of individual committee members that become incorporated into each Technical Committee Report.

In order to reflect more specific information that grows within the experience of professional practice, and that should be collected, pruned, improved, and recirculated into the local professional practice, it was decided to

liberty to organize its internal task force and distribution of tasks, because otherwise a four-year term of office is evidently far too small for producim a Progress Report with a minimum effective participa­

subdivide the Technical Committee on Sampling into separate

committees concentrating on specific soil categories. In answer to suggestions and requests the following were visualized:

tion from worldwide corresponding committee members.


(a) Sampling and Testing of Residual Soil (Saprolites)

and the proposal has not materialized.

The SE Asian Member Society graciously accepted to conduct this committee, under the Chairmanship of Dr E. W. Brand, and with Mr Phillipson as Secretary.

Apparently the work of the Committee has not progressed: partly because of some confusions carried over from the l977-Bl presidential term regarding the three Committees on (a) Site Investigation, (b) Field and Laboratory Soil Testing, and (C) Soil Sampling; partly because of fear of some overlap with other Sampling and Testing Committees; and partly because

of unfortunate delays of some of the invited partici­ pants in communicating their acceptance.

Some overlap will always exist, and to some extent is

healthy. It is hoped that after a first chapter cover­ ing the generalities of most of the overlap, each co mittee may concentrate on its specific area: even if the subsequent results reveal further overlap, the net conclusion will be that the two (or three) soil categories may, at the present stage of development, continue to be treated in a similar manner. That in

itself will be a positive result.

(b) Sampling and Testing of Gravels-Sands Early indications from the Chilean Member Society were

that it would readily undertake to spearhead this committee which is proving to be of increasing importance for very many major projects (e.g. Tarbela,


Sampling and Testing of Volcanic Soils There had been a proposal that the Spanish Member Society would volunteer to sponsor such a Technical Committee. Unfortunately, however, time has gone by

It would seem mostopportuneto emphasize that if in the next Presidential term of office some of these procedures of constituting Technical Committees are to be repeated, the Member Societies would greatly help if their delegates come to the Executive Committee Meeting_with some offer to contribute with the conduct of some Technical Committee.


Sampling and Testing of Submarine Soils The preoccupations and interests of ISSMFE in connec­ tion with ocean platforms and ocean engineering sug­

gested very emphatically the interest in creating a

Committee on Sampling and Testing of Submarine Soils. The Norwegian Member Society was approached to volun­

teer to spearhead such a committee, and in a recent

letter has kindly given its support to the initiative

Unfortunately, because of time limitations of the remainder of my presidential term of office, it has been felt that it would be preferable to transfer the

initiative, for a start, to the scope of a Regional

Technical Subcommittee, under the aegis of the European Vice-Presidency. In a manner analogous to the ESOPT Technical Subcommittee that served as an embryo for the full-fledged ISSMFE Penetration Testim Committee, it is trusted that the Norwegian-European

initiative on submarine soils will constitute another

exemplary start. 4-4-2 IE§EEEiEl2E_59!§§9£!_§9TT§ES€E

This could well be considered the most important Technical Committee of ISSMFE, and permanent. The German Member

Society that had been entrusted with the responsibility of Geotechnical Abstracts kindly accepted to spearhead the committee (Chairman,Professor Nendza; Secretary, Herbert


It is hoped that the input into the Information Service will acquire fuller coverage through the help of "scouts" essentially in each Member Society. Unfortunately the Member Societies have been very slow in responding.

At this moment we have participants from: Brazil, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, India, Italy, Japan,

Professor Francois Baguelin continues as Chairman, and

Dr Bernard Felix is the secretary.

The tasks suggested include a LEXICON subgroup to work on Errata, Corrigenda and Addenda; moreover there should be a NOMENCLATURE COORDINATION subgroup to coordinate with

the sister societies through the Permanent Coordinating

Secretariat, and also to coordinate with collateral socie­ ties such as ICOLD, ITA, etc. Finally a more complete

listing of proposed definitions, coefficients, indices, etc. still lies ahead, hopefully to be accompanied by a retrospective critical analysis of correlations and pseudo­ correlations in frequent use. It is hoped that this Committee may also propose a tech­ nical discussion session of its Progress Report at the San Francisco venue.

Nigeria, Norway, SE Asia (AIT), Sweden, and USA (GEODEX).

4-4-5 EE!¥¥_§9EEEQ_§9EE§EEEE_9E_E§E§§li§E§

4-4-3 §E9E§EEEEl§§l_§9EEEE§£_€£99EEE_§[email protected]€E

Three International Symposia on Landslides had been held very successfully (1977, 1979, 1981) and the Fourth such Symposium was planned to be held in Toronto 1984. The Canadian Member Society showed great vision in proposing the creation of the ISSMFE Technical Committee on Land­

The Canadian Member Society kindly volunteered to conduct

this equally important, hopefully permanent, Technical Committee, under the Chairmanship of Professor Eisenstein. Membership in this committee has included reinstatement of some of the members from the past term of office, and inclusion of additional appointees, among whom the response

has been relatively rapid.

It is hoped that this Committee will work in close liaison with the parallel initiative in ISRM, and also, within

ISSMFE itself, with the Information Advisory Committee IAC,

inasfar as possible incorporating the software bank as a subprogram of the IAC-bank.

The Committee is keeping close contact with the Inter­

national Committee for Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, under the chairmanship of Dr C. S. Desai, USA. 4-4-4 IEEEEEEEEEEEE_EEEEE£EE§9E_?E§EiEi_§9!ElEE§E

The ESOPT II Conference was a great success both technically

and socially. Furthermore, it provided the first oppor­ tunities for conversations on the adjustments that were

being introduced with regard to Technical Committees, that had only been discussed with members of the Steering Committee, San Francisco, January 1982. There is a very wide membership interested in diverse aspects of the

Penetration Testing problem, and it is anticipated that besides preparation for the next venue as an ICOPT, the Committee will possibly prepare for a technical debate

slides to accompany and further such an initiative.

Although the sponsorship of the Technical Committee by the Canadian Member Society seemed implicit, there was a slight

delay in exchanges of correspondence until formal ratifi­ cations were achieved. The Committee is operating under the Chairmanship of Professor Pierre La Rochelle, and with Dr R. K.Bhandari as Secretary-at-large, and Mr Jacques Lebuis as local Secretary in Canada.

The principal efforts of the Committee are being concen­ trated on putting up the 1984 International Symposium in Toronto.

In a collateral activity that was heartily endorsed by the

ISSMFE Technical Committee Chairman, Professor La Rochelle,

the European Regional Vice-President, Professor Arrigo Croce, has recently embarked on coordinating a Regional Technical Subcommittee, to be sponsored by the Turkish Member Society, on the more specific subtopic “Stabilization

of Landslides in Europe". It will be of great interest to

see how the handling of topics and subtopics by ISSMFE Technical Committees and simultaneous Regional Technical Subcommittees may further stimulate the work of our fellow

geotechnicians towards the fundamental statutory aim of ISSMFE of promoting the development of geotechnical engineering.

session at San Francisco l9B5.

4-4-7 §§!l!_§9£EE§_§EEE£ifE9E-TE§E§E2_§9EEiEEE§

The Swedish Member Society has graciously accepted to spearhead this Technical Committee, chaired by Professor Bengt B. Broms, with Dr U. Bergdahl as secretary. There have been so many papers published on these topics during

The British Member Society graciously offered to spearhead the work of the Committee on Centrifuges, under the Chair­ manship of Professor A. N. Schofield, with Dr W. Craig acting as committee Secretary.

Committee to devote considerable effort to thorough discussions of comparative conclusions and correlations,

The Committee has been very active and it appears certain

the past 10 years that it is very important for the

etc. It is hoped that this Committee might offer to con­ duct a technical debate session at the San Francisco Conference, especially considering the relevance that penetrating testing has been given to decisions regarding seismic liquefaction potential. Moreover, considering the now international scope of the Committee, it will be of interest to debate the possible advantages of promoting more varied local practices that could enhance multiple profiling interpretations.

that they will plan to request a full-fledged technical discussion at the San Francisco Conference. In a recent circular announcing a 3-day meeting on "Applications of

centrifuge modelling to geotechnical design", Peter W. Rowe Laboratory, University of Manchester, 16 - 18 April 1984, it is stated that the ISSM E Technical Committee on Centrifuges has been "charged with producing a state-of­

4-4-5 §¥EE9l§i_QE§E§L_9€§§ElEi9E§L_§2££ElEE§9E§

the-art report at the time of the l985 International Conference in San Francisco". Indeed the hope is that a "final draft" of such a state-of-the-art report prepared by the Technical Committee will have been circulated and available a few months in advance of the San Francisco

The French Member Society kindly consented to sponsor this Technical Committee underrenewed terms of reference.

submit oral and/or written discussions, and, thereupon, the final report, including written discussions and the closing

Conference, so that any interested ISSMFE Members might


discussion would constitute the ISSM E Report, for sale.

4-4-12 99992EEE€_9E_§9EEEiEEEi!2_E€!§_9§_§9§l§

The enthusiasm and intensity of the work already set agoing by the Centrifuge Committee merits our congratulations and

Again by offer of the Japanese Member Society, a Technical Committee has been established for the purpose of discus­


4-4-B SQEEEEEEE_9§_T£9E1€§l_§9il§L_EEEEEEEE§_§E§_§2E£2l§EEE

The Brazilian Member Society offered to spearhead this Technical Committee, presently under the chairmanship of Professor Job S. Nogami, with Dr W. C. Hachich as secretary; there has been very enthusiastic response from most persons

invited to participate. An immediate task has been estab­ lishing close liaison with the IGCP-IUGS-UNESCO-IAGC

sing problems of constitutive laws and equations of soil behaviour. The Chairman and Secretary are Professors Sakuro Murayama and T. Adachi respectively. Membership of the committee to include principal worldwide interested

specialists is in the final stages of being formalized,

4.4. ` ' '

and correspondence has already been circulated towards establishment of the immediate terms of reference. 13 EalEe£§_e&§_E&l&s£_9£&§e£§e

Plans are to promote an International Symposium on Tropical

The South African Member Society kindly offered to supply the ground work support for this Technical Committee, which has thereupon been established with Chairman and Secretary as Dr G. W. Donaldson and Dr R. J. Scheurenberg respectively The constitution of the Committee membership and its terms of reference has moved steadily ahead, and work on the

February-March 1985.

technical correspondence.

Project 129 "International working group on laterites and laterisation processes", in order to maximize cooperation while retaining for ISSMFE the interest in practical geo­ technical engineering problems and solutions.

Saprolites and Laterites to be held in Brazil around 4-4~9 Ell9!§§i§_9§f9£E§El9E§_9§_§E¥l§lE2§i__QEEES§§

The Mexican Member Society has enthusiastically accepted to spearhead this Technical Committee, under the chairman­

ship of Dr Pablo Girault D., with Ing. Juan J. Schmitter as secretary. Participants have responded with considerable interest, and work is moving ahead despite the serious economic

problems faced by the country. Since the Mexican Member Society is planning to organize some pre-conference program

before San Francisco l9B5, it is hoped that there will shortly be some indication whether the technical discussion session on this all-important topic will be proposed in the form of a symposium or seminar to be held in Mexico City prior to the San Francisco venue (and planned so as to enhance the 1atter‘s program and attendance), or in the form of a discussion session at the very venue of the International Conference.

4.4.10 Co mittee on Preservation of Old Cities and EEEEEEEEE __________________________________

As an outcome of Session 9 of Stockholm 1981, Professor Jean Kerisel submitted a proposal that ISSMTE should con­ stitute a Technical Co mittee to emphasize geotechnical

engineering aspects in this all-important problem, of growing recognition. The proposal was i mediately accepted, and the French Member Society graciously offered to sponsor the Technical Committee's groundwork: Professor Kerisel

himself is the Chairman, and Dr A. Isnard acts as the Secretary of the committee.

Interest has been very great and growing, and it is hoped that our efforts in this matter will meet with some sponsor­ ship from cultural and governmental organizations, UNESCO, etc. 4-4-11 EEEEE£eE&¥£E¥_eE§_EEl!eE£££E!_2£_Ei&2§

The Japanese Member Society kindly offered to sponsor the background work of the ISSMFE Technical Committee on this topic, and thereupon the committee has been established. The Chairman and Secretary are Dr Kei-ichi Fujita and Professor Hideaki Kishida. Response to the worldwide

invitations has been a little slower than anticipated but it is presumed that the local task force has been working in preparatory steps. Definite terms of reference for the

work to be completed by April 1985 have yet to be firmed up.

topic has already resulted in fruitful exchanges of

4.5 Administative ISSMFE Committees

Three committees that appear to be more administrative, to report principally to the Executive Committee, and possibly to extend their activity in a somewhat permanent manner are herein mentioned. Preference has been given to appointing Steering Committee Members to head these Committees.

4~5°1 BEEEEEEE_§99E§£EE£9E_§[email protected]§

It was set up during the Oaxaca 1979 Executive Committee

Meeting to fulfill a need and yearning very deeply felt.

A worldwide membership of the committee was established,

but unfortunately there was no effective work achieved, principally because of the limited time. It was decided that this Committee might work best by having a Chairman and Co-Chairman, chosen to optimize

contacts from the two dominant areas of predictable research cooperation partnerships. Carl Crawford, Vice President for North America was requested to accept the Chairmanship, and kindly consented. After some unsuccess­

ful invitations, a special opportunity presented itself by

the fact that Steering Committee Member Professor Bengt B. Broms moved for a couple of years to Singapore: he was asked to be Co-Chairman and graciously accepted.

All further appointments to the Committee will be based on the working out of real-case research cooperation partner­

ships: the parties interested in any assistance towards effecting such partnerships are invited to contact directly the Chairman and Co-Chairman of the Committee, who on the

basis of gradually accumulating experience will give every

assistance possible. Moreover, at their discretion the representatives of the two parties entering into the

Research Cooperation partnership will be appointed as further members of the Committee. It is hoped that throu¢ such a pragmatic approach based on "case histories" and how their technicalities and technical benefits work out, a small beginning may gradually snowball, proving the

intrinsic worth of a great idea.

4.5.2 Committee on Policy regarding Standards, Manuals, 99955i_EE§_§E§E9E§£Pil§E1§§ ______________________

The problem of International standardization and its implicit responsibilities has frequently come under debate Most senior members of ISSMFE have generally tended to warn against the dangers of promoting standards, manuals,

codes, etc., under the stamp of ISSMFE. For instance


Minute 25 of the Istanbul l975 Meeting reads "It was agreed that the topic of Standardization should be removed from the work of M. Baguelin‘s Committee, and that when problems of standardization arise ad-hoc sub-committees

should be established to deal with each one ...". We all recognize that there are weighty questions of technical

crystallization, commercial interests and dominance, and legal consequences at play, irrespective of qualifying

statements, merely because for many Member Societies and

very many clients that cross national boundaries, the weight of an ISSMFE "standard" might not be lightly set aside. Moreover, there are entities specifically dedicated to standardization; standardizations obviously have their place too. It has seemed important to set up an Administrative Committee, to discuss the Policy(ies) to be sought and followed by ISSMFE towards such problems. Steering Committee Member Vice President for Australasia, Mr

R. D. Northey has been invited to chair this very important committee. Unfortunately until this moment I have suffered from a total blank of communications from Mr Northey or

regarding him. Many of the senior geotechnicians invited from various Member Societies have signified their agree­

ment to participate in the Committee's work. If it turns

out that unhappily Mr Northey finds himself unable to accept the invitation, I have taken, on behalf of ISSMFE's

needs, a very special liberty of already inviting Professor Edward de Beer, as the immediate alternative to the

Chairmanship of this Committee. Such a liberty one can only take under the grateful presumption of very friendly comprehension by both these illustrious senior colleagues:

I trust that both will pardon the liberty taken, and that

one or the other will urgently come forward to give the committee the leadership it needs. 4 ~ 5 - 3 92‘E‘EiEE§§_9E_§£9§§§§§9EEl_§£2EEi‘E§L_§E12iS§LESS;

from the Russian Member Society, and they were invited to volunteer to spearhead the Committee. Unfortunately the Russian Member Society declined the invitation inasfar as

most of the leadership in the topic, within their profes­ sional practice, lies with the entities concerned with dams.

They did indicate, however, an interest in participation

in such a committee, and went ahead to nominate Professor P. L. Ivanov as committee member, should the committee be formed. Recently the Chilean Member Society (Mr Jorge B. Tr0nCOSO,

Secretary) has signified that they would like to volunteer

for the conduct of the Committee. As mentioned above with regard to the Gravel-Sands Sampling and Testing Committee,

because of questions of logistics it has been suggested that the Chilean offer be taken up by the South American Vice-Presidency for a start as an embryo Regional Sub­ committee under Vice-Presidential coordination.

4.7 Hypothetical Committees and Regional Sub-committees

It has been agreed that it is of utmost interest to ISSM E to establish Technical Committees as rapidly as possible, in order to maintain close liaison with groups that might tend to splinter off, and with groups that congregate our principal clients, principal avenues of making ourselves useful. The organizational problem involves alertness, and the quick volunteering by some Member Society to

sponsor the background work: thereafter the decision as

to whether or not to start directly with a full-fledged

ISSMTE Committee, or temporarily as a Regional Subcommittee,

is one of expediency, logistics, regional interests, etc.

It appears of interest to summarize some of the Committee topics mentioned on different occasions, starting from

According to our experience no single factor contributes so much to spread the realities and image of geotechnical knowledge, than the practice of high-level professionals both as individual consultants, as representatives of companies of specialized services, and as members of

Mexico 1969 when Technical Committees were established as

subject simultaneously to many diverse schools of thought,

Istanbul 1975 (Min. 27) Effective Stress in partially saturated soils

organizations of the big design industry. These activities far out weigh all the production of published papers, of sale of volumes of speciality conferences, and of pro­ ceedings of international conferences and state-of-the-art lectures. This is especially true in the developing world

or lack of it, most of which don't hesitate to disregard local expertise or even codes and legislation of profes­ sional practice. It was therefore considered very important to establish an Administrative Committee to begin to discuss

the possible guidelines and recommendations by which ISSMFE

could help its members that have to conduct professional services across national boundaries.

Steering Committee Member E. D'Appo1onia has kindly con­ sented to chair this Committee, whose membership includes

highly recognized geotechnicians in the international con­ sulting practice. Work has progressed by exchange of correspondence. It is anticipated that some proposals of guidelines will be prepared for submission to the San Francisco Executive Committee Meeting, 1985.

4.6 Committee on Hydraulic Fill Dams, Tailings. Planned as ISSM E Committee, but reconsidered.

The topic is of utmost importance and would be one of those, such as mentioned below, of particular interest because it Serves to bridge distances between ourselves as specialist geotechnicians, and some of our big clients (dams, dredged

reclaimed lands, mine tailings, etc.). The hope was to draw on the well recognized expertise of our colleagues

a permanent feature of ISSMFE activity, and at which time some of the present essentially permanent Committees were established: Moscow 1973

(Min. 22) Seismic Phenomena associated with Large Reservoirs (Min. 23) Strong Ground Motion due to Earthquakes

(Min. 28) Geotechnical ocean engineering

Tokyo 1977 (Min. 40) Land subsidence

Oaxaca l979 i Stockholm 1981 (Min. 38) Offshore geotechnical engineering

Momentum has increased considerably: presently under consideration. (a) GEOTEXTILES (North American Vice Presidency, possibly US Member Society)

(b) Permafrost (N American Vice Presidency, possibly Canada) (c) Environmental Geotechnics (proposal from Italy, South Africa, Japan, SE Asia)

(d) Statistics and Probability applied to geotechnical

engineering (in coordination with ICASP): under discussion (e) cooperation with CIB on specific problems such as (l) Deep Foundations (2) Shallow Foundations on weak

and active subsoils ... etc.

(f) Tunnelling in Europe (Regional Subcommitte being sponsored by the German Member Society under the aegis


of the European Vice-Presidency). (g) Earthquake geotechnical problems in Europe (Regional Subcommittee being sponsored by the Italian Member Society under the aegis of the European Vice Presidency)

To any and all such initiatives our recommendations are that speed and close coordination are fundamental, and that the intent is obviously to preserve the presence and philosophy of ISSMFE's basic aims through membership in entities that otherwise we could not avoid going their own way. We urge all members and Officers to maintain themselves alert of the needs and opportunities.






As you all know, communication in Africa is not easy.

The possible formation of Regional Member Societies in East Africa and in the French speaking African countries has been mooted, though there has been no real progress of which I am aware. Such groupings could be of assistance in the promotion of soil mechanics in these areas provided viable centres can be found which will provide the spark

Population is sparsely distributed, distances are great, airfares are very high, and political problems give rise to additional complications. However, I have, with the kind co-operation of the previous Vice-President established a correspondence communications centre for the Region at his office in Harare, Zimbabwe, and I am pleased to report that this does now seem to be facilitating communication to some extent. I have, however, had very little news from

most countries in the region.

needed to keep activity alive. REPORTS FROM H MBER SOCIETIES

Only the South African Society has responded to my request Bth AFRICAN REGIONAL CONFERENCE

The most important regional event is the Bth Regional Conference to be held in Harare, Zimbabwe, on 4 to 7 June

for information on member society activities. I am pleased to report that this society continues to be very active and has held a number of meetings during the period under review. Short courses or symposia are planned for the near future on topics such as Engineering Geology, Grouting and

1984. Bulletin No. l for this Conference has recently been distributed and Bulletin No. 2 will follow later in Foundation Design and a successful course in Geotechnics the year. The Conference is being organised by a committee and the Environment was held recently. of the Zimbabwe member society under the chairmanship of the previous vice-president, Professor W R Mackechnie. PROCEEDINGS OF 7th REGIONAL CONFERENCE

The production of the final volume of the Proceedings of the 7th Conference held in Accra in 1980 has been conside­ rably delayed. However, it is now with the printers and should be distributed shortly.

The J E Jennings Award for a meritorious paper published during 1981 was given to G A Jones and D J A van Zyl for their paper "The Piezometer Probe - A Useful Tool", published in the Proceedings of the 10th International Conference held in Stockholm in l9Bl. L c wilson





The Soil Mechancs and Foundation Engineering Geology and Rock Mechanics Divisions of the Southeast Asian Geotech­

nical Society have been most active for the period 1981 to 1983. Several international symposia and seminars were held in the member countries, in addition to the regular

society conference which was held in Hong Kong in November

1981. The geotechnical activity of the Society has responded well not only to the high tempo of engineering development in the member countries but also to the nature of the geotechnical aspects relating to their i mense

2 Symposium on Numerical Analysis Methods in Geotechni­ cal Engineering held in March 1982.

3 A Chinese-English and English-Chinese edition of

Lexicon on soil mechanics and foundation engineering was produced in 1982.

The Fourth National Symposium on Soil Mechanics and

Foundation Engineering, which is held once every four

years will be held before the end of this year.

development projects.

The Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering is being produced quarterly.

With the MassTransit Project in Hong Kong and the prepara­ tions for similar developments in Singapore and Thailand,


a symposium on "Modern Techniques in Underground Construc­ tion and Tunnelling Works” was held in Bangkok in May 1981.

There has been increasing activity in oil and gas explora­ tion and offshore work in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand. A full range of geotechnical aspects of the design and construction of offshore and coastal structures were discussed at the December 1981 Symposium and Short Course sponsored by the Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society.

Arising from the increasing need to utilize reclaimed land and land with poor soil conditions for development through ground improvement techniques, the Society sponsored a symposium and short course on "All Aspects of Ground Improvement" in December 1982.

The Seventh Conference of the Society held in Hong Kong in November 1982 was a huge success. There were over 400

The President and Secretary of the Japanese National Society are Professor Sadao Kishigami and Professor Tsutomu Kimura respectively.

During the period of 1981 to 1983, the Japanese National Society placed particular emphasis on international co­

operation in the field of geotechnical engineering. Its activities included the following; (a) Co-sponsoring the International Symposium on Weak Rock in Tokyo in September 1981.

(b) Conducted seminars for government-employed geotechni­

cal engineers practising in foreign countries. A Annual Conferences

participants and several panelists and guest lecturers were

(1) Sixteenth National Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Kanazawa City, 26 - 28 May

In Malaysia, the Geotechnical Section participated in the organizing and presenting papers in the following

1,079 participants, 473 papers (2) Seventeenth National Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Naha City, Okinawa, B - ll

drawn from the international geotechnical community. conferences:

(a) International Conference on Natural Rubber for Earth­ quake Protection of Buildings and Vibration Isolation held in Kuala Lumpur - 22 to 25 February 1982. (b) Asian Regional Conference on Tall Buildings and Urban Development held in Kuala Lumpur - 17 to 20 August 1982.

The Geotechnical Section in Malaysia also conducted a Geotechnical Engineering Course in Kuala Lumpur - 22 March

to 2 April 1982 for practising engineers.

The President of the Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society for the period 1981 - 1982 was Dr E. W. Brand, and Dr Ting Wen Hui is the present President.


June 1982.

1,164 participants, 705 papers (3) Eighteenth National Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Kohriyama City, 9 - 12 June 1983.

B Annual Symposia (1) Twenty-Sixth Symposium on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Tokyo, 10 November 1981.

210 participants, 10 papers on "Prediction and Performance in excavation and embankment".

(2) Twenty-Seventh Symposium on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Tokyo, 16 November 1981.

290 participants, 9 papers on "Design and Practice in



The activities of the Chinese National Society during the last two years were:

1 Symposium on In-situ Soil Test held in October 1981.


(3) Twenty-Eighth Symposium on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Tokyo, mid June 1983; on

"In-Situ Tests".

Adhoc Symgs ia

"Relative density and mechanical properties of Sand" in Tokyo, 11 November 1981 - 140 participants. "Sampling" in Tokyo,12 November 1981 - 150 participants.

"Application of statistics and theory of probability

to geotechnical engineering" in Tokyo,l2 May 1981 ­ 201 participants.

"Correlation between the bearing capacity of piles and the pile driving method with low vibration and low noise" in Tokyo, 1 July 1982 - 420 participants. "Off-shore soil investigation" in Tokyo, 17 September 1982 - 200 participants.

"Evaluation of Contact stress and its application to

design" in Tokyo, 9 November 1982 - 120 participants. "Damage of ground and foundation due to earthquake" in Tokyo, 8 May 1983.

Chin F K




Compared with other regions the Australasian Region is essentially one of small populations and very low popula­

tion density. It still comprises only two member societies

Australia and New Zealand, separated by some 2000 km of

open sea, and within Australia some of the main centres of population are separated by similar distances with little habitation between. So far there are no other countries within the region with centres of professional population

and civil engineering activity sufficient to sustain a viable member society. while there is a high level of local activity around the centres of population within each country it has proved difficult to maintain a similar level nationally or internationally. Because the system has worked so well the ISSMFE continues to be represented by National Geomechanics Societies which

also represent the International Association for Engineer­ ing Geology and the International Society for Rock Mechanics. They are linked to their respective national Institutions of Engineers and serve as centres to attract other technical groups of related activity. This close local collaboration is ad irable though does lead to some problems for Vice Presidents of the respective International Societies especially in areas of overlapping responsibility. INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ACTIVITIES

The recently completed ISRM 5th International Congress on Rock Mechanics held in Melbourne lO-l5 April l9B3 proved a most successful Conference. The ISSMFE was represented there by the current chairman of the Australian Geomechanics Society, Professor H G Poulos and our Secretary-General,

Dr R H G Parry. Of a total attendance of 308, 122 were from Australia but only 2 from New Zealand, perhaps an indication of the difficulties of cross Tasman Sea cooperation.

Plans are well advanced for the 4th Australia-New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics to be held in Perth l4-lB May 1984. Had we continued with the original numeration it would have been the 9th ANZ Conference on Soil Mechanics

and Foundation Engineering. The objective of the Con­ ference is to discuss a full range of geomechanics topics


within the theme "Geomechanics-Interaction". In keeping

with this theme it is hoped that contributions will high­ light the interactions between theory and practice in the various disciplines of geomechanics. Provisional acceptance of manuscripts is well advanced and it is hoped that all final copy will be received by the end of August 1983. The 5th International Conference on Expansive Soils will be held in Adelaide 21-23 May l9B4, and receipt of synopses is also well advanced. Should any Member Societies have

had any difficulty in receiving information on either of these 1984 conferences I would be pleased to act as intermediary so please contact me. NATIONAL ACTIVITIES

The pattern of geomechanics activity is similar within both Australia and New Zealand. Each has a twice yearly "Geomechanics News" full of technical material as well as

news items of local, national, and international affairs.

At the Annual Engineering Conferences some Geomechanics

Sessions are normally included. Within major centres regular local meetings are held with panel discussions or invited speakers. National Symposia are held at more or less regular intervals on subjects of widespread interest. The Australian Standard "Methods of Testing Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes" ASl2B9 is being extended and revised while the corresponding New Zealand Standard NZS4402 has

also been published in this period.

Following spectacular failures of two New Zealand canals in recent volcanic ash soils in this period the New Zealand Geomechanics Society in conjunction with the New Zealand Society on Large Dams and the IPENZ Technical Group on Water are promoting a symposium on "Engineering for Dams and Canals" in Alexandra 23-26 November l9B3.



In its latest meeting, held in Stockholm in l9Bl, the

It is a topic of manifold scientific and technological

Executive Committee of the ISSMFE took several important

aspects. The Helsinki Conference has been organised with

- intensify the activities of the International Society,

be a complete and up-to-date landmark for both researchers and engineers.

decisions with the following aims:

up-dating the structure of the Technical Committees

- establish clear and inmediate contacts between the International Society and the outer world, mainly through the International Conferences - promote and favour the participation of the Member

Societies in the new activities of the International Society.

Moreover, the Executive Committee agreed with the observa­ tions and suggestions made by President De Mello, in order

to increase the regional cooperation in each one Region by well planned activities.

The present report briefly illustrates the participation of the European Member Societies in the international

activities of the last two years. It deals then with the trends of the EMS regarding the European Regional

Cooperation and with the first steps moved in this direction. The national activity of each European Member Society will be expounded in the report which will be presented in the next Executive Committee meeting of l9B5.

great effort by the Finnish Geotechnical Society. It will

Europe already exists, but only in limited geographic areas In order to extend and intensify the Regional Cooperation a more careful investigation is to be performed. EUROPEAN REGIONAL COOPERATION

The European Regional Cooperation has been the subject of two subsequent investigations among the European Member

Societies. The Societies which participated in the

investigations were approximately one half of the whole body of the European Societies.

Almost all of the Societies, which participated in the first investigation, have expressed the opinion that the European Cooperation should be promoted and encouraged.

Moreover it should be referred to the physical aspects and the technological trends distinctive of Europe. The Regional Cooperationwillbe carried out through the

Technical Subcommittees and through the various European Information Channels.

The Member Societies have indicated the most interesting Fields of Cooperation, through the second investigation. They are:


The European Member Societies have actively participated

to the development of the inter-regional relations, follow­ ing the general lines drawn by Presidentvl De Mello and with the contribution of the information and suggestions provided by the Secretary General R. H. G. Parry. The following data should be sufficient for giving an idea of the overall dimensions of the intervention by the

- Geotechnical characteristics of European geomorphological areas

- Stabilization of Landslides - Earthquake Geotechnical problems - Resource Developments

European Member Societies:

- Environmental problems

- EMS participating in the International

- Tunnelling

Technical Committees

- European Sponsor Societies - Individual European members appointed

in the International Technical


In the meantime, several meetings and symposia of inter­ national echo were held in Europe. Among these, the second European Symposium on Penetration Testing, Amsterdam

1982, showed the work made in the most recent years by the relevant Subcommittee, under the chairmanship of Professor Broms. Following the Symposium, the Subcommittee became

a full International Committee, still under the chairman­ ship of Professor Broms.

In a few days the Eighth European Conference will begin in Helsinki. "Improvement of ground" is one of the most topical subjects, not only from the geotechnical point of view but also in the more general field of Engineering.

all of them specifically referred to the European Region. Three Member Societies have offered their sponsorship, each one for a Regional Subcommittee. They are:

- The Federal Republic of Germany Society, on the topic of Tunnelling in Europe

- The Italian Society, on the topic of Earthquake Geotechnical problems in Europe

- The Turkish Society, on the topic of Stablization of Landslides in Europe.

President De Mello has examined and approved these sub­ committees. However, the organization of the above men­ tioned subcommittees will require a few more months. A preliminary progress report should be presented by each Sub-Committee in 1985.


A widespread fault of professional information and diffusion channels as well as direct contacts between members of the different Societies has been pointed out by most Member Societies. Several suggestions have been given, in order to overcome

this difficulty. In any case, there is a need for financial

means which are very difficult to provide. However, the European Societies are very active in their own countries. Moreover, there are groups of neighbouring Societies which are in frequent contact among themselves. The new technical Committees and Sub-committees will create a net of relations which will become closer and closer.

A Croce




The North American Region includes the member societies of Mexico, United States and Canada. These member societies have sponsored the following meetings and other technical



Meetings and Lectures


Geotechnical Engineering program at Annual Convention ASCE, St. Louis, MO (October 1981).



17th Terzaghi Lecture by Robert V. Whitman on "Evalu­

Symposia and Technical Meetings

ating the Calculated Risk" (October 1981),

1. Instrumentation of tunnels (15 May 1981) 3.

Specialty Conference on "Engineering and Construction on Topical and Residual Soils" in Honolulu, Hawaii (January 1982).

1981) 5.

2. Tunnels in soft soil (29 May 1981)

3. Tunnels in firm soil (9 October 1981) 4. 4. Aquifer behaviour - Mexico City subsidence (26 November

5. Criteria for using filters in Sanitary Engineering

and Soil Mechanics (22 April 1982) 6.

6. Soil Mechanics and Geohydrology in the design of

underground coal mines (18 June 1982) 7.

7. International Conference to commemorate the XXVth Anniversary of the Sociedad Mexicana de Mecanica de

Suelos. "Past, Present and Future of Soil Mechanics. A Critical Review" (2 - 4 August 1982)

9. “Frontiers of Soil Mechanics" in collaboration with the Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM (14 October 1982) 2.

(17 November 1982)

12. XIth National Meeting of the Sociedad Mexicana de Mecanica de Suelos. Subject "Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Onshore Structures


13. VIth Nabor Carrillo Conference, "Foundation Problems in Nuclear Power Plants". Speaker Alfred J. Hendron Jr.

34th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Fredericton, N.B. (29 September - 2 October 1981). Second Canadian Conference on Marine Geotechnical

Engineering held in Halifax, N.S. (June 1982) Thirty-Fifth Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Montreal - Rock Mechanics Division of Canadian Geotechnical

Dr D. B. Shields conducted lecture tour of Ghana arranged through the ISSMFE and with financial support from CIDA and the Canadian Geotechnical Society (8- 20 September 1981)



Six-man delegation of Canadian Section visited several points in China at invitation of Chinese Section of ISSM E, being a return visit to the one undertaken in Canada in 1979. (October 1981)

1- "Tunnelling" (27 - 30 April 1981)

2. "Surface Foundations" (24 - 28 August 1981) 3­ 3. "Applied Soil Mechanics to Highways, Railroads and Airports. Relations between Soil Mechanics and Civil

Engineering" (November - December 1981) 4.

4._ "Foundations" (9 - 13 August 1982)

5. Foundations on the mined zone of Mexico City (6 - 11 September 1982)

Specialty Conference on "Geotechnical Practice in Offshore Engineering", Austin, Texas (April 1983).

Society came into being at time of Conference - will form part of Canadian Section, ISRM (28- 30 Sept. 1982) Other Activities

(Industrial ports)" (18 - 19 November 1982) 1, (20 November 1982)

18th Terzaghi Lecture by J. Barry Cooke on “Progress in Rock-Fill Dams" (October 1982).


in Mexico City (23 September 1982) l.

11. IIIrd National Meeting of Soil Mechanics Professors

Geotechnical Engineering program at Annual Convention ASCE, New Orleans (October 1982).


8. Deep excavations for construction of tower buildings

10. Highway tunnelling (27 - 29 October 1982)

Specialty Conference on "Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering", New Orleans, Louisiana (February, 1982


Organizing Committee for 7th Pan American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 1983 was established in Vancouver (December 1981)

Ghana Fellowship established which will permit a young Ghanian Geotechnical Engineer to spend three or four months on a Canadian project to obtain hands-on experience. Funding provided by CIDA. First Fellow to arrive in 1983. (Summer 1982)

Established Organizing Committee for IV International Symposium on Landslides, Toronto, 1984. Sponsored by

Canadian Geotechnical Society and ISSFME Landslides Subcommittee (September 1982)


In addition, the member societies were active on ISSM E technical committees and in communication with other members through newsletters and technical publications. Officers of the member societies include the following:

Mexico Professor Gabriel Moreno Percero, President Alberto Jaime Paredes, Secretary

Sociedad Mexicana de Mecanica de Suelos Valle de Bravo No. 19 Col. Vergel de Coyoacan, Tlalpan 14340, Mexico, DF

Canada A. G. Stermac, President W. J. Eden, Secretary Division of Building Research National Research Council Ottawa, Ontario K1A oR6

United States Professor Harvey Wahls, Chairman

H. Bolton Seed, Secretary Department of Civil Engineering 440 Davis Ball University of California Berkeley, California 94720

Carl B. Crawford





Through this period, regional activity has experienced a very important development in the area of Soil Mechanics, having accomplished very important projects in most countries within the Area. Also, technical activity has increased and numerous con­ gresses and seminars have been held. On the other hand, a new country member has joined our International Society and there has been considerable activity towards integration of countries which share common, professional interests.

Following is a detailed report of activities in each South

American country:


National Societies have felt it opportune that this first A. Casagrande Conference be given at the Eleventh International Congress of Soil Mechanics which is to take

place in San Francisco, on the occasion of the Soth anniversary of the International Society. Subsequent A. Casagrande Conferences will be given in the Pan American Congresses. NEW SOCIETIES

This year, the Bolivian Society of Soil Mechanics has fulfilled the requirements for admission to the Inter­ national Society, and they have advised us that the corres­ ponding fee for their firm admission to the International Society will be forwarded in the near future.

The Pan American Conference is the most important technical


sionals from both South and North America.

The Geotechnical, Andean Sub-Regional Council was formed

event in the Area. It is attended by Geotechnics profes­

At present arrangements'are under way for the VII Pan American Conference, in Vancouver, Canada, scheduled for 19 - 24 June 1933. South American professionals are quite

enthusiastic about this event and as of this date 64

technical papers have been received and aceepted, which are to be presented at the Vancouver Conference.

In line with resolution adopted in December 1979, at the VIth Pan American Conference, in Lima, Peru, the Vice President for South America was very pleased to lend his

active cooperation to the organization of this VII Con­ ference and submitted a roster of South American candidates for cooperation with the various committees of this


The South American Vice-Presidency has invited South

American professionals in an effort to count with a signi­ ficant attendance of professionals of the Area. This Conference will have the honour to have Professor Victor F. B. de Mello, who will give a lecture. The Ecuadorian and Colombian Societies have volunteered for the holding of the forthcoming Pan American Congress in

their countries. Decisions as to the country where the

VIII Pan American Congress is to be held should be made in Vancouver, as relates acceptance of either the Colombian or Ecuadorian invitation.

in 1981 and on this occasion the I Congress of Soil Mechanics of the Sub-Region was held. The Presidency of the Geotechnical, Andean Sub-Regional Council has its headquarters in Colombia, and the General Secretariat was entrusted to the Ecuadorian Society of Soil and Rock Mechanics. This Sub-Regional group has engaged in con­

siderable technical activity through these two years.

The South American Vice President has made several trips to Central America for the purpose of organising a Central American group composed by Panama, Costa Rica, Guatamala

and Honduras, as members. I feel that by late 1983 this group may be formally set up, as the Central American

professionals are quite interested in grouping. LATIN AMERICAN GEOTECHNICS MAGAZINE

The Latin American Geotechnics Magazine was founded in 1971 at the IV Pan American Congress held in Puerto Rico,

with headquarters in Caracas, Venezuala, and up to now it

has been irregularly published due, at times, to lack of technical cooperation, and others, to financial restraints. At present efforts are being made in an attempt to secure the financial support of Venezuelan Scientific Institutions so as to continue this union tie among Latin American Geotechnics professionals.


At the suggestion of the South American Vice Present, the 10 societies of the Area approved the creation of the A. Casagrande Conference as the maximum technical-scientific distinction awarded to a professional devoted to Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in South America, to honour the memory of Professor A. Casagrande, and as acknowledgement to the professional work performed by engineers engaged in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineer­

ing in South America. A regulation was approved for this purpose, which was forwarded to the Secretary General of

the International Society and to the President of same.

Attached is a copy of the regulation. The South American


The Argentine Society of Soil Mechanics organized the VII Congress of Soil and Foundation Mechanics on 22 and 25 September 1932, attended as guests Professor Victor de Mello

President of the International Society, and the Vice President for South America. This Congress was attended by 170 Professionals and 25 technical papers were presented. At present the Argentine Society has 71 active members. Brazil

This Society has been very active these two years in

divulging Soil Mechanics among its members and held the


VII Brazilian Congress on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, in September 1982. Colombia


South American members of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering considering that

Between 23 - 2B November 1982, the Colombian Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering organized the I Latin American Congress on Rock Mechanics, which was

1. Professor Arthur Casagrande was one of the founders of


3. His numerous lectures constituted the driving force

attended by the Vice President for South America of the International Society of Mechanics and Rocks, Professor Oreste Moretto, and the Vice President for South America of the International Society of Soil Mechanics, as guests. In August 1932, the Chilean Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering organized the I Chilean Congress on Geotechnics Engineering which was attended by the President of the International Society, Professor Victor F.B. de Mellq and the Vice President for South America; this Congress was attended by 14O Chilian professionals and 32 technical papers were presented. Dominican Republic

The III Session of Soil Mechanics of the Dominican Republic was held in June 1982, attended by Professor A. Croce,

Vice President of the International Society for Europe, the Vice President for South America, and 132 professionals as guests. 29 technical papers were presented in these sessions.

of modern Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering;

2. He contributed with its professional and teaching

activities to the development of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in South America through his active participation in the design and construction of important foundation and earthwork projects of the region; and, for the improvement of the teaching of Soil Mechanics

in the universities of the region;

have decided to establish in his honour the Arthur Casagran Lecture with the following objectives and by-laws: OBJECTIVES

The "Arthur Casagrande Lecture" was created to fulfil the following objectives:

(a) To be the highest technical and scientific award

bestowed upon an engineer dedicated to the practice of soil mechanics and foundation engineering in South America.

(b) To honour the memory of Professor Arthur Casagrande. (C) To acknowledge the contributions in research, teaching and professional work made by South American engineers

in the areas of soil mechanics and foundation


The Peruvian Committee of the Soil and Foundation Mechanics and Rock Mechanics, which has 61 members, is organizing a National Congress on Soil Mechanics which is secheduled

for late this year.


(d) To induce the development of applied research, the art of engineering and the improvement of teaching

of geotechnique among the engineers from South America



The Venezuelan Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering organized the VII Seminar on Soil Mechanics and

the II Meeting of Soil Mechanics Professors, between 5 ­ B October, 1982; 42 technical papers were presented and it was attended by 122 professionals. In November of this year, the Venezuelan Society will be reaching the 25th anniversary of its foundation and a technical meeting is being prepared for this occasion.

The following organization should assure permanent the periodical presentation of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture.

Art. l - Constitution of the Organzing Committee The Organising Committee of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture is composed by three members of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, ISSM E, South America region. The President of the Committee is

one of the three members and this position shall always be taken by the Vice-President for South America, the other two members shall be chosen among former Vice-Presidents for South America and Arthur Casagrande Lecturers.


At present there are some 930 member professionals from the various South American National Societies, who engage

in fruitful activity to the benefit of their countries.

J. C. Hiedra-Lopez

Art. 2 - Election of Committee Members

The Vice-President for South America and President for the Organizing Committee shall designate the other two members

according to the established requirements of Art. l. This appointment to the committee shall be made no later than three months after his election as Vice-President of the region. The re-election of one or two members of the Committee shall be left to the criterion of the Vice­ President elect. Art. 3 - Duration of Appointment The members of the Committee shall be appointed for a four years term. Art 4 - Functions of Organizing Committee

The duties of the Committee shall be:

(a) To designate the Arthur Casagrande Lecturer.


(b) (c) (d)


(f) (9)

To sign the commemorative plate or plaque. To present the plaque to the Arthur Casagrande Lecturer during the Pan American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. To select the time and date of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture with the Organizing Committee of the Pan American Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. To inform, two years ahead of time, of the award to the geotechnical engineer chosen to give the Arthur Casagrande Lecture. To request from South American National Societies the

The First Arthur Casagrande Lecture shall be given, as exception, at the XI International Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering to be held in San Francisco, California, 1985.

names of their candidates and to inform of the last date for filing them. To determine the type and amount of information about the candidates to the Award that National Societies should file in support of the candidates.

To distribute copies of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture, six months ahead of the date of the Lecture, to the National Societies of the region in order to induce written discussion of the lecture from geotechnical engineers. (i) To select the written discussions of the lecture and to mail them for publication in the Proceedings of (h)

the Pan American Conference.


To request, if necessary, the allocation of a larger quota of pages for the Vice-President for South America from the Organizing Committee of the Inter­ national Conferences in order to fill the needs of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture and the written discussions.

Art. 5 - Selection of Candidates

Each National Society of the region, shall have the right to present a maximum of two candidates chosen among the geotechnical engineers that are active members of ISSM E.

Art 6 - Requirements for the Candidates (a) To be a member of a National Society of the South America region.

(b) The candidate shall have worked for at least twenty years in research, teaching and/or professional practice of geotechnique. Art. 7 - Lan a e ________.__2B_2_

The Arthur Casagrande Lecture shall be presented in Spanish or Portuguese.

Art. B - Publication The Lecture shall be written Spanish or Portuguese with extensive English summary and in accordance to instructions for preparation of papers provided by the Organizing Co mittee of the International Conference. The Lecture

and its written discussions shall be published in the

Proceedings of the Conference.

The Lecture shall also be published in Spanish and Portuguese in the Revista Latinoamericana de Geotecnia. Art. 9 - Design and Payment for the Commemorative Plaque

The Vice-President for South America shall assign to his own National Society the duty to design and pay for the plaque awarded to the Arthur Casagrande Lecture. Art. lO - Date and Place

The Arthur Casagrande Lecture shall be given in the city and country holding the Pan American Conference. The date shall be selected within the period of the mentioned event.




After a two years interruptiondue to the premature death of Professor Nash and Dr Wolters, the council of the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat met at Brussels on the 4th June 1982. This council now consists besides Dr Silverio, Secretary General of the ISRM, of Dr Parry, Secretary General of the ISSMFE and Dr Primel, acting

Among other things measures should be taken in order that

After welcoming the new members of the council, it was

The French organizing committee easily obtained the "auspices" of the ISSMFE and IAEG but not of ISRM. Indeed the symposium is held in the same year as the International Conference of ISRM at Melbourne and moreover the subject is the same.

Secretary General of the IAEG.

explained that the co-ordinating secretariat has a permanent character, which makes it different from technical sub­ committees. Those are appointed by the President for only the duration of his term and have to be re-appointed by each new president. On the contrary, the co-ordinating secretariat has a permanent character, and has not to be re-installed by each new president. PRESENTATI ON OF PAPERS

The three Societies agree that the Proceedings of the International Conferences should be published in A4 form.

The ISRM and IAEG make their publications in A4 ISO Stan­

dard. The ISSMFE has not up till now used this Standard, but will examine again the possibility of switch over to the ISO Standard. Dr Parry will consult about this matter with the President, the Steering Committee and other

prominent members.

The Secretary General of the ISSMFE will make a tentative

proposal for the presentation of slides and overhead pro­ jection transparancies and the matter will be put on the agenda of the next meeting of the council.


The problem of editing a common list of members was again

examined by the Secretaries General, as the wish to do so was expressed by the Executive Committee of ISSM E at Stockholm.

After due consideration, the three Secretaries General are of the same opinion that editing a common list of members is not possible. Futhermore, the President and the Secretary General of the ISSM E share the opinion that it is not necessary to edit every four years a complete new list of members of the ISSMFE.

national events should not interfere with the regional and international conferences of the International Societies.

An example of what should be avoided is the following: In France in 1983 a symposium is organized in Paris under

the sponsorship of the three French Societies, and the "auspices" were asked of the three International Societies

Moreover the French Symposium is at about the same period as the European Conference of the ISSMFE at Helsinki and the Finnish Organizing Committee has made its complaints.

A5 the number of national or subregional conferences and

symposia is still increasing, it is worthwhile to promote joint initiatives and in each case a better co-ordination

of the agendas should be provided. Therefore the information should be transmitted to the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat as soon as a President or Secretary General has received a request of a national society for the auspices of its International Society. Also the Secretaries General of the two other International Societies should be informed about this matter. The Committee on Site Investigation of the IAEG established a text, adopted by IABG, and which was agreed upon by the

members of the two other International Societies. The report of the IAEG Commission on Site Investigation, written by Dr Price, was published in the Bulletin of the IAEG No. 24, December 1981, pp. 185 - 226. In this report it is mentioned that the text was examined by the Co­

ordinating Committee on Site Investigation and Sampling and that amendments suggested by the Co-Ordinating Committee

have been incorporated in the report.

The results of the Co-Ordinating Technical Committees have

until now been very poor indeed. Each International Society is promoting the activities of its own technical subcommittees.

Furthermore the activities of the Co-Ordinating technical committees are hampered by the problem of the travel and living expenses.

Meanwhile it was recalled that when a society edited a list of members, the affiliation of their members to the other International Societies of the Permanent Co-ordinating Secretariat should be indicated, as was already agreed and

Therefore it must be concluded that the aim, while creatim co-ordinating technical committees has been too high.


posed by Professor de Mello, President of ISSMFE. He suggests to designate two observing members of ISSMFE to each technical committee of one of the two other Inter­ national Societies. These observing members could make suggestions and remarks, but should not have the voting


A first examination of the problemof joint meetings and

activities showed that, for several reasons, the organisa­ tion of joint international conferences is not advisable. On the contrary it is worthwhile to promote joint meetings on a national and regional basis on specific subjects. This question will be put and examined further at the next meeting of the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat.


Perhaps a better and more realistic solution is that pro­

right. If the two other International Societiesshould have the same policy, this could certainly be a good promotion of

co-ordinating work.

The International Societies should inform the two other International Societies and the Permanent Co-Ordinating

Secretariat each time it installs a new Technical Committee.



After an exchange of ideas, the view was expressed that for the moment it is better to have no new admissions.

Another International Society can attend a meeting of the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat, if the three Geotechnical Societies through their Secretaries General agree with the attendance, and if the participating International Society is willing to pay its expenses, as the financial situation of the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat does not allow supplementary expenditures. The question of promoting joint meetings on a national or subregional basis will be put on the agenda of the next meeting of the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat. TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEES

There have been three Co-Ordinating Committees: on

Literature Classification, on Symbols, Units and Definitions and on Site Investigation and Sampling.

which have arisen in relation with the affiliation of societies of some countries, which are in contested political situations.

Different possibilities were examined in order to avoid

such difficulties. FEES

There is a general agreement that the fees should be increased.


In 1976 the decision was taken that after an International Conference a copy of the Proceedings shall be forwarded to the Secretary General of the two other Societies and also to the office of the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat at Brussels. The Organizing Committee of an International Conference should be reminded in due time by the Secretary

General of that decision. The copies remain part of the archives of the Secretary General of the sister International Society and of the Permanent Co-Ordinating Secretariat.

Co-Ordinating Committee on Literature Classification

The ISSMFE has agreed on its own Literature Classification System and did not accept some fundamental changes proposed by IAEG.

Professor E E de Beer Brussels, 14 March 1983

Consequently the co-ordination on Literature Classification


However, as in the ISSMFE a fundamental inquiry about the

most efficient method of classification (keywords or

decimal) has started, it could perhaps be justified to

recreate a co-ordinating committee on Literature Classifi­ cation. This matter will be put on the agenda of the next meeting of the Secretaries General. Co-Ordinating Committee on Symbols, Units and Definitions The

Committee of ISSM E on the same subjects has finished

its work and its proposals were accepted by the ISSMFE.

However, it was also agreed that the Co-Ordinating Committee should continue its work, under the chairmanship of Dr Baguelin (France). The

members of the Co-Ordinating Committee are:

for ISSMFE: Baguelin (Chairman), Sandegren, Ter Stepanian for ISRM : Dufaut, Langer, Pincus for IAEG : Conway, Rat, Sirgirov

Chairman, Professor Baguelin, has organised a meeting of the Co-Ordinating Committee at Paris, lB May 1983. The

Co-Ordinating Committee on Site Investigation and Sampling

This Co-Ordinating Committee consists of:

for IAEG : Price (Chairman), de la Torre, Chaturvedi for ISRM : Bieniawski, Militzer, Serafim for ISSM E: Lousberg, Wilson, de Leeuw




The XI International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering will be held in San Francisco in August 1985.

The sessions will be held in the Nob Hill Conference Center beginning Monday, ll August and concluding Friday 15 August. Post-conference tours will be arranged to various places in California and the United States. OBJECT OF THE CONFERENCE

The object of the Eleventh International Conference is to provide an opportunity for engineers and scientists working in the field of soil mechanics and foundation engineering to meet and present new ideas, achievements and experiences There will be a special emphasis on practical applications, and papers dealing with engineering practice in all its aspects are especially encouraged. PARTICIPANTS AND PRELIMINARY REGISTRATION

The conference is arranged primarily for the benefit of the members of the International Society. However, persons who are not members may attend by paying a special regis­

tration fee.

Special arrangements will be made for guests. OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

The official languages of the conference will be English and French. Contributions must be presented in either English or French, and all correspondence will be carried out in either of these languages. Simultaneous translation will be provided at the sessions.

technical engineering will be presented by the four Past­ Presidents of the Society. Professor M Fukuoka will presia over the session and the special lectures will be presented by Professors J Kerisel, A W Skempton and R B Peck. These lectures will be published in a special Jubilee Volume of the Conference Proceedings.


The Steering Committee of the International Society has decided to establish a Terzaghi Oration - a special lecture to be presented at each International Conference by a distinguished geotechnical engineer. The Terzaghi Oration at the XI International Conference will be presented by Professor T William Lambe.


Theme lectures will be presented at the conference as follows:

l. Soil Mechanics - Property Characterization and Analysn Procedures - C P wroth 2. New Developments in Field and Laboratory Testing of Soils - M B Jamiolkowski

3. Geotechnical Aspects of Environmental Control ­ N R Morgenstern

4. Piles and other Deep Foundations - J A Focht, Jr. 5. Geotechnical Engineered Construction - F Schlosser 6. Evaluating Seismic Risk in Engineering Practice ­ I M Idriss 7. Seismic Stability of Natural Deposits - K Ishihara B. Comparison of Prediction and Performance of Earth Structures - E W Brand 9. Geological Aspects of Geotechnical Engineering ­ G I Ter-Stepanian SESSION ON FAILURES AND NEAR FAILURES


The programme of the conference will include two opening

lectures and nine theme lectures, as well as three special lectures on the history and development of geotechnical

A special session will be held on Wednesday morning at which special reports on selected major geotechnical

engineering events (failures and near-failures) occurring during the past several years will be presented.



There will be three half-days of discussion sessions. Each half day there will be eight to ten simultaneous discussion sessions. Each discussion session will be focused on one or two specific topics or issues identified in the theme lectures.

The main subject areas to be addressed at this conference are those described by the titles of the Theme Lectures. Within these subject areas, other topics which the Organizmq Committee considers appropriate for inclusion are:

Opening ceremonies will take place Monday ll August at 9.30 am and closing ceremonies will take place Friday l5 August at 4.30 pm.

l. Soil Mechanics - Property Characterization and Analysh

The program will also include local technical visits and a technical exhibition. Further details will be announced in Bulletin 2.

C. Decision Theory and Probability 2. New Developments in Field and Laboratory Testing of Soils A. In-situ Testing Techniques B. Centrifuge Testing and Its Applications C. Laboratory Testing - New Procedures and Data


A special session on the history and development of geo­



A. Constitutive Relationships for Soil Behaviour B. Numerical Methods

Acquisition Techniques D. Field Instrumentation and Field Measurements

3. Geotechnical Aspects of Environmental Control A. Ground Water Modelling and Soil-Waste Interaction B. Seepage Control C. Tailings Dams 4. Piles and Other Deep Foundations A. Pile Foundation Design Methods B. Pier Foundations C. Foundations for Off-shore Structures 5. Geotechnical Engineered Construction A. Influence of Earthwork Construction on Structures B. Earth Strengthening C. Applications of Geotextiles 6. Evaluating Seismic Risk in Engineering Practice A. Seismic Geology and Risk Analysis B. Seismic Safety of Earth Structures 7. Stability of Natural Deposits During Earthquakes A. Soil Liqufaction during Earthquakes B. Seismic Stability of Natural Slopes B. Comparison of Prediction and Performance of Earth Structures A. Earth and Rockfill Dams B. Excavation Support C. Foundations D. Non-technical Constraints on Engineering Practice 9. Geological Aspects of Geotechnical Engineering A. Slope Stability Problems B. GeologicalAspects in Earth Dam Engineering C. Problems in Areas with Special Geologic Conditions (Loess, Permafrost, Arid Regions, etc.) POSTER SESSIONS

All authors of papers published in the Conference Proceed­ ings will be given an opportunity to present their papers to delegatesat Poster Sessions held following the main

sessions on Monday and Tuesday evenings, Wednesday morning, and Thursday evening. Each author who chooses to make

such a presentation will be given a poster space on which to display the main results of his paper and authors will be asked to explain the main features of the paper to small groups of delegates who express interest in the topic. Further information on these Poster Sessions will be provided in Bulletin No. 2.


Short trips to places of geotechnical interest in Northern California will be arranged during the conference. Immediately following the conference, longer tours to other parts of California and the United States will be arranged. These will combine some sightseeing with visits to engineer ing projects. TECH ICAL EXHIBITION

An exhibition of geotechnical methods, equipment, materials and services is being organized in conjunction with the Eleventh International Conference. More information about

the exhibition and how to participate in it will be pro­ vided in Bulletin 2. SOCIAL PROGRAMME

A social programme will be arranged for guests during the conference with sightseeing and other activities in the beautiful San Francisco Bay Area. Activities for delegates as well as guests will include a pre-conference tour of California Wineries, a reception and a banquet. FURTH R INFORMATION

Bulletin 2, containing further details of the programme and the technical exhibition and detailed instructions for the preparation of papers, will be issued in October 1983. Bulletin 3 will contain the final programme of the con­ ference and more information about accommodations, the

social programme, technical visits and tours. Final registration forms for the conference and other events will be included. CORRESPONDENCE

Correspondence pertaining to the XI ICSM E should be addressed to:


H Bolton Seed, Chairman of the Organizing Committee 440 Davis Ball

To be acceptable for inclusion in the Conference Proceed­ ings, papers must address one of the subject areas for the Conference listed above. Original papers that have not been published prior to the Conference and that represent an advance in the theory and practice of soil mechanics and foundation engineering are invited.

University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California -94720 Tel: (415) 642-1262

Each National Society will be allocated a number of pages in the Proceedings for publication of papers by its members National Societies will recommend papers for inclusion in the Proceedings but the Organizing Committee will make a final determination on the acceptability of papers.

Instructions for preparation of papers will be given in

Bulletin No. Z.


Volume 1 of the Conference Proceedings containing the Theme

Lectures and their recommended topics for discussion will

be distributed to all registrants before the Conference. Volumes 2 to 4 containing the papers accepted for publica­ tion will be distributed at the Conference. Volume 5 con­ taining discussions, session summaries, etc., will be prepared and distributed to registrants after the Conference.


(Revised 10/12/82)


Coffee 8.30-10.00

Registration and Recent Failures

M 9 or 10 Discussion 9 or 10 Discussion 0 Plenary Session Plenary Session Sessions Sessions 6.30-9.30


N Opening Ceremonies 3 Theme Lectures based on theme topics based on theme topics

I 9.30-10.00 8.30Session and l orsessions 2 discussion andsessions 1 or 2 based discussion N Presidentialstarting Addressat Poster based on on

G 10.00-11.00 reports from technical reports from technical V F B de Mello sub-committees sub-committees

Terzaghi Oration starting at 9.00 starting at 9.00 11.30-12.30 Technical Visits (Local)

9 or 10 Discussion

Plenary Session Plenary Session Sessions Plenary Session 2.00-4.45 3 Theme Lectures Exhibits based on theme topics 1.30-4.00 A 3 Theme Lectures starting at 1.30 and 1 or 2 discussion 3 Special Lectures on

04.45R4.45B4.30 Peck

F 2.00 sessions based on History and Develop­ T starting reportsat from technical ment of Geotechnical

E sub-committees Engineering by: R starting 1.30 J Kerisel N A WatSkempton O

N Poster Session at Poster Session at Poster Session at Closing Ceremonies 4.30 NIGHT 6.30 Reception tainment 6.15 Home Enter- 8.00 Special Concert 7.00 Banquet and Dance Evening




The audited accounts are presented for the periods 1 March 1981 to 2B February 1982 and 1 March 1982 to 31 December

1982. In future accounts will be presented for calender

years, 1 January to 31 December. SET-OUT OF ACCOUNTS

The accounts are presented on a receipts and payments basis, and separated into three operating accounts:

l9Bl, and was succeeded by Dr Parry who was appointed for two years from 1 October 1981.

The Credit Suisse balances at the start of the period (sFr. l02,798) and at the end of the period (sFr. l02,322)

were little changed, but the Barclays Bank account shows an increase of E1,83l from £3,041 to E4,872 and the University account an increase from nil to EB28. The cash balances are the amounts shown in the bank statements and adjusted for unrecorded payments and receipts.

(a) The Credit Suisse account. Membership subscriptions in SFr. are paid into this account and transfers made to the Barclays Bank account as necessary for the running of the General Secretariat.

Large items in this period include List of Members with receipts from advertising and sales (sFr 27,431 + E7,208 + E89) approximately balancing the payments for printing and posting (sFr. 41,600 + E2,627). Lexicon printing and postage is a large payments item (a separate sheet is attached setting out Lexicon costs, revenues and numbers

(b) The Barclays Bank account. This is the main operating account in E sterling for the running of the General Secretariat.

PERIOD 1 MARCH 1982 to 31 DECEMBER 1982

(c) University of Cambridge account. This account has been set up with the University to facilitate everyday running of the General Secretariat. Transfers are made from the Barclays Bank account from time to time.

in stock).

The Credit Suisse balance increased in this period by

sFr. 36,B72, the Barclays Bank account decreased by E3,043 and the University account decreased by E1,l07. A once only payment of E3,000 by the British Geotechnical Society to support the Secretariat was made during this period.


Thi s

period saw a change in the location of the General

Secretariat from King's College, London to Cambridge, and enforced changes of Secretary General owing to the death of Professor Nash on 24 April 1981. Professor Burland

took over the office temporarily for the period to October


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ISSMFE ORDINARY BUDGET 2 Year Period 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1984

S Fr Income


Membership fees

Expenditure 110,000 44,000 4,000 12,000 3,000 3,000 2,000 5,000 5,000 2,000


Travel Photocopying Telephone and Telex Postage

Stationery Auditors' fees and bank charges Legal expenses List of Members Sundries


Note: Approx. 1 Sir : 0.50 = £.032


The income of SFr 190,000 is that expected from membership fees. Small amounts of revenue may also

accrue from sales of publications, in particular

copies of the Lexicon held in the UK (perhaps SFr 3,000). These small incomes are not shown in the budget as publication revenues are likely to form the

basis of a Special Budget in future. Expenses to be included in this Special Budget will be those outside the Secretariat and Presidential expenses.

Expenses under travel, photocopying, telephone, and

telex, postage and stationery are those incurred by the General Secretariat and the President. Travel

expenses of SFr 44,000 are high compared with those

incurred in 1981/2, but this figure reflects the fact that all five Regional Conferences will be held in the period 1983/4. It also reflects increasing travel costs.

Emoluments comprise the Secretary Genera1‘s honorarium,

Legal expenses will be incurred in relation to our application for Charitable Status.

annum compare with actual amount of SFr 51,000 for the year ending 28 February 1982 and SFr 30,000 for the ten month period ending 31 December 1982. The budgeted

No definite policy has yet been formulated with respect to list of members and the amount of SFr 5,000 allows for reproduction and distribution of “Standard” loose leaf sheets submitted by the Member Societies showing additions and changes to the 1981 List of

secretarial stipends and overheads associated with stipends. The total emoluments of SP: 55,000 per

increases reflect anticipated inflationary and real

increases in emoluments, a likely higher exchange rate of the E sterling than the low rate obtaining in 1982, and an increase in the amount of secretarial assistance.





The fifth edition, eight language Lexicon is based on

symbols and definitions approved by the ISSMFE Executive Committee in Tokyo in 1977. The Lexicon was produced in

Canada where the bulk of the copies are held. The costs

incurred by the Canadian Geotechnical Society and ISSMFE,

in Canadian dollars, are given below:

CGS $11,500 ISSMFE $ 6,500 The bulk of the copies are held in Canada, but a limited

number are held in the UK.

When sales revenues accruing to Canada reach £11,500 all further revenues will be paid to ISSMFE. The position at 31 December 1982 is set our below: Canada

Number in stock


Number sold

117 12

Complimentary copies given out Revenue received



Number in stock


Number sold


Complimentary copies given out


Revenue received (net of postage and other costs)


The revenue from 60 of the copies sold from the UK was sent direct to Canada, and is included in the Canadian revenue of $5,951.

Sales Price

The present sales price of the Lexicon, including packing and postage is: CS 38 for members Canadian held copies CS 45 for non-members UK held copies

E21 for £24 for

members non-members



Lorsqu'il a eté formé a Stockholm en 1981, notre comite avait pour mandat deux fonctions principales, soit:

Au cours de la réunion tenue 5 Paris, le comite a commence

5 faire la synthese des questionnaires qui nous ont été retournée et nous avons decide de donner suite 5 notre idee

1. assurer la continuite de l'organisation d‘un t Symposium premiere de publir une monographie sur l'instrumentation Internationale de Glissements de Terre a tous les des talus et des qlissements de terrain. Nous avons quatre années.

2. colliger et disseminer l'information disponible pour la detection, l‘instrumentation et la prevention des glissements de terrain. Monsieur Carl B Crawford, vice-president de L'Amérique du

Nord, a deja mentionne au cours de cette reunion le progres realise dans 1‘organisation du Symposium de 1984 qui est assure par 1a Societe Canadienne de Geotechnique et avec l‘appui de conseil National de Reserches du Canada.

ébanché un plan de contenu de la monographie et avons mis

au point un plan de travail qui sera soumis a 1'approbation des membres du comité.

Il nous semble assez évident qu‘il nous sera impossible de terminer ce travail avant la fin du mandat du present

exécutif de la société internationale. Il serrait donc essentiel que nous faussions recevoir de la part de l'Executif une assurance morale, 5 tout le moins morale, quant 5 la continuité du comité au deli de 1985. Une telle assurance aiderait grandement 5 la quiétude et 5 l‘eE£icacité de ce comité.

Quant au deuxieme point de mandat du Comite, les travaux sont déja bien engagés. Le Comité comprend maintenant dix-huit (18) membres venant

de 18 pays différents. Nous avons tenu deux reunions informelles soit a Stockhom en juin 1981 et a Alma Ata en octobre 1981, et une réunion formelle le 16 mai 1983, au laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, E Paris. Nous avons fait circuler un questionnaire dans plusieurs pays pour obtenir de 1'information sur les experiences disponibles avec des divers types d'instrumentation de glissements de terrain.


Pierre La Rochelle

President du "Comité des Glissements de Terrain"

International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Minutes of the Executive Committee Meeting held at the Fairmont hotel, San Francisco (9 August 1985 from 8.30 am to 12.00 noon and 1.30 pm to 6.00 pm and 10 August 1985 from 8.30 am to 12.00 noon and 1.30 pm to 7.00 pm)

PRESENT President (Chairman) Vice Presidents

Prof. V F B de Mello Mr L C wilson

Prof. F K Chin Dr R D Northey

Prof. A Croce

Mr C B Crawford

Prof. J C Hiedra-Lopez

Past Presidents:

Prof. M Fukuoka

Secretary General:

Dr R H G Parry

Voting Representative


A J Bolognesi P W Mitchell


Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria


Chile China Colombia

Costa Rica Czechoslovakia Denmark

Dominican Republic Ecuador EQYPS

Finland France FRG GDR


Greece Hungary

Iceland India Indonesia Iran Ireland

Israel Italy Japan


Australasia Europe

North America South America

Prof. J Kerisel

Member Societ!

Australia Austria


H Brandl E Lousberg R T Mori

G Stefanoff D W Devenny

E Retamal-Schafer Z J Lu

J Duran-Gutierrez

Non-voting Representative H G Poulos M Fross

E de Beer

A J da Costa Nunes E Tochkov M Bozozuk

J Troncoso Z Q Wong


J S Steenfelt M Angel Chavez M El-Sohby H Rathmayer M L Parez U Smoltczyk

A Elleboudy

J Hartikainen J Salenqon K J Melzer

H W Fbrster

S Christoulas (2) G Ranjan

H Sigursteinsson S Prakash

K Rezvan

C Behnia

R Ingimarsson

E Farrell J G Zeitlen C Viggiani

K Ishihara

M Grace G Wiseman

M Jamiolkowski T Kokusho L Montanez

Mexico Morocco

R Lopez-Roldan


E H de Leeuw (3) A 0 Madedor H Arvesen

J Kruizinga


A Agha

A Ajaz

Paraguay Peru Poland

w Wolski

New Zealand

Nigeria Norway

E 0 Fasehun K Hoeg


Member Society

Voting Representative Non-voting Representative

Portugal Maranha das Neves

Correia Mineiro

South Africa W Donaldson E B1i9h¥ 5 E Asia w Brand S Balasubramaniam Romania

spain A Jimenez Escario Sweden BohmSalas Bef99fe“

SyriaKingdom Kayyal Mawlawi Turkey Togrol United Green Sutherland USA Gould E BWahls Switzerland

USSR A Ilyichev G Trofimenkov Venezuela Tinoco Yugoslavia ZimbabweAnagnosti R Mackeohnie Rea (1) Venezuelan representative carried proxy vote for Costa Rica. (2) Federal Republic of Germany representative carried proxy vote for Hungary during early part of the meeting until Professor Petrasovits arrived. (3) Vice President R Northey carried proxy vote for New Zealand.

In addition the following attended all or part of the meeting: The Steering Committee Members:

Prof. B Broms

Prof. J B Burland Mr L C Wilson

Prof. F K Chin Dr R D Northey

Prof. A Croce

Mr C B Crawford

Prof. J C Hiedra-Lopez Prof. M Fukuoka Dr E D'Appo1onia

The Technical Committee Chairmen:

Prof. B Nendza Broms Information PenetrationAdvisory Testing Prof. H

Prof. J Kerisel Preservation of Old Monuments and Cities Dr I Johnston Laboratory Testing of Soft Rocks and Indurated Soils Prof. Z Eisenstein Geotechnical Computer ProgramsSoils Dr E W Brand Sampling and Testing of Residual Prof. S Baguelin Murayama Constitutive Laws and Equations Prof. F Symbols, Units, Definitions Prof. P La Rochelle Landslides and Correlations

Prof. A N Schofield Centrifuges Dr P Girault Allowable Deformations Dr J S Nogami represented by Dr W Hachlich Tropical Soils

Mr W Donaldson Dr KGFujita Penetrability Filters and Drivability of Piles

Dr J P Giroud Geotextiles Prof. U Smoltczyk Field and Laboratory Testing of Soils

Vice Presidents Elect:

A Madedor Asia Africa(also (alsoIsrael Nigerian representative) G 0Wiseman representative)

NRico-Rodriguez Krebs Ovesen Europe R North America 0 Varde South America International Society for Rock Mechanics representative: A de Bello APOLOGIES

Dr Lombardi, Prof. E T Brown, Mr Grossman, Mr Peck, Prof. S Murayama, Mr Lemley (President ITA), Prof. J Huder



The President opened the meeting and welcomed all

delegates and other persons in attendance. He gave the floor to Professor Seed who welcomed those present to San Francisco on behalf of the United States National Committee. The President then pointed out that in an International Society such as ISSMFE it was essential that there should be continual changes and improvements. This committee had many matters to

concern itself with and it was essential to keep dis­ cussion moving forward. He stressed particularly it was his policy that as the outgoing President it was his responsibility to face up and solve, as far as possible, the more difficult problems and not leave them to his successor. Quonun

Although some Member Societies had not yet paid their

subscriptions for 1985, all but two of these offered

a reasonable excuse (Statute ll) and thus 55 Member

Societies were considered entitled to vote, for a

start. A roll call taken at the start of the meeting

showed 42 Member Societies to be present. As there were 55 Member Societies entitled to vote there was a quorum for general business requiring 1/3 of the 55 Member Societies, that is 19 (Statute 35), and also a quorum for considering changes in Statutes requiring 2/3, that is 37 Member Societies (Statute 35). The President stressed, however, that a further count would be taken before dealing with changes to statutes

Member Societies had individual members who were not

University Graduates. The Secretary General advised that Ecuador had not paid its subscriptions for l984,5,

whereupon Mr Angel Chavez of Ecuador offered these

subscriptions. The Argentinian representative advised that he felt that the individual members in Ecuador should continue to receive benefits until the problem was resolved. The President agreed entirely with this and stressed that the problem was with respect to voting rights of Ecuador at this meeting. The following motions were put by the President:

l. "It is recommended that the incoming President should set up a committee to concern itself with the matter of Ecuadorian membership and report its findings and recommendations to the next Executive Committee meeting in l9B7.”

This was carried nem. con.

2. "In the meantime the membership of Ecuador should be suspended.”

Voting was as follows:

For: 22

Against: 12 The motion was therefore carried.

The President invited Mr Chavez to attend the rest of the meeting, although not having any voting rights, and this invitation was accepted by Mr Chavez. The Secretary General accepted the cheque from Mr Chavez


The Secretary General presented his report on ISSMFE Membership given in Appendix l, advising that there were now 57 Member Societies representing 16121 in­ dividual members. Since the last Executive Committee Meeting in 1983, Iceland had been admitted into membership and Iran re-admitted as a new Member

Society. As Pakistan had now paid their dues for the years l9Bl to 1985 inclusive, the Secretary General was recommending that the Executive Committee should

confirm their membership. Problems had arisen with respect to the appropriate Society in Ecuador to represent ISSMFE.

The Secretary General drew particular attention to the two Member Societies badly inarrearswith their payments. These were the Dominican Republic unpaid since 1980, and Romania unpaid since 1978. He recom­ mended that their membership should be reviewed by the Executive Committee. He confirmed that since writing

and advised him that any excess as a result of the suspension of the Ecuadorian membership part way through 1985 would be credited against Ecuador.

The following motion proposed by the President was

put to the meeting:

'The Secretary General will draw the attention of the

Member Societies for Dominican Republic and Romania

to the fact that their membership subscriptions have not been paid for a number of years. Each of these Member Societies is to be advised that unless an attempt is made before 30 September 1986 to pay the arrears or a portion agreed by the Secretary General and Regional Vice President, together with a solemn assurance that future fees will be paid promptly, it

will be recommended to the 1987 Council Meeting that their membership should be annulled.”

This was carried nem. con.

The Secretary advised that an application for

his report (Appendix 1) a telex had been received from Morocco that payment of all past arrears had been authorised. The problem had arisen through the use of an incorrect address.

membership has been recieved from Tunisia. They have

The following motion proposed by the President was put to the meeting:

enquiry had also been received from Iraq. Wh0 advised

"As Pakistan have paid their dues for 1984 and 1985 in good time the President, supported by the Steering Committee, recommends that the Executive Committee

Meeting should formally approve the reinstatement of Pakistan into full membership effective from the

date of this meeting, and that any payments still in arrears should be waived."

This was carried unanimously.

Considerable discussion centred on the membership of Ecuador. Professor de Beer pointed out that many

not yet submitted their list of members, but on receipt of these all their papers will be in order and they will be admitted into full membership. A strong

they will be sending a representative to the llth

ICSMFE to discuss membership with officers of ISSMFE.


The Secretary General reported that he had written to all Member Societies on 25 July 1984 asking for nominations for Regional Vice Presidents to serve for the period 1985-9. In four Regions voting was not required. These were Africa and South America where candidates were elected unopposed, and Australasia and North America where candidates were selected under established Regional arrangements. Vice Presidents


elected unopposed are as follows:

Africa A 0 Madedor

Australasia J H H Galloway

North America A Rico-Rodriguez South America O Varde 12 Four candidates were nominated for the European Vice Presidency and a ballot was held with the following


N Krebs Ovesen 10 votes

P Anagnosti 8 votes

C P Wroth 6 votes

S Hansbo l vote

N Krebs Ovesen was, therefore, elected Vice President for the European Region for the period 1985-9. For the Asian Region Amjad Agha had been nominated by

Pakistan and G Wiseman by Israel. The Secretary General had forwarded these names to the Asian Member

He then proposed to leave this item until tomorrow morning in order to give the delegates time to consim the revisions suggested by the Steering Committee.

Illustrating his intentions with a viewgraph, he then set out the procedure he proposed to be followed on Saturday morning, that a first vote should be taken seeking acceptance of the revised statutes "in block2 in principle, with three provisos. These were: l. The compact statutes were to be immediately subjected to amendments in detail. 2. The agreed compact statutes would become effective coincidental with the new term of

Presidential office.

3. Pending the formulation of agreed By-laws and

Policies to support the Statutes, the Interna­ tional Society would continue to adhere to the essence of the present statutes and resolutions.

Societies and each had recieved 4 votes with one Member Society abstaining. However, as Pakistan had not been formally reinstated into membership at the times of nomination of, and voting on, Vice Presi­

After full consideration of all suggested amendments, both from the Steering Committee already circulated, and from the floor, a vote would be taken to seek acceptance of revised statutes.

of the Steering Committee, adivsed that the name of G Wiseman should go forward as the duly elected Vice President for Asia for the period 1985-89.

The following motion proposed by the President was

The President advised that he had invited all Vice Presidents Elect to the Steering Committee Meeting

Minute 33 of the Paris 1983 Executive Meeting, and

dential candidates, the President, with full support

held immediately prior to the Executive Committee Meeting. Two of them N Krebs Ovesen and O Varde had attended.

then put to the meeting:

"In the light of the President‘s statement as per

the subsequent wide circulation and study of drafts, it is moved that the constitution of this Society should consist of Statutes, supported by By-laws and Policy Resolutions.”

For 33 Against Abstentions 2 3

The voting was as follows: STATUTES

In introducing this item the President reminded the meeting that there had been a clear consensus at the Executive Committee Meeting in Paris in favour of

changing the structure of the constitution so that it consisted of Statutes, By-laws and Policies. There had been no vote on this in Paris because it had not been on the agenda. He proposed, therefore, that there should now be a vote.

He had set up a Sub-committee of the Steering Committee consisting of himself as Chairman, together with Professor Burland, Professor Wroth and the Secretary


22. The following reports were presented by the Vice Presidents:

Africa L C Wilson Appendix 2

Dr Northey had subsequently been added to this Sub­

Asia F K Chin Appendix 3 Australasia R D Northey Appendix 4

The Sub-Committee had not had time to prepare a draft

South America J C Hiedra-Lopez Appendix 7

General to prepare a draft of a revised constitution. committee.

of the complete constitution, and had limited itself to preparing a set of compact statutes only, with by-laws and policies to be added at a future date. Following circulation of this draft to all Member Societies and Society Officers last April, a number

of comments had been recieved. These had been reviewed by the Steering Committee and revisions prepared by

the Steering Committee in the light of this review circulated earlier at this meeting.

As the intention to propose this change to the Consti­ tution had now been stated many times and the draft of the compact statutes prepared by the Statutes Sub­ committee has been circulated to all Member Societies last April, he was asking the meeting in the first place to approve what had been a consensus at Paris, that is to set up a Constitution consisting of Statutes, By-laws and Policies.


Europe A Croce Appendix 5 North America C B Crawford Appendix 6

Mr Wilson advised that he had nothing to add other than a reported increase in activity in Morocco and he was pleased that the payment position was being


Professor Chin advised that Bulletin No. l for the Bth Asian Regional Conference was now available and

was being distributed at this conference.

Professor Croce made particular reference to the work of the two European Technical Sub-committees on

Stabilisation of Landslides in Europe and Earthquake Geotechnical Problems in Europe. Despite the short time since 1983 when they were set up, both had made useful progress. The intended work of the Landslide Sub-committee was in 3 stages. (1) Collecting case records, which had been completed. (2) Assembly of

state-of-the-art reports by European Member Societies.

(3) Preparation of final reports. The intended work of the Earthquakes Sub-committee was also in 3 stages. (1) Definition of aim of work and collection of in­ formation from European Member Societies which is

almost finished. (2) Preliminary reports on the draft chapters. (3) Preparation of state-of-the-art report. Professor Croce expressed the hope that the work of these Sub-committees could continue and suggested that the Sub-committee Chairmen, Professor Togrol (Landslides) and Professor Viggiani (Earth­ quakes), may wish to make additional comments. He

said that a positive start had been made in European

Regional co-operation.

The President advised that he had encouraged Vice

Presidents to act as his proxy and set up Regional

Technical Sub-committees. It was sometimes necessary

to act quickly in response to an urgent need arising. He was particularly grateful to the European and North American Vice Presidents who had come through

with proposals. He invited Professors Togrol and Viggiani to make comments.

Professor Togrol advised that his Sub-committee had started work in 1984 and had already published a volume of case records. A second volume of state-of­

the-art reports will be published. They had been invited by the Irish Organising Committee of the 9th

Sampling 5 Testing of

Residual Soils E W Brand Appendix 12

Undisturbed Sampling

and Laboratory Testing of Soft Rocks 5 Indurated

Soils I W Johnston Appendix 13

Symbols, Units, Definitions

and Correlations F Baquelin Appendix 14 Landslides P LaN Schofield Rochelle Centrifuge A Appendix 16 Allowable Deformations of Appendix 15

Buildings and Damages P Girault Appendix 17

Tropical Soils W Hachich* Appendix 18

Filters G W Donaldson Appendix 19 Penetrability and

Drivability of Piles K Fujita Appendix 20

Geotechnical Aspects of

Historical Sites,

Monuments and Old

Cities preservation J Kerisel Appendix 21 Constitutive Laws 5 Murayama Appendix 22

Geotextiles J P Giroud Appendix 23 Field and Laboratory Testing U Smoltczyk Appendix 24 *Representing Dr S Nogami

The President reminded the meeting that only adminis­

trative reports should be submitted to, and discussed by, this body of the International Society. He then

ECSMFE to organise a discussion session at that conference. with the co-operation of European col­ leagues, the Sub-committee should be able to produce

asked if any Technical Committee Chairman wished to

key word system giving a short hand summary of

Speaking on behalf of Professor Nendza, Chairman of the Information Advisory Committee (IAC), Professor

a final report containing useful case records and a Stabilisation of Landslides in Europe.

Professor Viggiani said his Sub-committee was concern­ ing itself with the most common practices in Europe with respect to earthquake problems, such as codes and

regulations, investigation and analysis of problems. This work is at an initial stage only. They have also been invited to prepare a discussion session for the 9th ECSMFE.

Mr Crawford advised that his report stated how the proceedings could be obtained of the 7th Pan Am Con­ ference held in 1983 and the 4th International Landslides Symposium held in 1984. He expressed his thanks to the US Organising Committee under the Chairmanship of Professor Seed for their work on the preparation of the Jubilee Conference. The North American Region had taken responsibility for six committees and these had been most productive. The President pointed to the Technical Committee on Geotextiles as an example of a committee set up as a Regional sub-committee to meet an urgent need and had now become a full Technical Committee.

Professor Hiedra-Lopez advised that the Casagrande

Lecture had now been established and the first lecture would be at the 8th Pan Am Conference in 1987, to be given by Professor A J Costa Nunes. REPORTS BY TECHNICAL COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN

The following Technical Committee Administrative reports were submitted to the meeting by the Chairmen of the Technical Committees:

Information Advisory H Nendza Appendix B Penetration Testing B B Broms Appendix 9

Research Co-operation C Crawford Appendix 10 Geomechanics Computer

Programs Z Eisenstein Appendix ll

say anything supplementing their written reports.

Kuhn said that the terms of reference of this co mit­ tee were to advise the International Society on the development of its information service. Consequently, it differed in some respects from other Technical

Committees of the Society. At the Executive Committee Meeting in Mexico in 1969, the International Society had set up an Information service, Goetechnical Abstracts, operated by the German National Society, and since 1982 this had been supplemented by monthly

lists of new technical titles.

Activities by other Member Societies have been noted ­ Australia, Brazil, France, Japan, South Africa, South East Asia and Sweden. The IAC has presented to this meeting a brief report on the structure and organisa­ tion of the International Geotechnical Information Service (IGIS) accompanied by working documents as a

geotechnical thesaurus and a list of source publica­ tions. The updated version of the June 1985 report was distributed at this meeting. The system covers

the fields of Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology. These fields have already been covered by Geotechnical

Abstracts for 15 years. The information service deals with published material but could deal with computer programs.

The service of ISIS should be a current awareness

service which registers all new geotechnical titles and an abstract service of selected important papers keeping pace with technical developments. The whole material must be retrievable manually as before or by the establishment of a computer data base. An important tool for this is the use of standard descriptors or key words which are collected and structured in the new geotechnical thesaurus. The committee had considered this to be a matter of high


Professor de Beer said that the Presidents of ISRM and IAEG should be informed of proposals being made


to achieve one system covering the areas of all three Societies. 38. Professor La Rochelle advised that the Swiss Member Society had offered to host a landslides symposium 10-15 July 1988 in Lausanne. He made reference to

two problems: firstly,the difficulty of achieving

contact with some countries and secondly, the lack of finances from ISSMFE to support Technical Committee


39. Professor Broms advised that the first ISOPT being planned for 1988 and the President took this opportu­ nity to cite this as an example of a Regional Sub­ Committee developing into a fully international committee.

40. Dr Fujita estimated that the symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles to be held the next day (Saturday 10 August) would have more than 100 attend­

ing. The first volume of 218 pages had been published and sold 80 copies and the second volume including discussion would be prepared for publication next March. He also advised that Professor Murayama, Chairman of the Technical Committee on Constitutive Laws, was unable to attend. This committee had pub­

lished a 175 page state-of-the-art volume of which 70 copies will be displayed for sale at the discussion session lA.

4l. Dr Brand stated that 120 copies of the volumes of col­ lected papers, prepared by his committee had been sold. 42. Dr Donaldson advised that Portugal would be holding a Symposium on Filters in 1988 and his committee, if still working, will draft a report to be discussed at the venue. 43. The President now invited Professor Smoltczyk to

comment on the work of his Committee on Field and Laboratory Testing which had been set up by Professor Fukuoka in 1979. Professor Smoltczyk said that his

committee had concentrated on three main areas. (1) Pile loading, which had led to a publication in the ASTM journal. (2) Consolidation and swelling tests which had led to a publication by the Technion, Haifa.

(3) Triaxial tests. He particularly consider triaxial tests.


that a small separate group should be set up to con­

44. Professor Giroud draw attention of the state-of-the­ art report his committee had prepared and published in the journal, Geotextiles and Geomechanics. This report, which also contained a list of symbols, would be the basis of the discussion session on geotextiles

at the XI ICSME. Professor Giroud made the point that the methods of testing and research for geotextiles

were similar to the traditional geotechnical tests, and geotechnical engineers were well prepared to con­ duct the tests. He recommended that the work of the

Dr Baguelin said his report has some technical aspects which he had included to gauge the feeling of the meeting. He had circulated to all Member Societies in July an improved and enlarged list of symbols based on the list presented at the Tokyo Conference. The President voiced the opinion that this should be a permanent committee.

Dr Johnston said his committee had been hampered by

the lack of publications on soft rocks. He stressed the need for a strong formal link with ISRM in this work. The President agreed and recalled that the Australian Geomechanics Society had been entrusted

with this committee for this same reason. Dr Hachich referred to the TropicaLS 85 Conference in Brazil. Two volumes of papers had been available at the TropicaLS conference and two volumes were being dis­

tributed at this conference. He made particular mention of the lack of interchange between different countries. Mr Crawford thanked the President for his continuing support of the Committee of Research Cooperation. He felt the work should continue. It was most important that the committee included all Vice Presidents.

The President asked for a general motion from the

floor accepting the administrative reports of the

Technical Committees.

Professor Anagnosti proposed the motion: "The Executive Committee acknowledge the reports received from the Technical Committees. It is recom­ mended the incoming President to continue the work of the Technical Committees under conditions agreed with each Technical Committee."

This was seconded by Professor Stefanoff and carried unanimously.

The President proposed the following motion: "The Executive Committee recommends to proceed with

developing the International Geotechnical Information System as proposed by the Information Advisory Committee in co-operation with ISRM and IAEG."

This was carried unanimously. Mr Wilson proposed the motion:

"In considering the work of future Committees the incoming President should take account of the recent policy of making Member Societies responsible for individual Committees."

This was seconded by Dr J Steenfelt and carried unanimously.

committee should be extended to the wider area of

geosynthetics. Future activities would include the

3rd International Conference on Geotextiles in Vienna in 1986, organised by the Austrian Member Society, close co-ordination between ISSMFE and the Inter­ national Society for Geotextiles, preparation of recommended procedures for testing geotextiles and the dissemination of knowledge.

45. After making a brief presentation of his report Professor Schofield strongly recommended the continua­ tion of the work of his committee. while the British Member Society would be very pleased to sponsor this he knew that the French Society were also very inte­

rested in doing so and felt that their offer should be given priority.



Professor Seed informed the meeting that everything was in readiness for the XI ICSMFE and they expected some 1600 delegates and 400 accompanying persons. The Executive Committee took the opportunity to expres

by way of applause, the gratitude of the International

Society to the US National Committee and US Organising Committee for their work. OFFERS TO HOST 1987 COUNCIL MEETING

53. The Secretary General reported that he had received only one written offer to host the 1987 Executive

Committee meeting. This was from the Organising Com­ mittee for the IX ECSMFE. The Secretary General read

out this invitation (Appendix 25) to the meeting. An offer was also made from the floor by Professor

Balasubramaniam on behalf of the S E Asian Society. This Society would be celebrating in 1987 the 20th

anniversary of its founding with the conference in Bangkok and this would provide a suitable occasion for the Executive Committee to meet.


A vote was taken, resulting in 33 votes in favour of Ireland and 7 in favour of Bangkok. Ireland will therefore be the venue of the Executive Committee meeting, which will probably be held AUQUSE 23 -29. 1987.

The President expressed disappointment that the poor response by Member Societies had prevented the dis­

tribution of lists in a standard form. He proposed that the incoming Officers should give it another try.


The Secretary General presented the audited accounts of the Society for the period 1983/4 (Appendix 28). During this period the cash balance had increased from SFr 139,214 plus E1550 to SFr 74,959 plus E44226. In

terms of sterling this represents an increase from £18193 to E36637. Included in this is SFr 10,033 plus £1109 equivalent to about £4436 accumulated in the

Kevin Nash Gold Medal Fund. A total of E30000 was ISSMFE NEWS


The Secretary General presented his report on ISSMFE

News (Appendix 26) and pointed out that it was first published in its present printed form in Februaryl983. In 1983-4 it was largely financed by the inclusion of advertising, but this has raised problems with regard to circulation in North America. These problems are firstly that a customs charge is made on material containing advertising entering Canada and USA and secondly, there is a conflict with the Regional Geotechnical News. He recommended, therefore, that ISSMFE News should be produced in future without

advertising and financed by Secretariat funds. Advertisers are in any case reluctant to take space if the news is not to be circulated in North America. Financing the News, in its present simple single folded sheet form, would require an increase in sub­ scription of about l SFr per annum per Member. With regard to North America, items could be sent for inclusion in Geotechnical News, rather than distribu­ ting ISSMFE News in this Region. LIST OF MEMBERS

invested in interest bearing accounts (other than a working bank deposit account) and total interest earned, including bank interest was E4447. The Inland Revenue Department has advised that Corporation Tax

will be payable on this interest received and they will be submitting an assessment in due course. Be thought this tax would be about 30% of the interest received. It was moved by Professor Togrol, seconded by Professor Mackechnie that the accounts be accepted. This was passed unanimously. FINANCIAL REVIEW

The President reported that he had asked the British Geotechnical Society to review the financial situation of the International Society. This had been undertaken by Professor Sutherland at the request of BGS (report given in Appendix 29). Professor Sutherland gave a brief sum ary of his report. He pointed out that the Society's Cash Balance had increased 2.5 times in the period 1980-4 and the Society should have a policy about how such reserves should be invested or used. This gave rise to some discussion. The President proposed the following motion:

The Secretary General presented his report on the List "The Executive Committee accepts the report with a of Members (Appendix 27). He pointed out that at the vote of thanks to the British Geotechnical Society. 1983 Executive Meeting in Paris it was resolved to institute a loose leaf solution, prepared by Member The report is to be withheld for further study and Societies in a standard form, and submitted to the implementation by the new Steering Committee or Secretariat. At the Steering Committee Meeting in Finance and Budget Sub-committee of the Steering Committee." Perth in 1984, the President approved, in addition to this loose leaf solution, an offer by Balkema to This was agreed unanimously. computerise, print and bind a 1985 list of members, for sale at about US$lO each to members. On 16 March, 1984, the Secretary General circulated all Member Societies with details of the Standard Form to be REVISION OF STATUTES adopted and asked for all lists to be submitted by The meeting resumed discussion on the revision of 1 November 1984. By the end of April, 1985, six lists had still not been received and could not be statutes on Saturday morning. A check showed 44 Member Societies eligible to vote were represented. included in the 1985 list. Despite the request to This exceeded the quorum requirement of 37 voting submit lists in a standard form, they were sent in a members. variety of formats and print faces and of varying quality, making distribution of these in loose leaf The President put to the floor the previous day's form impracticable. In addition, Balkema have suggestion that the house vote "in block" on the advised that, as a result of the poor and variable principles of the Statutes so as to preserve the quality of the submissions, the typesetting has taken essence of the statutes. After much discussion, it much longer than anticipated and the bound list will was evident that some members feared a vote "in not be ready in time for the XI ICSMFE in San Francisco. He also wishes to send their own drafts block" would mean all the amendments were accepted "in block" and not just the "essence" of the statutes. to all Member Societies for checking before finalising Professor Lousberg and Dr Steenfelt suggested a and binding the list. general discussion first before the vote. However, 57. The Secretary General also advised that a disclaimer Professor Togrol proposed the motion: would be in cluded in the 1985 bound list to the "The vote in principle is unnecessary and that by effect that ISSMFE could not take any responsibility consensus we move directly into discussion and voting for the correctness of any address or for any political on the amendments." or other implication that an address may embody. 56.


The motion was seconded by Mr Fasehun of Nigeria and

For 20 Against Abstentions 2 9

the results were as follows:

The motion was carried.

65. It was decided that Item lA would be dropped for now as the change of name is not so urgent. If time per­ mitted it would be discussed. Due to shortage of time, it was decided to have consensus of the indivi­ dual amendments and a general vote would be taken at the end. Professor J Burland and Dr Parry were in agreement that in a family of geotechnicians a feeling of brotherhood and trust would enable the discussion of these amendments to proceed through without being

too legalistic on each detail. Dr Parry suggested going through the list of items quickly and returning to detailed discussion of items identified by at least

a number of delegates as being of concern. This was agreed. The President requested members to put their hands up if there were any points they wanted to return to. The amendments were gone through and the following items were those requested for detailed discussion and voting: 66. Item 2A

The motion was carried with 33 voting in favour. Item l5C

M. Salencon queries the merits of allowing Vice Presidents to vote at the Executive Committee meeting since each Member Society already had one vote. After some discussion the motion was put to the floor by the President that Item l5C should read:

"Each Member Society (unless it has ceased to receive the benefits of membership) present or represented at the meeting shall have one vote. No other member

of the Council is entitled to vote." Item l6A

Professor Togrol felt that the three members of the Board should be chosen by the Council and not by the President. Professor D'Appolonia pointed out that since the President is elected by the Council, then they should entrust him with the power to choose the three persons he felt could help him most effectively

in specific areas of his responsibilities. Professor

COll'|mitC€€ I

Togrol withdrew his objection. Professor Lousberg suggested the addition "after consultation with the Vice Presidents and the Secretary General". Mr Fasehun objected to the inclusion of»"after consultation with the Vice Presidents" as he felt the President should be left to choose those he wanted. A vote on the amendment "after consultations with the Vice Presidenu was lost and the original motion was put to the floor by the President that Item 16A should read:

"The aim of the International Society is the promotion of international cooperation among engineers and scientists for the advancement of knowledge in the field of geotechnics and its engineering applications!

TheBoard shall consist of the President, the immediate past President, the Vice-Presidents, three members of the International Society appointed by the President, and the Secretary General."

The motion was carried with 43 votes.

The motion was carried with 35 voting in favour.

After some discussion a vote was taken to accept the amended item 2A as put forward by the Steering

A recount of voting members present taken at this stage showed 41, thus maintaining a quorum for changing of Statutes.

61 Immlm The responsibility for appointment of the Secretary General was discussed at the request of Ireland who

felt there was a significant change between the appointment of the Secretary General at Executive Committee Meetings as in the existing Statutes and appointment by the President as proposed in the new

statutes. Although the French translation read "par"

meaning "by" the Executive Committee, as pointed out by Professor Lousberg of Belgium, and not "at" as in

the English, the President exercised his preprogative as stated in Statute 4 to adopt the preferred meaning as in the English translation - that the Secretary General is appointed "at" the Executive Committee. Professor Sutherland pointed out that it was far more practical for the President, assisted by the Board, to appoint the Secretary General, especially if there was an emergency. This was supported strongly by Professor Burland who was personally involved in the last emergency situation four years ago.

Item lBB

There was a discussion as to whether there should be a Statutory requirement or recommendation for Vice Presidents to convene Regional (Council) Meetings at the Regional Conferences. A strong view was expressed that as long as there was ample notice given to all Member Societies, such meetings should, if practicable be convened by the Vice President. The motion was put that Item lBB should read: "At such Regional Conferences delegates from Member

Societies of the Region may hold a meeting chaired by the Vice President to discuss matters of mutual


The Motion was carried with 35 votes in favour. The Secretary General suggested the Executive Committn

should delegate to Professor Burland the authority to produce the final edited version of the compact statutes. This was agreed and Dr J Steenfelt put forward a motion that: "The Executive Committee recognises and appreciates the tremendous efforts by Member Societies, Steering

43 voting members were now present after the arrival of the Venezuelan Delegate who carried proxy for

Committee and delegates to draft statutes. The Executive Committee accepts the final draft with

"The Secretary General shall be appointed by the President in consultation with, and on terms agreed,

entrusts Professor Burland with the task of imple­ menting the minor changes in wording not affecting the principles required by suggestions from delegates with the exception of Item lA."

Costa Rica. The motion was put to the floor by the President that Item llA should read: by the Board".


amendments as voted on at the Executive Meeting and

This was seconded by Professor Togrol and carried with 42 votes in favour.

Professor Togrol moved a vote of thanks to all those people involved in the preparation of these draft statutes, especially to Professor Burland and Dr Parry This was greeted by a warm round of applause.

The motion was unanimously carried.

The revised Statutes are presented in Appendix 30 English version) and Appendix 31 (French version). REPORT OF ORGANISING CO MITTEE FOR THE XII ICSM E,

BRAZIL, 1989

Mr Fasehun suggested that a small group be chosen to

do the French translation, but the President felt this could be done after Item lA - the name of the Society - had been discussed and decided upon. Item lA

The discussion of this item produced a variety of opinions. There was a strong case for a change of name, put forward by the Secretary General, who felt that the name of the International Society should

reflect the full scope of its activities. This would

help to discourage fragmentation and the formation of splinter societies which was already happening. It was generally felt that there may be a strong case for changing the name (bearing in mind that a change of name of the International Society need not affect the names of individual Member Societies), but more time was needed to allow Member Societies to consider all the implications of a new name, including the corresponding French translation. It was suggested that a properly reviewed and researched paper regarding a possible change of the name should be produced and circulated, and the matter brought to the next Executive Committee in 1987. The President then withdrew the motion on the change of name and agreed to retain the name as it is now. Dr Donaldson submitted the following motion:

"It is moved that, as part of the present process of revising the Statutes, the advisability of changing

the name of the Society be examined and a report submitted to the next meeting of the Council and that at that meeting the Council be authorised, if agreed by a two-thirds majority, to implement the decision on the matter." This was seconded by Dr Steenfelt and the motion

carried with 37 votes in favour.

The President put the final motion on the amended

statutes to read as follows:

“It is moved that the finally revised and amended

statutes go into effect at the closing session of this

conference upon transfer of offices to the Officers Elect. It is simultaneously moved that pending the adoption of By-laws and Policies, the conduct of the

societies' affairs in all matters not covered shall adhere to the essence of the present rules and stipu­

lations as contained in the present Statutes approved in Oaxaca in 1979 and as amended."

The motion was unanimously carried with 44 votes.

The President thanked the house and gave a vote of thanks to the Statutes Sub-committee. Finally it was agreed to recommend that a body be formed to translate the amended statutes into French. The President put the motion: "M Parez and Professor Salencon of France and Pro­ fessor Lousberg of Belgium will produce a translated

version of the Statutes".

A brief report (Appendix 32) was presented by the Organising Committee of the XII ICSMFE to be held in

Rio de Janeiro in 1989. The President advised that a number of matters in this report would require early consideration by the Conference Advisory Committee.


Professor de Beer, Secretary of the Permanent Coordinating Secretariat, summarised the contents of his report (Appendix 33). Concern was expressed by Professor Burland that the recommendations proposed by the Permanent Coordinating

Secretariat for the preparation and presentation of papers with slides and overhead projections were to be mandatory for Conferences of the three Societies. Following further support for this view, the following motion was proposed by Dr Blight and seconded by Dr Balasubramaniam:

"That the Executive Committee receive the report by the Coordinating Secretariat and that the Secretary be thanked for its preparation." The motion was carried unanimously.

After suggestions by Mr Fasehun, Dr Northey and Professor Burland for a Sub-committee to be set up to study this matter and an offer was made by West Germany to use the Danube Conference next year as a

test case, the President proposed the following


“That a Sub-committee composed of some delegates of the the Organising Committee of the forthcoming Regional Conferences in 1987 and International Conference in 1989 be set up to study the new proposal and, together with the outcome of the test case of the Danube Conference, report their findings to the Executive Committee in l987."

The motion was carried with 1 vote against and no abstentions. OFFER BY INDIA TO HOST XIII ICSMTE

An offer was made by the Indian delegation to host the XIII ICSM E in 1993. In presenting a case in the brief time available, reference was madeby Professor Prakash to the many similar invitations made by the Indian Geotechnical Society since 1954 to host an ICSM E. Their offer at the Paris Executive Meeting in 1983 to host the 1989 ICSMFE had been lost by only a very small margin. He assured the meeting that excellent facilities existed in New Delhi for such a conference and, indeed, international conferences of other societies had been held very successfully. The President confirmed that a very successful ICOLD

conference had been held in India. However, it had not been the practice of the International Society to make the decision on ICSM E venue B years in


advance, with the exception of the special case of the Jubilee Conference. He felt that in future the

decision should be made 6 years in advance. His inquiry to the house if they wished to make a decision at this meeting provided a vote of:

B in favour and 14 against with 17 absentions. He then proposed the following motion:

of income for some other International Societies such as ICOLD. The President referred to the resolution

of the 1983 Paris Executive Committee Meeting giving guidelines on the amount that should accrue to ISSMFE from its Technical Committee Publications and Inter­ national Conference Proceedings. He was heartened by the increasing number of publications coming from the International Society, its Technical Committees and

"This Executive Committee Meeting passes on a minuted resolution to the 1987 Executive Committee Meeting

its Member Societies. It takes time for agreements with publishers to be made and to take effect, but noticeable income to the International Society should be coming within three or four years.

ICSMFE in l993."

After some discussion regarding ISSMFE providing some

that priority be given to consider the invitation by the Indian Goetechnical Society to host the XIII

This was carried with 33 votes in favour and l against ISSMFE BUDGET

The Secretary General presented two budgets for the three year period l985-7 (Appendix 34), the first assuming no increase in subscriptions which showed

deficits in all three years, and the second showing the subscriptions required in order that the income would balance the anticipated expenditures. These

budgets had been prepared by himself and modified by the Steering Committee specifically to include items

for travel by the President and Vice Presidents in 1986 and 1987. In the case of Vice Presidents, the purpose was to give some assistance to Vice Presidents to travel to International Meetings such as Steering

Committee or Executive Committee Meetings. In order to match income to expected expenditure, assuming no change in membership, the subscription fees would have to be increased by 30% over present levels in 1986 and by 505 over present levels in 1987.

financial assistance to its Officers, particularly with respect to travel in performing their duties, a motion was formulated. Before putting this motion to the meeting, the President stressed, firstly, that he had received the greatest support imaginable from the Steering Committee in his conduct of the affairs of the Society and secondly, this was simply a motion concerned with principle. The following motion was put by the President:

"In view of the benefits to International Cooperation arising out of periodic meetings of the Steering Committee and Regional visits of the President, an allowance shall be made in the budget to specifically assist the President, Vice Presidents and members of the Steering Committee in their travel expenses on International Society meetings, workings of Technical Committees and other such activities."

For 18 Against 5 Abstentions 12

The motion was carried with the following results:

Considerable discussion centred on this item including the question of whether or not the Society should be financially self-supporting. At the moment it was

After further discussion of Member Society subscriptions the following motion was put by the President:

facilities to the Secretariat. The President, during

"The Secretary General is requested to ensure that, as far as possible, the expenditure of the International

heavily supported by Cambridge University which pro­ vided free accommodation, heating, lighting and other

his period of office, had spent large sums of his own money in travel on behalf of ISSMFE. Other Officers received no support. This was surely unsatisfactory for a prestigious International Society.

Various views were expressed about what constituted and what was meant by a balanced budget. Concern was

expressed by some Societies, including India, at the level of subscriptions being sought to match income to expected expenditure. The Swedish delegate sug­ gested that reasonable increases in subscription might

be 15% in 1986 and 30% in 1987. Mr Smoltczyk, of FR Germany, pointed to the fact that the German

Society would not be able to pay a 308 increase over

its present subscription because this is paid as a

lump sum and the budget of 1986 is still unbalanced by great extra expenses for the Geotechnical Abstracts System.

Several delegates agreed with the Secretary General that the average subscription per member, at US$2.B was extremely low, and substantial increases were

justified. A view that an increase in subscription

Society does not exceed its income over the 3-year period. To achieve an approximate balance of income and expenditure, the Executive Committee authorises an increase in subscription rates in 1986 and 1987 of 30%

above the present rates fixed in l979.“ This motion was carried with 27 votes in favour and 9 against. Following this resolution, Professor Ovesen made a

brief presentation illustrating the discrepancies

arising between average individual member contributions

by different Members Societies as a result of using the present Formula from which Member Society sub­

scriptions were calculated.

As it was clear that there was a strong view within the meeting that the International Society should becom self-supporting, the President put the following motiom “The Executive Committee recommends that a committee

should be set up to investigate the financing of the International Society, including subscription levies,

of say us$1.00 per member would result in the loss of

and report on the way in which the income can be

Iceland, and others, that such members could hardly be regarded as seriously interested in their member­ ship of the International Society.

circulated to all Member Societies 6 months before the

members was countered by an opinion expressed by

Mr Agha expressed surprise that the Society derived no income from publications. This was a major source


increased to a level allowing the International Society to become fully self-supporting. Its findings will be 1987 Executive Committee Meeting and will be considered

at that meeting."

This was carried nem. con.



The Secretary General advised that the International Society now had a logo which had been selected by the President from a number of designs, following the

(1) Professor H Bolton Seed had withdrawn his previous candidature and there was no letter from him to say that he had agreed to this new candidature. (2) There had been no exchange of correspondence, as in the case of India, so delegates present would not have had time to receive voting instructions from their Member Societies.

decision of the 1983 Paris Executive Committee Meeting

that he should do so. The logo was to be seen at many

places around this conference venue, on ISSMFE News, on Scrolls and on the Kevin Nash Gold Medal.

Responding to a request by the President, the Secretariat had designed Scrolls for Past Presidents, Past Vice Presidents and for the recipient of the Kevin Nash Gold Medal. Some of these would be con­ ferred at this conference. The Kevin Nash Gold Medal has also been designed by the Secretariat and will be awarded at this conference.

Japan stated that since the Statutes were not specific, they would also like to put forward the name of Professor H B Seed of USA. The President felt this request could not be granted for the following reasons:

lOl. A check was made of those present and able to vote. Dominican Republic, Romania and Ecuador were not

entitled to vote.


The results of the voting, by secret ballot, for the President for l9B5-9 were as follows:

Professor B Broms 24 votes


Professor N Morgenstern 17 votes Dr S Prakash 4 votes

Professor Masami Fukuoka, Chairman of the Committee

of Past Presidents responsbile for selecting the

recipient of the Kevin Nash Gold Medal, was unable to

As Professor Broms had an outright majority on the

attend the meeting through ill health. A report by

first ballot, he was duly elected President of the International Society for the period 1985-9.

Professor Fukuoka is included in Appendix 35. The recipient of the 1985 Kevin Nash Gold Medal is Professor H Bolton Seed.




The President reported that he had felt that there was some need for back-up for the Secretary General and for ensuring better physical arrangements for the

The President moved that this report by the French Member Society be accepted and this was carried nem.

Secretariat. He had received a letter dated 16 July

(Appendix 36).

offered to meet this need while the Secretariat

con. He then suggested that the report be carried over to the incoming Board for further consideration

1935 (Appendix 38) from the Chairman of the British Geotechnical Society (BGS) in which the BGS had remained in the United Kingdom.



There were no further comments from the Chairman of the ad hoc committee on "Eurocode 7 for Foundation" to

Discussion followed on the possible expansion of the

services of the Secretariat, but it was felt that this should be left to the new President. Also, it was

pointed out that the new Statutes provided for the appointment of the Secretary General by the President in consultation with the Board. If the BGS offer were taken up it would apply for the next two years and could be reviewed at the council meeting in 1987.

add to the report he had already submitted to the International Society (Appendix 37). ELECTION OF PRESIDENT

The election of the President for the period 1985-9 opened up with a discussion as to the closing date for nominations. Although no definite time is given in the Statutes, the President pointed out that it does state clearly in Statute l9 that "The Secretary General shall then send to each National Society a list of all the candidates and the Executive Committee shall be asked to vote on these names at its next meeting."

105. The following motion, proposed by Dr Steenfelt, was

the adopted unanimously:

"The Executive Committee gratefully acknowledges the

offer of the British Geotechnical Society and recom­ mends that the incoming President take advantage of



India requested that their nomination of Dr Shamsher Prakash be accepted in view of the fact that they had informed the Secretary General last March and had circulated the name to all Member Societies themselves prior to the Executive Meeting. Some Member Societies confirmed having received such letters, though late,

and it was decided to put it to a vote to allow India‘s nomination to stand. The President stressed that in his view this should be recognised as a revision of statutes and, furthermore, a revision applicable


Mr A de Bello, of the International Society for Rock

Mechanics congratulated Professor Broms on his election, and asked that in considering a possible change of name of ISSMFE the views of the sister geotechnical

societies should be taken into account.


applying the decision if it were voted as a revision of statutes. There were 31 votes in favour, so the

The President proposed on behalf of the International Society a special vote of thanks to the US National Society and the US Organising Committee for all their hard work in preparing for the conference. He also

Iran and India, was added to the list of nominees as candidate for President.

Steering Committee and all others who had assisted in

immediately, which was contrary to formal practice. However, if the house so desired, he would consider

name of Dr Shamsher Prakash of India, nominated by


thanked the members of the Executive Committee, Technical Committee Chairman and members of the


making his term of office successful, and wished every success to the new President and Officers.

Professor de Beer proposed a vote of thanks to the President for his prodigious and enthusiastic work on behalf of the International Society. The President declared the meeting closed at 7.00 pm.


Société Internationale de Mécanique des Sols et des Travaux de Fondations Procés-verbal de Fléunion du Comité Exécutif tenu dans |’h6teI Fairmont a San Francisco (9 Aout 1985, de 8h30 a 12h et de 13h30 a 18h et 10 Aout 1985, de 8h30 a 12h et de 13h3O a19h)

: Prof V.F.B. de M E llo ; Mr L . Wilson Prof F.K. Chin Dr R . Northey Prof A. Croce Mr C . Crawford Prof. J.C. Hiedra Lopez

PRESENTS : Président


Afrique Asie

Australie Europe

Amérique du Nord Amérique du Sud

Anciens Présidents : Prof. M. Fukuoka

Prof. J. Kérisel

Secrétaire Général : Dr R.H.G. Parry Société Membre

Représentant Votant

Représentant Non Votant

Afrique du Sud Argentine Australie Autriche Belgique Bolivie Brésil Bulgarie Canada Chili

G.H. Donaldson

G.E. Blight

H. Brandl E. Lousberg R.T. Mori

M. Fross

D.N. Devenny

M. Bozozuk

Chine Colombie

Costa Rica Danemark

Equateur Eqypte Espagne

Finlande France


Grece Hongrie

Islande Inde Indonésie Iran Irelande






Nouvelle-Zélande Nigéria Norvége Pakistan Paraguay Pays-Bas

A.J. Bolognesi P.w. Mitchell

G. Stefanoff

E. Retamal-Schafer Z. J. Lu J. Duran-Gutierrez

MEG. Poulos

E. de Beer A.J. da Costa Nunes E. Tochkov

J. Troncoso Z.Q. Nong


J.S. Steenfelt M

. Angel Chavez

-T Elleboudy V. Escario J . Hartikainen J . Salengon

. El-Sohby J.A. Jimenez Salas H. Rathmayer M. L. Perez S. Christoulas


R. Ingimarsson . Ranjan

H. Sigursteinsson S. Prakash




K. Rezvan

E. Farrell J.G. Zeitlen C. Viggiani K. Ishihara R. Lopez-Roldan (3) A.0. Madedor H. Arvesen

C. Behnia

M. Grace

G. Wiseman

M. Jamiolkowski T. Kokusho L. Montanez

E.O. Fasehun K. Hoeg

A. Agha

A. Ajaz

ETH. de Leew

J. Kruizinga 2949

Pérou --­ Pologne W. Nolski -­ RDA H.N. Forster -­ Roumanie -- -­ Suede H. Bohm-B. Berggren Suisse -­ Syrie K.Kayyal F. Mawlawi Tchécoslovaquie --­ Turquie E. Togrol -­ U.S.A. J. Gould H.E. wahls Membres délégués (suite)

Société Membre Représentant Votant Représentant Non Votant

Portugal E. Maranha das Neves A. Correia Mineiro

RFA U. Smoltczyk K.J.--Melzer République Dominicaine -­

Royaume UniE.w. P. Green HB.Balasubramaniam Sutherland S.E. Asiatique Brand A.S.

U.R.S.S. V.A. Ilyichev Y.G. Trofimenkov Vénézuéla F. Tinoco -­ Yougoslavie P. Anagnosti Zimbawé N.R. Mackechnie C. -­ Rea (1) Le représentant vénézuélien a la procuration du Costa Rica. (2) Le représentant de la République Fédérale Allemande a la procuration de la Hongrie pendant le début de la réunion Jusqu‘a l'arrivée du Prof. Petrasovits. (3) Le Vice-Président R. Northey a la procuration de la Nouvelle-Zélande.

Ont aussi assisté a la reunion, en partie ou en totalité : Les Membres du Comité de Direction : Prof. B. Broms

Prof. J.B. Burland Prof. F.K. Chin Dr. R.D. Northey Prof. A. Croce Mr C.B. Crawford Prof. J.C. Hiedra-Lopez Mr L.C. Wilson

Prof. M. Fukuoka Dr. E. D'Appolonia

Les Présidents des Comités Techniques :

Prof. B.Nendza Broms Consultation Essais de pénétration Prof. N. de l'Information

Prof. J. Kérisel Preservation des Vieux Monuments et Cités Dr. I. Johnston Essaisde Laboratoiresurlesroches tendres et indurées Prof. Z. Eisenstein Programmes informatiques en géotechnique

Dr. E.w. Brand Prélevements et essais sur sols résiduels

Prof. S. Murayama Lois et équations fondamentales Prof. Symboles, Unités, et Corrélations Prof. F. P. Baguelin La Rochelle Glissements deDéfinitions terrain Prof. Schofield Centrifugeuses Dr. P.A.N. Girault Déformations admissibles

Dr. J.S. Nogami représenté par Dr. G.N. N. Hachich SolsFiltres Tropicaux Mr Donaldson Dr. Fujita Possibilité de fongage et battage de pieux Dr. K. J.P. Giroud Géotextiles

Prof. U. Smoltczyk Essais de sol en place et en laboratoire

Les Vice-Présidents élus :

A.0. Madedor Afrique (aussi représentant du Nigéria)

G. Wiseman Asie (aussi représentant d'Israel) N. Krebs Ovesen Europe R. Rico-Rodriguez Amérique du Nord

0. Vardé Amérique du Sud


Le Représentant de la Société Internationale de Mécanique des Roches : A, de Bello Excusés : Dr. Lombardi, Prof. E.T. Brown, Mr. Grossman, Mr. Peck, Prof. S. Murayama, Mr. Lemley (Président ITA), prof. J. Huder. REMARQUES PRELIMINAIRES DU PRESIDENT

1. Le Président ouvre la réunion et souhaite la bienvenue a tous les délégués et aux autres assistants. Il donne la parole au Professeur Seed qui les accueille également tous au nom du Comité National des Etats-Unis. Le Président souligne ensuite qu‘il est important, dans une Société Internationale telle que la SIMSTF, que se produisent sans cesse des changements et améliorations. Ce Comité a beaucoup de sujets a traiter

et il est essentiel de faire avancer la discussion. Il insiste,en particulier, sur sa ligne de conduite selon laquelle il est de la responsabilité du Président sortant d'affronter et de résoudre, aussi loin que possible, les problemes les plus difficiles et de ne pas les laisser A son successeur. QUORUM

2. Bien que quelques Sociétés Membres n'aient pas encore payé leurs cotisations pour 1985, toutes sauf deux ont présenté des excuses valables (Statut 11), ainsi, au départ, 55 Sociétés Membres sont admises a voter.

L'appel fait au début de la réunion montre que 42 Sociétés Membres sont présentes. Sur 55 Membres admis a voter le quorum pour les questions générales est de 1/3 de 55

soit 19 (Statut 35) et le quorum pour la modification des Statuts, 2/3 soit 37 Sociétés Membres (Statut 35). Le Président insiste cependant pour qu'un nouveau décompte soit fait avant le changement des Statuts. MEMBRES

3. Le Secrétaire Général présente son rapport sur les Membres de la SIMSTF (annexe 1) indiquant qu‘il y a actuellement 57 Sociétés représentant 16 121 membres individuels. Depuis le dernier Comité Exécutif en 1983, l‘Islande a été admise comme membre et l'Iran réadmise comme nouveau membre. Le Pakistan n'ayant pas payé son d8 pour les années 1981 a 1983 incluse, le Secrétaire Général recommande au Comité Exécutif de confirmer son maintien comme membre. Des problemes se sont présentés concernant la Société qui doit représenter l‘Equateur a la SIMSTF.

4. Le Secrétaire Général attire l'attention sur les deux Sociétés Membres malheureusement en retard de paiement : la République Dominicaine depuis 1980 et la Roumanie depuis 1978.

Il demande que leur participation soit revue par le Comité Exécutif. Il confirme que, depuis la rédaction de son rapport (annexe 1), il a regu un télex du Maroc indiquant que le paiement de tous les arriérés a été autorisé.Le probleme est venu de l'utilisation d‘une adresse incorrecte.


5. La motion suivante, proposée par le Président, est présentée a l'assemblée. "Comme le Pakistan a payé son du pour 1984 et 1985 avec exactitude, le President, soutenu par le Comité de Direction, recommande au Comité Exécutif de réinstaller le Pakistan dans

tous ses droits a la date de cette réunion et de renoncer a lui faire payer son arriéré." Adopté 5 l'unanimité.

6. Une importante discussion a lieu au sujet des membres de l'Equateur. Le Professeur De Beer signale que beaucoup de Sociétés ont des membres individuels qui n‘ont pas de diplome

universitaire. Le Secrétaire Général signale que l'Equateur n‘a pas payé ses cotisations pour 1984-1985, alors Mr Angel Chavez de l'Equateur propose ces cotisations. Lereprésentant de l'Argentine demande que les membres individuels équatoriens continuent

de bénéficier de leur appartenance jusqu'a ce que le probleme soit résolu. Le Président, bien d'accord, souligne que le probleme réside dans le droit de vote de l'Equateur a cette réunion.

7. Les motions suivantes sont proposées par le Président : 1. “Il est recommandé au futur Président de créer une commission qui étudiera le cas de la représentation de l'Equateur et dont les résultats et recommandations seront présentés a la prochaine réunion du Comité Exécutif en 1987." Adopté sans opposition.

2. "Durant cette période, la représentation de l'Equateur doit étre suspendue." Résultat du vote :

Pour ; 22 Contre : 12 La motion est donc adoptée.

8. Le Président invite Mr Chavez a rester présent a la réunion, mais sans droit de vote ; cette invitation est acceptée par Mr Chavez. Le Secrétaire Général accepte le cheque de Mr Chavez et l'avise que tout excédent résultant de la suspension de l'appartenance de l'Equateur durant 1985 sera crédité envers l'Equateur. 9. La motion suivante, proposée par le Président, est présentée a l'assemblée : “Le Secrétaire Général attire l'attention des Sociétés Membres sur le fait que les cotisations de la République Dominicaine et de la Roumanie n‘ont pas été payées depuis nombre d'années. Chacune de ces deux Sociétés sera avisée que sans une tentative de paiement avant le 30 Septembre 1986 de leur arriéré ou d'une part acceptée par le Secrétaire Général et le Vice-President Regional, assortie de l'assurance solennelle que les cotisations futures seront promptement payées, il sera proposé a la réunion du Conseil de 1987 que leur participation soit annulée." Adopté sans opposition.


10. Le Secrétaire communique la demande d'admission recue de la Tunisie. Elle n'a pas,

jusqu'ici, envoyé la liste de ses membres, mais au recu de cette liste, tous ses papiers seront en ordre et elle sera admise comme membre a part entiere. Une demande pressante

a aussi été recue en provenance de l'Iraq avisant qu‘elle se propose d'envoyer un représentant aupres des responsables de la SIMSTF pour discuter de son admission au cours du lleme Congres.


11. Le Secrétaire Général annonce qu'il a écrit le 25 Juillet 1984 a toutes les Sociétés Membres en demandant la désignation de Vice-Présidents Régionaux pour la période 1985-1989.

Dans quatre régions, le vote n'était pas nécessaire : en Afrique et Amérique du Sud les candidats n'avaient pas d‘opposants et en Australie et Amérique du Nord les candidats ont été choisis apres des arrangements régionaux. Les Vice-Presidents élus sans opposition sont :

Afrique A.O. Madedor

Australie J.H.H. Galloway Amérique du Nord A. Rico-Rodriguez Amérique du Sud O. Vardé

12. Quatre candidats étaient désignés pour la vice-présidence européenne et un scrutin a eu

lieu avec les résultats suivants :

N. Krebs Ovesen 10 voix

P. Anagnosti 8 voix

C.P. wroth 6 voix S. Hansbo 1 voix N. Krebs Ovesen est donc élu a la Vice-Présidence européenne pour la période 1985-1989.

13. Pour l'Asie, Amjad Agha a été proposé par le Pakistan et G. Wiseman par Israel. Le Secrétaire Général a transmis ces noms aux Sociétés de la région Asie et chacun d'eux a eu quatre voix, une Société s'abstenant. Cependant, comme le Pakistan n'était pas réintégré formellement dans la Société au moment de sa designation parmi les candidats a la Vice-Présidence, en plein accord avec le Comité de Direction, le President fut d'avis que le nom de G. Wiseman soit avancé comme dUment élu a la Vice-Présidence pour l‘Asie (période 1985-1989).

14. Le Président annonce qu'il a invité tous les Vice-Presidents élus 5 assister a la réunion du Comité Directeur, tenue avant le Comité Exécutif. Deux y ont assisté : MM. Krebs Ovesen et 0. Vardé



En introduction a ce theme, le Président rappelle la réunion du Comité Exécutif a Paris ou un consensus net s'est dégagé en faveur du changement de structure de nos réglements,

a savoir : Statuts et Reglemenk intérieurs.Il n'y a pas eu de vote a Paris car ce n'était pas sur l'ordre du jour. Il propose donc que ceci soit soumis au vote. Il a créé un sous-comité du Comité Directeur comprenant lui-méme comme Président,

le Professeur Burland, le Professeur Hroth et le Secrétaire Général pour préparer une version des reglements révisés. Le Dr Northey a été adjoint, par la suite, a ce sous-comité Le sous-comité n'a pas eu le temps de préparer une version complete des réglements et s'est borné a préparer un modele seulement pour des statuts concis ; les reglements intérieurs seront ajoutés plus tard. Comme suite de la communication de cette version a toutes les Sociétés Membres et aux responsables de la Société en Avril dernier, nombre de commentaires ont été regus, qui ont été étudiés par le Comité Directeur. Celui-ci a préparé des modifications, A la lumiere de ces commentaires, pour qu‘elles soient remises au plus tard a cette réunion. Etant donné que l'intention de proposer ce changement de nos réglements a été exposée

il y a longtemps et que la version des Statuts concis préparée par le sous-comité a été adressée a tous les membres en Avril dernier, le Président demande que cette réunion approuve ce qui a été un consensus a Paris, c'est-a-dire de mettre au point un ensemble de reglements comprenant Statuts et Reglements Intérieurs. Il propose alors de laisser ce chapitre pour demain matin afin de donner aux délégués le temps d'étudier les modifications proposées par le Comité Directeur.

Montrant ses intentions avec un croquis, il propose la procédure a suivre pour le samedi matin : un premier vote devrait étre fait pour accepter "en bloc" les Statuts révisés, en principe, avec les trois clauses conditionnelles suivantes : 1. Les statuts condensés doivent étre immédiatement soumis a révisions détaillées.

2. Les statuts condensés une fois entérinés doivent pouvoir devenir applicables des l'entrée en fonction du nouveau Président.

3. En attendant la mise au point d'un reglement intérieur et d‘annexes, la Société Internationale se referera 5 l'esprit des statuts et des résolutions actuels. Apres examen de tous les amendements proposés tant par le Comité Directeur (et

préalablement diffusés) que de l'Assemblée présente, l'opportunité des statuts révisés sera mise aux voix.


La motion suivante, émise par le President, est alors mise aux voix : "Compte tenu de l'avis exprim é par le President dans la minute 33 du Comité Executif de Paris en 1983, de la large diffusion et de l'examen des projets de textes proposes, il est d‘ores et deja acquis que la Societe sera administree au moyen de statuts, completes par un reglement in térieur et des regles de fonctionnement."

Le résultat du vote est le su ivant : Pour Cont Abst

re : 2 entions 1 3 : 33

La motion est adoptée.


Les rapports suivants sont al ors presentes par les Vice-Presidents regionaux

C. Wilson annexe 2 Afrique Asie F.K.L.Chin annexe 3

Australasie R.D. Northey annexe 4

Europe A. Croce annexe 5

Amérique du Nord C.B. Crawford annexe 6

Amérique du Sud J.C. Hiedra-Lopez annexe 7 M. wilson declare qu'il n'a r ien a ajouter sinon une activité accrue de la Societe Marocaine et qu'il constate a vec plaisir que la situation de cette Societe vis-a-vis la Societé Internationale est désormais régularisee.


Le Professeur Chin annonce qu e le bulletin n° 1 de la Beme Conference regionale

asiatique est pret et sera di stribué aux congressistes presents a San Francisco. Le Professeur Croce entend q uant a lui faire tout particulierement reference aux travaux des sous-comites tech niques européens sur les glissements de terrains et sur les problemes géotechniques l ies aux actions sismiques qui, bien que crees seulement en 1983, ont deja progresse s ignificativement. Le sous-comite "Glissements d e terrains" s'est fixé trois étapes pour ses travaux :

1 - collecte des analyses de cas existants 2 - compilation des états de l‘Art redigés par les différentes Societés Europeennes 3 - preparation d‘un rapport final. Le sous-comite "Geotechnique et seismes" a également concu son travail en trois étapes

1 - definition des buts recherches et collecte des informations en provenance de chaque Société Européenne (ce tr avail est pratiquement acheve)


2 - rapports préliminaires sur les différents aspects qui feront l'objet des tétes de chapitre choisies

3 - état de l‘Art. Le Président Croce exprime le souhait de voir se poursuivre et aboutir les travaux de ces deux sous-comités européens et propose de céder ensuite la parole au Professeur Togrol et au Professeur Viggiani respectivement Présidents du sous-comité "Glissements" et du sous-comité "Géotechnique et séismes" afin qu'ils puissent donner au Comité Exécutif des informations complémentaires. Il convient, ajoute-t-il, de noter que la création de ces sous-comités régionaux a considérablement dynamisé la coopération géotechnique européenne.

26. Le Président confirme avoir largement encourage les Vice-Présidents régionaux a agir

par délégation au sein de leur region, en particulier en créant de tels sous-comités techniques qui nécessitent des réponses rapides. Il tient plus particulierement ici a exprimer ses remerciements aux Vice-Présidents Européen et Nord-Américain, qui ont développé ces propositions d'actions régionales.

27. Le sous-comité présidé par le Professeur Togrol a commence ses travaux en 1984 et a déja publié un volume de cas. Un second volume consacré aux divers états de l'Art sera bientot édité. Les membres du sous-comité ont été conviés par les organisateurs du 9eme Congres Européen de Dublin a organiser une session de discussions sur le

sujet. La troisieme étape sera la publication d'un rapport final consacré aux études de cas les plus marquantes et a la mise sur pied d'un systeme de mots-clés permettant la tenue a jour d'un sommaire rapide des moyens et des cas de stabilisation des glissements de terrains en Europe. 28. Le professeur Viggiani, pour sa part, entend concentrer les travaux de son sous-comité sur les usages en cours en Europe en matiere de problemes géotechniques liés B l'action sismique (codes, reglements, inventaire et analyse des problemes qui se posent). Ces

travaux n'en sont, pour l'instant, qu'au stade initial mais ce sous-comité est lui aussi invité par Dublin a organiser une séance de discussion en 1987.

29. Mr. Crawford mentionne pour sa part qu'il a indiqué dans son rapport la publication des comptes rendus de la 7eme Conférence Panaméricaine de 1983 et du 4eme Symposium Inter­

national sur les glissements qui s‘est tenu en 1984 ainsi que les adresses des éditeurs respectifs. Par ailleurs, il tient ici a remercier le Comité organisateur des Etats-Unis et son Président, le Professeur Seed, pour tout le travail accompli a l‘occasion de la Conférence du Jubilé. La région Nord-Américaine a pris, elle, en charge la responsabilité de six comités dont les travaux sont deja tres avancés. 30. Le Président tient a citer, ici, en exemple, le Comité Technique sur les Géotextiles qui, initialement, créé en sous-comité régional pour répondre a un besoin spécifique, est rapidement devenu par la suite un Comité a part entiere. 31. Le Professeur Hiedra-Lopez annonce la création effective des Conférences "Casagrande", la premiere de ces conférences sera donnée lors de la Beme Conférence Panaméricaine en 1987, par le Professeur A.J. Costa Nunes. 2956


Les rapports des Comités techniques suivants sont présentés au Comité Exécutif par le Président de ces Comités :

Comité Consultatif sur l‘Information Essais de pénétration Coopération dans la recherche


.B. Broms Crawford

Programmes de calculs automatiques


Echantillonnage et essais sur les sols résiduels Prélevements intacts et essais en laboratoire sur les roches tendres et les sols indurés Symboles, Unités, Définitions et Corrélations


Glissements de terrain Centrifugeuses Tassements admissibles et dommages aux Structures Sols tropicaux

Filtres Aptitudes des pieux a la pénétration par battage

.N. Johnston Baguelin La Rochelle

.N. Schofield Girault Hachich * .N. Donaldson


Annexe B Annexe 9 Annexe 10 Annexe 11 Annexe 12

Annexe 13 Annexe 14 Annexe 15 Annexe 16 Annexe 17 Annexe 18 Annexe 19 Annexe 20

Aspects Géotechniques de la préservation des

constructions et sites anciens


Lois de comportement


Essais en laboratoire et en place


Annexe 21 Annexe 22 Annexe 23

* représentant le Docteur S. Nogami

Le Président rappelle que seuls sont présentés et discutés en Comité Exécutif les rapports généraux des Présidents des Comités Techniques. Il invite par ailleurs ces derniers 5 prendre la parole s'ils estiment devoir y apporter quelques compléments oraux. Parlant au nom du Professeur Nendza, Président du Comité Consultatif sur l'Information, le Professeur Kuhn tient a rappeler que le but principal confié a ce Comité était d'informer la Société Internationale sur le développement de son service "Information". Cette vocation le distingue donc assez nettement des autres. Lors du Comité Exécutif de Mexico en 1969, la Société Internationale a mis sur pied les "Geotechnical Abstracts" dont le développement et la gestion ont été confiés a la Société Allemande. De plus, depuis 1982, ce service est complété par des listes mensuelles de publications techniques.

Par ailleurs, on a tenu compte, dans ce domaine, des activités propres 5 d'autres Sociétés membres (Australie, Brésil, France, Japon, Afrique du Sud, Sud-Est Asiatique et Suede). Le Comité a présenté ici un bref rapport sur les structures et l'organisation du Service International d'Information Géotechnique (I.G.I.S.), auquel sont joints des documents de travail. La premiere version en date de Juin 1985 de ce rapport a été diffusée a toutes les Sociétés Membres et une version plus concise a été distribuée


au cours de ce Comité Exécutif. Le systeme actuel couvre les domaines de la Mécanique des Sols, de la Mécanique des Roches, de l'Ingéniérie Géotechnique et de la Géologie

de l'Ingénieur. Le systeme actuel ne traite que l'information publiée mais il pourrait aussi etre étendu aux programmes de calculs automatiques.

36. Le service IGIS pourrait étre a la fois un service documentaire d'enregistrement des titres parus en géotechnique et un service de diffusion de résumés des publications importantes. Ce service peut fonctionner soit manuellement comme par le passé, soit faire l'objet d'une informatisation. Un outil indispensable pour ceci est l'utili­ sation des mots-clés qui sont rassemblés et classés dans le nouveau glossaire géotechnique. Le Comité IAC considere qu'il y a la une priorité. 37. Le professeur De Beer pense que les Sociétés Internationales de Mécanique des Roches

et de Géologie de l'1ngénieur devraient étre approchées sur ce projet qui, de ce fait, couvre des domaines communs aux trois Sociétés.

38. Le Professeur La Rochelle annonce l'intention de la Société Suisse de tenir A Lausanne, en 1988 (10-15 Juillet), un symposium sur les glissements de terrain. Il se permet,

par ailleurs, de regretter, d'une part les difficultés éprouvées a maintenir des rapports suivis avec certaines Sociétés et d'autre part, le manque de possibilités de financement par la Société Internationale des activités des Comités Techniques. 39. Le Professeur BROMS annonce l'organisation du Congres International sur les essais

de pénétration (I.S.0.P.T.) en 1988 et le Président profite de cette occasion pour citer la encore le cas d‘un Comité Technique Régional dont la vocation est devenue internationale. 40. Le Docteur Fujita, qui a organisé a San Francisco un symposium le samedi 10 Aoit sur le battage des pieux, espere y accueillir une centaine de participants. Son Comité Technique a publié un premier volume de 218 pages et en a déja vendu 80 exemplaires. Un second volume 5 paraitre en Mars 1986 contiendra le texte de

toutes les discussions. Il signale, par ailleurs, que le Professeur Murayama, Président du Comité Technique sur les lois de comportement, n'a pu assister a ce Comité Exécutif mais son Comité Technique a publié un volume de 175 pages sur

l'état de l'Art en la matiere z 70 exemplaires de cet ouvrage seront mis en vente au cours de la discussion de la session 1.A.


Le Docteur Brand informe quant a lui le Comité de la vente de 120 exemplaires du volume préparé par son Comité Technique.


Le DocteurDonaldson informe l'assistance de l'organisation au Portugal d‘un Symposium sur les filtres en 1988 : son Comité préparera un rapport qui sera discuté a cette occasion.


Le Président invite alors le Professeur Smoltczyk a présenter les travaux du Comité “Essais en laboratoire et en place" créé en 1979 par le Président Fukuoka. Trois themes principaux font actuellement l'objet des travaux de ce Comité : 1 - chargement des pieux (publié dans le journal de 1'AsTM) 2 - essais de consolidation et de gonflement (publiés par Technion, Haifa)

3 - essais triaxiaux. En ce qui soncerne les essais triaxiaux, il suggere de confier ce travail a un petit groupe d'experts spécialisés.

Le Professeur Giroud attire l'attention de l‘Assemblée sur la publication de l'Etat de l‘Art mis au point par son Comité dans la revue "Géotextiles et Géomembranes“. Ce rapport qui contient également une liste des Symboles, servira de base aux discussions de la Session “Géotextiles". Le Professeur Giroud expose les similitudes d'approches

des méthodes d'essais et de recherches sur les Géotextiles avec celles utilisées en Géotechnique traditionnelle, ce qui rend les géotechniciens tout particulierement aptes a aborder ces problemes. Il se propose d'étendre le domaine des travaux de son Comité a celui, beaucoup plus vaste, des Géosynthétiques. La principale manifestation internationale a venir, sur ce point, sera la 3eme Conférence Internationale sur les Géotextiles qui se tiendra a Vienne en 1986. Cette conférence, organisée par la Société Autrichienne, sera placée sous les auspices de l'ISSMFE et de la Société Internationale des Géotextiles. Apres avoir hrievement exposé les travaux de son entend fermement en poursuivre les activités. La assuré le fonctionnement du Comité. La France se le Professeur Schofield suggere d'accepter cette

Comité, le Professeur Schofield

Société Britannique a, jusqu'ici, propose de prendre le relai : offre.

Le Docteur Baguelin a évoqué dans le rapport qu‘il a diffusé, un certain nombre

d'aspects techniques sur lesquels il souhaite l'avis de l'assistance. La liste des symboles initialement présentée a Tokyo a été considérablement élargie. Le Président émet le voeu que ce Comité puisse étre transformé en Comité Permanent.

Le Docteur Johnston informe l‘assemblée des difficultés éprouvées par le manque de

publications en matiere de roches tendres et du lien qu‘il y a lieu d'établir impérativement sur ce point avec la Société Internationale de Mécanique des Roches. Le Président comprend cette position et rappelle que la Société Australienne de Géomécanique a été chargée de ce Comité justement pour cette raison. Le Docteur Hachich évoque quant a lui la conférence sur les Sols Tropicaux qui s'est tenue au Brésil en 1985. Deux volumes des comptes rendus sont déja disponibles, deux autres seront distribués lors du présent congres.

Mr Crawford remercie le Président pour l'aide qu‘il a toujours apportée au comité "Coopération dans la Recherche". Il espere que les travaux de ce Comité vont pouvoir continuer dans l'avenir et souhaite d'y inclure les Vice-Présidents.


49. Le Président propose alors a l'assistance une motion d'accord sur les rapports présentés par les Présidents de Comités. Le Président Anagnosti propose quant 5 lui la motion suivante : " Le Comité Exécutif a pris connaissance des rapports des Comités Techniques. Il recommande au Président entrant d'encourager les comités a poursuivre leurs travaux

sur les propositions qu'ils ont faites." Cette motion, soutenue par le Professeur Stefanoff, est adoptée a l'unanimité. 50. Le Président propose alors la motion suivante : " Le Comité Exécutif recommande le développement d'un Systeme International d'Information Géotechnique, comme propose par le Comité Technique responsable,

en collaboration avec la Société Internationale de Mécanique des Roches et la Société Internationale de Géologie de l'Ingénieur." Motion adoptée 5 l‘unanimité.

51. Mr. Wilson propose 5 son tour la motion suivante : "En ce qui concerne le fonctionnement des futurs Comités Techniques, le President entrant devra prendre acte du transfert récent de responsabilité du fonctionnement de chacun de ces Comités aux Sociétés Savantes qui l'auront accepté."

Cette motion, soutenue par le Docteur J. Steenfelt, est adoptée a l'unanimité.


52. Le Professeur Seed informe l'Assemblée que tout est pret quant au Xle Congres International et que le Comité organisateur compte sur la présence de 1 600 délégués et de 400 personnes accompagnantes. Le Comité Exécutif profite de cette occasion

pour féliciter, par des applaudissements nourris, la Société Américaine et le Comité organisateur pour leur excellent travail.


53. Le Secrétaire Général signale qu'une seule invitation a été faite au Comité Exécutif pour sa réunion régulierement prévue en 1987. Il s'agit de celle adressée par le Comité organisateur du 9eme Congres Européen. Lecture est donnée a l'Assemblée de

cette invitation (voir annexe 24). Une autre invitation est alors faite depuis la salle par le Professeur Balasubramaniam au nom de la Société du Sud-Est Asiatique.


Cette Société célebrera en 1987 le 20eme anniversaire de sa fondation et organisera a cette occasion une Conférence Internationale, ce qui lui donnera la possibilité d'organiser la réunion du Comité Exécutif a Bangkok.

Ces deux invitations sont alors mises aux voix. La proposition de Dublin recueille 33 voix et celle de Bangkok 7. L'Irlande est donc designee pour accueillir la réunion du Comité Exécutif en 1987 (probablement les 28 et 29 AoGt). ISSMFE HEHS

LeSecrétaire Général présente son rapport sur le bulletin d'information de la Société "ISSMFE News" (Annexe 25) et rappelle que la premiere parution sous la forme imprimée actuelle date de Février 1983. En 1983-1984, le financement a été

largement couvert par l'insertion de la publicité mais ceci a soulevé des problemes en ce qui concerne la diffusion en Amérique du Nord. Ces problemes sont dus,

d‘une part au fait que des droits de douane sont percus sur tout support contenant de la publicité a son entree au Canada ou aux U.S.A. et, d autre part, a la concurrence avec les"Regional Geotechnical News". Il recommande, en consequence, que "ISSMFE News" soit désormais produit sans publicité et financépar des fonds

du Secrétariat. Les annonceurs sont, en tout état de cause, réticents pour participer si le bulletin n'est pas diffusé en Amérique Nord. Le financement du bulletin, dans sa forme simple actuelle d‘une feuille pliée, nécessiterait une augmentation de Ia cotisation d'environ 1 Franc Suisse par an et par membre. En ce qui concerne l'Amérique du Nord, on pourrait confier les articles pour insertion dans "Geotechnical News" plut6t que de diffuser "ISSMFE News" dans cette région. LISTE DES MEMBRES

Le Secrétaire Général présente son rapport sur la liste des membres (annexe 25). Il rappelle que la solution retenue lors de la réunion du Comité Exécutif a Paris en 1983 consiste en des feuilles séparées, préparées par les Sociétés membres sous forme standard et remises au Secrétariat. Lors de la réunion du Comité Directeur (Steering Committee) a Perth en 1984, le Président a approuvé, en plus de cette formule de feuilles séparées, l'offre de Balkema d'informatiser, imprimer et relier la liste des membres pour 1985 qui serait vendue au prix de 10 dollars U.S. l'exemplaire a chacun des membres. Le 16 Mars 1984, le Secrétaire Général a adressé a toutes les Sociétés membres, toutes les précisions concernant la forme standard a adopter et a demandé que les listes lui soient adressées avant le 1er Novembre 1984. Fin Aoit 1985, six listes manquaient encore et ne pouvaient donc figurer dans la liste pour 1985. Malgré la recommandation de fournir les listes sous forme standard, celles-ci ont été adressées dans une diversité de formats, de caracteres et de qualité telle que leur diffusion sous forme de feuilles séparées

s'est révélée impraticable. En outre, Balkema a fait savoir que, en raison de cette mauvaise qualité des documents fournis, leur saisie informatique a demandé plus de temps que prévu et que la liste reliée ne serait pas préte a temps pour le Xle Congres international de Mécanique des Sols et des Travaux de fondation (CIMSTF) a San Francisco. Il souhaite également envoyer a chaque société membre les épreuves de

sa propre liste pour contr6le avant édition finale et reliure de la liste.

57. Le Secrétaire Général signale également qu'une décharge sera insérée dans la liste reliée pour 1985 afin que la Société Internationale ne puisse etre tenue pour responsable en ce qui concerne l‘exactitude des adresses, ni aucune implication politique ou de quelque autre nature que pourrait contenir une adresse.

58. Le Président exprime sa déception du fait que la pietre coopération des Sociétés Membres ait empéché la diffusion des listes sous forme standard. Il propose que le bureau entrant fasse une nouvelle tentative dans ce sens. COMPTES DE LA SOCIETE INTERNATIONALE POUR 19B3-1984

59. Le Secrétaire Général présente les comptes certifiés de la Société pour la période 1983-1984 (annexe 26). Au cours de cette période, le solde positif a augmenté de 139 214 Francs suisses plus 1 500 Livres sterlings a 74 959 Francs suisses plus 36 637 Livres sterlings. Ramené en Livres sterlings, ceci représente un accroissement de 18 193 a 36 637 Livres. Ceci inclut les 10 033 Francs suisses plus 1 109 Livres sterlings, soit l'équivalent de 4 436 Livres sterlings, constituant le fonds pour la Médaille d'or Kevin Kash. Un montant de 30 000 Livres sterlings a été placé dans des comptes portant intérét (autres qu'un compte bancaire rémunéré) et l‘intérét total, y compris l‘intérét bancaire, s'est élevé a 4 447 Livres sterlings. Les services fiscaux,Inland Revenue Department, ont signalé que l‘imp6t (Corporation Tax) serait

di sur ces intéréts et il sera procédé a une estimation en temps utile. Cet imp6t devrait étre de l'ordre de 30 % des intéréts percus. 60. L'approbation des comptes est proposée par le Professeur Togrol appuyé par le Professeur Mackechnie. Cette motion est adoptée a l'unanimité. EXAMEN DE LA SITUATION FINANCIERE

61. Le Président fait savoir qu'il a demandé a la Société Britannique de Géotechnique (BGS) d‘examiner la situation financiere de la Société Internationale. Ceci a été entrepris par le Professeur Sutherland a la demande de BGS (rapport donné en annexe 27) Le Professeur Sutherland donne un bref résumé de son rapport. Il fait remarquer que le solde positif de la Société s'est accru d'un facteur 2,5 durant la période 1980-1984 et que la Société devrait avoir une politique quant a la fagon dont de telles réserves devraient étre investies ou utilisées. Ceci donne lieu a un échange de vues. 62. Le Président propose la motion suivante : "Le Comité Exécutif approuve le rapport et adresse ses remerciements Z la Société Britannique de Géotechnique. Le rapport sera retenu pour examen approfondi et mis en oeuvre par le Comité Directeur ou par le sous-comité des finances et du budget du Comité Directeur."

Cette motion est adoptée a l'unanimité.



L‘Assemblée reprend la discussion sur la révision des Statuts le samedi matin. L'appel montre que 44 Sociétés membres ayant pouvoir de voter sont présentes ou représentées. Ceci satisfait le quorum requis de 37 membres votants.

Le Président reprend la suggestion faite la veille d'un vote en bloc sur les principes des statuts de fagon a ce que l'essence de ceux-ci soit préservée a travers les débats. Apres beaucoup de discussion, il est apparu évident que certains membres craignent qu'un vote en bloc ne signifie que tous les autres articles sont acceptés en bloc et pas seulement “l'essence" des statuts. Le Professeur Lousberg et le Docteur Steefelt suggerent qu'une discussion générale ait lieu avant le vote. Toutefois, le Professeur Togrol propose la motion z

"Le vote de principe n'est pas nécessaire et d'un commun accord, il est passé a la

discussion et au vote des amendements."

Cette motion est appuyée par Mr Fasehun du Nigéria et les résultats sont les suivants :

Pour : 20 Contre : 2

Abstentions : 9 La motion est adoptée.

Il est décidé de laisser pour l'instant de coté l'Article IA, le changement de nom de la Société n'apparaissant pas d‘une urgence extreme. Ce point sera discuté par la suite si le temps le permet. Pour gagner du temps, il est décidé de procéder par consensus sur chaque amendement et de passer a un vote général A la fin. Le Professeur J. Burland et le Docteur Parry pensent tous deux que le sentiment de fraternité et de confiance mutuelle qui regne dans la famille des géotechniciens doit permettre de discuter ces amendements sans juridisme excessif sur chaque detail. Le Docteur Parry suggere de parcourir rapidement la liste des

articles et de revenir ensuite a la discussion détaillée de ceux pour lesquels un nombre significatif de délégués le juge nécessaire. Ceci est approuvé. Le Président demande aux membres de lever la main lorsqu'ils souhaitent que le point évoqué soit retenu pour examen. Apres un rapide examen des articles, les points

suivants sont retenus : Article ZA

Apres quelque discussion, on passe au vote pour accepter l'article 2A modifié tel qu'il a été proposé par le Comité Directeur :

"Le but de la Société Internationale est de promouvoir la cooperation internationale parmi les ingénieurs et les scientifiques pour le progres des connaissances dans le domaine de la géotechnique et de ses applications a l'art de l'ingénieur." 2963

La motion est adoptée par 43 voix. Un nouveau décompte donne 41 membres votants présents, conservant ainsi le quorum

requis pour la modification des Statuts. Article 11A

La responsabilité de la nomination du Secrétaire Général est discutée a la demande de l'Irlande qui voit un changement significatif entre la nomination du Secrétaire Général aux réunions du Comité Exécutif comme cela est indiqué dans les Statuts existants et la nomination par le Président comme cela est proposé dans les nouveaux Statuts. Bien que la version frangaise indique "par" le Comité Exécutif comme le fait remarquer le Professeur Lousberg de Belgique et non "au (at) comme dans la version anglaise, le Président fait usage de sa prerogative,

énoncée a l'article 4 des Statuts et interpréte les textes dans le sens de la version anglaise selon laquelle le Secrétaire Général est nommé "lors" du Comité Exécutif. Le Professeur Sutherland fait remarquer que ceci est beaucoup plus commode pour le Président, assisté par le Bureau, de nommer le Secrétaire Général, en particulier en cas d'urgence. Cette opinion est fortement appuyée par le Professeur Burland qui fut lui-meme impliqué dans la récente situation d'urgence

il y a quatre ans. 43 membres votants sont maintenant présents apres l'arrivée du délégué vénézuélien, titulaire du pouvoir du Costa-Rica. Le Président propose la motion selon laquelle l'article 11A serait rédigé comme suit :

"Le Secrétaire Général est nommé par le Président apres consultation du Bureau et selon des modalités approuvées par celui-ci." La motion est adoptée par 33 voix. Article 15C

Le Professeur Salencon s‘enquiert de l'intérét d'accorder le droit de vote aux Vice-Présidents dans les réuniongdu Comité Exécutif puisque chaque Société membre

a déja une voix. Aprés discussion, le Président propose la rédaction suivante

de l'article 15C :

"Chaque Société membre (sauf si celle-ci a cessé de bénéficier de son appartenance) présente ou représentée a la réunion, disposera d'une voix. Aucun autre membre du Conseil n'a le droit de vote." Cette motion est adoptée par 38 voix.


Article 16A

Le Professeur Togrol pense que les trois membres du Bureau devraient étre choisis par le Conseil et non par le Président. Le Professeur d‘Appolonia fait remarquer

que puisque le Président est élu par le Conseil, celui-ci devrait lui faire confiance pour le choix des trois personnes dont il pense qu'elles sont susceptibles de lui apporter la meilleure aide dans des domaines spécifiques de ses activités. Le Professeur Togrol retire son objection. Le Professeur Lousberg suggere

l'addition de : "apres consultation des Vice-Présidents et du Secrétaire Général". Mr Fasehun fait objection a l'addition de "apres consultation des Vice-Presidents" car il considere que le Président doit étre laissé libre de choisir ceux qu'il désire. Un vote sur l'amendement "apres consultation des Vice-Présidents" est abandonné et la motion originale est proposée par le Président donnant la rédaction suivante de l‘article 16A : "Le Bureau est constitué du Président, du Président précédent, des Vice-Présidents, de trois membres de la Société nommés par le Président et du Secrétaire Général". Cette motion est adoptée par 35 voix. Article IBB

Une discussion s'engage sur le point de savoir s‘il devrait y avoir une obligation ou une renommandation statutaire faite aux Vice-Présidents d‘organiser des réunions de comités régionales lors des Congres régionaux. L'opinion se dégage selon laquelle pourvu que toutes les Sociétés membres en soient dDment averties, de telles réunions devraient, si possible, étre organisées par les Vice-Présidents. La rédaction suivante est proposée : "Lors des Congres régionaux, les délégués des Sociétés membres appartenant A

la région peuvent tenir une réunion présidée par le Vice-Président pour discussion de sujets d'intérét commun." Cette motion est adoptée par 35 voix. Le Secrétaire Général suggere que le Comité Exécutif délegue au Professeur Burland la responsabilité de produire la forme finale des Statuts compacts pour édition.

Cette idée est approuvée et le Docteur J. Steefelt propose la motion : "Le Comité Exécutif reconnait et apprécie les efforts remarquables faits par les Sociétés membres, le Comité Directeur et les délégués pour rédiger les Statuts. Le Comité Exécutif approuve la rédaction finale avec les amendements votés lors de sa réunion ; il confie au professeur Burland le soin de mettre au point les changements de rédaction mineurs nécessaires, sans affecter les principes posés par les suggestions des délégués, 5 l'exception de l‘article 1A." Cette motion est appuyée par le Professeur Togrol et approuvée par 42 voix.


Le professeur Togrol propose un vote de remerciements pour tous ceux qui ont été

impliqués dans la preparation de cette redaction des Statuts et plus particulie­ rement au Professeur Burland et au Docteur Parry. Ceci est accueilli par des applaudissements nourris et chaleureux. Mr Fasehun suggere qu'un petit groupe soit choisi pour produire la version francaise, mais le President considere que ceci pourra etre fait apres que

l'article 1A - le nom de la Societe - aura été discuté et qu'une decision aura été prise sur ce point. Article 1A

La discussion de cet article provoque l‘expression d‘opinions diverses . Une argumentation solide en faveur du changement de nom est presentee par le Secretaire General qui considere que le nom de la Societe Internationale doit

refleter la totalite de ses domaines d'activites. Ceci aiderait a prevenir la fragmentation et la formation de Sociétes dissidentes comme cela est deja le cas. L‘impression generale est qu'il y a peut-etre de solides arguments en faveur du changement de nom (en gardant present a l‘esprit que le changement de nom de la Societe Internationale n'implique pas necessairement des consequences sur les noms des Societes membres individuelles), mais il faut se donner un temps suffisant pour permettre aux Societes membres d'examiner toutes les implications d'un changement de nom, y compris la question de la traduction francaise correspondante. Il est suggéré qu'un texte bien documente et argumente smt prepare sur cette possibilite de changement de nom, qu'on le fasse circuler et que la question soit traitee lors du prochain Comite Executif en 1987. Le President retire alors la motion sur le changement de nom et est d'accord pour conserver le nom tel qu'il est actuellement. Mr Donaldson propose la motion suivante :

“Il est decide que, dans le cadre de la presente revision des Statuts, l‘opportunite de changer le nom de la Societe sera examinee et qu'un rapport sera presente a la prochaine reunion du Conseil, et qu‘a cette reunion, le Conseil sera autorisé a mettre en application la decision prise sur cette question si elle est approuvee a la majorite des deux tiers." Cette motion est appuyee par le Docteur Steenfelt et est adoptee par 37 voix.

Le President propose la redaction suivante pour la motion finale sur les Statuts modifies :

"Il est decide que les Statuts definitivement revises et modifies prendront effet lors de la séance de cleture du present Congres au moment de la prise de fonction des membres du bureau nouvellement elu. Il est egalement decide que, en attendant

l'adoption du reglement interieur et des regles, la conduite des affaires de la Societe dans tous les domaines non couverts presentement soit faite en respectant l‘esprit des Statuts actuels approuves A Oaxaca en 1979 et revises." Cette motion est adoptee a l'unanimite des 44 votants. 2966

Le President remercie l'assemblee et adresse ses remerciements au sous-comite des Statuts.

Enfin, il est convenu de mettre en place un groupe de travail charge de traduire les nouveaux Statuts en Francais. Le President propose la motion : "Mr Parez et le Professeur Salencon de France, le Professeur Lousberg de Belgique

sont chargés de proceder a la traduction des Statuts." Cette motion est adoptée a l'unanimite. RAPPORT DU COMITE ORGANISATEUR DU 12eme CONGRES C.I.M.S.T.F., BRESIL 1989

Un court rapport (annexe 29) est présente par le Comité organisateur du 12eme CIMSTF qui se tiendra a Rio de Janeiro en 1989. Le President signale que de nombreux points de ce rapport nécessiteront un examen prochain par le Comite des Congres.


Le professeur De Beer, Secretaire du Secretariat permanent de coordination, resume le contenu de son rapport (annexe 30). Le professeur Burland exprime son souci que les recommandations proposees par

le Secrétariat permanent de coordination pour la preparation et la presentation de communications avec diapositives ettransparents deviennent obligatoires pour

les Congres des trois Sociétés. Ce point de vue regoit d'autres appuis et la motion suivante est proposée par le Dr Blight et appuyee par le Dr Balasubramaniam

"Le Comite Executif accepte le rapport du Secrétariat de coordination et remercie son Secretaire pour sa preparation."

Cette motion est adoptee a l'unanimite. Apres les suggestions faites par Mr Fasehun, le Dr Northey et le Professeur Burland pour qu'un sous-comite soit mis en place pour etudier cette question et la proposition faite par l'Allemagne de L'0uest de faire l'expérience sur le Congres danubien l'annee prochaine, le President propose la motion suivante : "Un sous-comite constitue de quelques delegues des comites organisateurs des prochains congres régionaux de 1987, du Congres International de 1989 sera mis en place pour etudier la nouvelle proposition et, en s'appuyant également sur les

résultats de l'experience faite sur le Congres danubien, rapportera ses conclusions au Comite Executif de 19B7."

La motion est adoptée 5 l'unanimite moins une voix contre et pas d'absentions. 2967


82. L'offre est faite par la délégation de l'Inde d‘accueillir le XIIIéCIMSTF en 1993. Dans sa présentation du dossier faite dans le peu de temps disponible, le Professeur Prakash fait mention de plusieurs invitations semblables faites par la Société Indienne de Géotechnique depuis 1954 pour accueillir un CIMSTF. Lors de

la réunion du Comité Exécutif a Paris en 1983, l'offre faite d'accueillir le Congres de 1989 n‘a pas été retenue a quelques voix pres. Il assure l‘assemblée que toutes les installations existent a New-Delhi pour un tel congres et,

d'ailleurs, les congres internationaux d'autres Sociétés se sont déja tenus la avec succes.

83. Le Président confirme qu'un Congres International des Grands Barrages s'est tenu en Inde avec grand succes. Toutefois, il n'est pas d'usage dans la Société Internationale de prendre 8 ans a l'avance la décision concernant le lieu du CIMSTF, une exception n'ayant été faite que pour le Congres du Jubilé. Il

considere qu'a l'avenir la décision devrait étre prise 6 ans a l'avance. Sur sa demande de savoir si l'assemblée souhaite prendre une décision lors de la présente réunion, un vote donne le résultat de : 8 voix pour, 14 contre et 17 abstentions. Il propose alors la motion suivante : "Le présent Comité Exécutif transmet au Comité Exécutif de 1987 par une résolution actée au proces-verbal la recommandation d'examiner en priorité

l'invitation faite par la Société Indienne de Géotechnique d'accueillir le XIIIe CIMSTF en 1993."

Cette résolution est adoptée par 33 voix pour et 1 voix contre. BUDGET DE LA SOCIETE INTERNATIONALE

84. Le Secrétaire Général présente deux budgets pour la période de trois ans 1985-1987 (annexe 31), le premier, dans l‘hypothese d'une augmentation nulle des cotisations, qui est déficitaire pour chaque année, le second qui met en évidence les cotisations nécessaires pour que les recettes équilibrent les dépenses prévisibles. Ces budgets ont été préparés par lui-méme et modifiés par le Comité Directeur afin de prévoir des lignes pour les déplacements du Président et des Vice-Présidents en 1986 et 1987. Dans le cas des Vice-Présidents, l'objectif est de donner quelque soutien permettant aux Vice-Présidents de se rendre a des réunions internationales telles que les réunions du Comité Directeur ou du Comité Exécutif. Pour équilibrer par les recettes les dépenses prévues, dans l‘hypothese ou le nombre de membres resterait sans changement, les cotisations devraient étre portées a 30 Z au-dessus du tarif actuel en 1987.

85. Une longue discussion s'engage sur ce sujet, y compris la question de savoir si oui ou non la Société doit suffire a ses besoins financiers. A l'heure actuelle, elle est largement subventionnée par l'Université de Cambridge qui assure gratuitement le logement, le chauffage, l'éclairage et autres facilités 2968

au Secretariat. Le Président, durant son exercice, a dépensé beaucoup sur ses fonds propres pour des voyages effectués pour la Société. Les autres membres du bureau n‘ont regu aucun soutien. Ceci n'est assurément pas convenable pour une Société Internationale prestigieuse.

Diverses opinions sont exprimées quant a la teneur et a la signification d'un budget en équilibre. Quelques Sociétés, dont l'Inde, manifestent leur souci devant le niveau d'augmentation des cotisations recherché pour faire face aux dépenses prévues.Le délégué suédois suggere que des augmentations tolérables des cotisations pourraient étre de 15 Z en 1986 et 30 Z en 1987. Mr Smoltczyk, de la République Fédérale d'Allemagne, signale que la Société Allemande ne

pourra payer l'augmentation de 30 % par rapport a sa cotisation actuelle car celle-ci est payée en bloc et le budget de 1986 est deja largement déficitaire en raison des lourdes dépenses supplémentaires occasionnées par le systeme des Geotechnical Abstracts. Plusieurs délégués conviennent avec le Secrétaire Général de ce que la cotisation moyenne par membre, de 2.8 dollars U.S., est tres basse et que des augmentations substantielles sont justifiées. L'idée selon laquelle une augmentation de la cotisation d'environ 1 dollar par membre entrainerait une perte de membres est contrebattue par l'opinion, exprimée par l‘Islande et d‘autres délégations, que de tels membres pourraient difficilement étre considérés comme réellement intéressés par leur appartenance a la Société Internationale. Mr Agha exprime sa surprise de voir que la Société ne retire aucun revenu des publications. Ceci est une source de revenus majeure pour d‘autres Sociétés Internationales telles que la Société Internationale des Grands Barrages. Le Président renvoie a la résolution du Comité Exécutif de Paris en 1983 qui donne

les indications sur les revenus que la Société Internationale devrait retirer des publications de ses comités techniques et des comptes rendus de ses congrés internationaux. Il est encourage par le nombre croissant de publications réalisés par la Société Internationale, ses comités techniques et ses Sociétés membres. Des délais sont nécessaires pour que des accords avec les éditeurs puissent

etre passés et entrer en application mais un revenu significatif devrait parvenir a la Société Internationale d'ici deux ou trois ans. Apres quelque discussion concernant le soutien a apporter par la Société aux membres de son Bureau, en particulier pour ce qui est des voyages occasionnés par leurs fonctions, une motion est préparée. Avant de proposer cette motion a l'assemblée, le Président souligne d'abord qu‘il a regu, de la part du Comité Directeur, l'aide la plus considérable que l'on puisse imaginer

dans la conduite des affaires de la Société, et ensuite, qu‘il ne s'agit la que d'une motion de principe. La motion suivante est proposée par le Président : “Considérant les avantages que comportent pour la cooperation internationale, les réunions périodiques du Comité Directeur et les visites régionales du Président, 2969

un credit sera ouvert dans le budget pour soutenir le President, les Vice-Presidents et les membres du Comité Directeur dans les frais de voyage qu'ils engagent pour les reunions de la Societe Internationale, les travaux des Comités Techniques et

autres activites de ce type." Cette motion est adoptée par :

Pour : 18 voix Contre ; 5 voix

Abstentions : 12 voix

Apres un complement de discussion sur les cotisations des Societes membres, la motion suivante est proposée par le President :

"Il est demandé au Secrétaire General de faire en sorte que, dans toute la mesure du possible, les depenses de la Société Internationale ne depassent pas ses recettes au cours des trois prochaines années. Pour parvenir a un equilibrage approximatif des recettes et des dépenses, le Comité Executif autorise une augmentation des taux de cotisations en 1986 et 1987 de 30 Z par rapport aux taux actuels arrétes en 1979." Cette motion est adoptée par 27 voix pour et 9 voix contre.

A la suite de cette resolution, le Professeur Ovesen fait un court exposé montrant les discordances entre les cotisations moyennes par membre individuel pour différentes Sociétes membres, qui résultent de l'application de la formule actuellement en vigueur pour le calcul des cotisations des Sociétes membres.

Puisqu'il apparait qu'il y a une forte opinion dans 1'assemb1ée selon laquelle la Societe Internationale devrait devenir financierement autonome, le President propose la motion suivante : "Le Comité Executif recommande qu'un Comité soit mis en place pour etudier le

financement de la Société, y compris la perception des cotisations, et faire un rapport sur la fagon dont ce revenu pourrait étre accru jusqu'a un niveau permet­ tant a la Societe Internationale de devenir completement autonome financierement. Ses conclusions seront communiquees a toutes les Societes membres 6 mois avant la reunion du Comité exécutif de 1987 et seront examinées lors de cette reunion."

Cette motion est adoptée a l'unanimité. LOGO, DIPLOMES, MEDAILLE D'0R KEVIN NASH

Le Secretaire General signale que la Societe Internationale a maintenant un logo qui a été choisi par le President entre diverses propositions, en execution de la delégation qui lui avait ete donnée pour ce faire au Comité Executif de Paris. Le logo apparait en maints endroits devant le present congres, sur le bulletin ISSMFE News, sur les dipl6mes et sur la Médaille d'or Kevin Nash. 2970

Répondant a la demande du Président, le Secrétariat a réalisé des diplomas pour les Présidents précédents, les Vice-Présidents précédents et pour le récipendiaire de la Médaille d'or Kevin Nash. Certains de ces diplomes seront remis au cours du présent Congres. La Médaille d'or Kevin Nash a aussi été réalisée par le Secrétariat et sera décernée lors du présent Congres.


Le Professeur Masami Fukuoka, Président du Comité des Présidents précédents, responsable du choix du récipendiaire de la Médaille d'or Kevin Nash, n'est pas en mesure de participer a la présente réunion pour des raisons de santé. L'annexe 32 contient un court rapport du Président Fukuoka. Le récipendiaire de la Médaille d'or Kevin Nash pour 1985 est le Professeur H. Bolton Seed.


Le Président propose que ce rapport préparé par la Société Francaise soit acceptée. Cette proposition est adoptée a l'unanimité. Il suggere ensuite que le rapport soit transmis au Bureau entrant pour examen (annexe 33).


Le Président du Comité ad hoc sur l'Eurocode 7 "Fondations" n'ajoute aucun commentaire au rapport qu'il a déja remis a la Société Internationale (annexe 34).


L'élection du President pour la période 1985-1989 commence par une discussion

sur la date limite de présentation des candidatures. Bien qu'aucune date précise ne soit fixée par les Statuts, le Président fait remarquer qu'il est clairement dit dans l'article 19 des Statuts que "le Secrétaire Général enverra a chaque Société Nationale la liste de tous les candidats et le Comité Exécutif sera appelé a voter sur ces noms lors de sa réunion suivante." La délégation indienne demande que sa présentation du Docteur Shamsher Prakash

soit prise en considération, compte tenu du fait qu'elle en avait informé le Secrétaire Général en Mars précédent et qu'elle a elle-meme communiqué le nom a toutes les Sociétés Membres avant la réunion du Comité Exécutif. Quelques Sociétés Membres confirment avoir regu une telle lettre, quoique tardive, et il est décidé de passer au vote sur la prise en considération de la présentation de l'Inde. Le Président souligne que, de son point du vue, ceci devrait étre considéré comme

une révision des Statuts et, qui plus est, comme une révision applicable sur le champ, ce qui est contraire a la pratique formelle. Cependant, si l‘assemblée en 2971

est d'accord, il appliquera cette décision pourvu qu'elle soit votée comme une révision des Statuts. ll y a 31 votes favorables et le nom du Dr Shamsher Prakash

de l'Inde, présenté par l'Iran et par l'Inde, est ajouté a la liste des pressentis a la candidature pour la présidence. 100.

La délégation japonaise déclare que puisque les Statuts ne sont pas spécifiques, elle souhaiterait aussi proposer le nom du Professeur H.B. Seed des Etats-Unis. Le Président pense que cette demande n'est pas recevable pour les raisons suivantes

1°. Le Professeur Seed a retiré sa candidature antérieure et il n'y a pas de lettre de lui indiquant qu'il est d'accord sur cette nouvelle candidature. 2°. Il n'y a pas eu d'échange de correspondance comme cela avait été le cas pour l'Inde, en sorte que les délégués présents n'ont pas eu le temps de recevoir des consignes de votes de la part de leur Société Membre. 101.

On procede au controle des presents habilités avec droit de vote. La République dominicaine, la Roumanie et l'Equateur n'ont pas le droit de vote.


Les résultats du vote, a bulletins secrets, pour la Présidence durant la période 1985-1989, sont les suivants :

Professeur B. Broms 24 voix Professeur N. Morgenstern 17 voix

Professeur S. Prakash 4 voix Le Professeur Broms ayant obtenu la majorité absolue au premier tour de scrutin est élu Président de la Société Internationale pour 1985-1989. SECRETARIAT GENERAL


Le Président signale qu'il a ressenti le besoin d'un soutien pour le Secretariat Général et d'une meilleure organisation physique du Secrétariat. Il a recu une lettre datée du 16 Juillet 1985, de la part du Président de la Société Britannique de Géotechnique (B.G.S.) dans laquelle B.G.S. offre de satisfaire ce besoin tant que le Secrétariat demeurera au Royaume Uni (annexe 35).


Une discussion_s'engage sur un élargissement possible des services du secretariat, mais il apparait que cette question doit étre laissée au nouveau Président. Il est également rappelé que les nouveaux Statuts prévoient la nomination du Secrétaire Général par le Président apres consultation du Bureau. Si l'offre de B.G.S. était acceptée, elle s'appliquerait aux deux prochaines années et pourrait etre réexaminée a la réunion du Conseil en 1987.


La motion suivante, proposée par le Docteur Steenfelt est alors adoptée a l'unanimité : "Le Comité Exécutif enregistre avec reconnaissance l'offre de la Société Britan­ nique de Géotechnique et recommande que le nouveau Président en profite.“



Mr A. de Bello, de la Société Internationale de Mécanique des Roches, félicite le Professeur Broms pour son élection et demande qu'en examinant la possibilité de changement de nom de la Société Internationale, on tienne compte des points de vue des Sociétés géotechniciennes "soeurs“. REMERCIEMENTS

Le Président propose, au nom de la Société Internationale, un vote de remerciements spécial a l'adresse de la Société Nationale des Etats-Unis et du Comité Organisateur des Etats-Unis pour tout le lourd travail qu'ils ont réalisé pour organiser ce congres. Il remercie également les membres du Comité Exécutif, les Présidents des Comités Techniques, les membres du Comité Directeur de son mandat et souhaite tous les succes au nouveau President et aux nouveaux Membres du Bureau.

Le Professeur de Beer propose un vote de remerciements a l'adresse du Président pour son travail prodigieux et enthousiaste au nom de la Société Internationale.

Le Président cl6t la réunion a 19.00 heures.




On 31 May 1985 ISSMFE comprised of 57 Member Societies

representing 16,121 individual members. This compared with 56 Member Societies representing 14,122 individual members reported at the Executive Committee Meeting (ECM) in May 1983. The new Member Society is Iceland which has sub­ mitted all the documents required by Statute and were ad­ mitted in 1984.

(SEMSIR), the ISSMFE Member Society in Ecuador. The concern

was firstly that SEMSIR Statutes allowed membership to technicians who were not university graduates and secondly

that SEMSIR was not fully national in its representation.

In fact the correct designation is


Nucleo del Guayas. Correspondence on this matter was exchanged between Professor Hiedra-Lopez, Professor de Mello and the Officers of SEMSIR - Nucleo del Guayas and also

the Officers of the Colegio de Ingenieros Civiles del

Ecuador (CICE), as a possible alternative Member Society

It was reported at the 1983 ECM that although Iran was still included as a Member Society, there was apparently no recognisable Society operating in that country. No dues had been paid since 1978 and the General Secretariat had no contact with anyone in Iran. In 1984 the Iranian

in Ecuador. In order to try and resolve the problem, a poll by post was conducted at the President‘s request by the Secretariat of the 67 members in Ecuador's 1981 list. This poll asked members to state if they felt they would be

applied to join ISSM E. As there had been no Geotechnical Society in Iran for a number of years and thus no possi­ bility of active ISSM E membership, it was considered appropriate, after consultation with the Vice President for Asia, Professor Chin Fung Kee, to annul the previous membership of Iran and ask the newly formed Iranian Geotechnical Society to apply as a New Member. All docu­ ments required by Statute were then submitted and Iran admitted as a Member Society in 1985.

favoured CICE.

Geotechnical Society was reformed with 14 members and


better represented in ISSMFE by SEMSIR or CICE. Only seven replies were received, 5 of which favoured SEMSIR and 2


At the time of writing 7 Member Societies have not paid dues for 1984 and 17 have not paid for 1985. Reminders are

being sent. As payment is due on l January, on a strict interpretation of Statute ll, Member Societies who have not paid for 1985 will not be eligible to vote at the Executive Committee Meeting in August in San Francisco, unless a "reasonable excuse" is offered.

At the 1983 ECM it was reported that Pakistan had not paid dues for the years 1978 to 1983. In 1983 payments were received on behalf of Pakistan which accounted for dues owing for the years 1981, 82 and 83. Dues for 1984 and 1985 have also been received, leaving only 1978 and 1979

Member Societies which are badly in arrears are as follows:

Pakistan dated 7 June 1983:

Membership of these three Societies should be reviewed by

unpaid. The following is an abstract from my letter to

Dominican Republic

Morocco Romania

unpaid since 1980 unpaid since 1981 unpaid since 1978

the Executive Committee.

“If your Society is unable to pay for these years (1978-9) it may be possible to persuade the Executive

Committee Meeting to waive these payments. I must point out, however, that the Executive Committee has previously waived your payments for 1973-6 and


next Executive Committee Meeting is not until 1985,

new Tunisian Committee for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering had been set up and wished to apply for member­ ship of ISSMFE. Names of officers were enclosed; and also the advice that Tunisia would adopt statutes based on those

clearly will not be prepared to keep doing this. The

but in the meantime I am prepared to take the res­ ponsibility for regarding you at present in good standing on the basis of these monies just received. I must stress most strongly, however, that the

Executive Committee Meeting will wish to see evidence that you are continuing to make your payments. Thus you should pay your subscriptions for 1984 and 1985 promptly on submission of our account to you".

Pakistan have paid their dues for l984,5 and there has also been a heartening increase in activity by the Pakistan National Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation

Engineering, including the holding the first Pakistan

National Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering in 1984 with over 300 delegates. It would

therefore be appropriate, in the writer's opinion, for the

Executive Committee to confirm Pakistan‘s Membership. ECUADORIAN M M ER SOCIETY

During 1984, concern was expressed by the Vice President for South America, Professor J C Hiedra-Lopez, regarding Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Mecanica de Suelos y Rocas


In a letter dated 20 March 1985 M. Parez (President, French Member Society) wrote to the Secretariat advising that a

of the Comité Francais. In response the Secretariat wrote to M. Parez with a copy to the President and Secretary General of the Tunisian Society detailing submissions required in applying for membership. It was also pointed out that Tunisia had, in fact, been received into membership in 1973 but failed to pay any dues and the membership was

annulled in 1977. During this brief period Tunisia did not participate in ISSMFE activities and an application from Tunisia now would most appropriately be treated as that for a New Society. Tunisia have now submitted an application for membership.

Responding to a letter from the ISSMFE President, Dr Samarai

of the National Center for Construction Laboratories in Iraq has advised that Iraq wishes to be considered for membership and will be sending a representative to the 11th ISCMFE who will discuss the matter with the Secretary General ISSMFE. Enquiries have been received from individual engineers in

Saudi Arabia. It is, however, apparently not possible for a Member Society to be set up in Saudi Arabia.



Member Society Region Members

Argentina 6 B2 Australia 3 327 Austria 4 63 Belgium 4 B7 Bolivia 6 17 Brazil 6 201 Bulgaria 4 92 Canada 5 1202 Chile 6 35 China 2 107 Colombia 6 92 Costa Rica 6 SB Czechoslovakia 4 46 Denmark 4 259 Dominican Republic 6 43 Ecuador 6 57

Egypt 1 61 Finland 4 260 France 4 954 FRG 4 1120 GDR 4 22 Ghana 1 33 Greece 4 107 Hungary 42B 25 Iceland 4 India 2 415 Indonesia 2 SB Iran 2 30 Ireland 4 79 Israel 2 61 Italy 4 1357 Japan 2 Mexico 5B34 412 Morocco 1 104 Netherlands New Zealand 43 321 239

Nigeria 53 Norway Pakistan412325 61

Paraguay 6 16 Peru 6 59 Poland 4 120 Portugal 4 90 Romania 4 27 South Africa 1 563 S E Asia 2 512 Spain 4 360 Sweden 4 429 Switzerland 4 249 Wria 2 12 Turkey 4 57 United Kingdom 4 680 USA 5 2375

USSR 4 356 Venezuela 6 Yugoslavia 4lB8 97 Zimbabwe 1 204 Member Societies 57 Members 16121

Member Individual Region Societies Members

1 Africa 1018 23 Australasia Asia 962090 2 566

465 South Europe 26 7610 North America America 31l3989 B46 2975




There have throughout this period been six member societies in the region, viz Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Tunisia has recently re-applied for membership and hopefully its admission will be confirmed at the Executive Committee meeting in San Francisco.

Dr F von M Wagener's doctoral thesis on "Engineering Construction on Dolomite" was published in both hard and

soft cover versions,with the assistance of the Division.

Dr Wagener was awarded the J E B Jennings Award for 1983

for this thesis.

Three volumes of Dr A B A Brink's monumental work "Engineer ing Geology of Southern Africa" have now been published and

the fourth and final one is due out soon.


Undoubtedly the highlight of this period for the region was the very successful Sth African Regional Conference held in Barare, Zimbabwe, 4 - 7 June 1984.

Sixty three papers were published in Volume l of the Proceedings, divided among six sessions, and three special

The Division has been represented on a number of technical committees of the International Society and has taken the

lead on the committee on Filters and Filter Criteria. It

has also been involved in the revision of the South African Code of Practice for Lateral Support and also the Guidelin~ for Site Investigation for Townships.

lectures were also delivered. It was unfortunate that quite a large number of authors of papers could not attend, but this did have the compensating effect of allowing more time for the presentation and discussion of papers by those

The South African Geotechnical Bibliography, previously published in 1976 has been updated and the new version

We were very sorry that three of the socities in the region,

The Division's newsletter, Ground Profile, has appeared regularly and besides news items and correspondence, has included a number of very interesting short papers on geotechnical subjects.

authors who were present.

Egypt, Ghana and Morocco, were not represented, though one paper was received from Egypt and six from Ghana.

Our thanks are due to the Zimbabwe organising committee for all their hard work and achievements.

should be issued soon. Besides being available as a print it will also be computerised to facilitate searching, and also to enable it to be continuously updated


A special issue of the Transactions of the South African

Institution of Civil Engineers later this year is to be

The 9th African Regional Conference is due to be held in Nigeria in 1987.

devoted to the subject of "Problem Soils in South Africa" and a two day seminar will be held on this theme.



Only Morocco and South Africa have responded to my requests

As a result of the initiative of Dr M D Gidiqasu, Director of the Building and Road Research Institute in Kumasi, Ghana, it has been decided to set up an African Regional

for information on their activities.

Technical Committee on Foundations on Problem Soils. Nominations for members to serve on this committee were


It is very pleasing to read the impressive list of activities called for recently, and it is hoped that a preliminary

of the Comité Marocain de Mécanique des Sol et des Roches.

It seems that this Committee is now functioning satisfac­ torily, and we hope to see more participation by its members in ISSMFE activities in due course. A copy of their report is attached.

meeting of some of the committee members may be held in

San Francisco in August, at the time of the International



South Africa

The Geotechnical Division of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers, which acts as the member society for

South Africa, is the largest in the African Region. As usual it has been very active over the period under review. Apart from a large number of talks and lectures on a wide range of topics, several courses and seminars were held. Subjects included:

Dr A O Madedor, Chairman of the Nigerian Geotechnical

Association and Director of the Nigerian Building and Road

Research Institute will be the Vice-President for the period 1985 - l989. Dr Madedor is an engineer with wide experience and I believe he is eminently well qualified for the position. I wish him, and the African Region, every success in the years to come.

Grouting Foundation Design



Probability and Statistics in Geotechnical Engineering

Piling along the Natal Coast Geotechnical Engineering for the Practising Civil

Engineer Environmental Engineering with Geotechnics Geology and Engineering of the Karoo sequence Geotechnical Engineering in Areas underlain by Ecca shales



The aim of CMMSR during l98O-84 period, was to make civil

engineers pay interest to their rally in a technical organization. Thus, the committee combined technical activities, such as seminars, conferences ..., with social programs. Visits to places of civil engineering interest


organized, yet ladies and accompanying persons enjoy

tours in the countryside. The main activites are as follows: 1980

- 28 Nov to l October - National Conference on Earth Dams. Specific earth dams design - Laboratory and

field testing ...


- 9 Jan. - Lecture on Soil Dynamics. Stability

computation of Mjara Dam (Morocco) by Pr Mineiro 1982

- 9 to 11 March - National Conference on Concrete Dams. Design and construction of different types of concrete dams, with Morrocan examples.


- 1 June - Lecture on Stability of Ait Chouarit Dam

by A Chraibi 1982

- 26 Nov. - Visit to Sidi Driss Dam (gravity dam)

whose construction was under way. 1983


- 23 to 25 Feb. - National Conference on Earth Dams. Site investigations and survey - design - methods of construction. Different dam's elements role ... - 6 Apr. - Meeting of the Moroccan Committee. A

program of conferences, exhibitions, lectures ... for 1983 - 1984 was settled. 1983

- May - Lecture on Finite Element Method by Mr Zinebi


~ 17 May - Visit to Ait Chouarit Dam, whose construction is underway (Rockfill dam).


- 4 June - Meeting of the Moroccan Committee.


- 18 to 19 Oct. - National Conference on Dam's Earth­ work. Borrow areas - laboratory testing - methods

of earthwork - equipments - field control ...

Besides these activities two technical magazines about civil engineering are published. Le "Laboratoire dans le Génie Civil" "Handasa Lwatania" (National Engineering)

These two magazines are not published directly by the C MSR,

but by organisations which have a close link with the committee: the first one by LPEE, state-owned Laboratories of Soil and Rock Mechanics and Hydraulics. The second one by Mohammadia School of Engineers Graduates Association.

Their circulations are up to 3000 or 5000.





1983 Indian Geotechnical Conference. Madras, 21-24 Dec.

The 7th Asian Regional Conference was held in Haifa in 1983. As many of the members are nationals from countries

1984 Indian Geotechnical Conference. Calcutta, 21-24 Dec.

which do not have diplomatic relations with Israel, they were unable to attend the Conference.

The Japanese Society will be the hosts for the 8th Asian Regional Conference and it will be held in Kyoto in 1987.

Proceedings for these annual conferences are available. The 1985 IGS Conference will be held on 16-18 Dec. at the University of Roorkee. IGS Annual Lecture


National Conference

The distinguished geotechnical engineers invited to deliver the IGS Annual lecture for the last 5 years were respec­ tively Shri K R Batye, Shri H C Verma, Prof. Shamsher Prakash, Prof. Jagdish Narain and Prof. T Ramamurthy.

The Fourth Chinese National Conference was held in December 1983 in the city of Wuchang attended by 260 participants and more than 400 papers were submitted.

Technical Meetings


Numerous technical meetings were also held in which papers were presented on a wide spectrum of geotechnical subjects

Date Venue Subject Oct 81 Beijing In-situ Testing of Soils

May 82 Wu-Chang Laboratory soil testing techniques Dec 84 Shanghai Case histories of building foundations

May 85 Bubei Shear strength properties of soils


Besides a regular Newsletter, the IGS publishes a Quarterly Journal. The commemorative volume is being prepared.

Publications Awards

(i) The Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering is published bi-monthly in Chinese. (ii) In commemoration of the Golden Jubilee of the ISSME, the Chinese Society has prepared a volume of selected papers in English on geotechnical engineering written by Chinese engineers and scientists during the period 1980-83.

Two distinguished members and Past Presidents of the IGS, Prof. R K Katti and Prof. Shamsher Prakash have been honoured with the prestigious FICCI Prize for the year 1982 and 1984 respectively.



(iii) The First edition of "Chinese-English and English­

Chinese Terms" was published in November 1983.

Other Activities The Chinese Society has organised the following sub­ committees for:

1 Standardization of Chinese Terms for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

2 Improvement of soil testing apparatus, and 3 Improvement of techniques for foundation treatment. INDIAN GEOTECH ICAL SOCIETY


Annual Conferences

Participants Papers 473

1981 Kanazawa City, 26-29 May


1982 Naha City, 8-ll June



1983 Kohriyama City, 9-12 June



1984 Matsuyama City, 5-8 June



1985 Nagoya City, 10-13 June

Not available

The major activities of the Indian Geotechnical Society for the period l January 1981 to 31 December 1984 were:

Annual Symgsium

Annual Conferences


1981 Geo-Mechanical 81 Symposium on Engineering Behaviour


1982 Conference on Construction Practices and Instrumenta­ tion of Geotechnical Engineering. Surat, 20-23 Dec. 1982



Tokyo 10 November




Tokyo 16 November




Tokyo 9-10 November




Tokyo 15 November



of Coarse-Grained Soils, Boulders and Rocks. Hyderabad, 21-23 Dec 1981.


1985 Tokyo November Not available Numerous technical and research committee meetings and symposia were also held including two which were held in

Society. Preparations have already been initiated to celebrate the 20th Anniversary of the Society.

Singapore in joint sponsorship with the geotechnical group in Singapore.

Symposia and Technical Meetings

Many of the members are actively involved in the Technical Committees of the ISSM E with Dr H Mori chairing the Technical Committee on Soil Sampling, Dr K Fujita on

Despite the world recession, the Southeast Asian Region continues to be an area of very significant development. The practical and field problems which form the subjects of the conference papers, themes of technical meetings and

Penetrability and Drivability of Piles and Professor

research activities reflect not only the volume of civil

S Murayama the Technical Committee on Constitutive Laws.

engineering construction work which is being executed in the region but also the direct involvement of the geotech­


of TeChnO10gy has been the venue of regular symposia and

nical engineers in the constructions. The Asian Institute

Publications available from the Japanese Society are:

Title of Publication Period Lanugage l Soils and Foundation Quarterly English 2 Journal of Japanese Society Quarterly Japanese and of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering


3 Tsuchi to Kiso Monthly Japanese with

English summary

4 Proceedings IX ICSM E (Vol. l - 3) English 5 Proceedings IX ICSM E (Case History

Volume) English

5 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and

Drivability of Piles (Vol. l s 2) English PAKISTAN NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR SOIL M CHANICS AND

courses, viz. on Coastal and Offshore Structures in 1981,

Ground Improvement in 1982, Laboratory and Field Tests in 1983 and Mass and Material Transportation in 1984.

In Hong Kong the geotechnical engineering activities cover a wide range relating to the safe and economic utilization and development of land.

Construction activity in Singapore, a member country of the Society, is now at its peak with the construction of an underground rapid transit system, several high rise buildings, ground improvement related to airport expansion and other reclamation projects. A seminar was co-sponsored by the Japanese Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, the AIT and the National University of

Singapore in early 1984 on ground improvement. The Nanyang Technological Institute organised the Seminar on "Construction Problems in Soft Soils" in 1983 and another on "Piled Foundations" in 1984.

The following seminars were held in Taipei.

Date Subject 2CP24 Sept 1982 Rock Engineering with Dr E Hoek and

Dr L R Richards as principal lecturers.


In addition to lectures delivered by distinguished

28 March 1985 New Tunnelling Methods

of the Society has regular monthly meetings since the last

26-28 April 1985 Current Research in Geotechnical

The first National Conference entitled "Case Histories in

Regular technical meetings were conducted. Prominent speakers included Professor C C Ladd of MIT, USA, Dr Evert Hoek of Canada, Professor G A Leonards of Purdue University, USA, and Mr Basil Kantey of South Africa.

speakers from Pakistan and overseas, the Executive Committee two years.

Geotechnical Engineering" was held in November 1984. The

proceedings are available.


Conference Venue Pérti_ -ll -_ Date l cipants South East Asian Geotechnical Conferences

7th SAG Conference November 1982 Hong Kong 400 8th SAG Conference March 1985 Kuala Lumpur 410

A distinct feature of the conferences has been the presen­ tation of special lectures. Professor N Janbu from Norway

was one of the Special Lecturers in the Hong Kong Confer­ ence. In the Kuala Lumpur Conference, Professor Victor de Mello (President ISSMFE), Tan Sri Professor Chin Fung Kee (Vice President ISSMTE for Asia), Dr Ting Wen Hui (President SAGS), Dr E W Brand (Past President SAGS), Dr Za-Chieh Moh (Founder President SAGS and Past Vice

President ISSM E for Asia), Dr S L Lee and Professor A S Balasubramaniam delivered the Special Lectures.

The 9th SAG Conference will be held in Bangkok and will be co-sponsored by the Asian Institute of Technology, the

seat of the Secretariat of the Southeast Asia Geotechnical

Engineering in Taiwan.

In Malaysia, geotechnical activity is organised under the

Geotechnical Engineering Division formed within the Institution of Engineers Malaysia. The Chairman of the Geotechnical Engineering Division is Dr Ting Wen Hui, the immediate Past President of the Southeast Asian Geotech­ nical Society. Several lectures on ground improvement and landslides, foundation problems in limestone areas, reclaimed land and in soft clay and offshore geotechnical

engineering were held with field visits to construction sites. Members of the geotechnical division who organised

the 8th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference were also responsible for the organisation of Asian Regional Conference on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat which was held in Kuala Lumpur in August 1982.

Publications The Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society publishes the Geotechnical Engineering Journal twice a year. The Society has sponsored the ISSM E Technical Committee

on Sampling and Testing of Residual Soils for the period


l9Bl-1985. The Chairman and Secretary are Dr E W Brand and Mr H B Phillipson respectively. The main work of the committee has been to publish a volume entitled "Sampling and Testing of Residual Soils - A Review of International Practice" which contains State-of-the-Art reports from 18 countries.

Through the efforts of Dr Brand, a Past President of the SAGS, a number of publications giving guidelines in relation to landslide problems in Hong Kong has been produced.

Member, Committee

Soil Testing

Member, Committee

mainly relating to geotechnical problems of the region and history of the Society is published. SYRIAN GEOTECHNICAL SOCIETY


The following symposia were held:

(i) in 1984 and l985 on the preservation of the old city of Damascus, and

(ii) in Damascus to discuss current and local problems in soil mechanics.

Professor Victor de Mello addressed the society in Damascus and Aleppo.


The Lexicon is being translated into Arabic. It will be distributed to the universities in Syria for unifying of geotechnical terms.


Annual Lectures: Kassiff Annual Lecture

1982 Prof. M E Harr (Purdue University) "Reliability in

Geotechnical Engineering" 1983 Dr R Baker “Aspects of Slope Stability Computations" 1984 Prof. M Livneh "Developments in Pavement Technology" 1985 Dr A Zelikson "Safety Analysis of Structures During Earthquakes using Centrifuge Simulation"

International Conferences 7th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Haifa, August 1983 Symposia

1981 Deep Foundations

1982 Soil-Structure Interaction 1983 Contributions to the 7th Asian Conference l985 Geotechnical Parameters of Israeli Soils Seminars

Biweekly seminars held together with the geotechnical engineering group at the Israel Institute of Technology. Membership in International Committees

Dr R Baker - Member, Committee on Slope Stability - Member, Committee of Constitutive Equations

Field and Lab. Centrifuge


Prof. J G Zeitlen

Member, Committee


Member, Committee


Member, Co mittee




Mr E Zolkov


A Commemorative Volume containing State-of-the-Art papers


Prof. S Frydman




The Australasian Region continues to comprise only two National Societies - Australian and New Zealand, despite continuing efforts to encourage establishment of National

Region for one of the international bodies to which our members affiliate.

country the Australian Geomechanics Society (AGS) and the New Zealand Geomechanics Society (NZGS) officially repre­

AGS and NZGS was held to discuss matters of regional

Societies in other countries in Australasia. In each

sent not only the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE) but also the Inter­ national Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) and the Inter­ national Association of Engineering Geology (IAEG). Individual members of AGS and NZGS are required to affili­

ate to at least one of the International Societies

represented. Many members choose to affiliate to more than one. The formal linking of the three prinicipal geotechnical international organisations through a single comprehensive national society continues to prove bene­ ficial in our countries and region by providing a common forum for members of all three related disciplines to meet and talk together. Regionally people are very thinly spread and with the exception of a few centres of population, our professional people must be prepared to travel considerable distances for any substantial technical meeting.

the first such full congress held in the Australasian

During the Perth Conference, the regular joint meeting of interest. Formal "Procedures for Regional Co-operation"

were adopted. with the possibility that future regional

conferences might be recognised, not only by ISSMFE, but also by one or both IAEG and IRSM, one of the matters

requiring clarification concerned the status of the various Vice Presidents in relation to such conferences.

Australian and New Zealand representatives are serving on several ISSMFE technical subcommittees, including those dealing with Constitutive Laws for Soils, Penetration

Testing Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, Filters

and Filter Criteria, Tropical Soils, Geomechanics Computer Programs, and Symbols, Units, Definitions Correlations. In addition, the AGS is spearheading the subcommittee on Undisturbed Sampling and Laboratory Testing of Soft Rock and Indurated Soils under the chairmanship of Dr Ian

W Johnston, Monash University, Melbourne. INTERNATIONAL/REGIONAL ACTIVITIES

The 4th Australia-New Zealand Geomechanics Conference held

in Perth, 14-18 May 1984 must be regarded as the principal event of this period. In the 4-yearly pattern of ISSMFE Regional Conferences, this would have been the 9th in this region since the lst ANZ Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering held in Melbourne l952,had the name not been changed for the Brisbane Conference in l97l accompanying the change in the names and responsibilities of the national societies. The conference theme was "Geomechanics - Interaction" which was interpreted in a variety of ways by the authors of over 100 papers, and some 220 delegates. The keynote speaker was our President, Professor Victor de Mello, whose lecture was entitled "Concrete Gravity Dam Foundations: An Open Case of Geomechanical Interaction, Structure-Foundation and Theory

- Practice"“. Another highlight of the conference was the

presentation of the John Jaeger Memorial Medal to Dr Gordon D Aitchison, formerly Chief of CSIRO Division of Applied Geomechanics. Chairman, Richard J Jewell, and his Organising Committee are to be congratulated for planning and running such a successful technical and social pro­ gramme. Copies of papers can be obtained from the AGS Secretariat at the address given below and summaries of the discussions are being published in Australian

Looking to the future, the 5th ANZ Geomechanics Conference

is to be held in Sydney in August 1988. Already an interim organising committee has been formed and it is planned to introduce into this Conferenece, in Australia's Bicen­ tennial Year, a number of new features which should stimu­

late interest and participation by delegates.


The AGS is a joint Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AIM ) - Institution of Engineers, Australia

IEA) Society, and the AGS Committee is responsible to both AIMM Council and IEA Civil College Board. Secretarial support for AGS is arranged through IEA and individual membership is open to members and non-members of the joint

societies, provided they are active in the field of


Individual membership continues to grow and at the end of 1984 reached 498, of whom 306 were affiliated to ISSM E, a 508 increase since my predecessor reported at Stockholm 1981.

The current Chairman is Peter W Mitchell and the address

of the Secretariat is:

Geomechanics News.

Following the Perth Conference the 5th International Conference on Expansive Soils was held in Adelaide 21-23 May l9B5. Some 150 delegates attended and discussed over 60 papers ranging from identification and classification through modelling aspects and design methods to some very interesting case studies. The opening address was given by Professor Victor de Mello and the keynote speaker was Brian G Richards, who spoke on developments in research on expansive clays over the past two decades. Chairman, Peter W Mitchell, and his organising committee are to be commended for taking the initiative in this project and for carrying through such a successful conference. Copies of the papers may be obtained from the AGS Secretariat. Although not ISSMFE sponsored, another important conference

organised by AGS in this period was the Sth International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Melbourne, 10-14 April 1983,

c/o The Institution of Engineers, Australia ll National Circuit Barton, ACT 2600


The National Committee meets twice a year in one of the

principal cities, and the principal technical activities

centre round the various State Groups, each with technical meetings at least monthly. Many of these meetings grow

to the level of mini symposia, attracting significant out of state attendance. One of the more important was a Queensland Symposium, “Risk Assessment in Geomechanics",

October 1982, the proceedings of which were published by IEA. The AGS also sponsors sessions at the annual con­

ferences of its parent societies.

The AGS continues membership on various national task

forces and working parties including Task Force on


National Disasters, Working Party on Offshore Codes of Practice, Working Party to Consider Completion of 200 Mile Exclusive Economic Zone Around Australia. In this period they have become a member of the Australian Geoscience Council which, in its recent 2nd Annual Report, reviews the status of Geosciences (including Geomechanics) throughout Australia and the status of Geological Surveys, Australian Mineral Foundation, Bureau of Mineral Resources and CSIRO. A major review of human resources in Australian Geoscience has also been released concerning current employment, projected supply and demands

of geoscientists.

- for all kinds

The Australian Geomechanics News, published twice per year, continues to be an effective means of communication between

geomechanists in Australia and is attracting technical articles of good quality, as well as providing basic news for members of geomechanics activities, national and international. The l984 Australian Geomechanics Award, the John Jaeger Memorial Medal, was presented to Dr Gordon D Aitchison ­

well known internationally, particularly for his research in unsaturated soils and long-term service within ISSMTE. The presentation and his address, "Towards an Australian Geotechnology", were given at the Perth Conference and the text printed in the June 1984 issue of Australian

Geomechanics News. NEW ZEALAND

The NZGS is a Technical Group of The Institution of

Professional Engineers, New Zealand (IPENZ) and the NZGS

Co mittee is responsible to the Council of IPENZ. Secre­ tarial support for NZGS is arranged through IPENZ and individual membership is open to, and roughly equally

divided between, members and non-members of IPENZ.

Individual membership is slowly growing and currently stands at 383, of whom 229 are affiliated to ISSMFE.

The current Chairman is Terry J Kayes and the address of

the Secretariat is:

c/o Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand PO Box 12241

Wellington North New Zealand

The National Committee meets three times a year in Wellington

and the principal local technical activity is centred round

Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch, with technical meetings monthly in each centre. As well as sharing the annual IPENZ conference with other technical groups, the NZGS sponsors a symposium on a topical subject on a two-year cycle. The last two symposia were sparked off by a land­ slide and two canal failures. In August 1979 a seven hectare block of hillside at Abbotsford, a suburb of Dunedin, slid on a 7° slip plane, a thin smectite clay-rich seam in essentially sandy terrain. A Commission of Enquiry was set

up and substantial investigations carried out. In May 1981

the NZGS with the NZ Planning Institute sponsored a symposium at Palmerston North entitled "Geomechanics in Urban Planning" where planning, legal, and insurance aspects were discussed, as well as geomechanics. In September 1981 a major engi­

neering failure occurred when a section of canal supplying the Ruahihi Power Station collapsed, destroying some 600 m of the canal formation and spilling more than a million cubic metres of mud and rubble over adjacent farmland and into the Wairoa River. In December 1982 a breach occurred in the left bank of the Rangitaiki Canal on the nearly com­ pleted Wheao Power Scheme. The canal was full and the sudden outflow of water through the breach transported thousands of cubic metres of large boulders and pumiceous


debris to engulf the Wheao Power Station. Both these canal failures were in geologically recent volcanic deposits in the Bay of Plenty/Rotorua area in New Zealnad. Committees

of Enquiries were set up and later the NZGS with New Zealand Society on Large Dams sponsored a Symposium in Alexandra, November l983, entitled "Engineering for Dams and Canals", where the lessons which could be learned from Ruahihi and Wheao were discussed.

The NZGS Newsletter, “NZ Geomechanics News", is circulated

twice yearly keeping members in touch with recent develop­ ments and events in Geomechanics, and continues to attract contributions and technical articles from members, conformn to a high standard. The NZGS Outstanding Merit Award, the NZ Geomechanics

Lecture, was given in 1984 by Professor Peter W Taylor, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Auckland, who spoke on the history and development of geomechanics in New Zealand. Peter has made important contributions nationally and internationally, both personally and through

his research students, especially in the field of seismic soil strengths and through ISSMFE. The text of his lecture will be published in NZ Geomechanics News.

Lists of publications available in Australia and New Zealand can be obtained from the Secretariats at the addresses listed above.



1. In its latest meeting, held in Stockholm in l98l,

the Executive Committee of the ISSMTE took many important decisions with the aim of equating ISSMFE organisation

with the evergrowing progress in the scientific and technological field and also with the rapid social evolution in all the countries in the world.

In addition to confirming the traditional activities of

the single Member Societies and favouring the inter­ relationship among all the ISSMFE Societies, the Executive Committee approved the proposal to stimulate co-operation in the area of each region. In the period 1981/1983 the European Member Societies carried on their own special programmes by following the ways they had been tracing before. At the same time they took part with full commitment in the organization of the new programs indicated by the Presidency and the General


Therefore, in that period the EMS were already fully committed in various new and traditional programmes. For these reasons the European Regional Cooperation was limited to the collection and exchange of information of a general nature. The purpose of this investigation was to recognize the sectors and objectives held of the greatest interest by the EMS.

The National activities of the EMS are most varied but are carried out with commitment despite the difficulties and obstacles which are easy to imagine.

In this way they gain examples and stimulus to organize the European Conferences.

In May 1983 the Finnish Geotechnical Society (SGY) organised the VIII ECSMFE in Helsinki. The theme of the Conference was Improvement of Ground.

The topic was of great relevance and current interest. The perfect scientific programme was warmly received and the participation of members outside Europe contributed to the success of the Conference.

There were 545 participants as well as 100 accompanying persons.

The Conference publication consists of 3 volumes with a total of 1400 pages. The IX ECSMFE will be held in Dublin in September 1987.

The organisation of the conference is given to the Geotechnical Society of Ireland, and is already at an advanced stage. Also the theme of this next European

Conference on Groundwater Effects in Geotechnical Engineering will deal with matters of fundamental importance

and general interest both from the scientific, as well as from the application point of view. It will certainly attract the interest and participation of the Members of and outside Europe.

Among the other subjects, the Conference Organising Committee has decided to include in the Programme of the

The aims and objectives are the same namely, teaching, research, technological development, geotechnical engi­ neering meant as synthesis and application of our knowledge to practical problems.

Conference the effects of groundwater on the stability of slopes and the influence of groundwater during earthquakes or dynamic loading. These topics belong to the themes of the two European Technical Sub-Committees, which will be considered later.

The ways which are followed are usually study sessions, seminars, lectures, symposia and national conferences.

The natural tendency of EMS to promote relationships in order to develop experinece, theories and technologies has been favoured by the up-dating and expansion of the

Clearly these activities are carried out on the basis of

ISSMFE Technical Committees.

the specific needs of each country and according to the characteristic features of the physical environment. Consequently, they are articulated in a different manner.

Almost all the EMS have taken part in one or more ISSMTE Technical Committees from the beginning of the present 4

Nevertheless a common and increasingly accentuated ten­ dency is noted in all the EMS in exchanging knowledge not only through the ISSMTE Conferences and the European Regional Conferences, but also, through the Danube European Conference, the Nordic Geotechnical Conference and other

Moreover in Europe in the 1983/1985 period two European Technical Sub-Committees were constituted.

year period.

In spite of the little time available both sub-committees

conferences among groups of EMS.

have been formed and have begun their work. Their member­

In fact, the exchanges and collaboration among the EMS, develop especially among countries which are geographically


Some arguments, when seen in their fundamental aspects, are

Chairman: Professor E Togrol - Turkey Members: Professor E De Beer - Belgium

similar and close to one another.

indeed of general interest for all the EMS. This is the

case of the Codes of Practice and, with some reservation, the co-operation between geotechnical engineering and engineering geology.

2. The ISSMFE Conferences constitute the meeting point for all members. The EMS take an active part in these conferences with memoranda, reports, lectures, discussions.

ship is as follows:

Professor E Krauter - FR Germany M. G Pilot - France

Dr A Cancelli - Italy

Professor L Wysokinski - Poland Professor I Stanculescu - Romania - Sweden Mr T Stal

Dr D J Petley - UK

Sponsored by the Turkish Society of Soil Mechanics.




Member Society

Chairman: Professor C Viggiani - Italy

Belgium Professor Van Impe Bulgaria Professor Tochkov

Members: Professor W Van Impe - Belgium

Professor E Tochkov - Bulgaria Professor F Schlosser - France Professor G Gazetas - Greece

Dr B Csak - Hungary Dr G Manfredini - Italy

France Professor Schlosser Greece Professor Gazetas Hungary Dr B Csak Italy Dr G Manfredini Poland Professor K Biernatowski

Portugal Professor A Corriea Mineiro

Professor V Perlea - Romania

Romania Professor V Perlea Spain Dr A Soriano Sweden Professor R Massarsch

Dr J A Studer - Switzerland

West Germany United Kingdom

Professor K Biernatowski - Poland

Professor A Correia Mineiro - Portugal

Dr A Soriano - Spain Professor R Massarsch - Sweden

Professor G Schneider - west Germany Dr B O Skipp

Professor V A Ilyichev

United Kingdom USSR

Sponsored by the Italian Geotechnical Society.

Despite the short time available, the terms of the work have

been limited, as foreseen, to first examine the matter of each sub-committee and to the definition of the proposals to be carried out. A first report will be presented by each of the two Sub­ Committees to the ISSM E Executive Committee Meeting to be held in San Francisco. Hopefully the Executive Committee will lengthen the period of activity of the two Technical Sub-Committees.

Although it doesn‘t fall within the field of the European

Regional Co-operation, we should mention an activity of great importance for the Geotechnical Engineering in Europe. In the period l9Bl/1985 an Ad Hoc Committee named Eurocode

EC7 Foundation was constituted. This committee is under the presidency of Professor N Krebs Ovesen and is formed by the representatives of the EMS within the EEC. It has

completed a European Code for Foundation Engineering which

will undoubtedly make a considerable contribution to the development of the Geotechnical Profession and therefore to Civil Engineering in Europe.

Finally to Professor Krebs Ovesen, appointed Vice-President for Europe in the next period and to all the EMS I offer my very best wishes for a profitable work.



Switzerland Dr J A Studer USSR

Professor G Schneider Dr B O Skipp

Professor V A Ilyichev

The Finnish Society renounced to participate; the remainin Member Societies have not yet nominated their representati 1.3 A draft proposal for ERC-Eq work was submitted to the members in October 1984; a number of answers have been

collected, with a general agreement on the proposal and some preliminary information.

1.4 An Italian Task Force has been organised, including a dozen specialists from Universities, consulting firms and Government Agencies, with the aim of providing the

information from Italy and processing the data collected from other countries. 1.5 Up to now two meetings of the Italian group and one

meeting of the Sub-committee have been held. 2 PROGRAMM OF ACTIVITY

2.1 Due to the short time available, ERC-Eq is still at a preliminary stage. The work carried out until now Has resulted essentially in an agreement on the draft proposal and in a more detailed definition of the scope and topics of the Subcommittee work.

2.2 It appears that the time required to develop satis­ factorily some parts of the program is a couple of years,

which equals the time until the Dublin 1997 European

Conference. Therefore, the present Report is essentially an outline of the intended activity of ERC-Eq for the next two years.

2.3 Having realized that Europe is much more a cultural entity rather than a physically homogeneous region, ERC-Eq intends to place the emphasis in its work on the methods adopted to tackle the problems and on the organisation and

regulations, rather than on the problems themselves. Accordingly, the following general class of arguments will be dealt with:

Progress Report by C Viggiani

(a) regulations, codes, etc. in the field of earthquake


(b) site and laboratory investigation practice; most

1.1 The Subcommittee on Earthquake Geotechnical Problems in Europe (ERC-Eq) was formed by the Vice President for Europe of ISSMFE, Professor A Croce, under the sponsorship

of the Italian Geotechnical Society (AGI). Professor

C Viggiani was nominated as Chairman and Dr V Caputo as


1.2 Following an exchange of letters with the European Member Societies, the following members of the sub­ committee were finally appointed by Professor Croce in September 1984:


engineering and soil dynamics;

widespread techniques and instruments; (c) analysis and design procedures, such as microzoning,

soil-structure interaction, liquefaction, etc. 2.4 As for topics under a, special attention will be

devoted to the evolutive trend of codes and regulations. Furthermore, the relations between general building codes and specific regulations (for instance, those regarding earth and rockfill dams) will be explored.

It has turned out that other groups are working on similar topics, as for instance the Eurocode B Commission and a

Subcommittee of the European Association of Earthquake

Engineering; as a consequence, there is a need for links to be established to avoid duplication of efforts.

2.5 As for topics under b, at present they include also

some aspects of strong motion acceleration records (e.g. the influence of local soil conditions on accelerographs). This will probably evolve in a separate topic. The use of SPT and CPT for liquefaction analysis and for correlations with dynamic properties of the soils seems to be widespread, even if some uncertainities exist; ad hoc regional corre­ lations seem to be a promising approach. Cyclic triaxial tests seem to be the most popular laboratory test. 2.6 Among topics under c, much interest has been drawn

by microzonation. It seems that there is considerable difference of opinions about the goals and methods of microzonation, so that a comparison and digest of existing practices seems worthwhile.

Particularly significant for Europe is the widespread occurrence of old cities and monuments, heritage of our

past history.

2.7 In general, the aim of ERC-Eg should be that of collecting information on points a to c in the various European countries, in order to prepare a State-of-the-Art

report. Focus will be placed on "common" or "most wide­ spread" practice, rather than on "peaks" in particular branches (e.g. nuclear power plants).

2.8 At present, the Italian Task Force has already prepared preliminary reports on the above points, regarding the

situation in Italy. Such reports could be used as a reference for the work to be done by other members.

2.9 As a particular task, the Organizing Committee of the

next European Conference on SMFE (Dublin, 1987), has

requested ERC-Eq to run a Discussion session on: "Ground­ water effects due to earthquake and dynamic loading", nominating also a General Reporter and a Chairman. ERC-Eq has willingly accepted the request. 3 ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS

ERC-Eq is sponsored by the AGI, that covers mail and

secretarial expenses. Furthermore, on the occasion of the meeting held in Naples, AGI provided financial support for lodging of the foreign members.

It is expected that AGI will go on this line in the future, of a final report. and will also cover expenses for the eventual publication




The North American Region is composed of three member

societies (Mexico, the United States and Canada) with a combined membership of 3,7l5. This report covers their most important activities since the Tenth International

Conference held in Stockholm in August 1981. Communication between the three member societies is achieved through attendance at North American meetings and through the distribution of conference proceedings and technical journals. Communication has been enhanced by the evolution of Geotechnical News which began in 1976 as the newsletter of the Canadian Geotechnical Society. The US Society began to contribute to Geotechnical News in March 1983 and the Sociedad Mexicana de Mecanica de Suelos joined in with the December 1984 issue.

It has a membership of 2,000 out of the 15,000 members of the Geotechnical Engineering Division. The officers of the Division serve as the officers and Board of the USNS. The USNS secretary, who coordinates international corres­ pondence, is appointed by the Division Executive Committee

and serves for an indefinite term. He is independent of the Division Secretary.


Two ASCE Society-wide conferences are held annually, each

with from 4 to 10 three hour sessions devoted to geotechnicm engineering. Session attendance ranges from 50 to 400. During the last 4 years approximately 400 papers were

presented orally. Preprints were available for about half;


about 50 were published eventually.

The Mexican Society for Soil Mechanics (Sociedad Mexicana

Three major speciality conferences and two state-of-the-art conferences have been held with an average attendance of 750. In addition, about 50 smaller interdisciplinary con­ ferences and regional conferences on geotechnical topics have been held. Some are jointly sponsored by Universities other technical societies, and regional ASCE geotechnical

de Mecanica de Suelos) is the ISSM E affiliate, with a membership of 515. In 1982 it celebrated its 25th anni­ versary by organizing an international conference on "Past, Present and Future of Soil Mechanics - A Critical Analysis" Panelists from 16 countries participated. A new house­ office was inaugurated in 1982 and a technical library was opened in January 1985. By-laws of the Society were slightly modified last year. Conferences

The SMMS has organised many technical meetings and con­

ferences during the last four years. The outstanding

conferences were the Sixth and Seventh Nabor Carillo Lectures. The Sixth (1982) was given by Professor Alfred Hendron Jr. on "Nuclear Plants Foundation Problems" (not published) and the Seventh (1984) was given by Dr Leonardo Zeevaert dealing with "Environmental Conditions in the Design of Building Foundations". The most important

meetings were four on tunnelling in soils, three on foundations in the Valley of Mexico and its regional settlement, a series of seven panel discussions on the role of soil mechanics in port engineering, many interdiscip­ linary reunions between geotechnical engineers and struc­ tural and sanitary engineers and also with geohydrologists and geophysicists, and the national biennial meetings of 1982 (soil mechanics in the industrial ports) and of 1984 (slope stability, earth retaining structures and foundation problems). Soil mechanics professors organized several meetings in order to analyze the methods of teaching soil mechanics at the universities. Publications

The Society published l7 books during the last four years. Most of these cover the proceedings of the above mentioned technical sessions. The Society also published a Manual on the Design and Construction of Piles and Piers and three Nabor Carrillo Lectures in a Spanish-English edition. It is noteworthy to say that they published the First Lecture, given by the late Professor Arthur Casagrande in 1972, entitled "Reflections on Unfinished Tasks".



The Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Proceedings ASCE is published monthly by ASCE. During the last 4 years it has included about 240 papers and 75 technical notes in 6ooo pages. The major specialty con­ ferences have produced multi-volume proceedings with a totm of over 150 papers in 2500 pages. Special symposiums include over 250 papers and 4000 pages. Civil Engineering,

a monthly magazine, includes less technical articles in­ cluding those of geotechnical interest. Lists of publica­ tions, prices and orders are directed to: Director, Publications Marketing, ASCE 345 E 47th Street New York, NY 10017, USA

Continuing Education

Continuing education courses, at the post-graduate level, are sponsored directly by the Geotechnical Engineering Division. Some are offered during and immediately follow­ ing the two ASCE annual conferences. Others are offered at numerous locations throughout the US; some are jointly sponsored by the various engineering colleges. The topics range from new developments in analysis, design and con­ struction to business, legal and risk prevention in geo­ technical engineering. Announcements are made in the ASCE newsletter and Civil Engineering magazine. Lectureships and Awards

The Terzaghi Lecture is the only public lecture sponsored by ASCE. It is presented annually by an outstanding US or foreign geotechnical engineer selected by the Geotechnical


Division Executive Committee, based on technical accomplish­ ments and communication skill.

The US National Society is a committee of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers.

The Karl Terzaghi Award is presented annually to that geo­ technical engineer who has made major continuing contribu­


tions to geotechnical engineering, particularly in ASCE publications. The Middlebrooks Award is made annually for a Geotechnical

Journal paper of particular merit. The MS Kapp Award is made annually for an innovative and outstanding geotechnical design or construction technique. In addition, the ASCE Norman Medal (ASCE-wide) is awarded

annually for the outstanding ASCE paper in any category. Since 1970 seven of the ten have been to authors of Geotechnical Division papers. CANADA

The Canadian Section, ISSM E, is administered by the Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research of the National Research Council of Canada. The Canadian membership is comprised of the members of the Canadian Geotechnical Society and currently stands at slightly more than 1200. The Engineering Geology Division of the Canadian Geotechni­ cal Society is the Canadian adherent to the IAEG, and the Rock Mechanics Division is part of the Canadian membership


The Canadian Geotechnical Society holds an annual conference. The 34th Conference in 1981 was held at Fredericton, NB; and the 35th was at Montreal in 1982. The 36th Conference formed part of the 7th Pan American Conference which was held in Vancouver in 1983. The 37th Conference in 1984 formed part of the IV International Symposium on Landslides, which was organised by the Canadian Society for the ISSMFE Committee of Landslides. The Proceedings of both ISSMFE Conferences are available from the Canadian Geotechnical Society, which now has its headquarters at 602-170 Attwell Drive, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada M9W 5Z5.


The Canadian Geotechnical Journal is the recognized tech­

nical Journal of the Society. It contains many of the papers presented at the annual conferences. It is pub­ lished quarterly and each issue contains 10-12 papers.

The number of subscribers is about 2500, half of whom are outside Canada. Geotechnical News serves as the Society newsletter. Other publications are the Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual, which has been revised extensively, and preprint volumes of conferences sponsored by the Society. These publications are available from Society headquarters.

Fellowship was in 1983; the second in 1984. These were considered successful both for the candidate and the spon­ soring agency in Canada, which pays the salary. SEVENTH PAN AM RICAN CONFERENCE

The Seventh Pam American Conference was held at Vancouver

from June 19th to June 24th 1983. The Conference was honoured by the presence of Dr Ruth Terzaghi, President and Mrs Victor de Mello and Dr Ralph Peck, President of

the Society 1969-73. In addition to six keynote lectures, the Conference sessions dealt with three themes - Energy,

Transportation and Mining. Each theme featured a general report and panel discussion of selected topics. Mrs Terzaghi was a special guest at a Terzaghi Memorial Luncheon pre­ sided over by President de Mello. The three-volume Conference Proceedings are available directly from BiTech Publishers Ltd., lOl-1281 W Georgia St., Vancouver, BC, V6E 3J7, Canada ($l75 Canadian + postage and handling). FOURTH INTERNATIONAL SYM OSIUM ON LANDSLIDES

More than 300 delegates gathered in Toronto from 17-21 September 1984, for this symposium held under the auspices of the ISSMFE Committee on Landslides and the International Association of Engineering Geology. The first day was devoted to four lectures and discussion on Canadian land­

slides and debris torrents. The seven additional half-day sessions featured state-of-the-art lectures followed by

panel discussions. The Symposium was followed by three

technical tours, a local one in the Toronto vicinity, as well as tours to the Canadian Rockies and to the sensitive clay region of the St Lawrence River Valley. The Symposium was attended by President and Mrs de Mello and by Past President Fukuoka. Proceedings containing the 23 state-of­

the-art reports and 175 technical papers are available from the Canadian Geotechnical Society, c/o University of Toronto

Press, 5201 Dufferin Street, Downsview, Ontario, Canada M31-I 5T8 ($l25 Canadian + postage and handling) .


The Eleventh Conference marks the fiftieth anniversary of the formation of the ISSMFE.

It will be the first time

since the founding conference at Harvard in 1936 that the Society has met in the United States and special plans are


being made to make this Jubilee Conference a memorable occasion. The Organizing Committee is chaired by Professor H B Seed who also serves as Secretary of the US Member Society.

The Society has four awards, usually made on an annual basis:


1. The R F Legget Award for exception service to Canadian geotechnique.

2. The Canadian Geotechnical Prize - best paper in

Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 3. The Thomas Roy Award - best paper in Engineering Geology published during the year. 4. Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium - a commissioned work to a younger practitioner on a subject of importance to Canadian geotechnique.

Other Activities

Although I attended meetings in all three member countries, I was not able to visit Central America to expand the stimu­ lative work of previous Regional Vice Presidents. The next Vice President will come from Mexico and it is hoped that

he will be able to continue this useful activity. As

Chairman of the Research Cooperation Committee I became aware of the opportunity that the ISSMFE has to improve

technical development through cooperation, especially between the more developed and the less developed member

societies. The North American Region has much to offer in

this respect.

With the financial assistance of the Canadian International Development Agency, the Canadian Society sponsors a Ghanaian Fellowship which permits a younger member of the Ghana Member Society to spend three to four months on a

Carl B Crawford May 1985

Canadian project to gain hands-on experience. The first




The South American region comprises eleven member societies:

Stockholm in August 1981.

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,

Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay and Venezuela,

with a total of 699 members. These societies have been


ISSM E members since the l94O's.

In general, all of the societies in the region engaged in soil mechanics activities, have held annual meetings and have put put technical publications for distribution throughout the region.

The national and regional conferences are considered very important, especially the Pan American Conference that gathers professionals from two continents, North America and South America. These meetings provide an excellent opportunity to study the diversity of materials that make up our continents from tropical volcanic soils to boulder

clays. This diversity is a great advantage as it helps us understand the value of theories and the fact that they are applicable to different materials. We appreciate the unity of soil and rock mechanics, which know no geological or political borders. Differences bring us the benefits of fraternity and the exchange of technical information at these conferences, of which seven have already been held and theeighth is to take place in Colombia in 1987.

As a tribute to Professor Casagrande, the South American societies as a whole have established the Arthur Casagrande Lecture to encourage South American professionals distin­ guished for their research and professional character. This was considered an appropriate way in which to honour Professor Casagrande, a brilliant example to be emulated both as a professional and as a person. The Regulations for the Casagrande Lecture are attached.

Eight y two members of the Argentine Soil Mechanics Society (Sociedad Argentina de Mecanica de Suelos) are ISSMFE members. The national members total 113, of which 25 belom to the Argentine Rock Mechanics group. Mr Oscar Varde, former President of the Argentine Soil Mechanics Society has been elected ISSMFE Vice President for South America for the 1985-1989 period, and Mr A J L Bolognessi currently chairs the South American Committee on Gravel Studies. Conferences

The Argentine Soil Mechanics Society has organised technica meetings and conferences over the past four years. In 1982 the VII Congress was held in Rosario and covered the follow

ing topics: Properties of soil, design parameters, deep

foundations and excavations, high tension wire foundations

hydraulic fills, natural slope stability, and dams. The VIII Congress was held in October 1984 in Neuquen and

included the following technical sessions: soil exploratim

and classification, dams and deep foundations and excava­ tions- teaching of soil mechanics, and professional pract;x The IX Congress, to be held in Resistencia in September 1986, is already being organised. Publications The Argentine Soil Mechanics Society has published the Proceedings of the Argentine Congresses and puts out a

quarterly Bulletin with national and international news items.

The first Casagrande Lecture will be held during the VIII

Pan American Conference which will take place in Colombia

in 1987. Professor A J da Costa Nunes from Brazil has been appointed for the First Casagrande Lecture.

The lst International Conference on Geomechanics in Tropical

Lateritic and Saprolitic Soils, held in Brazil 15-20

February 1985, organized by the Brazilian Soil Mechanics

Association and the International Society's Tropical Soils Committee was one of our important scientific events. This same country is also organizing the XII International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, to be held in Rio de Janeiro in 1989.


The Brazilian Soil Mechanics Association (Associacao Brasileira de Mecanica dos Solos) has 602 members, of which 197 are registered with the ISSMFE. At the ISSMFE Executiw Committee Meeting in Paris in May l9B3, Brazil was chosen to host the XII International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, to be held in Rio de Janeiro in 1989. Conferences and Congresses

These national and regional meetings are helping to further international cooperation in our region, even in the small world of soil mechanics and foundation engineering, for projects involving both research, and design and construc­ tion. What is even more important, they have been a

The ABMS has been an active member in the region. It has organised some 150 meetings (technical get-togethers, conferences and symposia which have been attended by

and professional contact among the region's engineers.

Among the principal events that this dynamic association has organised we have the VII Brazilian Congress on Soil

decisive factor in fostering ties of friendship, cooperation Ten of the eleven national societies have been the centre for soil mechanics in each of the South American countries over the past four years. As national societies they have engaged in many technical activities, contributing to the development of this science and to a fruitful exchange among the members. As the ISSMFE Vice-President for South America

I have attended all of the meetings, most of them accom­ panied by Professor Victor F B de Mello, President of the

approximately 300 professionals in the field of soil


Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in 1982, at which more

than l00 technical papers were presented; the Terzaghi 100th Anniversary and the I International Congress on Geomechanics of Tropical, Lateritic and Saprolitic Soils (TropicaL‘S 85), held in Feburary 1985. At this Congress, which was divided into 6 categories, 112 papers from 31 countries were presented, 34 of which were submitted by Brazil.


This report covers the activities of the South American societies since the X International Conference, held in


In addition to being in charge of the International TropiC$ Soils Committee, the Brazilian Association is also on the ISSMFE Technical Committee on SPT.

The different regional nuclei of the ABMS have been ex­ tremely active, with professional improvement courses, con­ ferences and symposia.


In addition to its quarterly Bulletin, the ABMS has pub­ lished the Proceedings of the 1978 and 1982 Brazilian Congresses. It publishes the magazine “Solos e Rocha" and has translated two works in the field of geotechnology to be distributed among its members. The Brazilian Association has also set up three awards: the Terzaghi Award for researchers and university profes­ sors; the Jose Machado Award for the best geotechnical work and the Manuel Rocha Award for professionals showing great

achievement in the field of soils and foundation engineer­ ing and for works they have published.


In response to complaints from several geotechnical pro­ fessionals in Ecuador it was found that the member society in this country does not have nation-wide status but only covers the area of Guayaquil. VENEZUELA

The Venezuelan Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (Sociedad Venezolana de Mecanica de Suelos e Ingenieria de Fundaciones) has 190 ISSMFE members. It

celebrated its 25th anniversary in 1983 and for this occasion, Organized a Conference on the evolution of soil mechanics, foundations, stability of slopes and designing and construction of dams. Professors Victor F B de Mello, President of the ISSM E, James Michael Duncan, K S Wong, James L Sherard and J Barry Cooke attended as guests.



The Chilean Soil Mechanics and Foundation Society (Sociedad Chilena de Mecanica de Suelos y Fundaciones) has 30 members registered with the ISSMFE and has shown satisfactory

The Venezuelan Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Society organised the VII Geotechnical Seminar on founda­

activity during the 4 years. It has taken part in several international Congresses, has held lectures on geotechno­ logy and organized the I Chilean Congress on Geotechnical Engineering in August l982, at which 32 papers were submitted.


The Colombian Geotechnical Society (Sociedad Colombiana de

Geotecnia) is organising the VIII Pan American Congress on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, to be held in that country in 1987. In 1982 it organised the I South American Seminar on Rock Mechanics, with the cooperation of the International Rock Mechanics Society.

tions in urban areas, held in October 1982. In November 1984 the VIII Geotechnical Seminar covered analysis, design and construction of works on solid rocks. The organisation of the IX Geotechnical Seminar to be held next year is already under way.

Arrangements are being made for a National Meeting of university professors of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

There are also monthly lectures on geotechnology which are attended by 30 to lO0 professionals.


The Venezuelan Society has been publishing a quarterly bul­ letin since 1960 and has put out three technical works for

sale to those working in the field.

During this period it has arranged some technical meetings

J C Hiedra-Lopez

and has invited foreign professors to give lectures for the

members of the Colombian Society. COSTA RICA

The Costa Rican Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Association (Asociacion Costarricense de Mecanica de Suelos

e Ingenieria de Fundaciones) was established in 1979 and

has 58 members in the ISSMFE.

In 1979 it held the I National Seminar on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering and, in 1982, the II Seminar on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering which was attended by some foreign professionals. The III National Seminar

will be held this year.

During this time it has also arranged some 30 technical lectures, mostly by foreign professionals.


The South American members of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering considering that:

l. Professor Arthur Casagrande was one of the founders

of modern Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering;

2. He contributed with his professional and teaching activities to the development of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in South America through his

active participation in the design and construction of important foundation and earth work projects of the region; and

3. His numerous lectures constituted the driving force DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

In 1982 the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Chapter of the "Colegio Dominicano de Ingenieros, Arquitectos y Agri­ mensores" held the III Soil Mechanics Symposium on the Current Status of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

in the Dominican Republic. It has also organised lectures by foreign guest speakers and some lectures at the univer­


for the improvement of the teaching of Soil Mechanics

in the universities of the region;

Have decided to establish in his honour the Arthur Casagrande Lecture with the following objectives and by-laws OBJECTIVE

The "Arthur Casagrande Lecture" is created to fulfill the


following objectives:

(a) To be the highest technical and scientific award

bestowed upon an engineer dedicated to the practice of soil mechanics and foundation engineering in South

(9) To determine the type and amount of information about the candidates to the Award that National

Societies should file in support of the candidate

(b) Tb honour the memory of Professor Arthur Casagrande.

(h) To distribute copies of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture, six months ahead of the date of the Lecture, to the National Societies of the region in order to induce written discussions.

(C) To acknowledge the contributions in research, teaching

(i) To select the written discussions of the lecture


and professional work made by South American engineers

in the areas of soil mechanics and foundation


(d) To induce the development of applied research, the art of engineering and the improvement of teaching of geotechnique among the engineers of South America.


The following organisation should assure permanent the periodical presentation of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture.

Art. l - Constitution of the Organising Committee The Organising Committee of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture is composed by three members of the Inter­ national Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMTE), South America region. The

President of the Committee is one of the three members and this position shall always be taken by the Vice­ President for South America, the other two members shall be chosen among former Vice-Presidents for South America and Arthur Casagrande Lecturers.

Art. 2 ­ Election of Committee Members Vice-President for South America and President of the Organising Committee shall designate the other twb members according to the established requirements


of Art. l. This appointment to the committee shall be made no later than three months after his election as Vice-President of the region. The re-election of one or two of the members of the Committee shall be left to the criterion of the Vice-President elect. Art. 3 - Duration of Appointment The members of the Committee shall be appointed for

a four years term.

Art. 4 - Functions of Organising Committee The

duties of the Committee shall be


To designate the Arthur Casagrande Lecturer.


To sign the commemorative plate or plaque.


To present the plaque to the Arthur Casagrande Lecturer during the Pan American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.


TO select the time and date of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture with the Organising Committee of the Pan American Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.


To inform, two years ahead of time, of the award to the geotechnical engineer chosen to give the Arthur Casagrande Lecture.


To request from South American National Societies the names of their candidates to the award and

to inform of the last date for filing them. 2990

and to mail them for publication in the Proceed­ ings of the Pan American Conference.

(j) To request, if necessary, the allocation of a

larger quota of pages for the Vice-President for the International Conference in order to fill the South America from the Organising Committee of

needs of the Arthur Casagrande Lecture and the written discussions. Art 5 - Selection of Candidates

Each National Society of the region, shall have the right to present a maximum of two candidates chosen among the geotechnical engineers that are activ e

members of ISSMFE.

Art 6 - Requirements for the Candidates

(a) To be a member of a National Society of the South America region

(b) The candidate shall have worked for at least twenty years, in research, teaching and/or pro­ fessional practice of geotechnique. Art. 7 - Language

The ArthurCasagrande Lecture shall be presented in Spanish or Portuguese.

Art. B - Publication The Lecture shall be written in Spanish or Portuguese with extensive English summary and in accordance with the instructions for preparation of papers provided by the Organising Committee of the International Conference. The Lecture and its written discussions shall be published in the Proceedings of the Conference.

The Lecture shall also be published in Spanish and Portuguese in the Revista Latinoamericana de Geotechnn Art. 9 - Design and Payment for the Commemorative Plaque

The Vice-President for South America shall assign to his own National Society the duty to design and pay for the plaque awarded to the Arthur Casagrande Lecture.

Art. lO - Date and Place The Arthur Casagrande Lecture shall be given in the city and country holding the Pan American Conference.

The date shall be selected within the period of the mentioned event.

The First Arthur Casagrande Lecture shall be given, as exception, at the XI International COnference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering to be held in San Francisco, California, 1985.



- Structure and organisation of the system. TASK

The task of the new co-operative Information System IGIS

is - for the time of beginning - to compile and to provide information on the worldwide published literature in the fields of

- Soil Mechanics - Rock Mechanics

- Geotechnical Engineering - Engineering Geology.

number of abstracts to be revised by the user should not be too large regarding the handling of the issues.

The disadvantage of the limited depth of accessibility due to the IGC-categories with the cardfile-system or due to

the limited number of key-words used with the Geodex-System is compensated by the advantage of the permanent disposal

of these systems to the user and its relatively low costs. Advanced Retrieval-System (Database-Service)

The performance of comprehensive retrospective information searches of a permanent profile service depends on an advanced computerized storage and retrieval system, which

is accessible to the user by

Sources are mainly the relevant journals, series, monographs (books, theses, etc.) and conference-proceedings, as com­ piled in the preliminary list of publications (Annex 1).

- the staff of the IGIS-agencies, or - his own terminal as on-line service, or

be included in this service. Other items for the exchange of information, e.g. on research, directories of special services, could be taken into consideration, when the system is operating.

- using the data base on his own (PC-)computer.

Information on available computer programmes should also

The working language of IGIS is English.

A careful indexing by standardized descriptors, compiled in the "Geotechnical Theseaurus" is the essential pre­

requisite for an efficient retrieval system.


According to the different demands for information in the professional areas as consulting, construction, research, education and others, specific information services are

The computerized data base allows the production of other services, such as special bibliographies on demand for

given topics of interest.



Current Bibliographic List A quick and comprehensive compilation of all published

material is to he provided as a bibliographic list like the present "New Geographical Titles". This list should

appear monthly as a newspaper for the professionals for a quick screening of special subjects or of the authors'


The information system should be organized worldwide in close connection with the professional community. This

can be provided in the best way by a co-operation of interactive information-centres, which already exist or should be established in different countries and regions. The co-operation of these centres, working as IGIS-agencies, should be settled by an agreement under the auspices of ISSMFE. The co-operative centres form an "Operational Sub-committee" which deals with the details of the daily



Abstracts of all important contributions should be pub­ lished in a journal like "Geotechnical Abstracts". Criteria must be established for the selection of the papers to be abstracted. The abstracts should be provided hy experts - preferably by the authors - to enable the IGIS-users to follow up the technical development in their

The German Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation

evaluate the whole original publication.

- to edit the printed central services and to distribute it to the centres,

fields of interest and to decide, if it is necessary to

This abstract-service also allows the user to build up a personal storage-and-retrieval-system as, e.g.

- a card-file, classified according to the International Geotechnical Classification System (IGC), or

- the Geodex-Retrieval-System in connection with the current issues of "Geotechnical Abstracts".

This abstract-service can be distributed monthly. bi­ monthly or quarterly. It should be considered that the

Engineering offers to act as a coordinating centre (clearing house) with the following tasks:

- to collect and treat the information provided by the information centres in a standardized format,

- to provide the compiled data in appropriate exhange format to the centres.

The tasks of the information-centres could be to serve within the region of its influence

- in collecting and processing the relevant information and forwarding it to the clearing house. Thatmeansparticularly 2991

- to deliver the bibliographic data of the periodically published matter according to the list of sources,

The IGIS-agencies receive a compensation for

- including the indexing by descriptors (Geotechnical

- the collection and processing of the information to the coordination centre (per unit),

- in a standardized format on working sheets or other means (magnetic tapes, floppy-discs, etc.),

- the distribution of the printed central services in their


- to select the papers for abstracting and deliver the abstracts, - to take over special duties for the whole IGIS-system on agreement in the operational subcommittee,

- to guarantee the supply of information in their regions (due to the economic conditions of the regions)

- by distribution of the printed central services,

- by maintaining the information storage using the central data-base, - by dealing with individual literature searches and profile-services, - to supply the original sources on demand of the users of the system.

The exchange procedure can be performed to the rules of the wellknown "International Road Research Documentation" of OECD or the new "International Construction Data-base" (ICONDA) of the International Council for Building Research and Documentation (CIB).

For the various regions the following centres can be taken into consideration as IGIS-agencies among others: Europe

German National Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkdping (for Scandinavia)

Other National Centres, e.g. in France, Spain, Italy ... North America

Geodex International Inc., Sonoma, Calif., USA Southern Africa

National Building Research Institute, Pretoria South East Asia

Asian Information Centre for Geotechnical Engineering, Bangkok


Australian Mineral Foundation Inc., Glenside, South Australia Japan

Japan Information Center of Science and Technology, Tokyo

Information centres in other regions and countries have to be explored by consultation the Member Societies of ISSMFE. The system is open to the contribution of any national

information centre directly or via a regional centre.


The agreement between the co-operative centres has also to

include the financial aspects. The basic principle is that the system has to be run self-supporting.



- special central duties. The regional centres will reimburse the coordinating centre for the delivery of the central data exchange. In general a settlement of the accounts will be made between the information centres and the coordinating centre. The information centres shall offer the IGIS-services in their regions of influence on their own responsibility as a source for financing. H Nendza


At the lOth ICSMFE in Stockholm 1981 the ISSMFE Sub­

Committee on Standardization of Penetration Testing in

Europe presented a report on its activities 1977-1981. A questionnaire was sent out in 1979 which indicated that CPT and SPT are the most widely used penetration testing methods in Europe that the recommended standards submitted by the Committee to the 9th ICSMFE in Tokyo 1977 are used with minor vari­

ations in many countries

that some countries plan to adopt the recommended stan­ dards wholly or partly as National Standards

that most Member Societies believe that there is no need for further standardization. Some Member Societies pro­ posed however, that reference standards should also be

1. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) 2. Cone Penetration Test (CPT) 3. Dynamic probing (DP) 4. Weight Sounding Test (WST)

It was also concluded that it would not be possible for the Committee to correlate and to compare the different penetration testing methods before the International Conference in San Francisco in August 1985 and that this would be the main topic at ISOPT I.

The work of the Committee has been organized in four different working groups each concerned with one of the penetration testing methods mentioned above. Each working group has worked out a report containing proposals for

reference test procedures. These reports will be discussed at a Technical Committee meeting in San Francisco.

developed for

(i) A light dynamic penetrometer

(ii) A super heavy dynamic penetrometer (weight of hammer about 200 kg)

(iii) The field vane test.

The 2nd European Symposium on Penetration Testing (ESOPT

II) was held in Amsterdam, Holland, 24-27 May 1982 with

about 400 participants. More than 140 technical papers from 30 different countries were presented which indicate the large interest in penetration testing around the world. Approximately 2/3 of the papers were concerned with the Cone Penetration test (CPT).

About half of the submitted papers were selected for oral presentation. Correlations between different penetration testing methods were presented. The interpretation of the results for prediction of bearing capacity and settlement of spread footings, rafts and pile groups was also dis­ cussed. The effect of using a free falling hammer at SPT instead of a rope and a pully on the interpretation of the results was emphasized. A new ISSMFE Committee on Penetration Testing was

appointed for 1982-1985 by the President just after ESOPT II with the Swedish Geotechnical Society as host society and Bengt B Broms and Ulf Bergdahl as Chairman and

Secretary, respectively. Invitations were sent to members of ISSMFE in 33 different countries to participate in the

work of the Committee either as members or as corresponding


The terms of reference for the Committee were enlarged. It was emphasized by the president that the Committee should investigate correlations and comparisons between different penetration testing methods and the applications

and limitations of the methods to predict the bearing capacity and settlement of shallow footings, piers and

piles. The members of the Committee were also encouraged to correspond with authors of papers concerned with pene­

tration testing. Early attempts at standardization should

be avoided.


Members of working group:

S Thorburn (UK), Chairman J H Schmertmann (USA) I K Nixon (UK)

L Decourt (Brazil)

T Muromachi (Japan)

F C Pierce has been a corresponding member.

In their report the group traced the development of the SPT

back to Charles R Gow and H A Mohr in the USA. The method was standardized in the US in 1967 by ASTM. Today (1985)

the method is used extensively in many parts of the world, e.g. Australia, Brazil, Canada, Greece, India, Japan, Mexico, UK and USA. The main difference between existing National Standards in different countries is the method of releasing the hammer and the preparation of the boreholes

before a test.

The SPT is commonly used to evaluate the bearing capacity

and settlement of shallow foundations, rafts, piers and piles and the liquefaction potential of sands. However, a large number of factors has been found to affect the results from SPT as pointed out in the report. Attempts have been made to correlate the SPT results with the shear strength of stiff Clays and weak rocks as well as the relative density of cohesionless soils. Methods have been proposed to correct the results with respect to the over­ burden pressure and ground water level. The group has proposed an international reference test procedure. This proposal where the results are corrected with respect to the energy delivered during the driving has been discussed by the Committee.


Members of the working group:

The Committee met in Helsinki 28 May 1982 in connection with the Bth ECSMFE and most of the members and corres­

E De Beer, Belgium, Chairman W J Heijnan, Netherlands, Co-chairman and secretary R G Campanella, Canada

ponding members (2O) could be present. It was agreed that the main goal of the Committee should be to work out reference test procedures for the following four penetra­ tion testing methods

J Schmertmann, USA

J C Holden, Australia M Jamiolkowski, Italy G A Jones, South Africa


G Stefanoff, Bulgaria J Trofimenkov, USSR

Correspondingmembers have been: S Amar, France, F Baguelin, France, E Goelen, Belgium, K Joustra, Netherlands, B A Leach, UK, K-J Melzer, FRG, T Moromachi,

Japan, L Parez, France, G Sanglerat, France and S Thorburn, UK.

Most of the work on the draft of CPT has been made by a restricted team: E De Beer, Belgium, W J Heijnen, Netherlands, K Joustra, Netherlands and E Goelen, Belgium. The method which was developed in the Netherlands in the 19305 is commonly used in Europe, North America and in some parts of Asia to determine the depth, thickness and

mechanical properties of different soil strata and to predict the bearing capacity of piles.

Different methods can be used to determine the cone and

the sleeve resistances during a test as a function of depth. These resistances are measured either continuously or discontinuously. A large number of factors has been found to affect the results such as the diameter of the penetrometer tip, the size and shape of the cone, the size and location of the friction sleeve penetration rate, verticality and straightness of the rods. The friction ratio has been found to be an important indication of the mechanical composition of the soil. Reference test pro­ cedure for the piezo-cone penetrometer have also been considered by the group.


Members of working group: B B Broms, Sweden, Chairman T Muromachi, Japan U Bergdahl, Sweden

K Drodz, Czechoslovakia, M Borowczyk, Poland, G Gabos, Hungary, B Finborud and A Andresen, Norway, have been corresponding members.

The weight sounding method is commonly used in the Scandinavian countries, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Algeria, Japan and Singapore primarily during the

preliminary phase of a soil investigation in order to determine the layer sequence (depth and thickness) as well as the relative density of cohesionless soils. The results are often used, e.g. to estimate the bearing capacity of shallow foundations on sand and to check the compaction of


The penetration resistance of WST is expressed either as

the mass required for penetration of very soft clay or silt or as the number of half turns every 0.2 m of penetration. In the proposed reference test procedure such factors as the shape and dimensions of the penetrometer point rods andcouplings have been specified as well as the straight­

ness of the rods. Also the presentation of the results is discussed in the report of the working group.



Members of the working group: K-J Melzer, FRG, Chairman

G Sanglerat, France G Stefanoff, Bulgaria U Bergdahl, Sweden

The working group was supported by correspondence by the

members of the Technical Committee. In addition 13 cor­ responding members were on the distribution list.

that the work of the Committee should continue

that the main task of the new Committee should be to pro­ pose reference test procedures for commonly used penetra­ tion testing methods to be approved by the ISSMFE Executive Committee

that the new Committee should promote the use and applica­

tion of proposed reference test procedures primarily in research by for example organising an International

Symposium on Penetration Testing (1soPT) in l9BB (already

The dynamic probing method is commonly applied in about

suggested) where the interpretation of results from different penetration testing methods,correlations between in-situ testing methods and case records will be discussed.

also used to control, e.g. the compaction of fills.

Respectfully submitted

20 countries in Europe and in more than 20 countries outside Europe both during the preliminary and the final phases of a soil exploration programme. The method is Reference test procedures have been proposed for four main types of penetrometers, super heavy (DPSH), heavy

(DPH), medium (DPM) and light (DPL) depending on the soil

conditions, the required depth and the application of the results. The superheavy penetrometer is mainly used when the required penetration depth exceeds 25 m. The mass of the ram is 63.5 kg and the height of fall 0.75 m. At the

B Broms, Sweden, Chairman

U Bergdahl, Sweden, Secretary

S Thorburn, UK, Chairman of Working Group SPT E de Beer, Belgium, Chairman of Working Group CPT K-J Melzer, FRG, Chairman of Working Group DP

light penetrometer the recommended mass is 10 kg while

the height of fall is 0.5 m. Dynamic probing is used in Europe primarily for qualitative subsoil exploration, e.g. to locate dense layers for end bearing piles:

quantitative interpretation of the test results is mainly restricted to cohesionless soils to get an indication of relative density, compressibility, shear strength, etc. The limitation of the method is the effect of the skin friction along the rods on the penetration resistance especially in cohesive soils. However, the skin friction

resistance can be reduced by, for example, injecting drilling mud near the cone or by rotating the rods during the driving. The number of blows every 0.2 m or 0.1 m of penetration is counted.


B B Broms


The history of this Committee and its Terms of Reference, as published in the ISSMFE News in 1983, are given below. During the term 1981-1985 it was agreed that the Committee would try to initiate cooperative research projects between Member Societies and report the results to the Executive Committee at its meeting in San Francisco in August 1985. The membership includes all Regional Vice Presidents as well as Society members who are assisting with interna­ tional research cooperation.

Professor N Kumapley in Ghana which resulted in a fully supported Fellowship for engineers from Ghana to work in Canada and for a technical mission from Canada to assist


detailed by Dr Katti.

The committee can report the following 26 examples of research cooperation:


in the development of roads in Ghana. It is recognised

that the construction of transportation facilities is

essential for economic development. The Research Co­ operation Committee can provide opportunities for the

ISSMFE to assist with the creation of these facilities in developing countries. Another example is the various lectures given by prominent members of the International Society to members of the Indian Member Society as

l. Evaluation of Self-Boring Pressuremeter in Sand 2. Physical Modelling of Seismically-Induced Settlements in Soils 3. Analytical Analyses and Modelling of Seismically­ Induced Settlement in Soils 4. (a) Canadian Geotechnical Fellowship sponsored by the

l. The Research Cooperation Committee should be continued during the 1985-B9 Presidential term.

5. Design of Low Cost, Low Maintenance Penetration Roads in the Andes

3. Special emphasis should be given to assisting colleagues in developing countries with support for their research and other technical activities.

Canadian International Development Agency and CGS (D) Earth Science Aspects of Road Developments

6. Lecture tour - various cities in Canada

7. Lecture tour to Ghana by J Graham and A Clayton, sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency, Canadian Geotechnical Society, Ghana Geotechnical Society.

8. The In-situ Measurement of Soil Suction and its Relationship to the Stability of Slopes in Hong Kong 9. Study of the Use of a Cohesive Non-Swelling Soil to Stabilize Slopes in Expansive Soils 10. Problems arising from processing of bauxite in Jamaica for extraction of aluminium ll. Land reclamation from aggregate slimes

12. Effect of strain rate on consolidation and shear behaviour of clays and verification of centrifuge modelling laws

13. Anisotropy - Strength criteria of anisotropic soils 14. Working load of large-diameter bored piles

15. (a) Insitu-Testing of lateritic soils and soft clays (b) Co-supervision of PhD students in Geotechnical

Engineering 16. Calibration of CPT and DMT in Sands

17. Performance of Prefabricated Band-Shaped Drains

18. Interpretation of the SBPT in Sands 19. Behaviour of Micropiles in Malaysian Tropical Soils

2. Membership should include all regional Vice Presidents as well as those Individual Society members who are

able to initiate or participate in cooperative research projects.


The proposal for a Sub-Committee on Research Cooperation was made during the meeting of the Executive Committee of ISSMFE in Oaxaca in March 1979. The minutes record that, "The Vice-President for South America (Professor Martinez) suggested that there should be an ISSMFE Sub-Committee to

organise cooperation in research between universities in developed and developing countries and this was agreed, and Dr Clark (on behalf of the Canadians) suggested a Technical Operations Fund to sponsor lectures by eminent soils engineers (possibly recently retired). He went on to offer funds from the Canadian Geotechnical Society to get such lectures started in the hopes that other National

Societies would also contribute to it. He also offered that the Canadians should themselves sponsor a lecture tour. Both of these offers were warmly accepted and other National Societies might perhaps care to consider if they might make

similar offers."

20. Development of a Removable Ground Anchor

Following the Oaxaca meeting, Dr Jack Clark arranged through Kevin Nash and the Canadian Geotechnical Society for

24. Laboratory and field studies of swelling clays in

Dr Shields was warmly received by the Ghana Geotechnical Society and this has resulted in the establishment of a Canadian Geotechnical Fellowship. The first fellow who is expected to arrive from Ghana in April 1983 will be employed by a provincial highway department on construction projects in order to gain experience with Canadian con­

25. Lectures and discussions with the Indian Society 26. Observational Approach to Analysis of Underground Structures

AC thé Oaxaca meeting, Professor Martinez was named Chairman of the Sub-Committee on Research Cooperation and

Some of these projects resulted from the Committee's

Committee meeting in Stockholm in June 1981.

21. Behaviour of Ground Anchors in Malaysian Tropical Soils 22. Properties and Behaviour of Secondary Cyclone Underflow. Samples from Rahman Hydraulic Tin Mine 23. Testing of a New Sampling Procedure Developed at Sherbrooke in Norwegian Clays Morocco

initiative but most are the result of individual initia­ tives. These projects illustrate significant achievements,

especially in assisting Member Societies that are in the early stages of development. A good example is the co­ operation between Professor D H Shields in Canada and

Dr D H Shields to carry out a lecture tour to Ghana in 1981.

struction practices.

he subsequently presented a report to the Executive

Minute No. 28 of the Stockholm Executive Committee Meeting

recorded the following: "Professor Martinez presented the report (Appendix


XIII). He also explained the reasons why, even though he had conceived the idea of the Committee, it was necessary for him to resign as its Chairman. Professor Mohan said he was not clear what was meant by “co­

operation” and stressed that in his experience co­ operative research was very difficult to organise. The President suggested that the terms of reference

should be reviewedand it was recommended that, subject to this review, the committee should continue. The President thanked Professor Martinez and his committee

for their work."

In a letter dated 13 May 1982, President de Mello suggested that two member societies, Canada and India, co-sponsor the conduct of the Research Cooperation Sub-Committee on behalf

of ISSMFE. Professor de Mello went on to suggest that

l. To identify specific research problems and arrange appropriate co-operation between individuals or organisations.

2. To facilitate the interchange of researchers between

member societies for their mutual benefit and to seek funding for such interchange when necessary. Allmembersocieties or individual members are invited to get in touch with one of the co-chairmen or with their regional Vice-President to make suggestions or to offer assistance under the terms of reference. You are asked to give this your immediate attention so that some examples of research co-operation can be developed to the point where progress can be reported during the 1985 Conference.

Mr C B Crawford (Canada) act as Chairman and Professor

Dinesh Mohan (India) act as Co-Chairman. Shortly after this suggestion was made, Dr Mohan retired from his position in India and undertook a UN assignment outside the country. Dr de Mello then invited Bengt Broms to Co-Chair the Sub­

Committee since Dr Broms was taking up a temporary position at the Nanyang Technical Institute in Singapore and would

therefore be in an excellent position through his many contacts throughout the world to initiate activities on

behalf of the Sub-Committee. At the same time President de Mello has encouraged all member societies to participate

in these activities.


Mr C B Crawford, Canada Professor B B Broms

Mr L C Wilson, VP - Africa Professor F K Chin, VP - Asia Dr R D Northey, VP - Australasia Professor A Croce, VP - Europe Professor J C Hiedra-Lopez, VP - South America Dr G E Bauer, Canada

Dr I J A Brackley, South Africa

At a meeting of the ISSMFE Steering Committee at San Francisco in January 1982 Chin Fung Kee (Vice-President

Dr E W Brand, S E Asia Dr J B Burland, UK Dr S F Chan, S E Asia Dr J Feda, Czechoslovakia Dr D G Fredlund, Canada

l. Assistance for finding employment in industry for students participating in sandwich type courses, i.e. with two or three semesters at university followed by

Professor P Habib, France Professor M Jamiolkowski, Italy Dr R K Katti, India Professor G Lefebvre, Canada

for Asia) identified four general requirements of develop­ ing countries.

one or two working in industry.

2. To help young graduates obtain experience in private industry. Usually no payment is required for these students but there are difficulties in finding appro­ priate employment.

3. The Organisation of Seminar Workshops involving people from developing countries but injecting some expertise from the developed countries. 4. The development of a mechanism for advising when visitors from developed countries are passing through developing countries and would be available for


It is recognised that most developing countries have

severe currency problems but for good programmes financial support can be obtained from the UN or from the inter­ national development agencies of some countries. Before the San Franciso Conference in 1985, it is hoped that some examples of successful cooperation (such as the Canada­ Ghana program e) can be achieved and used as models for undertaking further research cooperation. TERMS OF REFERENCE

At a meeting of the Steering Committee in Paris it was

agreed that the Sub-Committee on Research Co-operation

should have the following terms of reference:

To enhance the interchange of technology through research co-operation between individuals or organisations in Member Societies, with emphasis on the development of specific co-operative programmes.

The immediate objectives are:


(Chairman) (Co-Chairman)

Dr M P Luong, France Dr W F Marcuson III, USA Dr H Mori, Japan

Dr R Nova, Italy Professor J Salengon, France Professor D H Shields, Canada Professor M Tammirinne, Finland Dr R N Yong, Canada

Professor J G Zeitlen, Israel C B Crawford


The ISSMFE Executive Committee at its meeting in Stockholm

in 1981 endorsed a joint proposal of our Sub-Committee and the German National Society SMFE for publication of geotechnical computer program abstracts as a section of the Geotechnical Abstracts.

The next step in our activities then was to establish a

system of "associate editors" or "scouts" who would assemble information about relevant computer programs in certain geographical regions and forward this, in an established form directly to the editors of Geotechnical

Abstracts. A call in this regard was sent to the Sub­

Committee members in April l9B3. The response received

has been sufficiently strong to constitute a worldwide base for an effective gathering of abstracts.

This has been undoubtedly helped by increasing the member­ ship of the Sub-Committee from the original 6 members to 33 members, of which 25 became actively involved.

The Chairman of the Sub-Committee maintained regular contact with Professor de Mello, ISSMFE President, meeting with him

personally at least once a year during his tenure. At these

meetings Professor de Mello was regularly informed about the status of the Sub-Committee work.

One of the issues facing ISSMFE during the last four years has been how to proceed with policies regarding general information exchange. The question debated in particular was whether to continue the present system of abstracts or whether to replace the abstracts by shorter and more manage­ able key words. Since the geomechanical computer program publicity and exchange system has to remain a part of a more general information system, it is essential that the question of abstracts or key words is settled before pro­ ceeding any further with an implementation of our proposals. Furthermore, should the ISSMFE adopt a new key word system

a major modification of our existing guidelines would be required. The Sub-Committee is prepared to proceed with

either of the options.

Z Eisenstein





In his letter of 20 November 1981, the President of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering proposed that the Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society (SEAGS) should take responsibility for "Soil Sampling - Residual Soils" for the period 1981/85. SEAGS accepted the President‘s invitation on 20 May 1982. A

Chairman and Secretary were nominated for the Committee, which was later to be named (from 19 April 1983) the Technical Committee on Sampling and Testing of Residual

the transfer of relevant geotechnical knowledge and litera­ ture across national and linguistic boundaries has hitherto

been poor. It therefore attempted initially to prepare a

comprehensive international bibliography on residual soils, together with a world map showing their distribution, as a starting point for an in-depth review of sampling and

testing techniques for these materials. with notable

exceptions, Members of the Committee did not respond to

this initiative as well as expected, partly due to the fact that very little has been published about residual


soils in many of the countries. This endeavour was there­ fore not pursued.


The unsuccessful bibliographical exercise highlighted even further the hitherto inadequate interchange of information on national practices employed for the sampling and testing

The terms of reference of the Technical Committee for the period 1981/85 were:

(a) Tb enhance international geotechnical engineering

practice in residual soils by collecting and dis­

seminating information relating to the sampling and

testing of these materials.

(b) To publish, in time for the Eleventh International

Conference, a volume of collected papers which reviews current practice worldwide for the sampling and

testing of residual soils.

(c) To make reco mendations to the Executive Committee of the International Society on tasks to be accomplished by the Technical Committee for the period 1985/B9. MEMBERSHIP

On 17 November 1982, the President of ISSM E sent letters of invitation to the proposed Members of the Committee, and

correspondence relating to these invitations continued into 1983. The final Committee comprised the following 18

Members from 16 countries:

Dr E W Brand (Southeast Asia) - Chairman

Mr H B Phillipson (Southeast Asia) - Secretary Mr M O Adesunloye (Nigeria)

of the whole range of residual materials. It was therefore

decided in June 1984 that state-of-the-art reviews would be the best means by which experiences on the sampling and

testing of these difficult materials could be shared inter­

nationally. To this end, each Committee Member was asked

to prepare a review paper for his own country, and invita­ tions for similar reviews to be written were sent to all those ISSMFE Member Societies not represented on the


Eighteen national review papers were prepared by Committee Members and other individuals nominated by their Member

Societies. These papers have been published in a volume entitled "Sampling and Testing of Residual Soils: A Review of International Practice", together with a com­ prehensive review paper by E W Brand and H B Phillipson.

The review volume should serve as an important source of

reference on the state-of-the-art of sampling and testing of residual soils. It also provides information on a

wide range of geotechnical problems encountered with these

materials in many countries of the world. It deals with

the whole spectrum of residual materials formed from igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks under a variety

of climatic conditions. Some consideration is also given to the geotechnical engineering aspects of colluvium, which often displays many of the same characteristics as residual

soils, particularly in respect of the difficulties of sampling and testing.

Professor G E Blight (South Africa)

Dr I R Brown (New Zealand) Professor W R Dearman (United Kingdom) Dr M D Desai (India) Dr M D Gidigasu (Ghana)

Mr A A Jayaputra (Indonesia)

Professor M Kany (FR Germany) Professor C M Medina (Ecuador)

Mr B G Richards (Australia) Dr S S Sandroni (Brazil)

Dr H Scheffler (German DR) Professor G F Sowers (USA) Professor M Tammirinne (Finland) Mr H C Verma (India) Mr C T Yassuda (Brazil) WORK OF THE COM ITTEE

The Technical Committee realised at an early stage that



No formal meetings of the Technical Committee have been

convened during its period of existence, but the Chairman has had informal discussions on the work of the Committee with some individual Committee Members and with the President of ISSMFE on several occasions. The formal business of the Committee has therefore been conducted entirely by correspondence. The scope of the Technical Committee has inevitably over­ lapped slightly with that of the ISSMFE Technical Committee

on Tropical Soils (Brazil) and with that of the extended ISSMFE Subcommittee on Site Investigation (USA/Japan).

The Chairman and Secretary are fully aware of the work of these other two ISSMFE bodies. The Chairman has had some contact with the Chairman and Secretary of the Committee on Tropical Soils, and has vainly attempted to establish working contact with the Subcommittee on Site Investigation


The publication of the review volume will form an excellent basis for real progress to be made on the sampling and

testing techniques for residual soils and colluvium. In

view of the existence of a Technical Committee on Tropical Soils, however, there appears to be no good reason why the TE¢hhiCB1 Committee on Sampling and Testing of Residual

Soils should continue as a separate entity. It is there­

fore recommended that this Technical Committee be discon­

tinued and that its future work be absorbed into an expanded Technical Committee on Tropical Soils.

E W Brand



A technical report has been compiled which deals in detail with many aspects pertaining to the sampling and testing of soft rocks and indurated soils and by way of a summary of the deliberations of the Subco mittee, the following comments are offered to form a compact report for dis­ tribution to and consideration by the members of the Executive prior to the San Francisco Executive Committee Meeting.

The report has been divided into three sections as follows: (a) Section A deals with the background and procedures used by the working group. As explained in the report,

while a significant input of international opinion was canvassed, the resulting response was very dis­ appointing. Therefore the report cannot be considered as comprehensive but should instead be used as a basis

for, firstly, establishing the appropriate organisa­

tion best suited to examine the problems associated with sampling and testing soft rocks and indurated soils and, secondly, developing technical recommenda­ tions as to the methods best suited to such materials. (b) Section B examines the methods of organisation for the consideration of problems relating to soft rocks and indurated soils. The materials being considered form a transition between those materials considered separately by ISSM E and ISRM. Since Soft Rocks and

Indurated Soils are of specific interest to both societies,it is important that technical recommenda­ tions are developed to satisfy the interests of both professional bodies. It is argued that the only practical method of achieving a unified approach is

by the formation of a joint ISSMFE and ISRM commission

to examine the common materials of soft rocks and

indurated soils. This co mission should appoint the appropriate individuals to co-ordinate and guide

international activity on the subject so that national

boundaries are transcended. A suggested organisa­ tional format for such a commission is outlined in the report.

Section B of the report also examines possible reasons for the poor response to the working group's attempts

to obtain international opinion. The first likely


reason relates to the lack of incentive for significant

contributions from individuals and the second relates

to the scope of the current committee. It is the

opinion of the working group in Melbourne, that if future working groups are limited to small but specific topics and the findings of these working groups are published in a recognised international journal, with


authorship, then significant voluntary contributions are more likely to be forthcoming and of use to the profession at large. In addition, these informative published findings would be immediately available to the profession and therefore likely to generate con­ structive criticism to form the basis of future, balanced and informed revisions.

The suggested organisation for such an end product is

dealt with in the report.

(c) Section C deals with a preliminary technical appraisal of the problems associated with undisturbed sampling

and laboratory testing of soft rocks and indurated soils. A number of specific areas are addressed in­ cluding relevant terminol09Y, a discussion of sampling techniques, and an examination of some of the labo­ ratory tests which may apply to soft rocks with a consideration of some problems. It is recognised that Section C is far from comprehensive and represents only a limited range of opinions. However, it is hoped that this Section may form some basic points for con­ sideration by future specific working groups. In conclusion, it is the opinion of the current Subcommittm that because of the transitional nature of soft rocks and indurated soils and because of the relatively small volume of published literature on the subject, the area of sampling and testing of soft rocks and indurated soils should be examined by a joint Commission of ISSMFE and ISRM. This

Commission should be carefully planned so that small but specific international working groups can evolve suitable techniques which are generally accpetable to the engineering profession. I W Johnston






La composition du Comite a été proposee par lettre du President de la SIMSTF du 26.11.B2. Apres reponse des

By letter of Nov. 11-82, the President of ISSMFE has proposed participants. From the answers of the invited societies, the membership was established around April 1983 as follows :

societes invitées, elle s'est etablie vers avril 1983 comme suit :

PRESIDENT/CHAIRMAN Mr. F. BAGUELIN (France) f demission en fevrier 1984 SECRETAIRE/SECRETARY Mr. B. FELIX (France) resigned in February 1984

MEMBRES/MEMBERS Prof. O. INGLES (Australie/Australia) Prof. J.H. ALBIERO (Bresil/Brazil) Prof. G. STEFANOFF (Bulgarie/Bulgaria)

Dr. J. HORTON (Canada) Dr. J.H. TRONCOSO (Chili/Chile) Dr. Zhou JING (Chine/China)

Dr. L. PRUSKA (Tchecoslovaquie/Czechoslovakia) Dr. J.S. STEENFELT (Danemark/Denmark) Dr. H. RATHHAYER (Finlande/Finland) Dr. N. GRUBER (R.F. Allemagne/F.R. Germany) Dr. K. REINHARDT (R.D. Allemagne/D.D.R.)

Dr. L. RETHATI (Hongrie/Hungary) Prof. G. PETRASOVITS (Hongrie/Hungary)

Dr. S. FRYDMAN (Israel/Israel) Dr. K. UESHITA (Japon/Japan)

Mr. R. ESQUIVEL DIAZ (Mexique/Mexico)

rw. HJ.LU&R (%yvBn/Mtmrhnk) Eng. P. SIHAO SECO PINTO (Portugal)

Dr. E. SANDEGREN (Suede/Sweden) Dr. R.P. BRENNER (Suisse/Switzerland) Prof. N.M. KIRKPATRICK (Royaume Uni/United Kingdom) Dr. A.I. JOHNSON (Etats Unis d'Amerique/U.S.A.) Les missions etaient :

The terms of reference were :

1. Elargir la liste des symboles, avec leurs unites

1. Extend the list of symbols, with their units and definitions, especially in more recent fields of Soil

et definitions. particulierement dans les domaines recents de la Mecanique des Sols, tels que la dynami­ que des sols, les travaux en mer, la rhéologie moder­

lbchanics, such as soil dynamics, offshore, modern

2. Reviser la liste actuelle afin d'obtenir la cohe­ rence avec les listes de l'Association Internationale

2. Revise the present list in order to make it consis tant with the list of the International Association of


de la Geologie de l'Ingenieur et de la Societe Inter­ nationale de Mécanique des Roches. Ce travail est e faire sous la conduite du Comite de Coordination des

trois Societes.


Engineering Geology and the International Society of Rock Mechanics. This work should be performed under

the guidance of these three Societies.

3. Evaluer la pertinence de certaines correlations

3. Assess the value of some correlations used in Soil

en usage en Mecanique des Sols.




1. Extension et revision de la liste des symboles

1. Extension and revision of the list of symbols

Le travail s'est realise par correspondance et grace a trois reunions :

This work has been achieved by mail as well as by three meetings :


- l'une 5 PARIS, le 18 mai 1983, réunissant 8 mem­ bres, - la deuxiéme 5 VENISE, les 17 et 18 mars 1984, réu­ nissant 9 membres, - la troisiéme 5 BUDAPEST, les 30 septembre et Ier octobre 1984, réunissant 9 membres.

- the first one in PARIS, on Hay 18, 1983 with 8 mem­ bers, - the second one in VENICE, on March 17 and 18, 1984,

Les domaines d'extension possibles ont été définis 5 PARIS et confiés 5 divers responsables. qui ont pré­ pare des propositions pour la réunion de VENISE. Celles-ci ont été examinées, ainsi que les sugges­ tions des membres faites par correspondance. Une lis­

The possible areas for extension have been defined in

with 9 members, - the third one in BUDAPEST, on September 30 and 0cto­ ber 1st, 1984, with 9 members.

PARIS and assigned to various members, who then prepa­ red proposals for the VENICE meeting. These were exa­ mined, as well as the suggestions of members offered

te provisoire a été ainsi été établie et diffusée

by mail. Thus a draft list has been established and sent for comments to all National Societies on June

pour observations 5 l'ensemble des Sociétés Nationa­ les membres, le 28 juin 1984.

28, 1984.

Il fut regu des observations de la part de 11 pays : Australie. Bulgarie, Finlande, France, Japon, Portu­

Comments were received from 11 countries : Australia, Bulgaria, Finland, France, Japan, Portugal, D.D.R.,

gal, R.D. d'Allemagne, R.F. d'Allemagne, Suéde, URSS,

F.R. Germany, Sweden, USSR, USA.


proposition d'une liste revue et élargie, dont l'or­ ganisation générale a été refondue comme suit :

Their study at the Budapest meeting led to the propo­ sal of a revised and enlarged list. whose general ar­ rangement has been reviewed as follows :



I - Généralités

I - General

II - Contraintes et déformations

II - Stress and strain III - Properties of soil :

Leur étude 5 la réunion de BUDAPEST a abouti 5 la

III - Propriétés des sols : a) identification des sols

a) soil identification

c) prélévement d) consolidation (uni-dimensionnelle)

c) sampling d) consolidation (one-dimensional)

b) hydraulic properties

b) propriétés hydrauliques

e) shear strength

e) resistance au cisaillement f) essais en place g) dynamique

h) texture des sols i) divers IV - Ouvrages géotechniques

f) in-situ tests g) dynamics

h) soil-fabric i) other IV - Geotechnical structures al earth retaining structures

a) ouvrages de souténement b) fondations

b) foundations c) slopes

c) pentes d) ancrages e) géotextiles

d) ground anchors

e) geotextiles

V - Dynamique des fondations et tremblements de terre

V - Foundation vibration and earthquake enginee­

VI - Principaux indices

VI - Hain subindexes

Il est proposé que cette nouvelle liste soit publiée


It is proposed that this new list be published as a

conme recommandation de la SIMSTF.

recommendation of the ISSMFE.

2. Coordination avec l'AIGI et la SIMR

2. Coordination with IAEG and ISRM

Une réunion regroupant des représentants de chacune des trois Sociétés s'est tenue 5 PARIS le 19 mai 1983,

afin de faire le point des projets en cours et des be­ soins de coordination.

A meeting of several delegates of each of the three Societies was held in PARIS on May 19, 1983, in order to review the existing projects and the needs for coor­ dination.

La liste des symboles et le glossaire de la SIMR n'ont pas évolué depuis leur sortie en 1970 et 1975.

The list of symbols and glossary of ISRM have not evol­ ved since their issue in 1970 and 1975.

Le travail de l'AIGI sur la terminologie semble avoir été abandonné. Par contre, deux rapports sur la carto­ graphie en géologie de l'ingénieur ont été élaborés, qui ne donnaient lieu 5 aucun conflit avec le travail

The work of IAEG on terminology seemed to be abandoned.

de la SIMSTF.


Instead, two reports on engineering geological mapping have been produced. There was no conflict with ISSMFE‘s


Le projet d'établir un glossaire commun devait étre discuté le mois suivant, lors d'une réunion du Comité de Coordination des trois Sociétés. Aucun travail n'a été entrepris dans cette direction.

The project of establishing a common glossary was to be discussed the following month at a meeting of the Coordinating Committee of the three Societies. No work has been undertaken in this direction.

Pour le travail réalisé en 1983, 1984 et 1985, le présent Comité Technique a tenu informés les repré­ sentants de l'AIGI et de la SIHR en leur envoyant systématiquement copie des documents de travail.

Technical Committee has kept the IAEG and ISRM delega­

3. Evaluation de certaines corrélations

3. Assessment of some correlations

Il a été envisagé d'étudier deux paramétres dont la signification repose sur des corrélations, a savoir :

It has been considered to study two parameters whose meaning is based on correlations, namely : sensitivity

For the work done in 1983, 1984 and 1985, the present

tes informed by systematically sending a copy of the

draft documents.

la sensibilité (St), l'activité (A).

(St), activity (A).

Aucune conclusion n'est disponible a ce jour, proba­ blement a cause de la difficulté que représente un tel

No conclusion is available at the present time, proba­ bly because this type of work is quite difficult.



Le travail dont il a été rendu compte a été réalisé SUI* Une période de deux ans, ce qui n'a pas permis de mener a bien certaines taches.

years period. Thus, it was not possible to finalize

Ila été suggéré par les membres de plusieurs pays de réviser le Lexique paru en 1981, dans plusieurs direc­ tions possibles :

It has been suggested by members of several countries to revise the Lexicon published in 1981, in several possible directions :

- aiouter les termes espagnols ou portugais en usage dans leurs pays, d'aprés des membres latino-américains.

- add the Spanish or Portuguese terms used in their countries, according to latin-american members.

- élargir la liste de base des termes.

- extend the basic list of terms.

- reprendre cet ouvrage sous forme de glossaire, c'est-5-dire en donnant la définition de chaque ter­

- modify this document into a glossary, i.e. giving a definition for each term.

Il s'agit la de travaux de tres longue haleine, en

These are very long-term works, especially the last two tasks, which would require several four years in­ ter conference periods and a corresponding stability


The work reported above has been carried out on a two some tasks.


particulier les deux derniéres taches, qui demande­ raient plusieurs périodes inter-congrés de quatre ans et la stabilité correspondante des membres du Comité Technique qui effectueraient ces travaux.

of the members of the Technical Committee who would

carry out these works.


G U E L I N Président du Comité Technique Chairman of the Technical Committee



For the benefit of the members of the Executive Committee of the ISSMFE, it should be reminded that the terms of reference of the Committee on Landslides of the ISSM E as they were approved by the Executive Committee in Stockholm

in 1981, are:

- to ensure continuity in the organisation of an Inter­

national Symposium on Landslides every four years; - to collect and disseminate information from National Societies on their expertise in detecting, monitoring and preventing landslides. MEETINGS

A first meeting of the Committee was held in Stockholm in 1981 with few potential members participating; as no member

countries. The response has been quite diverse from one country to the other. A fair amount of information and data are available in these questionnaires; however, no complete synthesis has yet been made of all these data. The next Committee should carry on this task. As for the monography on instrumentation, two State-ofrthe­ Art reports have been prepared by two members of our Committee and were presented at the last session of the

International Symposium on Landslides held in Toronto, 1984 These reports could serve as a basis for a monography on instrumentation. However, before getting authors involved in such a venture, one has to insure that the monography can be published once it is completed. We should not reptn the unfortunate experience that committees and authors have had with international organisations during the last four years. The next Committee on Landslides should study the

and Mudflows sponsored by UNESCO and financed by USSR.

different possibilities to insure that this monography be prepared and published. According to the answers to our questionnaire, there is a definite need for such a mono­ graphy and especially if it deals with simple instrumenta­ tion and alarm systems.

of our Committee and members of the Commission on Land­

Discussion Session 3A "Motion of Landslides and Debris

was as yet officially appointed by the President, that

meeting was unofficial. Another unofficial meeting was held in October l98l in Alma Ata during an International Seminar on Landslides During that seminar, discussions took place between members

slides of the IAEG. It was agreed that our Committee should undertake the preparation of a monography on

instrumentation for landslides. In order to do so, a questionnaire was prepared to be circulated in different countries in order to gather some information cn the actual practice and to evaluate the needs. The first official meeting of the committee, with appointed members, was held in Paris during the Executive meeting at which time the chairman reported to the Executive. A last meeting of this Committee will be held during this XIth International Conference on Wednesday 14 August 1985.

Flows", XI ICSMFE g

The Committee on Landslides, through its chairman, has accepted to organise a discussion session for the XI ICSMFE

of San Francisco. The orientation of the sesssion has been greatly inspired by the theme lecture which will be presm: by Professor Morgenstern at this conference and will inclui two lectures: one given by Professor K Sassa from Japan on "fast motions" and one by Mr C Bonnard from Switzerland on “slow movements". These lectures will be followed by panel discussions and discussions from the floor. INTER-SOCIETY REPRESENTATION


We actually have 25 members who have positively answered

to the invitation addressed to them by President de Mello to join our Committee. The list is appended to this report. It is unfortunate that our Committee does not include a representative from USSR where the landslide and

mudflow problems are so diverse and important. TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES

International Symposium on Landslides

The main activity having taken place under the auspices of the Committee on Landslides in the last four years is the

International Symposium on Landslides which was held in September 1984 in Toronto. The Vice-President for North America, Dr Carl B Crawford, has already reported on the remarkable success of that Symposium. On behalf of all the members of the Committee on Landslides, I, as chairman,

would like to extend to all the Organisers of that Symposium our expression of gratitude and our most sincere congratulations for this work so well done. I am also very pleased to thank our friends from Switzerland who have accepted the task to organise the next "Inter­ national Symposium on Landslides" which will be held in Lausanne from 10 to 15 July 1988.

Questionnaire and Monography

A questionnaire on instrumentation has been sent to many


when the Committee on Landslides of the ISSMFE was set up, the chairman was aware of the existence of the Commission

on Landslides of the International Association of Engineer Geology and of the common interests of both organisations.

In order to avoid the risk of duplication of efforts, I hav

recommended for appointment in our Committee some members of the ISSMFE who were already members of the Commission on

Landslides of the IAEG. I have also ensured that during the organisations of the International Symposia, a close liaison would be kept between these two international societies; this requirement did not cause any problem as

both National Societies from Canada and Switzerland

incorporate such close liaison between the sister societies However, I believe that in the future an official liaison should be established between the committees or commissions of the International sister societies in order that we join our efforts and get full benefit from our internatlon; technical activities. We hope that the next president of the ISSMFE will see that such liaisons be formalised.


The Committee on Landslides has been moderately active dur

the last four years. There is no doubt that more work conL have been done; however, considering that most members

are prominent engineers, and are also very busy persons, the accomplishment may be considered satisfactory. The efficiency of the committee has also been impaired by a complete lack of budget.

P La Rochelle


As Chairman of your Committee I have pleasure in reporting our manner of work and our achievements, and to make recommendations as follows. We have worked entirely by correspondence and began our

work by circulation of all member societies, inviting cooperation from all persons knowledgeable and interested in geotechnical centrifuges. We asked them to consider organising special meetings, lectures and other activities, with participation of members of our Committee. We also

for discussions, criticisms from the floor and rebuttal by

Committee members. So another achievement is to have pro­ vided members of ISSMFE with many opportunities for dis­ cussions and questions.

Next to turn to two recommendations. May I first recommend

W Craig.

that the initiative that you took in Stockholm should be followed up by your successor in San Francisco. Interest in the topic is growing in the USA, Japan and China, but most of all in Europe, where new important centrifuges are to be commissioned in the next l2 months in Britain, France, Germany, Italy and soon in Holland. Many discussions with members in various Societies make clear to me that the first stage in which we introduced our methods and established their general credibility has been completed successfully. The next stage that needs to follow requires internationally coordinated studies of centrifuge efficiency and quality of instrumentation, of effective stress history of specimens and of properties revealed by in-flight site investigation, of internal consistency of modelling of models, of standards of accuracy of model testing and of signal processing and of data reporting, and also of computational capacity to match data and extend the range of prediction offered by centrifuge

July 18 to 20 in Davis 'Recent Advances in Geotechnical Centrifuge Modelling', 257 pages - edited by J A Cheney.

be continued to cover these topics and that they report back in Brazil in four years time.

invited each of our Committee members to contribute a paper to a state of the art volume which we are preparing to discuss in San Francisco.

In 1984 three International Symposia were organised and their proceedings have now been reported as follows:

April 3 to 4 in Tokyo 'Geotechnical Centrifuge Model Testing', lB2 pages - edited by T Kimura

April 16 to 18 in Manchester 'The Application of Centrifuge Modelling to Geotechnical Design', 485 pages - edited by

Each of these Symposia provided funds for travel, allowing for some members of the Committee to participate, to lecture, and to meet together. So although there was never a full meeting of the whole Technical Committee we were able to have partial meetings as well as contributing to the Symposia proceedings.

model tests. I recommend that the Technical Committee work

A second recommendation concerns the leadership of the work

of the Committee. If the BGS are honoured with an invitation to continue their work I will urge them to accept and I will do all within my power to contribute to what I consider to be a most important field of academic and technical activity. However I believe that our friends and colleagues in France are no less enthusiastic and wish for their chance to take

The three volumes contain 70 papers, and in addition we have 16 papers prepared for discussion in our session at the San Francisco Conference. We will arrange for our

the lead in the coming four years. If this is so then I

published as a single volume uniform with the Conference proceedings.

between British, Danish and French centrifuge workers within the framework of the European Community. France also has links under protocols agreed between the French and Soviet governments by which it may prove possible in the coming four years to achieve some real collaboration between East and West in Europe. Therefore I recommend the incoming

discussions and our final report to be edited and to be

One achievement is that members of ISSMFE now have an up­

to-date and easily accessible literature on our topic. But not only were the Symposia well attended but also several

would warmly co mend their initiative to the incoming

President. At the new French centrifuge facility in Nantes, J F Corte has taken an initiative of inviting collaboration

members of the Committee have lectured and arranged a number

President to look first to France for leadership of the

as Chairman I have addressed ISSMFE Members in the following places: Oxford, Cambridge, London, Manchester, Southampton, Guildford, Rome, Athens, Tokyo, Osaka, Beijing, Harbin, Carracas, Houston, Boulder, Davis, Denver, Washington, Boston, Cambridge (Mass.), Hanover (NH), St Johns (NF) and

The Committee wishes to thank you for your support of our

of other activities for members. In the past three years

Montreal. The session which we are organising at the San Francisco Conference will also prove a good opportunity

work for the Technical Committee on Centrifuges in the coming four years. work.

A N Schofield



A sequence of events related to the Subcommittee is pre­

In Mexico City we undertook a programme of this work, in the second semester of 1984, financed by PAGRI S.A.

April 16, 1982. The Mexican Soil Mechanics Society accepts to take in its responsibility the Subcommittee on “Allow­ able Deformations of Buildings and Damages".

We inspected hundreds of buildings to determine, first, if significant distortions were present, and also that some reference could be used in order to measure the differential settlements from there. Permission for access to the buildings was considered to be impossible, or too lengthy to obtain, so measurements were taken on outside walls. The task proved to be very difficult, because most of the buildings had finishings on their facades which were not placed accurately enough to be able to be used as a reference. Only 13 buildings were found that had good quality finishings, like machine cut face stone, that was placed originally horizontally, and with accuracies of the order of one or two mm, and had incipient damages, or were distorted very much.

sented below.

May, 1982. Dr Pablo Girault accepts being the Chairman of the Subcommittee.

On May 17, Mr Harvey Wahls, the first member, was admitted to the Subcommittee. The rest of the members were accepted in a period of time from May 1982 until 15 November 1983.

Integration of the Subcommittee was very slow. There are 13 members from different nations, plus 3 Mexican members, the Secretary and the Chairman. I mailed Communication No. 1, of the Subcommittee to its

members on 26 August 1982. It is a classification of the types of structures, according to their structural charac­ teristics, and the different types of subsoils on which they may be supported.

On 15 November 1982 our Subcommittee requested approval of

funds, for its expenses, from the Mexican Society of Soil

Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (Communication No. 2).

Communication No. 3 was a request to Professor Harvey Wahls

to review the literature on the subject of the Subcommittee. 17 November 1982. We received a list of possible members

for the Subcommittee, from the President of the Inter­ national Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineer­ ing, Professor Victor F de Mello. In the early months of 1983, we studied Professor de Me11o's suggestions for the objectives (the Terms of Reference) of

our Subcommittee.

A list of references on the subject that the Committee would undertake, was kindly sent to us by Professor Victor de Mello. We tried to obtain most of the references and asked the members to try to obtain their own. We interchanged references with the members so that apparently most of the members had most of the references.

Communication No. 6 was sent to all members on 2 March 1983, stating the objectives of our Subcommittee and asking mem­

bers to answer and tell us which part of the work they could perform. Practically no answer was received to this com­ munication from the members of the Subcommittee. This communication was a request to the members to start working and the answering was disappointing. Out of the 13 members, only two members, Mr Pidgen from South Africa and Mr Yudhbir (India), answered our communication No. 6, and

explained that they could do a part of the work of the


In this co munication we were asking the members to obtain

first hand, or reliable information, on angular distortion of buildings and relate it to cracking and damages. This meant obtaining results from levelings of buildings in the city where the members lived, or nearby.

On 1 March 1984, we sent a letter to all the members of the Subcommittee to gather the information they had so far obtained. There was no answer at all from the members and apparently nobody did this type of work.


Mostly buildings with bearing walls were studied. Access to these buildings was difficult in most cases, because the owners objected or because interior divisions made

precise levellings extremely difficult, so the facades were taken as a reference. From the levellings, drawings were made and angular distortions and relative deflections were calculated and compared with the allowable ones. Out of the structures levelled one was a very long brick wall

about 60 years old, that exceeded the values of all the codes on distortions by several times and had no cracks

at all. This wall was 3.80 m tall.

In contrast, buildings with bearing walls three or four stories high, were very prone to cracking in a form which was suspected to be diagonal tension, with angular distor­

tions and relative deflections which were much smaller than those allowed by the codes. Because of this, and because

it was thought that the criteria so far established for tall walls, especially rather slender walls (ratios of L/h less than one or near one) was not adequate, this type of levellings were discontinued.

In the last months of 1984, I gathered what I thought should be the basic ideas that the Committee should bring

out, and summarised them in Communication No. 10. It was

sent to all of the members - twice.

At this time I asked Professor Harvey Wahls to write a draft of our report to be submitted before the San Francisco Conference in August 1985. He would incorporate the ideas in Communication No. 10.

I studied the draft and added a few comments and sent it back to Professor wahls who will incorporate these para­ graphs and send it to all the members to obtain their COIDIDQHCS .

I sent a letter to 55 National Societies in July 1984, requesting related data. Five societies answered sending papers on related topics. Literature was obtained on related topics like "deep beam§ - from reinforced concrete publications. Letters were sent to engineers that had been engaged pre­ viously in the topics of our Subcommittee. Professor Burland sent useful remarks to my Communication No. 10.

In Communication No. 10, I had asked the members to inves­

tigate the distribution of tensile strains in walls of

different shapes and with different distribution of open­ ings that are subjected to settlements. There was no answer to this request.

I was able to interest some people at the Institute of

Engineering of the University of Mexico in Mexico City, to carry out this work financed by the Mexican Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

The deformations of the bottom of the wall would be of at least two different shapes, circular and parabolic, and the geometry of the walls was varied as well as the maximum

settlement at the centre of the wall.

This computer program is being run, and we are trying to

obtain results soon, hopefully. If results that are of any value are found, I might change our final technical report quite a bit.

Four members have recently answered my Communication No.

l0 with short comments, and our German colleagues with a longer letter. Some of these comments were incorporated

into the draft of the report.

P Girault





The final Terms of Reference (1982-1985) were:

Tropical soils cover a quite significant portion of the

1. Characterization, identification, and classification of tropic lateritic and saprolitic soils for geotech­

world and exhibit geotechnical properties which are peculiar enough and have significant economic impact to warrant an international effort to systematize the know­ ledge about their behaviour.

Recognition of this fact led Professor Victor F B de Mello, President (1981-85) of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering to institute, in 1981, its Committee on Tropical Soils.

The work of the Committee, in its first term, could only be a first step towards the long term objective of systema­ tizing empirical and theoretical knowledge related to geotechnical engineering in tropical soils.

nical purposes.

2. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of tropical

lateritic and saprolitic soils, particularly as related

to their structure and mineral components.

3. Peculiarities of "in situ" behaviour of tropical lateritic and saprolitic soils in their natural conditions.

4. Peculiarities of tropical lateritic and saprolitic soils used as construction materials: selection, control, and acceptance criteria.

5. Excavations in tropical lateritic and saprolitic soils COMMITTEE OFFICERS AND MEMBERS

In May 1983 the Committee Members were sent FORM-TI-1. The

According to the new "modus operandi" of Technical Committees, the President of the ISSMFE accepted the offer by the Brazilian Society for Soil Mechanics (ABMS) to lead

the activities of this Committee from 1982 until 1985, and appointed its members himself (except for the local Task Force).

Around June 1982 the Brazilian Member Society appointed Dr Job Shuji Nogami and Dr Waldemar Hachich, respectively, as chairman and secretary of the Committee (1982-1985).

The President of the ISSMFE invited 41 prospective members in January 1983, and another 3 in October 1984, from 30

different countries. Until May 1983, 23 of those had either formally accepted the invitation or otherwise made

clear their interest in participating. These are listed below.

A Local Task Force of the Committee was created by its

Officers; a list of those 19 Brazilian members is given below.


response did not warrant any major change of either the chosen Terms of Reference or the adopted terminology. It did, however, indicate in which areas, within those Terms of Reference, the Committee had better chances of getting broader international collaboration, and therefore played a decisive role in the choice of the Topics into which those give Themes should be divided. Once again, some admittedly important topics were left out, this time for the sake of producing a Report that would reflect, to the maximum attainable extent, the current international views on the chosen subjects. ELABORATION OF TH REPORT

According to the aforementioned criteria, the five main

Themes were subdivided into TOPICS, and responsibility for each Topic was delegated to a COORDINATOR, appointed from

the Local Task Force.

The complete list of Topics and appointed Coordinators follows: Theme l:

As pointed out earlier, from the outset it was the

l.1 Identification and Characterisation

a task for its first term.

1.2 Geotechnical Classification

Committee's policy to prudently avoid undertaking too big In July-September, 1982, the Committee conducted a poll around members (over 700) of the Brazilian Society for Soil Mechanics (ABMS) and the participants of the 7th Brazilian Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (Recife, September 1982). Its purpose was twofold: to identify prospective members of the Local

Task Force and to sense their priorities regarding the relevance of several topics related to tropical soils.

The response suggested that the Committee could restrict

its work, for the period 1982-1985, to tropical lateritic and saprolitic soils, which are by far the most important soils in humid tropical regions. Tropical expansive soils and soils of dry tropical regions were therefore tempora­ rily excluded from analysis.

Tentative Terms of Reference (1982-1985) were submitted to the scrutiny of the 19 members of the Local Task Force by the time they were appointed (November 1982).


Professor Adolpho José Melfi

Professor Joao Batista Queiroz de Carvalho Theme 2:

2.1 Strength

Professor Sergio A B da Fontoura

2.2 Compressibility

Professor Willy A Lacerda

2.3 Hydraulic Properties

Dr Leandro de Moura Costa Filho

Theme 3:

3.1 Erosion Mr Ricardo Fernandes de Silva

3.2 Slope Stability

Mr Claudio Michael Wolle

3.3 Building Foundations Professor Sigmundo Golombek

3.4 Dam Foundations Mr Clovis Ribeiro de Morais Leme

Theme 4:

4.1 Dams Dr Paulo Teixeira de Cruz 4.2 Roads Dr Job Shuji Nogami

4.2.1 Embankments, Dr V M N Cozzolino 4.2.2 Soil Aggregates, Dr D F Villibor 4.2.3 Lateritic Gravels, Dr C A V de Queiroz 4.2.4 Lime Soil Strablisation, Mr J E P Guimaraes Theme 5:

5.1 Open Excavations Dr Faical Massad

5.2 Tunnels

Professor Evelyna Bloem Souto.

The invitation letter to each Coordinator (dated July 1983) provided information on which Committee members had ex­

pressed interest in the Topic (according to Form TI-1), as well as general guidelines and deadlines for preparation of the Report. The general guidelines were aimed primarily at achieving a minimum of uniformity and a maximum of

international participation in the Progress Report as a


As a matter of policy, no attempt was made to set strict rules as to how the work should be conducted. In particular it was not required that the Coordinator be himself the Reporter of the Topic under his responsibility, although it ended up working this way in most cases. Results can be considered satisfactory, since only one of the Topic Reports did not materialize.

The level of international interaction in the preparation of the Report, however, turned out to be rather disappoint­ ing. About 400 invitations, sent to individuals or organisations in over 55 countries, resulted in 92 col­ laborators and contributors, of which only 13 were non­ Brazilians. The Draft Report was circulated among 38 Brazilians and 88 non-Brazilians; only 13 reviews were received, 3 of them

from Brazilians. It should be pointed out, however, on the positive side, that some of the Contributors expressed their views on more than one Topic. The complete list of Contributors (55, from ll countries, 44 being from Brazil) and Collaborators (37, from 3 countries, 35 being from Brazil) is in Appendix G. The distinction is made to emphasize the fact that Collaborators undertook part of the Report-writing task, while Contributors supplied data, references, or comments that resulted in significant changes to the Draft Report.

As a matter of fact, from the very early stages of the work (circulation of Form TI-1) it had become quite clear that, for several reasons, the interchange of ideas through international (and even national) mail would be very inefficient for the given time constraints. Thus, as early as June 1983, the decision was made that

ABMS should provide an international forum for wide ranging

debate of ideas related to Geotechnical Engineering in

Tropical Soils (and, in particular, for referring the Draft Report to independent international cross-examination). This decision led to TropicaLS'85 (Brasilia, ll-14 February 1985), the subject of the next item. In the meantime, two national technical symposia on the subject took place, organized by the Sao Paulo Chapter (Nucleo Regional de Sao Paulo) of the ABMS: one in July 1983 and the other in May 1984. Most of the Topics of the Draft Report were discussed on those occasions and papers presented were

printed and distributed to all participants.



This ISSMFE Affiliated Conference was organisedby the Brasilia Chapter (Nucleo Regional de Brasilia) of the ABMS. The Organising Committee of TropicaLS'B5 was chaired by Mr Erico Bitencourt de Freitas and had Mr Rui Correia Vieira for Executive Secretary and Mr Paulo Masuit Levy

for Secretary General. Technical organisation, however, was the responsibility of the Committee on Tropical Soils, Of ISSMFE.

Considering the relevance of this Conference, the Organising Committee of TropicaLS'85 and the Committee on Tropical

Soils did not spare efforts to make it successful: three Bulletins were circulated all over the world to ensure

significant international attendance, and some of the most distinguished international experts were invited to be General Reporters, Panelists, Discussion Leaders and


The Conference was attended by 339 Brazilians and 77 non­

Brazilians. Non-Brazilian participants are listed below, sorted by country of origin.

The necessity of making this first Conference as broad in scope as possible led the Committee on Tropical Soils to include a Session on "Miscellaneous Aspects of Geotechnical Engineering in Tropical Lateritic and Saprolitic Soils" in addition to 8 other Sessions related to the Topics of the

Terms of Reference chosen for the Committee‘s work in the period 1982-1985. On the other hand, to avoid ambiguity,

it was necessary to restrict attention to soils which could

be geotechnically (and not merely geographically) classi­

fied as tropical.

The 78 papers which reached the Secretariat of the Organi­ sing Committee on time were gathered in the first two volumes of the Proceedings. The two post-Conference volumes include Special Lectures by Dr E W Brand and

Professor Milton Vargas, General Reports, oral discussions presented at the Conference, written discussions which reached the Secretariat before 20 March 1985 and late papers. Papers are sorted below by Topic and by country of origin of main author. The Draft Report of the Committee on Tropical Soils, which had been sent in advance to all General Reporters, Panel­

ists and Discussion Leaders, was also distributed to all participants. General Reporters were asked to discuss not only the papers presented to their Sessions, but also the Draft Report of the Committee. This policy led to lively discussions about the Report of the Committee (and some

written contributions). To the extent possible, this final

version ("Peculiarities of Geotechnical Behaviour of Tropical Lateritic and Saprolitic Soils") of the Progress Report incorporates most of the significant issues raised. Nevertheless, this Progress Report of the Committee on Tropical Soils and TropicaLS'85 are so intimately linked that they should be viewed as a single unit. FINAL REMARKS

TheABrazilian Member Society (Associacao Brasileira de Mecanica dos Solos - ABMS) who steered the Committee on

Tropical Soils for the period 1982-1985 hopes that this Progress Report may shed some light on some aspects of

geotechnical behaviour of tropical lateritic and sapro­ litic soils, and therefore contribute for the development of engineering techniques which are better suited for tropical conditions.


Despite all odds (international economic crisis, chronic shortage of funds, communication gaps, etc.), the ABMS

accepted the challenge because it is believed that any contribution, however small, may result in significant reduction of the major difficulties of tropical countries, most of which stem from the lack of technologies designed specifically to cope with their peculiarities. In writing the Progress Report, the preponderant role of the coordinators of the topics should be emphasized, des­ pite the recommendation to consider, as far as possible, the national and above all, the international contribution

contribution of experts with experience in conditions different from the one prevalent in Brazil ME BERS OF COMMITTEE ON TROPICAL SOILS OF ISSMFE INVITED BY THE PRESIDENT

Mr Chaudhary Altaf-ur-Rehman, Pakistan

Professor Franco Balduzzi, Switzerland

total number of contributors and collaborators almost reached one hundred. Unfortunately, the role of the

Dr Youpele O Beredugo, Nigeria Dr Kennedy Collins, United Kingdom Professor Del G Fredlund, Canada Dr Mensa D Gidigasu, Ghana Dr Joseph O Gogo, Ghana Mr Henry Grace, United Kingdom

20 members (10 non-Brazilian) from a total of 45 took

Dr Michel Hermelin, Colombia

and collaboration. Part of that policy was attained: the

Committee members was much smaller than expected. Only

Dr Armin Horn, FR Germany

active part as coordinators, collaborators or contributors.

Mr Gerard Liautaud, France Mr A L Little, United Kingdom

The chairman of the Committee on Tropical Soils did not agree with many approaches and opinions adopted by the

coordinators of topics in the Progress Report. It was understood that the Progress Report should reflect, as far

as possible, the representative points of view of coordina­ tors of topics, which were chosen owing to their familiarity with geotechnical problems in Brazil. In many topics, such as the ones number 3.1 (Erosion), 4.1 (Materials for Dams) and 4.2 (Materials for Roads), the Progress Report considered more than the data found in the literature, taking into account unpublished data

(several of them especially collected) in order to clarify many doubts concerning the peculiarities of lateritic and saprolitic soils. Uniformity had sometimes to be sacrificed (especially as

Dr R K Katti, India

Mr Walter Lum, USA

Professor Peter Lumb, Hong Kong (resigned due to health problems in November 1984, but retained as Honorary Memben Professor Raul J Marsal, Mexico Professor Aldopho José Melfi, Brazil Mr C A Micucci, Argentina Dr Wilbur J Morin, USA

Dr Frank Netterburg, South Africa Dr Henrique Novais-Ferreira, Portugal

Mr Zenon Prusza V, Venezuela

Mr Brian Richards, Australia Dr Goro Uehara, USA

Dr Keith Wallace, Australia (resigned November 1984) Professor Raymond N Yong, Canada MEMBERS OF COMMITTEE ON TROPICAL SOILS OF ISSMFE ICCAL

regards terminology) to accommodate the worth of accumulated


of the Topics.

Geol. Franklin Antunes Eng. José Geraldo Araujo Maj. Brig. Eng. Octavio Barbosa da Silva Dr Paulo Teixeira da Cruz Dr Sergio A B da Fontoura

experience, particularly in face of the diversity of subjects The Report is often inconclusive and is far-from having completely covered the subject of peculiarities of geotech­ nical behaviour of tropical soils in general. Moreover,

even in the Topics that did get addressed, it reflects ­ perhaps too much so - the Brazilian experience, despite all efforts to give it wider international scope.

Under more favourable time constraints a better integration and systematization of the worth of knowledge gathered (at TropicaLS'B5 and by the Committee itself) might have been achieved.

The work of the Committee on Tropical Soils was partly supported by grants from two federal and one state research and development agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvi­ mento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Financiadora de Estudos e Projectos (FINEP), and Fundagao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP). Furthermore, over 20 government and private organisations (universities,

research organisations, consulting firms, contractors, etc.) played decisive roles in the work of the Committee, by partly supporting the activities of the Coordinators of Topics.


The aforementioned weaknesses in the topics related in the presented Progress Report, make it advisable that it should be properly revised and complemented in the future. It is necessary also that in the future, other themes and topics,

and eventually, other types of tropical soils, different from lateritic and saprolitic ones, should be properly considered. For that purpose it is recommended that the

Com ittee on Tropical Soils continues to function under the sponsorship of a Member Society which will propitiate the


Professor Sigmundo Golombek

Professor Willy A Lacerda Eng. Nelson Gustavo Ludwig

Professor Jacques de Medina Dr Faigal Massad Eng. Clovis Ribeiro de Morals Leme Eng. José Eduardo Moreira Professor Joao Batista Queiroz de Carvalho Eng. José Luiz Salvoni Geol. Ricardo Fernandes da Silva Professor Alberto Henriques Teixeira Eng. Cesar Augusto Vieira de Queiroz Eng. Cassio Baumgratz Viotti Eng. Claudio Michael Wolle NON-BRAZILIAN PARTICIPANTS - TROPICALS B5

Argentina - 5

Australia - 3


Bolivia - l


Cameron - l

Canada - 3

Paraguay Peru

Colombia - 6

Portugal Saudi Arabia South Africa

Ecuador - 5

France - 9 Hong Kong - 2

India - 3 Italy - 2 Japan -l Kuwait - 1 Kenya - 2

Malaysia - 1


Switzerland Thailand Netherlands United Kingdom USA

Venezuela Zimbabwe





Brazil 7; UK 2; Pakistan 2; Japan 2; France 1; Mexico l; Switzerland 1

Theme 2 Total 23 Brazil 10; India 2; Argentina 1; Australia 1; Canada 1; Gabon 1;

Japan l; Nigeria 1; Pakistan l;

Romania 1; Sri Lanka l; Thailand 1; United Kingdom l

Theme 3 Total 14 3.l - Switzerland 1;

3.2 - Brazil 2; Saudi Arabia 1; UK l; 3.3 - Brazil 2; Singapore 1; 3.4 - Brazil 3; Venezuela 2; USA 1.

Theme 4 Total 17 - 4.1 - Brazil 5; Canada 1; UK l; 4.2 - Brazil 4; Nigeria 2; Australia l

Gabon 1; Switzerland 1; United Kingdom


Theme 5 Total 2 Brazil 1; Hong Kong 1 Theme 6 Total 6 France 3; Egypt 1; Ecuador 1; Kuwait l PAPERS PRESENTED TO THE TROPICALS'B5 - SORTED BY COUNTRIES

Brazil 34; United Kingdom 6; France 5; Pakistan 3; Japan 3; Nigeria 3; Switzerland 3; Australia 2; Canada 2; Venezuela 2; Egypt 2; India 2; Argentina 1; Colombia l; Gabon l; Hong Kong 1; Kuwait 1; Saudi Arabia 1; Romania l; Sri Lanka 1; Singapore 1; Thailand 1, USA l. J S Nogami




ments were circulated to the Sub-committee members for

At the invitation of the President of ISSMFE, Professor Victor F B de Mello, the Geotechnical Division of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers, which is the National Society, agreed in March 1982 to provide the

valuable contributions, while others preferred to wait for

Chairman and Secretary for the Technical Sub-Committee on

Filters and Filter Criteria, subsequently shortened to

Technical Sub-Committee on Filters. Mr G W Donaldson was nominated as Chairman, with Mr R J Scheurenberg as Secretary.

During the course of the next eighteen months, the President invited the following persons to serve on the Sub-committee: Professor Peter Pavel, Czechoslovakia Dr Araken Silveira, Brazil Mr José Folque, Portugal Dr Lutz Wittmann, FR Germany

Professor wojciech Wolski, Poland Mr Georges Post, France Professor Raul Marsal, Mexico Dr James L Sherard, USA Mr J M Sierra, Colombia Professor O Graham Ingles, Australia Dr Peter Vaughan, Great Britain Dr Guillermo Bravo, Spain Mr P K Nargarkar, India Mr Jean-Jacques Paré, Canada Dr Diogo Ferrer, Venezuela Mr Urban Norstedt, Sweden

Professor V F B de Mello, Brazil (President: ex officio)

Dr G J Schafer (New Zealand) and Dr Camillo Linari (Italy)

declined the invitation because they felt that they would not be able to contribute to the work of the Sub-committee. No replies were received to invitations extended to the National Societies of USSR, Netherlands, Israel and China. PROGRESS

The Geotechnical Division appointed a local working group

to assist the Chairman and Secretary in dealing with the work of the Sub-committee and in compiling the report. These persons are Professor G E Blight and Messrs C Cleaver (replacing Mr G Wittstock), H Elges, R Mackellar, F Venter

and J A Wates. This group had its first meeting in January 1983 where a preliminary programme of activity leading to

the submission of a third draft report to the Executive

Committee meeting in San Francisco in August l9B5 was envisaged. The working group also drew up proposed terms

of reference for the Sub-committee and a list of contents for the state-of-the-art report was drafted. These docu­

comment. Some committee members made considerable and

the draft report on which they would comment. As informa­ tion was received and relying on their own knowledge and experience, members of the working group prepared the various chapters of the draft report which had reached a

state almost ready for circulation as a first draft by

December 1983 after four meetings.

During a visit to Western Europe in September l9B1, the

Chairman had met with the Sub-committee members resident

there and discussed the philosophy and content of the report. Several promises of contributions were made, but these have not been received. It was agreed that the report should provide useful information on standard practices for practising geotechnical engineers, i.e. not over-simplified for the uninitiated nor delving into advanced theories. This would keep the report to a manageable size. It would, however, have as comprehensive a bibliography as possible with appropriate references in the text. A number of lists of references have already been submitted as a basis for the bibliography. The delay in receiving contributions from Western Europe and the news that as there would not be a report back

session on filters at San Francisco, reduced the urgency of adhering to the programme and the Chairman felt that

he should personally edit the draft chapters for the report into a more coherent whole. Unfortunately the

task proved more demanding than he had anticipated and with an increased pressure of other commitments, this task has not been completed. It is hoped, however, to get this document out shortly. The working group has taken a close interest and commented on the draft ICOLD document on 'Geotextiles as Filters and Transitions in Fill Dams' which should be published within

the next year. This document covers a large portion of the Sub-committee‘s work and preliminary permission has

been obtained to abstract portions of that report where appropriate.

A full meeting of the Sub-committee was planned for San

Francisco but in view of the state of the report, this

was left in abeyance and present indications are that some members will not be attending the Conference. Nevertheless a meeting of those present will be held at a convenient time.

The Sub-Committee should be able to complete its task in

the next four years.

G W Donaldson





related to "Penetrability and Drivability of Piles".

The Technical Committee on "Penetrability and Drivability

of Piles" is one of the 16 technical committees that were established soon after Professor V F B de Mello was appointed as the President of the International Society

for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in 1981. This Committee is supported by the Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. The Technical Committee Consists of a chairman, a secretary, members appointed by the President and members nominated by the member societies for the preparation of National Reports.

The programme of the symposium is as follows:

09.00-09.15 Opening Address - Dr K Fujita (Japan) 09.15-09.45 General Report - Professor H Kishida (Japan) 10.00-12.00 Session 1 - National Reports (Chairman) Professor G G Goble (USA)

13.15-14.00 Session 2 - Influence of Soil Conditions on the Possibility of Pile Driving and Maximum

Depth of Penetration

(Chairman) Dr A Holeyman (Belgium)

14.00-14.30 Session 3 - Failures of Pile Shafts and Methods of Removing Obstacles during Pile Driving (Chairman) Professor B B Fellenius (Canada)


(Japan) K Fujita - Chairman

H Kishida - Secretary

(Belgium) M Wallays* (Mexico) R A Ropez A Holeyman (Nigeria) L A Ajayi (Brazil) S Niyama (Portugal) P Esteves (Canada) B H Fellenius (S Africa) D L Webb

(China) S S Lu (S E Asia)

(Colombia) R Barbosa A S Balasubramaniam

(Denmark) P Lagoni S Sambhandharaksa (Egypt) A R S Bazaraa A W Malone

(Finland) E Slunga F K Chin (France) H Gonin (Sweden) H Bredenberg

(India) D J Ketkar (Turkey) A Saglamer (Israel) J G Zeitlen (USA) G G Goble

(Italy) M Appendino (USSR ) A A Bartolomay *retired

14.45-15.30 Session 4 - Relationship between the Methods of Pile Driving and Pile Bearing Capacity (Chairman) Dr H Bredenberg (Sweden)

15.30-15.40 Closing Address - Dr K Fujita (Japan) The number of attendants is expected to be more than 80,

as of 23 July, according to the applications for registra­ tion. The registration fee is USS 10 which covers one copy of the general report and refreshments.


The meeting of the Technical Committee will be held on 10 August 1985, right after the symposium. The subjects

regarding the publication of Vol. 2 of the Proceedings and issues thereafter will be mainly discussed. PROCEEDINGS VOL. 2


The following 5 topics were chosen for study by the

Technical Committee:

1. Failures of pile shafts during pile driving

21 Relationship between the method of pile driving and pile bearing capacity 3. Methods of removing obstacles during pile driving 4. Relationship between soil conditions and the possibility

of pile driving

5. Maximum depth limit for pile driving. PROCEEDINGS VOL. 1

Papers on the above topics were invited through member societies and the ISSMFE News, and were conuined with the

national reports in Vol. l of the Proceedings, which was published in Jaunary 1985. Eleven national reports and thirty eight individual papers are included in Vol. l of the Proceedings.

In Vol. 2 of the Proceedings, the Chairman's reports, the general report, the session chairman's reports, the written discussions and additional national reports will be included, together with the list of members and the activities of the committee. These contributions shall be submitted by 15 November 1985 and Vol. 2 of the Proceedings will be published in March 1986. PUBLICATION AND SALE OF PROCEEDINGS

The publishing of the Proceedings Vols. l and 2 for sale is being done by the Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering under the auspices of the Inter­ national Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engin­ eering. The cost of the Proceedings is USS 70 including

postage. The Proceedings Vol. l is distributed to all the

member societies and all the members of the Technical Committee and the Steering Committee. The sale of Proceedings has numbered only 70 copies. EFFECT


The International Symposium and Meeting will be held on

10 August 1985, one day ahead of the llth International Conference, in the same conference hall in San Francisco. The main aims of the symposium are to provide an opportunity for geotechnical engineers engaging or studying in the fields of planning, designing and driving foundation piles to present their opinions, to review and to discuss problems

We have no doubt that these achievements related to the activities of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, have resulted from the co­ operation and efforts of all the members of the Technical Committee, the contributors of papers and the many other

experts concerned, and that, for this reason, they will serve as an extremely useful source of information for the study, planning, designing and driving of piles. K Fujita



Prof. George F Sowers USA


Le sous-comité technique sur les Aspects Géomécaniques de la Sauvegarde des Sites, Monuments et Cites historiques a

été créé courant 1982 par la Société Internationale de

Mécanique des Sols et des Fondations.

Placé sous la présidence de Jean Kerisel, Past President de la Société Internationale, ce comité a pour objectifs


- de recenser les cas de sauvegarde pour lesquels les aspects géologiques et géotechniques liés au site et aux constructions sont essentiels.

- d‘analyser les conditions dans lesquelles l es géotech­ niciens peuvent etre appelés a participer a ux études et aux opérations de sauvegarde ou de restaura tion par les Organismes Nationaux en charge de la Conservation et de la Sauvegarde du Patrimoine Culturel.


- de prendre tous les contacts nécessaires av ec ces organismes nationaux et les instances inter nationales spécialisées (UNESCO, ICOMOS, ICCROM, etc. ...) pour les informer sur les travaux et activités de so us-comité, avoriser les échanges d information, parti ciper a d'éventuel1es actions de formation sur les problemes spécifiquement liés aux sols, aux eaux sout erraines, aux travaux d'excavation et de confortement des fondations. - d'étahlir des recommandations générales concernant la méthodologie d'approche et de traitement d es problemes géomécaniques liés e la sauvegarde des site s et con­ structions anciennes.

Le Président Arrigo Croce a accepté la charge de la Vice Présidence de ce sous-comité qui regroupe désormais les personnalités suivantes: Brésil

Dr Mohammed A E1 Sohby

Egypte Espagne

Dr J M Rodriguez Ortiz Dr Jaako Eeikkila


Prof. J Kerisel

Prof. B Petrasovits

Grece Hongrie Inde

Dr N V Nayak

Dr Aziz Jayaputera Prof. A Komornik Prof. A1 Azzawi

Prof. A Croce

Prof. M Fukuoka

Dr Gonzales Flores Dr Izharul Haq Dr R H J Kremer

Dr G A Carillo

Prof. W Wolski Dr Wolfgang Rattay Dr Edgar Schultze Dr Andrew Lord

Prof. A S Balasubramaniam Dr Sven Erik Rehman Dr F Mawlawi

Dr Ergun Togrol


- M. Giorgio Torraca, Directeur Adjoint de Centre Inter­ national d'études pour la Conservation et la Restauration des biens culturels (ICCROM, Rome)

- Madame Delphine Lapeyre, Directrice du Secrétariat Inter­ national du Conseil International des Monuments et des Sites (ICOMOS, Paris)

- Monsieur Mamillan, Président du Comité International sur la Conservation de la Pierre (ICOMOS, Paris)

- Monsieur G S Holister, Directeur de la Division de la Recherche et de l'Enseignment Supérieur Technologique de l‘UNESCO (Paris)

- Monsieur le Professeur P Marinos, de l'Université Démocriu de Thrace, organisateur du Syposium International de Géologie de l'Ingénieur qui se tiendra en l9B7 3 Athenes et au programme duquel seront inscrits les aspects géomécanigues de la Sauvegarde des sites et des con­ structions anciennes.

Le secrétariat du sous-comité est assuré par Monsieur A Isnard, Secrétaire Général du Comité Frangais de Mécanique des Sols. ACTIVITES

Sociétés membres représentées, des usages particuliers en matiere de sauvegarde dans chaque pays intéressé:

- autorités de tutelle - procédures - implication des géomécaniciens dans les opérations EEC. ...


Finlande France

Prof. A Loizos

A ces personnalités, membres de la Société Internationale, ont été associés, au titre de membres correspondents:

La premiere tache que s'est assigné le sous-comité a été de s'enquérir 3 travers les représentants de toutes les


Dr Jaime Gusmao, Filho Prof. Lu Zhao-Jun Dr Larsen

Prof. B S Fedorov USSR


e la Géomécanique.


Israel Irak


et des moyens les plus adaptés pour sensibiliser les res­ ponsables aux possibilités offertes par les ingénieurs de notre spécialité pour étudier et traiter les problemes de préservation sous certains aspects liés spécifiguement


Japon Mexique

Pakistan Pays-Bas Pérou Pologne

L'ensemble de cette enquéte a été complété puis discuté au cours de la premiere réunion pléniere du sous-comité 3 Naples, le ll Avril 1984. L'opportunité de cette réunion a été offerte au sous-comité par le Président Arrigo Croce qui avait organisé les 9 et 10 Avril l9B4 un symposium pluridisciplinaire sur l'Homme et son Environnement. Au cours de ce symposium, plusieurs conférences ont été consacrées aux modes anciens de construction, aux problemes de suavegarde des cités en site lagunaire, Venise en particulier, et a certains aspects géotechniques des

fouilles en terrain difficile:


Royaume Uni

- l'invention dans la pyramide égyptienne: Imhotep et ses successeurs (J Kerisel)

SE Asiatique

- le Temple de Borobudur (A Jayaputera)



Syrie Turquie

- la Grece antique et les problemes liés aux séismes (B Helly)

- la Tour de Pisa (G Calabresi, C Viggiani, A Croce)

- Venise: construire en site lagunaire (P Salmi, P Colombq B Calebich, R Padoan, M Piana, G Creazza, E Giangreco)

- Herculanum: peuplement ancien et constraintes d'environnement (T Pescatore, G Gullini, M G Cerulli Irelli, G Vallet, A Croce) Les comptes rendus de ce symposium seront publiés tres prochainement par l'Université de Naples.

L'Association Géotechnique Italienne a, A la suite de cette réunion, apporté une contribution notable de base aux recherches du sous-comité en diffusant aux diverses sociétés membres les comptes rendus du Congres de Florence d'0ctobre l9BO entierement consacrés aux interventions géotechniques sur les sites de peuplement antiques et sur les constructions anciennes.

La Société Pakistanaise de Meéanique des Soils a, elle­

meme, diffuse un résumé des comptes rendus d'un séminaire

qui s'est tenu en 1984, sous les auspices du "World Heritage Fund", au Pakistan sur la preservation du Patrimoine Cuturel Pakistanais. Grace au Service Documentation de 1'ICCRUM et 3

l'obligeance du Professeur Schultze, le sous-comité a pu diffuser les textes des nombreuses conférences que ce dernier a pu donner aux restaurateurs et responsables de la Preservation du Centre de Rome et A Sidney en 1979 sur la Tour de Pise. Nous avons egalement pu ainsi diffuser une réédition d'une communication au Symposium "Chandi Borobudur“ de Kyoto (1980) de M C Voute consacrée A cet important monument.

Parallelement 3 ce travail d'échange d'information et de supports documentaires, le sous-comité s'attache A encourager et A participer A toutes les reunions, symposia et conferences diverses 3 l'occasion desquelles pourraient étre évoquées la participation de la Géotechnique 3 la Sauvegarde du Patrimoine Culturel et l'Histoire de l'évolution des techniques de fondations, d‘utilisation et de traitement des sols. L'un de nos confreres, géologue, le Professeur P Marinos, a déja répondu a ce voeu: un symposium de qéologie de l'ingénieur sera organisé A Athenes en l9B7 sur le theme principal:

- La Géologie de l'Ingénieur et la Protection et l‘Etude

de Patrimoine Historique". Notre sous-comité souhaite obtenir de la Société Inter­ nationale toute 1'assistance nécessaire pour assurer une participation marquante des qéotechniciens B cette manifestation. VOEUX EXPRIM S

Par ailleurs, nous souhaiterions, pour favoriser notre

action, que les programmes des prochaines manifestations

internationales organisées sous les auspices de notre Société puissent faire une place au theme de travail de notre sous-comité: nous nous engageons sur ce point a apporter une aide efficace aux comités organisateurs. Les objectifs prochains que se fixera notre sous-comité

pourraient étre B la fois d'assurer la diffusion par les instances de l'ISSMFE d'une sélection de publications de premier ordre dans notre domaine d'activité et, parallele­

ment, la mise au point de recommandations générales 3

l'usage des organismes officiels en charge de la Préservation du Patrimoine Historique et Culturel.

J Kerisel



The establishment of the ISSMFE Sub-committee on "Consti­ tutive Laws of Soils" was approved at the Steering Com­

mittee in January of 1982. The Japanese Society of Soil

Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (JSSMTE) accepted to

take responsibility for supporting this subcommittee and

recommended Professor S Murayama, Professor Emeritus of

Kyoto University, as the chairman and Professor T Adachi,

Professor of Kyoto University, as the secretary of the

subcommittee. The President of ISSMFE, Professor V F B de Hello accepted the JSSMFE's recommendation and invited the membership of the subcommittee.

Since it is evident that the progress in international cooperation is painfully slow, the objective of this

subcommittee in this term was limited to making a state­ of-the-art report which would clearly show representative consitutive laws of soils. Based on the President‘s advice at the Executive Committee Meeting, and comments from some subcommittee members, we decided to proceed the task of

this subcommittee as follows:

l. a local task force committee is established and works to prepare a preliminary draft of state-of-the-art report on consitutive laws of soils, 2. then it is distributed to each member of the international subcommittee and is completed on the basis of the comments and discussions from the members, and

3. this state-of-the-art report is considered to be the technical report for ISSMFE.

It is not an easy task to make a world view of state-of­ the-art. Thus, it was decided to be better to classify consitutive laws of soils into the following several

categories based on their fundamental concept in their derivation.


I. Micrometric Approaches.

II. Macrometric Approaches - Static - Intrinsically Time-Independent

III. Macrometric Approaches - Static - Intrinsically Time-Dependent

IV. Macrometric Approaches - Dynamic Problems

Following the procedure mentioned above, the preliminary

draft of state-of-the-art report which was prepared by

the Japanese local task force committee members, was distributed to each member of the ISSMFE subcommittee and each member society. On the basis of the comments and discussions sent from the ISSFME subcommittee members, this

state-of-the-art report was completed.

Please consider the PREFACE of this volume as the adminis­ trative report about the work of our ISSMFE subcommittee on “Constitutive Laws of Soils" to the ISSMFE Executive

Committee, while the conents are the technical report.

In addition, for this special occasion to run the dis­

cussion session lA on “Constitutive Relationships for Soil Behaviour" at the San Francisco Conference, we accepted some technical papers. Those are also included in the


In conclusion, I want to thank all the members of the Executive Committee, of this subcommittee and of the

Japanese local task force committee for their kind devotion. I wish the progress in the field of "Constitu­ tive Laws of Soils" would be continued. S Murayama



Dr Etienne Leflaive, France

On 22 February 1983, the Executive Committee of the US

Mr Victor Milligan, Canada Mr Hans Rathmayer, Finland Professor Gerald P Raymond, Canada Mr P J Van derwalt, Republic of South Africa Professor Toyotoshi Yamanouchi, Japan

National Society of the International Society for Soil

Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE) agreed to

organise a Technical Committee on Geotextiles, as suggested by the Executive Committee of the ISSMFE, and proposed the following persons for membership. Dr J P Giroud, Chairman Professor A Arman, Secretary

Professor J R Bell

Professor R M Koerner

On 27 May 1983, J P Giroud indicated in a letter to Professor Seed, Secretary of the US National Society of the ISSMFE that, through a report or other activities, the Technical Committee should:

1. generate interest of potential users of geotextiles

by informing them of the wide variety of applications;

2. encourage candidate users of geotextiles by making

them aware of important constructions where geotex­

tiles have been successfully used, while cautioning them of the problems likely to result from misuse or inadequate design;

3. provide designers with sources of information on case histories, methods of design, and objective data on geotextile properties; 4. prepare research needs statements regarding develop­ ments of new products for specific applications, new testing procedures, new methods of design, and performance monitoring; and

S. foster development of international terminology and standard procedures for testing and identification of geotextiles. On 28 September 1983, Professor de Mello, President of the ISSMFE, indicated by telex that the Committee on

Geotextiles had the status of a full international tech­ nical committee but would be administratively reporting to the North American regional vice-president.


The four original members, all from the United States, agreed to invite members from other countries. They sub­

mitted a list of proposed Committee membership which was approved by Messrs. C B Crawford, Vice President for North America, and V F B de Mello, President. Subsequently

invitations were issued to proposed members to join the Committee. All those invited accepted membership in the Committee with great enthusiasm. The Committee is composed of the following:

Professor Alan McGown, United Kingdom


The two main activities of the Committee were the prepara­

tion of a report on geotextiles and the preparation of discussion-session 5C at the Xlth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering to be held in San Francisco in August of 1985. These two main activities

are briefly described below. In addition, the Chairman and Secretary of the Committee established and maintained co­ ordination between the ISSMFE Technical Committee on Symbols,

Units, Definitions and Correlations, and the International Geotextile Society regarding symbols related to geotextiles. A report titled "Geotextiles in Geotechnical Engineering Practice and Research", (60 printed pages) was prepared by the Technical Committee to satisfy four (one through 4) of the goals outlined in the 27 May 1983 letter of J P Giroud as discussed above. The report provides geotechnical engineers with fundamental knowledge for using geotextiles. The report was prepared with the premise that testing, design and research related to geotextile applications are similar to those used in geotechnical engineering. Geo­ textiles are geotechnical materials and geotechnical engineers are well equipped to use them. The report was prepared by the North American members of the Technical

Committee and both the initial and final drafts were sub­

mitted to each Committee member for review. The Committee

was also fortunate to have President de Mello write the foreword for the report. The report will be available at the Xlth ICSMFE as a special issue of "Geotextiles and Geomembranes", an international journal. The special issue will also include the list of symbols for geotextiles and geomembranes recently adopted by the International Geotextile Society: this latter appendage partially ful­ fills goal number five presented as above. The list of symbols is consistent with those of ISSMFE. Discussion Session 5C, to be held Friday, 16 August, at the XI ICSM E will consist of a brief presentation of the report "Geotextiles in Geotechnical Engineering Practice and Research" by the Chairman of the Technical Co mittee, followed by three panel discussions on: (1) Properties and Testing; (2) Design and Applications; and (3) Research and Committees. Panelists are international members of the Technical Committee, and one guest, the President of the International Geotextile Society. The discussion

leader for the entire session will be the Secretary of the

Technical Committee. MEETINGS

Dr Silvan Andrei, Romania Professor Ara Arman, USA (Secretary) Professor J R Bell, USA

North American Members of the Technical Committee met

Dr Jean-Pierre Giroud, USA (Chairman) Dr Manfred R Hausmann, Australia

take place on 14 August 1985 in San Francisco. During

Professor Heinz Brandl, Austria

several times to plan and discuss the preparation of the report. The first meeting of the entire Committee will

Mr J B Sellmeijer, The Netherlands

Committee will be discussed and outlined.

this and subsequent meetings, future activities of the

Professor Robert M Koerner, USA




Technical Committee recommends to extend its scope to


related products).


following future activities are envisioned:

all geosynthetics (geotextiles, geomembranes, geogrids,


Coordination of, and participation in, sessions on geosynthetics organised at international or regional conferences sponsored by the ISSMFE.


Coordination between ISSMFE and the International

Geotextile Society, especially on symbols and definitions. 1­

Cooperation with international and national standard organisation for the development of standard proce­

dures for testing and reporting test results.


Dissemination of knowledge on geosynthetics to the international community of geotechnical engineers. J P Giroud





The sub-committee had been established in 1979 by, at that period, President Fukuoka. Since the two years until the 10th ICSM E, 1981, were too short a period to obtain some

Following a meeting at 1981-06-17 in Stockholm, a rather small number of members was able to attend meetings at

of the results anticipated by the terms of reference,

although the committee would have been statutorily dis­

banded (Statute 42) at the turn-over of presidential office, President de Mello extended conditionally its period of work to 1983, and later to 1985, in order to bring to fruit the progress reports on the activitiy already undertaken. Thus a conclusing report shall be given here on the occasion of the llth ICSMFE.

Attention is drawn to app. X of the Minutes of the

Executive Committee Meetings in Stockholm (Proc. 10th

ICSMFE, vol. 4, p. lll-112), where the earlier activities of the committee were already reported on. It is only the main items, therefore, which are recalled in this report for the period until 1981. TERMS OF REFERENCE 1979 (and revision 1981-85)

1982-O5-28 in Amsterdam (ESOPT IU

1983-05-18 in Paris (Executives' Meeting) 1983-05-24 in Helsinki (8th ECSMFE).

In addition, special discussions took place at the 2nd IC on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory on Piles in Stockholm (1984-05-29) on Part II of the recommended procedure of dynamic pile testing. Also, a discussion

meeting on behalf of the triaxial testing practice will hopefully be realised at the XI ICSMFE.

In 1984, the Suggested Procedure on the Compression and Swelling Test (authors: Frydman and Calabresi) was able to to be published by the Technion Haifa after very careful consideration by the committee. This was done in spite

of the fact that there was still a minority vote against it from Professor Mikasa who had joined the committee in 1981. It was, however, felt that the work should be

1. Tb determine the methods used by various Member Societies to obtain the strength and deformation

brought to a preliminary and although the discussion of such results will hopefully be continued by interested colleagues. The publication is seen as a reference point for this and can be obtained from Dr Frydman, Haifa.

2. To prepare a Reference Manual for carrying out two

A reference manual was also suggested for the triaxial test by Toralva Berre, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute,

characteristics of soils for the design of structures;

field tests (plate loading test and pile loading test) and three laboratory tests (unconfined compression, triaxial shear and consolidation). 3. Revisions for 1981-85 were indicated in a letter of

after realising that there are but a few national standards on this matter (France, Germany, Japan, USA). Valuable comments on this draft were received from Finland, France, Japan, Netherlands and Germany. They were considered as

President de Mello, LIS O61/B2 of 10 May 1982.

far as possible for the present state of discussion. Following this, the draft is about to be published as a

societies should be collected preceding a recommended Reference Standard to be followed later on by a

hensive and detailed standard for triaxial testing, the

According to this, a collection and tabulation of existing different practices used by various member Recommended Standard and, subsequently, a Working Standard.

Research Report of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute until 1985. Since Japan seems to have the most compre­

Japanese members felt especially concerned about it. The point was raised as to whether such a draft was

intended to provide assistance for routines or to indicate more refined and elaborate techniques also. It


Balasubramaniam (SE Asia) Balstrup (Denmark) Berre (Norway) Borowczyk (Poland)

Calabresi (Italy)

Donald (Australia) Frydman (Israel) Hartikainen (Finland) Kamenov (CSSR)

was also questioned why_the main emphasis should be with

the measurement of shear strength in terms of effective stress. This could not be brought to unanimous agreement

by mainly written communications which proved to be slow and cumbersome. Some misunderstandings, however, were clarified at the Helsinki meeting and it was hoped that

further progress will be possible at the prospective

meeting in San Francisco. The co mittee would not

recommend to split the future work with the triaxial test procedure manual into various groups related to regional types of soil because it was strongly felt that this

Lindenberg (Netherlands)

would lead to procedures which were more deviating than harmonizing, the result being worse than the present state .

Miki (Japan), followed by Mikasa (Japan) Oteo (Spain) Pendola (Ecuador)

The most advanced state of harmonization was obtained with the Pile Loading Test Recommended Procedure which will hopefully be published in the ASTM Journal in 1985 (a German translation by the chairman was also published in

Ramamurthy (India)

recommendation is nothing but an offer to those who want

Silver (USA)

moreover, is more a trend-setter than a standardization.

v Soos (Federal Republic of Germany) Ter-Marzirosyan (USSR)

The committe had also started some actions on behalf of

Kezdi (Hungary)

Mackechnie (Zimbabwe/Rhodesia) Madedor (Nigeria) Marsland (United Kingdom)

Pilot (France)

Sallfors (Sweden)

Tinoco (Mexico)

1983). In its preface it is clearly stated that this

to use it. Its second part on dynamical pile testing,

the plate-loading test and the consistency limit test.


As far as the information given to the Committee goes, there is no established procedure in the member societies

for the plate-loading test to be used for foundation engineering, it seems to be applied almost exclusively to highway engineering. However, the British Building Research Station has gained very promising experiences with plate-loading tests in bore-holes at varying depths. A Marsland was therefore asked to provide a draft pro­ posal of a recommended procedure as a reference paper. This was distributed to the membership who naturally made

little comment due to the lack of experience. This has to be followed up elsewhere.

As to the Consistency Limit Test, M Silver had taken a first action by asking the member societies for their

established practice. In this field, quite a number of national standards exist and it should be possible to

distil a reference document from these without running into many controversies. This, however, has not yet been done by the committee. CONCLUSIONS

The tests for which papers, of different degrees of maturitY: were developed are well-known to the profession but have been found to be sometimes controversal in their details. Therefore, the co mittee wanted to provide collected practi cal experience which allows easy comparison with the

experience of those outside the committee. It is obvious that the profession needs guidance which goes beyond the contingencies of conference papers even if those have the

quality of state-of-the-art reports. Since we have the

scientific and professional background to switch the lamp we are obliged to do so and should not leave the 'ugly job' of editing standards to people who much less know how to

do it.

ThE Chairman feels alarmed by the fact that the ISO has recently established a geotechnical committee which is expected to develop standards for all our laboratory and

field tests. would noble silence, then, be an appropriate

kind of action?

U Smoltczyk



Dear Dr Parry,

Professor Kirwan, Chairman of the Organising Committee for the IX ECSMFE in Dublin in l9B7 has asked me to write to you with the invitation from the Organising Committee to host the ISSMTE Board and Council Meetings to be held in

copying facilities all readily available close by. The

Organising Committee also plan to organise a reception for the Council members on Friday evening.


Following our discussion by phone yesterday, I enclose a copy of my letter to M. Isnard regarding the translation facilities for the Dublin Conference.

The Organising Committee for the IX ECSMTE propose that

Thank you for your assistance in this matter.

the Board and Council Meetings should be held in Trinity College Dublin, the venue chosen for the IX ECSMFE, during the week prior to the Conference, i.e. 26-29 August l9B7. A meeting room for twelve people, suitable for the Board Meeting, is available on the Wednesday and Thursday prior to the Conference. A larger meeting room suitable for holding the Council Meeting is available on the Friday and Saturday. These two venues are on the University campus with refreshments (tea, coffee, lunches), typing and

Yours sincerely, Dr Trevor Orr



The present printed form duced in February 1983. which was typed on large one xeroxed copy sent to society then had to make

of “ISSFME News" was first pro­

It replaced the previous newsletter sheets, then reduced in size and each Member Society. Each

sufficient copies to send out to its members. The final product was often of poor quality.

An arrangement was made with Foundation Publications Limited (Publishers of Ground Engineering) to print ISSM E

and again did not wish to distribute ISSMFE News separately. More recently a similar arrangement has been made with the Mexico Member Society so that Geotechnical News is now distributed throughout the North American Region.

An apparently simple solution was available, in so far as

Bitech had offered to include ISSMFE News Items in Geo­ technical News. This had two drawbacks:

News and send sufficient copies in bulk to each Member

l. In the view of the writer, a Society of the size and

advertisements. The February 1983 and June 1983 issues were produced in this way, but owing to Foundation Holdings Ltd., the parent company of Foundation Publications Ltd.,

2. It is much more difficult to obtain advertising to

Society to be able to circulate them to all their members. The cost of this was to be paid for by the inclusion of going into liquidation, this arrangement ceased.

It was decided that, for a time at least, ISSMFE News should be produced by the Secretariat, using a local Cambridge printer, but still seeking advertising to cover the cost of printing and distribution in bulk to Member Societies. This cost was amounting to about El5OO to £2000 per issue ($19O0 to $2500 at the present exchange


It was felt in principle that ISSMFE News should be dis­ tributed to all members free of charge. This was the reason for including advertising.

importance of ISSMFE should have its own identifiable newsletter reaching all members.

cover cost of printing and distributing ISSMFE News

if it is not being distributed in North America.

At the start of 1984 a number of advertisers took multiple

insertions in ISSMFE News and subsequently agreed to go ahead when advised that ISSMFE News would not be distributed

in North America. However, the enquiries have virtually dried up in 1985, probably because the News will not reach

North American Members.

At the start of 1985 it was decided to reduce the size of ISSM E News from two folded sheets (8 pages) to one folded

sheet (4 pages) to reduce the cost of both printing and

bulk posting to Member Societies.

tion of ISSMFE News in Canada. These were twofold:

In early 1983 difficulties arose with respect to distribu­

A newsletter of this size, without advertising, is adequate to contain the various news and other items. The cost of

l. A Customs charge is made on printed material contain­ ing advertising entering Canada and the United States.

printing and bulk postage (excluding North America) is about £1000 per issue ($l25O or SFr3200). It is recommendei then, that this size News should be produced in future,

2. The Canadian Geotechnical Society had entered into an agreement- with a Canadian publisher, Bitech, to print and distribute a publication "Geotechnical News" to

all its members. This also relied on advertising for financial viability. The Canadian Society did not

want to distribute ISSMFE News separately having

entered into this arrangement, and Bitech did not wish to distribute ISSMFE News, containing advertising which could conflict with their own interests, without some financial recompense.

In the meantime, the US National Co mittee also entered into an agreement with Bitech to receive Geotechnical News


without advertising in it, and that the Cost should be met by an increase in membership subscription fee. The re­ quired increase will be about lSFr per member.

with regard to North America, if agreeable to the three Member Societies and Bitech, the ISSMFE News items will be sent to Bitech for inclusion in Goetechnical News in a specific ISSFME Section. In effect this arrangement now applies, insofar as ISSMFE News is sent to the Vice President for North America who sends it on to Bitech for selected items to be included in Geotechnical News. This solution does not satisfy (1) above, but it does ensure that news items will reach North American members in a good quality printed form.


At the ISSMFE Executive Committee meeting held in Paris on

16 and 17 May 1983 it was agreed to delete Statute 41 requiring the ISSMFE List of Members to be prepared in a bound form and distributed to Member Societies in suffi­ cient numbers for circulation of all individual members. However, Statute 31 was retained making the Secretary

General responsible for the reproduction and distribution of the List of Members in accordance with the instructions outlined by the Executive Committee.

The following motion was considered at the meeting:

l. Using the 1981 list as a base, Member Societies should be asked at an early stage to produce a list of amendments to this list in a standard format on loose leaves for easy binding. These amended lists should be submitted to the General Secretariat by l November 1983.

2. The General Secretariat will forward copies of the amendments to all Member Societies.

3. All Member Societies will be asked to prepare a com­

plete updated list of the members by l November 1984.

These complete updated lists will thereafter be pre­

pared every two years and held as separates by Member

Societies. At the intermediate 12 month period, amendments to the previous separates will be submitted

to the General Secretariat.

4. The separates will be available for anyone wishing

a copy either direct from the Member Society or from the ISSMFE Secretariat, which will keep some copies. It may be appropriate to make a charge for supplying such copies. The Member Societies would automatically send their updated lists to their own members, and one copy to the Secretariat of all other Member Societies.

5. A suitable standard form will be prepared by the

Secretary General. Large format paper should be used as for conference papers, and then reduced to A4 size. About 40 addresses per page should be achieved. A full mailing address should be given for each Member

together with titles, telephone and telex number if any, but not necessarily the member's affiliation.

This motion was agreed, with the rider that the Secretary General should continue to explore more advanced systems. This presumably implied computer based systems. A number of Member Societies already have computer based

systems for their own lists of members, which makes it

easier for them to supply full up-to-date lists than lists

of amendments. There is also apparently difficulty with producing lists to a stipulated format. For these reasons the first part of the motion has not been implemented.

A letter dated 26 January 1984 was sent to all Member Societies questioning the need to supply a bound List of Members to all individual members, as only a limited number

make any use of it. It could only be financed by a sub­ stantial increase in membership subscription or by off­ setting the considerable costs of printing and posting by including advertising. The cost of the 1981 List was offset by advertising, but the Secretariat had great difficulty getting the advertising and in the end most of it came from Japan.

A possible agreement to include the list in Geoguide '85 was outlined in the letter and Member Societies were asked to give their views on this. A small number voiced reservations, which were shared by the President and some other Officers of the Society, so this solution was not pursued further. In accordance with Clauses 3 and 5 of the Motion agreed

at the Paris meeting, a letter was sent to all Member Societies dated 16 March 1984 asking for complete updated lists of members to be submitted in standard format to the Secretariat by 1 November 1984. The reguired format was set out in detail and enclosed with the letter. After lengthy discussion at the Steering Committee Meeting held in Perth on 15 to 17 May, 1984 the President approved,

in addition to a loose leaf solution, an offer by Balkema

to computerise, print and bind a 1985 List of Members. The number produced was to be limited to about 3000, and, with the exception of one free copy to each Member Society, copies will be made available at about $10.00 each to

members to recover costs. The initial cost of producing the volumes will be borne by the Secretariat.

Only about one-half of the membership lists were received by 1 November 1984 and at the time of writing (May 1985)

six Member Societies have still not submitted lists. As printing of the lists has now ceased in order to produce the bound list before August 1985, lists for the six

Member Societies (Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Norway, Paraguay, USSR) will not appear in the 1985


Notwithstanding detailed instructions in the letter of March 1984 from the Secretariat, the lists were submitted in a variety of formats and print faces (in some cases hand written corrections to old lists), and amounted in total to 750 sheets. The task of reproducing this number of sheets in a reasonable form and sending to 57 Members Societies and to Officers of the Society was beyond the physical and financial means of the Secretariat and con­ sequently none of these have been circulated.

It was agreed at the Steering Committee in Perth 1984, that ISSMFE could not take any responsibility for the correctness of any address, or for any political or other implications that an address may embody. Addresses would thus be included in the 1985 bound List of Members as submitted, without any changes. A disclaimer to this effect appears in the 1985 Volume.

At its meeting in Perth the Steering Committee also formu­ lated a basic set of principles which should be respected in producing future lists and the acceptable conditions under which advertising could be associated with the

lists. These were:

l. The Computerised data base must be continuously updated

2. Requests for updated lists will be sent out with annual subscription notices. 3. Bound lists should be produced on a Regional basis approximately every two years, with a full set of

independently bound Regional copies produced at the time of each International Conference.

4. There should be equality of opportunity for advertisers


5. Any company may advertise in as many of the Regional volumes as it wishes, but may have only one advertise ment in any one volume.

6. Advertising will be in a form approved by ISSMFE and each advertisement will be no larger than one eighth of a page.

These principles were put forward to be considered by the Executive Committee Meeting to be held in San Francisco on 9 to lO August 1985.



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(c) In the light of the existing financial control


The Chairman of the British Geotechnical Society (BGS),

after consultation with the President of the International Society, requested me to carry out a review of the finances of the ISSMFE covering the period from March 1980 to December 1984.

In January 1985, the Secretary General provided me with the following information: 1.

Audited accounts for the following periods (i)

l March 1980 to 28 February 1981


l January 1983 31 December 1983


1 March 1981 28 February 1982 (iii) 1 March 1982 31 December 1982 2.

Draft unaudited accounts for (i)


Budgets for ISSMFE expenditure as follows: (U

(ii) 4.

1 January 1984 to 31 December 1984

Basic Budget 1981-85 (presented at Stockholm 1981)

ISSM E Ordinary Budget for l January 1983 to 31 December 1984 (presented at Executive Committee, Paris, l983L

Approximate breakdowns of major items of expense such

as secretarial payments, travel, office expenses, etc. 5.

Minutes of the following meetings (i)


(iii) (iv) (v)

Executive Committee Steering Committee, Steering Committee, Executive Committee Steering Committee,


(d) Prepare a draft report on the review of the financial status of ISSMTE ready for discussion with the President in early March 1985.

Meetings were held with the Chairman of the BGS and the Secretary General in Cambridge on 20 and 21 February 1985. A further meeting took place in London on 5 March 1985,

when the draft report referred to in (d) above was dis­ cussed with the President and the Chairman of the BGS. EXAMINATION OF THE ACCOUNTS

I have examined the accounts of the Society with particular reference to the major items of expenditure. I have pre­ pared sum aries of various aspects of the accounts and

present these summaries as Appendices. Items of expendi­ ture and income stated in the audited accounts are variously given in Swiss Francs, USA Dollars and British Pounds. There are constant variations in the rates of exchange between these currencies, and in conversions from one to

the other. I have used the rates stated by the Auditors as ruling at the end of the particular financial year. In all but one of the Appendices I have converted all cur­ rencies to British Pounds. The exception is Appendix E which compares the Budgetted and Actual income and expen­ diture in terms of Swiss Frances, the currency used in the Budget.

My comments on each of the Appendices are as follows:


Stockholm 1981

Appendix A - Summary of Cash Balances


San Francisco 1982 Paris 1983 Paris 1983 Perth, WA 1984

of the Society at the end of each financial year.

In May 1985, I was additionally provided with: 1.

systems, consider whether or not amendments should be

made to the International Society's procedures; and

The Audited Accounts give the Cash Balance of the finances

At the beginning of the period under investigation, the

The audited accounts for l January 1984 to 31 December 1984.

Cash Balance was E26457.43. There was an increase in the Cash Balance in each subsequent financial period and four years later at 31 December 1984 the Cash Balance was E63094.50. This increase in Cash Balance of E36637.07 is

Draft revised Statutes of the ISSMFE prepared by Professor J B Burland,

very satisfactory.

In a letter dated 2 January 1985, the Chairman of the BGS asked that the financial review should concentrate on the major items of expenditure such as honoraria, international travel expenses, etc.

Appendix B - Summary of Subscription Income and Emoluments

He also stated that the main purpose of the review should be to establish basic facts concerning the expenditure of the ISSM E revenues over the five accounting periods

The Subscription Income has generally risen at a greater rate than the emoluments disbursed to the Secretary General and other Secretarial outlays. The one exception was the period ended February 1982, during which there were three Secretary Generals in office, viz. Professors

listed in l and 2 above. The important aspect, in addition to establishing the facts, was to determine whether this

revenue had been efficiently expended on behalf of the International Society in accordance with the Society's

statutes. More specifically it was requested that I should (a)

Be satisfied that the financial breakdowns provided by the Secretary General are satisfactory.


Review the breakdowns provided and consider whether

or not further information is required.

This is the first of the major items which it was requested should be examined.

Nash and Burland, and Dr Parry.

There was an apparent anomaly in the Subscription Incomes for the periods to February 1982, December 1982 and December 1983 where the figures were 920637, £20055 and E33827 respectively, with no significant change in the number of subscribers. A check was made on the details

of the number of subscribers and the actual subscriptions received as stated in the audited accounts, and it was


found that for the periods to February 1982 and December 1982 there was not agreement between these two items. Agreement, however, was found for the periods ended 31 December 1983 and 1984. This matter was taken up with the Secretary General and he explained that the system he

inherited did not necessarily indicate agreement.

However, the Secretary General has changed the accounting

system since he assumed responsibility and it is to his credit that the Audited accounts now record the subscrip­ tions actually received in any financial period. Appendix C - Summary of Postage, Telephone, Telex and Xerox Copying Costs

There are bound to be fluctuations in these items each year, and this is evident from this Appendix.

There has been an increase in the President's expenditure in these items but this was inevitable as the expenses of the previous President were met by his National Society.

(a) Interest received = 13,526 SFr (b) Kevin Nash Fund = 13,383 SFr 26,909 SFr

The Secretary General has been conservative in his budget­

ting, a sensible precaution in the best interests of the Society.

From my examination of the accounts I am satisfied by the financial breakdowns provided by the Secretary General. The breakdowns covered the major items of expenditure and income and were adequate for my review of the finances of

the Society. This statement of satisfaction covers items (a) and (b) of the terms of reference.


Item (c) of the terms of reference of the review included a request that it should be determined whether the ISSMFE revenues had been efficiently expended in accordance with

the Statutes of the Society.

Appendix D - Summary of Travel Expenses

The Secretary General provided approximate breakdowns of

the travel expenses incurred by the President, the Secretary General, by other secretarial assistance and also travel expenses disbursed to others.

The most recent "official" Statutes are those given in the 1981 List of Members. However, some modifications to the Statutes have been endorsed at Executive and Steering

Committee meetings held subsequent to the Stockhom

Conference. In fact, the establishment of the Steering Committee is one of the modifications.

The accurate accounting of travel expenses directly debited to the International Society is complicated by the refunds which may eventually surface due to later payments by other bodies such as the Organising Committees of Regional or National Societies.

Relatively little reference is made to financial matters in the "1981" Articles of the Statutes and the relevant

However, the travel expenses debited to the Society are generally close to the Budget provision as can be seen

Article No. Reference and Comment

from Appendix E which compares the Budgetted and Actual Expenditures and Income.

22 It is stated that "The prime duty of the President

Again, there has been an increase in the President's travel expenses. This is a reversion to normal practice since his predecessor's travel costs were met by his National Society.

Appendix E - Comparison of the Budget for l January 1983 to 31 December 1984 with the Actual Income and Expenditure

in that Period

As explained in Appendix E, the Budget is prepared in Swiss Francs under a number of fixed items of income and expendi­ ture. However, there are additional items of income and

expenditure other than those fixed items listed in the

Articles are discussed below along with modifications made at, and subsequent to, Stockholm.

shall be to foster the aims and objects of the Society in the world co munity ...".

This implies that the President will have to travel to meetings and conferences during his period of office which will incur travel and other expenses.

29 Herein it is stated "that the terms (financial presumably) of the Secretary General shall be agreed by the Budget and Finance Committee".

In the 1981 Statutes there is no other mention of a Budget and Finance Committee or of its con­

stitution, or how often it meets or is consulted.


A comparison has, therefore, been made of the fixed items in the Budget and these other items. Based on Budget items alone, there was an excess of income over expenditure of 41,765 Swiss Francs on a Fixed Item Budget of 190,000 Swiss Francs. This excess was contri­ buted to by an increase in subcription income of 20,026 Swiss Francs over the Budget, and also by the Emoluments being 21,244 Swiss Francs less than the Budget provision. The Travel expenditure was slightly greater than that budgetted.

However, the Executive Committee Meeting at Stockholm approved the establishment of a Steering Committee which included advice to the President and Secretary General on “Finance and

Budget" as one of its responsibilities. It was

suggested that the Steering Committee should meet

at least once a year.

There is now, therefore, provision for the approval of a Budget on an annual basis.

30 There was some ambiguity in parts of this

Article and the Executive Committee at Stockholm

There was a Total Excess of income over expenditure of

revised the second sentence to read ­ "he ls responsible for keeping the accounts of the Society, for the preparation of the budget of receipts and expenditures which shall be

was contributed to by

ments for the Society up to the limit of the

Based on Non-Budget items alone, there was an excess of income over expenditure of 19.976 Swiss Francs.

61,741 Swiss Francs. It should be noted that this excess


approved by the Executive Committee and for pay­


Although the second sentence of this Article has

to any changes in Clauses or Articles from the 1981 Statutes with respect to financial matters only.

For example ­


been revised, I would suggest that there is still a lack of clarity in other parts of the Article.



(a) It should be clarified over what period the

budget should run. A Basic Budget covering four year period 1981-85 was presented at Stockholm and endorsed in June 1981, i.e. 6 months after the start of the Budget period. An Ordinary Budget covering the period l January 1983 to 31 December 1984 was presented to the Steering Committee and Executive Committee in May 1983,

again some months after the co mencement of the

Budget period. If the same practice is followed for the period commencing 1 January 1985, then that Budget cannot be approved until B months

after it comes into operation. The normal under­ standing of a Budget is that it is prepared and approved prior to the period to which it applies. The accounts are audited annually and it should be considered whether a corresponding annual Budget should be prepared and approved by the Steering Committee and the President before it comes into operation.

(b) There should be a statement that the annual accounts should be professionally audited (since this actually happens and should be maintained).

(c) There is a statement that only the President or

the Secretary General can authorise expenditure.

Does this mean they can authorise expenditure independently and without consultation? In the unlikely event of disagreements or non-cooperation between a President and his Secretary General an embarrassing situation could possibly develop.

I regard the Secretary General as the paid official who acts as the Chief Executive or Managing Director with the current President acting as Chairman. This would be the position in other professional engineering Societies such as the American Society of Civil Engineers or the Institution of Civil Engineers. The Secretary General and his staff hopefully provide the con­ tinuity of the organisation. He is responsible for budgetting and preparing accounts and I consider that he should have the prime respon­ sibility for authorising payments within his budgetted sums. Obviously the President must alsohave some authority for expenditures within his domain. I reco mend that there should be a President‘s sub-budget included within the main budget to cover his anticipated travel costs, secretarial, telephone, telex and other charges. The President would have independent control of his sub-budget.


A Statutes Sub-committee was set up in May 1983 to revise the Statutes. The Sub-committee consisted of Professor Burland, Dr Northey, Professor Wroth, the Secretary

3D This states that the President may authorise the

reimbursement of certain direct expenses. This appears to conflict with new Articles 9H and llE which state that only the President or the Secretary General may authorise expenditure and that the Secretary General is responsible for the finances.

6B The proposed officials of a Member Society omit the office of Treasurer, an omission from the list of officials listed in Article 7 of the existing Statutes. Is it not desirable for any Society to have a designated Treasurer?

9G This Article bestows on the President the position of Chief Executive Officer of the Society although the authorisation of expenditure is given to both the President and the Secretary General.

I refer to my comments in Section 3 of this report

where I recommended under (C) that the Secretary General should be regarded as the Chief Executive Officer. I made this recommendation before

receiving the Revised Draft Statutes and this is still my opinion.

l1E Herein it is stated that the Secretary General is responsible for the finances of the Inter­ national Society and for all fiscal and legal requirements ...

This appears to be contrary to the powers of authorising expenditure by the President proposed in New Article 3D.

I would comment that while this proposed new

Article may be appropriate to general Statutes, I would suggest that appropriate By-Laws regarding financial matters should be promulgated simultaneously with a general Statute of this nature. These new By-Laws might incorporate the

suggestions made earlier such as

(i) The preparation of Budgets and their

approval by an appropriate Committee.

(ii) The approval of a Budget before the period to which it applies. (iii) The preparation and professional audit of annual accounts.

(iv) Separate budget provisions for Secretary General and President, as discussed in Section 3(c) of this report.

(v) Powers to fix subscriptions on a regular basis. This is covered to some extent in new Article ZOB.

General and the President. Professor Burland circulated a Draft in May 1985.

It is proposed that the revision should proceed in stages. The first stage would deal with Statutes to be followed in further stages with By-Laws and Policies.


I am satisfied that the financial affairs of the Society for the period under review have been conducted in a satisfactory manner.

I propose to comment on these Draft Statutes with respect 3031

In preparation of future Budgets I suggest that considera­ tion should be given to the matters raised in Section 3 of

this report.

I wish to draw attention to the following further points: (a) The Society has a significant Cash Balance. A policy should be established with respect to the amount of financial reserves a Society of this nature should have and appropriate budgeting provision be made to implement the policy. The policy regarding Bank Interest and the Kevin Nash Fund should also be


(b) There are significant costs in printing the Lists of Members. The 1981 list was subsidised by advertise­ ments. If this practice is not followed for future lists there will have to be substantial increases in subscription rates. The same comments apply to the


A recommendation was endorsed at the May 1983 Steering Committee Meeting that the Budget should have two


components ­

(i) Ordinary Income and Expenditure (ii) Extraordinary Income and Expenditure. At the May 1983 Executive Meeting it was agreed that

this type of Budgetting should not be applied to the

period l January 1983 to 31 December 1984.

This recommendation will have to be reconsidered for future Budgets. (d)

At the May 1984 Steering Committee it was agreed that a motion should be put to the 1985 Executive Meeting

that extra financial provision should be made to establish a fund to assist travel expenses for the President and Secretary General. My review of the finances would indicate that there has been little problem in providing adequate travel expenses for both these officers. However, the matter was also

raised of financial assistance to Vice Presidents for which there is no provision at present. If such financial provision is to be made it must be closely

budgetted and controlled. (c)

Items (c) and (d) above highlight the anomalous position previously referred to whereby the forth­

coming Budget will be decided and approved in August

1985, eight months after the beginning of the financial period to which it applies. Professor Hugh B Sutherland

University of Glasgow 17 May 1985




Period Ended Cash Balance at period endIncrease Period Tbtal Increase

February 1981 E26457.43 0

E 4872.00

February 1982 SFr 102322 @ 3.44 = E29744.77


E35444.77 E8987.34 E8987.34 December 1982 SFr 139214 @ 3.23 = E43l00.31

E + 1829.00 44929.31 - 279.00

E44650.31 E92o5.54 E18192.88

December 1983 SFr 31076 @ 3.16 = E 9834.18

E + 12047.00 + 30275.00 52156.18 - 428.00

E51728.18 E7077.87 E25270.75 December 1984 SFr [email protected] 3.015 = E24861.86

E + 12842.86 + 30383.00 68087.72

- 4993.22 E63094.50 E11366.32 E36637.07

Note: Exchange rates used are those given by the Auditors for each of the financial periods APPENDIX B




Sub- Emoluments Period scription Secretary other Total Period Incurred by _ Total General Secretarial emoluments ended E outlays E E Feb. 1981 19749 7620 1640 9260 Feb. 1981 E1196 E1196 Feb. 1982 20637 11682 * 3102 14784 Feb. 1982 E1970 E1970

ended IncomeSecretary _ --------------­ E President General Dec. 1982 Dec. 1982

(lonmnths) 20055 6710 2552 9262 (10 months) E1420 E1198 E2618 Dec. 1983 33827 9600 3526 13126 Dec. 1983 E1986 E2292 £4278 Dec. 1984 34207 10800 4881 15681 Dec. 1984 £1640 E1514 E3154 *There were three Secretary Generals in this period.




Approximate breakdown as

Period As per audited accounts ended

provided by the Secretary General

_ Secretary General Presldent Total and others

February 1981 E4375.49

130.50 (Refund)

E4244.99 - E4245 E424S

February 1982 SFr 1159 @ 3.44 E 336.

+ 2593. + 394.00

3323. - Refunded

(Refund) 3810.00 E(486.

December 1982 E3494 E1B19 E1674 E3493 (10 months) 316 (Refund) E3178

December 1983 E6595 £1603 E5992

149 (Refund) (some refunded by £6446 other societies)

December 1984 £8884 E5797 £3038 £8835 (some may be refunded by

other societies)




The Budget is prepared under a number of fixed items. The audited accounts show that there are items of income and expenditure other than the fixed items in the Budget. A statement is, therefore, made below under two headings viz .. Budget items and Other items. This permits a comparison to be made with the actual Budget fixed items and the income and expenditure with respect to these items.

The calculations have been prepared on the basis of the exchange rates given by the Auditors.

1983 E1.00 = 3.16 SFr

1984 El.OO = 3.015 SFr. 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1984

Comparison of Audited Income and Expenditure with Budget Items

Budget provision Actual Income Total

S Fr 1983 1984 1 January 1983 to Income __ 31 December 1984 Membership Fees 190,000 106,894 103,133 210,027

Expenditure Actual Expenditure 1983 1984 Total

Emoluments 110,000 41,478 47,27847,625 88,756 Travel 44,000 20,840 26,278

Photocopying 4,000 2,819 Telephone and Telex 12,000 5,3911,691 5,391 4,510 10,782

Postage 3,000 Stationery 3,0005,309 2,1722,433 2,460 7,742 4,632

Legal 5,000 List ofexpenses members 5,000- ----- ­­­ Sundries 2,000

Auditor's fees and Bank charges 2,000 2,346 1,869 4,215

190,000 80,355 87,907 168,262

Excess of Income over Expenditure

(based on Budget Items) = 41,765 SFr

Non-Budget Items 1983 1984 Total S F S Fr 1 January 1983 to

122222 r 31 December 1984 Non-Budget Items 5,236 34,638 39,874 SFr Expenditure

Non-Budget Items 8,203 11,695 19,393 Excess of Income over Expenditure

(based on Non Budget Items) = 19,976 SFr


Total Income = 249,901 SFr

Total Expenditure = 188,160 Total Excess of Income over Expenditure = 61,741 SFr

Notes: The Excess of Income over Expenditure is contributed to by

(a) Interest received = 13,526 SFr (b) Kevin Nash Fund = 13,383 26,909 SFr




l. Name 2. Aim




The name of the Society is: International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE).

In French: Societe Internationale de Mecanique des Sols et des Travaux de Fondations (SIMSTF). It is hereinafter referred to as "International Society".

3. Type of Society and Headquarters 4. Languages 5. Membership

6. Members and Member Societies

7. Regions B. Officers 9. President

10. Vice-Presidents ll. Secretary General and General Secretariat 12. The Council


The Statutes of the International Society are accompanied by By-Laws and Policies.



13. Venue of Council Meeting 14. Agenda for Council Meetings 15. Conduct of Council Meetings 16. The Board


The aim of the International Society is the promotion of internationalcooperationamong engineers and scientists for the advancement of knowledge of the field of geotechnics and its engineering applications.

lB. Regional Conferences, Meetings and Symposia 19. Committees and Sub-Committees


The International Society will promote its aims by holding periodic International and Regional Conferences

17. International Conferences

20. Finances

and Symposia, through the work of Committees, by exchange of information, by cooperation with other organisations whose aims are complementary to those of

21. Register of Members 22. Amendments to Statutes, By-Laws and Policies

the International Society and by encouraging the

23. Dissolution or Liquidation

formation of new Member Societies.


(followed by Clause in which Term is defined)



Amendments to By-Laws and Policies (22C) Amendments to Statutes (22B) Board (16)


The International Society is a non-profit organisation supported by subscriptions of the Members, royalty revenues from publications, unrestrictive grants and other sources.


These Statutes and any interpretation thereof shall

By-Laws (lB)

Casting vote at Council meetings (l5E) Committees (l9B) Conference Advisory Committee (l7F) Conference Organising Committee (l7F)

be governed by the law of the country within which

resides the official headquarters of the International Society.

Council (12)

First Vice-President (10D) General Secretariat (llC)


The official headquarters of the International Society shall be the seat of its General Secretariat.


No Officer or Member, other than the staff of the General Secretariat, shall receive any remuneration from International Society funds. However the reimbursement of certain direct expenses may be authorised.




The official languages of the International Society

Group number (ZOB)

Individual Members (6A) International Symposium (lBG)


Member Society (SB)

Officers (B) Policies (lB) President (9) Proxy votes at Council meetings (l5D) Quorum of the Council (l2F) Regional Committees (19F) Regional Conference (lBA) Regional Symposium (lBG)

are English and French.

Resolutions (l5F)

Secretary General (ll Secret Ballot (l5G) Sub-Committees (l9C) Supporting Members (SD)

Vice-President (lO) Voting at Council meetings (l5C)


Statutes, By-Laws, Policies and official Minutes of Council meetings shall be published in English and French.


Should a difference in meaning arise between the English and French versions of the documents referred

to in 4B the valid version shall be that in which the

written motion was moved. 4D.

The official languages shall be used in the proceedings and plenary technical sessions of an International Conference.


4E. At Regional Conferences and International Symposia

the Society into Membership on behalf of the Council

held under the aegis of the International Society at least one of the official languages shall be used.


and shall report the matter to the next Council meeting. No entrance fee is payable. The membership of a New Member Society shall not become effective until payment of the first subscription has been received by the International Society.

SA. The International Society is composed of Member 6E

A Member Society may be affiliated to other engineering

5B. A Member Society is generally a national society but 6F

A Member Society shall fulfil its obligations to the International Society which include: payment of the annual subscriptions within nine months of the due date; keeping the Secretary General regularly informed about changes of its statutes, addresses of its secretariat, names of its officers, and names and

Societies accepted into membership.

may also represent two or more nearby countries. A country may not have more than one Member Society.

5C. The Council has the right to suspend the membership of any Member Society by a simple majority vote and to terminate the membership of any Member Society by a two-thirds majority vote.

and scientific societies.

addresses of designated Individual Members of the International Society.

SD. Supporting membership of the International Society 6G is open to individuals, private firms and other organisations. These Supporting Members shall not have specific representation on the governing bodies

of the International Society.

A Member Society which has failed to pay its annual subscription and other dues within the prescribed

period will automatically cease to receive the benefits of membership of the International Society and its membership shall be deemed to be suspended.


A Member Society which has resigned its membership may

apply to rejoin the International Society by means of the procedure set out in Statutes 6B and GC. If accepted the Council shall decide what entrance fee, if any, shall be payable.


6A. Each Member Society is composed in part or in full of individual members who are designated Individual Members of the International Society. An Individual Member of the International Society may belong to more

than one Member Society. 7

EB. In order to create a Member Society in a country or 7A group of countries, individuals interested in furthering the fields of geotechnics and geotechnical engineering must first create a society with these

aims. The society must have: 7B


The International Society shall operate through the following six Regions: Africa; Asia, Australasia; Europe; North America; South America.

(i) a Constitution or Statutes

Each Member Society shall be allocated to one Region only, in accordance with geographical and technical considerations deemed most beneficial to furthering

(ii) a President or Chairman*

in accordance with the wish of the Member Society

(iii) a Secretary (iv) an address for its secretariat.

the aims of the International Society and preferably

subject to ratification by the Council. 7C

6C. Once the society has been brought into existence a letter should be sent (in English or French) signed by the President or Chairman and the Secretary of that society to the Secretary General of the Inter­

the Council. V

behalf of the society. The letter should contain a declaration that if accepted the Member Society will B do its best to further the aims of the International

Society and abide by its Statutes, By-Laws and BA Policies and should enclose (in English or in French):

The Officers of the International Society are:

(ii) The Vice-Presidents

(ii) the names of the President or Chairman and

(iii) The Secretary General



(iv) the names, occupations and addresses of its members designate of the International Society. 9A

GD. If the Secretary General is satisfied that the appli­ cation is in order, after consultation with the *The use of the masculine gender in these Statutes does not imply the relevant position is limited to a male person.


(i) The President

(i) the Constitution or Statutes

appropriate Regional Vice-President, he may accept

allocation. If the President of the International Society is satisfied that such a change is in the interests of the International Society, after con­

sultation with the appropriate Regional Vice-Presidents, he may accept the change subject to ratification by

national Society formally applying for membership on

(iii) the address of its secretariat

A Member Society may seek a change of its Regional



The term of office of the President shall normally occupy about four years, in general from the end of one International Conference to the end of the next International Conference. About one year before the expiry of the term of office of the President, the Secretary General shall invite

each Member Society to send him its nomination of Individual Member for the next President, the nominating 303 7

President and Vice-Presidents as the First Vice­ President. The term of office will be about four years, from one International Conference to the next International Conference.

Member Society having first ascertained that its nominee is willing to serve if elected. The Secretary General shall confirm the nominees' willingness to stand for election. He shall then send to each Member Society a list of all the candidates and the Council

shall be asked to vote on these names at its next lOE. The prime duty of a Vice-President shall be to foster the aims and objects of the International Society amongst the Member Societies within his Region. The

meeting which will normally be just prior to the next International Conference. 9C.

As soon as the President-elect has been chosen the decision will be announced publicly at the earliest suitable occasion. During the International Conference

at which he takes office he will participate in his capacity as President-Elect in all administrative, technical and social functions. 9D.

Vice-President's authorityand duties shall be to act as the President's representative in his Region. In particular he shall act for the President by presiding at the Regional Conference, in the arrangements for which he shall be closely involved. lOF.

In the event of impediment, resignation or death of a Vice-President a successor shall be appointed by the President for the unexpired term of office.


A Vice-President shall not be eligible for re-election on completion of his full term of office.

The President may be substituted by the First Vice­

President in any and all of his duties. In the event of the resignation or death of the President the First Vice-President shall act as President for the unexpired term of office.


The President shall not be eligible for re-election on completion of his full term of office.


The President may not represent any Member Society

or Region during his term of office.




The prime duty of the President shall be to foster the aims and objects of the International Society. He shall preside at the International Conference and at meetings of the Council and the Board. He shall be responsible, in collaboration with the Vice­ Presidents and the Secretary General, for the conduct of the affairs of the International Society. Only the President or the Secretary General may authorise expenditure.

In carrying out all executive actions it will be the President's obligation to interpret at his discretion

the Statutes, By-Laws and Policies as well as the Resolutions of the Council. when appropriate he may seek the views of the Board either collectively or as individuals for the purposes of formulating or

interpreting policy. Such actions shall be reported

and minuted at the next meeting of the Council. 10



One Vice-President shall represent each Region.


The term of office for the Vice-Presidents shall normally occupy about four years, from the end of one International Conference to the end of the next International Conference.


About one year before the expiry of the term of office of the Vice-President, the Secretary General shall invite each Member Society to send him its nomination of Individual Member from within the Region for the next Vice-President, having first ascertained that its nominee is willing to serve if elected. The Secretary General will confirm the nominees' willingness to stand for election. The Secretary General shall then prepare a ballot list for each Region and shall invite each Member Society in that Region to return the name of its choice to him by a specified date. The names of the successful candidates shall be reported to the next meeting of the Council. Should two candidates


llA. The Secretary General shall be appointed by the President in consultation with and on terms agreed by the Board. 11B

Region, shall decide which name to put forward. l0D.

One of the six Vice-Presidents shall be elected by the


The Secretary General shall be directly responsible

to the President.

llC The General Secretariat shall consist of the Secretary

General and administrative and clerical personnel engaged by the Secretary General.

llD. The Secretary General shall impartially conduct all correspondence and business of the International

Society as laid down by the Statutes, By-Laws. Policies and Council Resolutions and as determined by the President.

llE The Secretary General is responsible for the conduct of the finances of the International Society and for all fiscal and legal requirements imposed by the country wherein is established the headquarters of the International Society.

llF. The Secretary General may be appointed from among past or present Officers of the International Society, but may not be a candidate for such elective positions before three years have elapsed from the time of his termination of service as Secretary General. If at the time of appointment he is an elected Officer of the International Society he shall resign from that Office.

llG The Secretary General may not represent any Member

Society or Region in any manner during his term of

office. l2



The ultimate control of the International Society rests with the Council and all major matters of policy require its approval.


The Council shall consist of the Officers of the International Society, the Past Presidents, the three

appointed members of the Board and up to two Delegates from each Member Society currently in membership.

tie in the election, the President, after consultation

with the existing and past Vice-Presidents of the



Other persons may be invited by the President to attend all or part of a Council meeting but they will not be

entitled to vote.

l2D. Council meetings shall be held:

l5F. Resolutions may be carried by a simple majority of

those voting except for those altering the Statutes or terminating membership for which the assent of

(i) immediately before each International Conference and

(ii) at a suitable time about mid-term between .International Conferences, preferably at a

two thirds of those voting is required.


Regional Conference or International Symposium

sponsored by the International Society.

l2E. In addition, having consulted with the Board and

ballot, with each eligible voter voting for one choice.

reasonable notice having been given, the President

when more than two choices are available and none of

shall be authorised to call a special meeting of the Council to discuss urgent matters.

the choices receives a majority of votes on the first ballot count, that choice receiving the fewest votes shall be deleted, and a second ballot conducted. The procedure shall be repeated successively until one of the choices receives a majority of votes.

l2F. For the valid constitution of a Council meeting the

quorum shall be: at least one-third of the voting Delegates when voting on Resolutions, By-Laws,

Policies and suspending membership; at least two-thirds when voting on Statutes or terminating membership. 13



The Council meeting held at the time of the Inter­ national Conference shall be at the venue of that Conference.




The Board shall consist of the President, the immediate Past President, the Vice-Presidents, three Individual Members of the International Society appointed by the President, and the Secretary General.


The role of the Board is to assist the President in the interpretation and implementation of Council Resolutions and in the effective administration of the affairs of the International Society.

l3B. An invitation to act as host for Council meetings held

between International Conferences should be sent to the Secretary General six months before the preceding Council meeting so that it can be placed on the agenda of that meeting. Provision should be made for a Board meeting preceding the Council meeting. If an invita­ tion is received from more than one Member Society the final selection will be made by secret ballot.







The meeting shall be chaired by the President, or the First Vice-President, or one of the Vice-Presidents nominated by the President.



Delegates shall address the chair at all times and the entire meeting shall be conducted according to accepted efficient practices and in accordance with the relevant Statutes, By-Laws and Policies. Each Member Society (unless it has ceased to receive the benefits of Membership) present or represented at the meeting shall have one vote. No other member of

the Council is entitled to vote. 15D

A Member Society which is unable to be represented may

delegate its voting rights either to its own Vice­

President or to the Delegate of another Member Society

having notified this in writing to the Secretary

General. However no person or Member Society may carry more than four such proxy votes. l5E

The Chairman shall not have a vote except in the event of an equality of votes when the Chairman shall have a casting vote.


l7A. International Conferences shall be held approximately

every fourth year in a country to be decided upon by the Council.

l7B. An invitation from a Member Society to act as host for

an International Conference and the accompanying Council and Board meetings should be received sufficiently long

l4A. Member Societies must submit to the Secretary General

six months before a Council meeting any item which they wish to have placed on the agenda. Three months before the meeting the Secretary General shall send the com­ plete agenda to each Member Society, Officers, Past Presidents and appointed members of the Board.

Voting shall in general be by a show of hands. However for the election of President, for the selec­ tion of the venue of the next International Conference or Council meeting, and for other matters specified at the time by the Chairman, voting shall be by secret

in advance so that it can be placed on the agenda of the Council meeting six years in advance of the International Conference. Invitations may be considered at earlier Council Meetings. l7C.

If four years before an International Conference is due to take place no invitation has been received, the incoming President in consultation with the Board is

to be held. '

authorised to make appropriate arrangements for one

l7D. An invitation from a Member Society must be accompanied

by a solemn undertaking by the officers of that Member Society guaranteeing the organisation and financing of the International Conference and agreeing to abide by

the principles, rules and procedures for the Interna­ tional Conference as set out in the Statutes, By-Laws and Policies in existence at the time that the invita­ tion is issued. l7E. All Individual and Supporting Members of the Interna­

tional Society are entitled to attend an International

Conference. An invitation from a Member Society must be accompanied by a statement signed by the officers of that Member Society setting out what current res­

trictions (if any) are imposed against the entry of

foreign nationals by the Government of the country in

which the International Conference is to be held. If, after an invitation has been accepted, the said Government increases its restrictions, the President shall seek the opinions of all the Member Societies

as to whether the International Conference should be held at another location with another host country, or


whether the official status of the International Con­ ference should be withdrawn and, after consultation with the Board, he shall act in the best interests of the International Society. l7F. The general programme to be followed at an Inter­

national Conference shall be decided by the Conference Advisory Committee appointed for this purpose at the Council meeting held at the time of the previous International Conference. The detailed arrangements shall be the responsibility of the Organising Com­

chairman, secretary and the necessary administration. Any report of a Committee will be the subject of open discussion at an International Conference or other venue approved by the President before final publica­ tion. l9C. The President is authorised to set up Sub-Committees

to deliberate on administrative and policy matters which are of interest and relevance to the Internationa Society. Such Sub-Committees will report to the Board who may submit the reports with amendments to the Council. Any report of such a Sub-Committee will be

mittee of the host country in consultation with the

the subject of open discussion at a Council meeting before final publication.

President and Secretary General.




Regional Conferences shall be held at about mid-term between International Conferences.


At such Regional Conferences delegates from Member

Societies of the Region may hold a meeting, chaired by the Vice-President, to discuss matters of mutual







An invitation from a Member Society to act as host for a Regional Conference should be submitted to the Vice­ President of that Region and the Secretary General about six months prior to the previous Regional Conference. The invitation should, after consultation with the Secretary General, specify the time, place and subject of the Regional Conference.

If only one invitation is received the Vice-President after appropriate consultations may approve its designation as a Regional Conference of the Inter­ national Society. If two or more invitations are received the Vice­ President shall convene a Regional meeting at the time of the previous Regional Conference to discuss the invitations. The choice shall be determined by a simple majority in a secret ballot with each Member Society present having a single vote. The Vice­ President shall not have a vote except in the event of an equality of votes when he shall have a casting

l9D. Suggestions of topics for the work of Committees should

be submitted by Member Societies to the Secretary General within six months of the appoint of the Presi­ dent and preferably prior to the Council meeting at

which he is elected so that the views of the Council may be sought.

l9E. A summary progress report on the work of each Committee

must be submitted to the Secretary General six months before the next International Conference for presenta­ tion at the Council meeting. The incoming President

has the authority to decide if the work of any

Committee should continue and which Member Society

should have responsibility for it.

19F. Regional Committees may be set up by a Vice-President

in consultation with the President and Secretary General to deliberate on technical or professional aspects of geotechnics which are of interest and relevance in that Region. The responsibility for each

Regional Committee will be assumed by a specific Member

Society which will provide the chairman, secretary and the necessary administration. Any report of a Regional Committee will be the subject of open dis­ cussion at the appropriate Regional Conference or other venue approved by the Vice-President before final publication. 20




If by the time of the previous Regional Conference no invitation has been received, the Vice-President (or in-coming Vice-President if he has been elected) after appropriate consultations is authorised to make appro­ priate arrangements for one to be held.

For the purposes of meeting the expenses incurred by the International Society for its operation each Member Society shall pay to the order of the Inter­ national Society its subscription annually in advance on l January each year.


At any time the subscription shall be computed on the basis of the number of designated Individual Members of each Member Society and on the basis of the alloca­ tion of Group Numbers most recently agreed at a meeting of the Council.

President (in the case of international symposia) or appropriate Vice-President (in the case of regional symposia), both in consultation with the Secretary


Further sources of revenue shall be royalty revenues from publications in accordance with policies laid down by the Council, unrestrictive grants and other sources accepted by Council.




In order to further the aims of the International

2lA. Each year each Member Society shall send to the

Member Societies are encouraged to organise inter­ national and regional symposia but the auspices of

the International Society will only be granted if the time, place and subject have been approved by the




Society the President may appoint Committees and Sub­ Committees. Such appointments shall be reported at the next Council meeting. 195.

Secretary General and the Vice-President an up to date list of its designated Individual Members in the form set out in the By-Laws. The lists shall be reproduced and distributed as directed by Council.

Com ittees will have an international membership and

will deliberate on technical or professional matters which are of international interest and relevance.


The responsibility for each Committee will be assumed by a specific Member Society which will provide the



Amendments to the Statutes, By-Laws and Policies may


be proposed by any Member Society. Such amendments

shall be sent in writing to the Secretary General sufficiently in advance of a Council meeting so as to have them included as an item on the circulated agenda.


An amendment to the Statutes which is passed unanimously by the Council shall come into effect

from the date fixed by the Council. Otherwise an amendment to the Statute shall require a two-thirds majority at two successive Council meetings. 22C

Amendments to the By-Laws and Policies shall require

a simple majority of the Council. 23



The dissolution or liquidation of the International Society can be effected only by a majority of at least two-thirds of the full Council membership with voting

rights. 23B.

The Council shall decide on the distributionof all the remaining assets of the International Society after

settling all debts and liabilities.


Such assets may be disposed of only to non-profit organisations whose primary interests are similar to those of the International Society.





1. Dénomination

2. Objet 3. Type de Société et Siege Social 4. Lanques 5. Appartenance 6. Membres Individuels et Sociétés Membres

7. Réqions B. Diriqeants

9. Président

10. Vice-Présidents

11. Secrétaire Général et Secrétariat Général 12. Le Conseil 13. Lieu de réunion du Conseil 14. Ordre du jour des réunions du Conseil 15. Conduite des réunions du Conseil 16. Le Bureau

17. Congres Internationaux 18. Congres, Réunions et symposia réqionaux 19. Comités et Sous-Comités 20. FiI'|al\C€l'l1€ntS

21. Reqistre des Membres 22. Amendements aux Statuts, Reglement intérieur et Régles de Fonctionnement

23. Dissolution ou Liquidation


(suivis par le numéro de 1'article qui les définit) Amendements au Reqlement intérieur et aux Reqles de fonctionnement (22C) Amendements aux Statuts (22B) Bureau (16) Comités (19B)

Comité Consultatif du Conqrés (17F) Comité Orqanisateur du Congres (17F) Comités Réqionaux (19F) Conqrés International (17) Conqres Réqional (1BA)

Conseil (12) Diriqeants (B) DrOitS de vote aux réunion s du Conseil (15C) Indice de Groupe (ZOB) Membres Individuels (6A) Membres de soutien (5D) Premier Vice Président (10D)

Président (9) Procurations aux réunions du Conseil (15D) Quorum pour le Conseil (12F) Reglement intérieur (1B) Reqles de fonctionnement (1B) Résolutions (15F) Scrutin Secret (15G)

Secrétaire Général (11) Secrétariat Général (11C) SIMSTF (1A) Société Membre (5B)

Sous-Comités (19C) Symposium International (1BG) Symposium Régional (1BG)

Vice-Président (10)



Le nom de la Societe est : Societe Interna­ tionale de Mecanique des Sols et des Tra­ vaux de Fondations (SIMSTF). En anqlais : International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Enqineerinq (ISSMFE). Elle est denommée ci-apres "Societe Internatio­ nale".

Les Statuts de la Societe Internationale

sont accompaqnes d'un Reqlement Interieur et de Reqles de Fonctionnement.


Le but de la Societe Internationale est de promouvoir une cooperation internationale parmi les inqenieurs et les chercheurs afin de faire proqresser les connaissances dans le domaine de la qéotechnique et de ses applications. La Societe Internationale atteindra ses objectifs en orqanisant periodiquement des Conferences et des Symposia Internationaux et Reqionaux, par le travail de ses Comites, par l'echanqe d'informations, par une coo­ peration avec d'autres orqanisations dont les buts sonL complementaires a ceux de la Societe Internationale et en encouraqeant la creation de nouvelles Societes Membres.


La Societe Internationale est une orqanisa­ tion sans but lucratif qui est financee par les cotisations versees par les Membres, par des droit d'auteurs provenant de ses publications, par des donations et par d'autres sources de revenus. Les presents Statuts et toute interpreta­ tion les concernant seront reqis par la loi en viqueur dans le pays on est fixe le siege social officiel de la Societe Inter­ nationale.

Le siege social officiel de la societe Internationale sera l‘endroit ou est ins­ talle son Secretariat General. Aucun responsable ni aucun Membre, hormis les membres permanents du Secretariat Gene­

ral, ne recevra de remuneration de la Societe Internationale. Toutefois, le rem­ boursement de certaines depenses directes peut etre autorise.


Les lanques officielles de la Societe Inter­ nationale sont le Francais et l'Anqlais. Les Statuts, le Reqlement interieur, les Reqles de Fonctionnement et les Proces­ verbaux officiels des reunions du Conseil seront publies en Francais et en Anqlais.

Si une difference d‘interpretation devait surqir entre les versions francaise et anqlaise des documents mentionnes en 4B, la version valable sera celle dans laquelle la motion ecrite aura ere mise aux voix.

Les lanques officielles seront utilisees dans les comptes rendus et dans les ses­ sions techniques plenieres d'un canqres International. Au moins une des lanques officielles sera utilisee durant les Conqres Reqionaux et les Symposia Internationaux orqanises

sous l'eqide de la Societe Internationale.


La Societe Internationale est composee de Societes Membres admises es qualite. Une Societe Membre est qeneralement une

societe nationale mais peut aussi represen­ ter deux ou plusieurs pays voisins. Un pays ne peut etre represente par une seule Societe Membre.

Le Conseil a le droit de suspendre une Societe Membre par vote 3 la majorite sim­ ple et de retirer l'appartenance d‘une Societe Membre par vote e la majorite des deux tiers. Des personnes, des firmes privees et d'au­ tres orqanisations peuvent apporter un sou­ tien a la Societe Internationale. Ces mem­ bres de soutien n'auront droit a aucune representation specifique dans les orqanes directeurs de la Societe Internationale. 6. MEMBRES INDIVIDUELS ET SOCIETES MEMBRES

Chaque Societe Membre est composee en par­ tie ou entierement de membres individuels qui sont desiqnes comme Membres Individuels

de la Societe Internationale. Un membre Individuel de la Societe Internationale peut etre membre de plus d‘une Societe Membre. En vue de la creation d'une Societe Membre dans un pays ou un qroupe de pays, les per­ sonnes interessees par le développement de la qeotechnique et de l 'inqenierie geotech­ nique doivent au preala ble mettre sur pied une societe promouvant ces objectifs. Une telle societe doit avoir : (i) une Constitution Ou des Statuts

(ii) un President * (iii) un Secretaire

(iv) une adresse pour son secretariat Des que la Societe est creee, une lettre, rediqee en Francais ou en Anqlais et siqnee par le President et le Secretaire de cette Societe est envoyee au Secreta ire genera l de la Societe Internati onale sollicitant formellement la qualite de membre de cette societe. La lettre cont iendra une declara­ tion precisant que, si la demande est aqreee, la Societe Memb re s'appliquera e promouvoir les buts de la Societe Interna­ tionale et se soumettra a ses Statuts, Reqlement Interieur et Reqles de fonction­ nement. Elle sera en ou tre accompaqnee d‘une note, rediqee en Francais ou en


Anglais comprenant

* L'usaqe du masculin dans les presents Statuts n‘imp1ique en rien que la fonction concernee soit reservee a une personne du sexe masculin. 3043

(i) la Constitution ou les Statuts B. RESPONSABLES (ii) les noms du President et du Secre­ Les responsables de la Societe Internatio­ taire nale sont : (iii) l'adresse de son secretariat (1) Le President (iv) les noms, fonctions et adresses de ses membres qui feront partie de la (ii) Les Vice-Presidents Societe Internationale. (iii) Le Secretaire General 6D.


Si le Secretaire General estime que la de­ mande est conforme, il peut conferer, apres consultation du Vice-President reqional concerne, la qualite de Membre a cette Societe au nom du conseil et il en fera part a la reunion suivante du Conseil. Aucun droit d'entree n'est exiqe. La quali­ ue de membre d'une nouvelle Societe Membre ne deviendra effective qu‘apres paiement de la premiere cotisation aupres de la Societe Internationale. Une Societe Membre peut etre affiliée a d'autres societes techniques ou scientifi­ fiques.


Une Societe Membre remplira ses obliqations

envers la Societe Internationale. Celles-ci comprennent ; le paiement de la cotisation annuelle dan s un delai de neuf mois apres

l‘echeance, le fait de tenir le Secretaire General informe requlierement des chanqe­ ments de ses statuts, de l'adresse de son secretariat, des noms de ses diriqeants, des noms et adresses des Membres Indivi­

duels de la Societe Internationale. 6G.


Une Societe Membre qui, au terme du delai

imparti, a omis de paver sa cotisation annuelle et d‘honorer ses autres dettes,

La duree du mandat du President est norma­

lement de quatre ans, s'etendant qenerale­ ment de la fin d'un Conqres International 5 la fin du Conqres International suivant. Un an avant l'expiration du mandat du Pre­ sident, le Secretaire General invitera chaque Societe Membre a lui faire parvenir la candidature de Membres Individuels pour la prochaine presidence, apres s'etre Drea­ lablement assure que le candidat acceptera le mandat s'il est elu. Le Secretaire Gene­ ral confirmera le consentement du candidat. Il enverra alors a chaque Societe Membre une liste de tous les candidats et le Con­ seil sera invite a voter sur cette liste lors de sa prochaine reunion qui normalement precedera immediatement le Conqres Interna­ tional suivant. Des que l'election du President aura eu lieu, la decision sera rendue publique au moment adequat le plus proche. Durant le Conqres International a l'issue duquel il prend fonction, il participera comme Presi

dent elu 5 toutes les activites administra tives, techniques et sociales. Le president peut étre remplacé par le

cessera automatiquement de profiter des avantaqes de la qualite de membre de la Societe Internationale et sera supposee suspendue.

Premier Vice President dans chacune de ses fonctions. En cas de demission ou de deces du President, le Premier Vice-President aqira comme President jusqu‘a l'expiration de la duree du mandat.

Une Societe Membre qui a demissionne peut

Le President ne sera pas reeliqible a

reinteqrer la Societe Internationale en suivant la procedure decrite aux articles 6B et 6C des Statuts. Si elle est accep­ tee, le Conseil fixe, s'il echet, le mon­ tant du droit d'entree.


La Societe Internationale exercera ses activites da ns six Reqions : Afrique ; Amerique du Nord ; Amerique du Sud ; Asie ; Australasie ; Europe.


Chaque Socie ce Membre sera rattachee a une


Une Societe Membre peut demander un chanqe­ ment de son rattachement reqional. Si le

Reqion et a une seule, compte tenu d'impe­ ratifs qeoqr aphiques et techniques suscep­ tibles de fa voriser les buts de la Societe Internationa le en accord de preference avec les souhait de la Societe Membre. Ce ratta­ chement est ratifie par le Conseil.

President de la Societe Internationale est

convaincu qu e ce chanqement est conforme 3

l‘interet de la Societe Internationale, il

peut accepter ce chanqement et apres con­ sultation des Vice-Presidents des Reqions concernees le soumettre a ratification par le Conseil. 3044


l'issue d'un mandat complet. Le President ne peut representer aucune Societe Membre ni aucune Reqion pendant la duree de son mandat. La mission premiere du President sera de

promouvoir les buts et les obiectifs de la Societe Internationale. Il presidera le Conqres International et les reunions du Conseil et du Bureau. Il sera responsable, en collaboration avec les Vice-Presidents le Secretaire General, de la conduite des affaires de la Societe Internationale. Seuls le President et le Secretaire Gene­ ral peuvent autoriser des depenses. Il est du devoir du President, dans l‘exe­ cution des téches qui relevent de sa fonc­ tion, d'interpreter a sa discretion les Statuts, le Reqlement Interieur et les

Reqles de Fonctionnement ainsi que les ré­ solutions du Conseil. Quand cela apparait necessaire, il peut recueillir l'avis des membres du Bureau soit collectivement soit individuellement en vue de formuler ou d'interpreter les reqles. Ces demarches seront portees a la connais­ sance et consiqnees au proces-verbal de la reunion du Conseil suivante.


10A. Un Vice-Président représentera chaque Réqion.

tionnement et les Résolutions du Conseil et telles que déterminées par le Pésident. 11E. Le Secrétaire Général est responsable de la

1OB. La durée du mandat des Vice-Presidents sera conduite des finances de la Société Inter­ normalement de quatre ans; il débutera a la nationale et de toutes les exigences fis­ fin d'un Conqres International et s'achevera cales et légales requises par le pays ou a la fin du Conqres International suivant. le siege social de la Société Internatio­ nale est établi. 10C. Un an avant l‘expiration du mandat d'un Vice-Président, le Secrétaire Général invi- 11F. Le Secrétaire Général peut étre choisi tera chaque Société Membre a lui faire par- parmi les Responsables en fonction ou an­ venir la candidature de Membres Individuels ciens de la Société Internationale, mais ne de la Réqion concernée pourpréalablement la Drochaine peut étre une fonction qui de re­ Vice-Présidence, apres s'etre quiert unecandidat élection3avant qu‘un délai

assuré que le Candidat acceptera le mandat trois ans ne se soit écoulé depuis la fin de s'il est élu. Le Secrétaire Général confir- son mandat de Secrétaire Général. Si, au mera le Consentement du CBndidat~ moment de sa désiqnation il est un Respon­ Le Secrétaire Général préparera ensuite une sable élu de la Société internationale, il liste de vote Dour chaque réqion et invite- démissionnera de cette fonction. ra chaque Société Membre de cette Réqion

B lui retourner 5 une date fixée le nom du 11G. Le Secrétaire Général, durant son mandat, Candidat de SOD ChOiX. Les nOmS d€S Candi- ne peut en augune faqon reprégenter une dats élus seront communiqués a la réunion Sgciété Membre ni une régiQn_ du Conseil suivante. Si deux candidats se trouvaient ex aequo le Président choisira, aprés consultation 12 EE-S9§§ElL

de 5: sa Réqion. ° d V' -P é 'd t t 1 t ' d l _ ’ ' tionale est le Conseil et tous les actes

Rggiogcelernzg gnritiiige e anclen e a 12A. L'organe supreme de la Société Interna­ 1OD.Président Un des sixetVice-Presidents sera élu en par tant le majeugstqe la P°11t1q“@ requlérent s°n les Vice-Presidents appro a lon'

que Premier Vice-Président. La durée du _

Conqrés International au sulvant' sidents, des trois membres désignés du Bu­

. _ _ _ t de deux délégués de chaque Société

10E. Le d€VO1I premier d'un Vice Président sera reau e _ de promouvoir les buts et les objectifs de Membre dlsposant de la quallté de membre' la Société Internationale aupres des Socié- 12C D, t t -t _ _ é tes Membres au sein de sa Réqion. L'autorité ' aulre; §eF;°n2e; Pe“¥?n_ e re lnvli QS

et la mission du Vice-Président seront Par et_r ;1 en é Pér lclpgr en_t°“ _°“ d'aqir comme délégué du Président au sein de Zglgzrnéesongngag ;EEg;i;geS°;S§gie?a15

Il agira en particulier au nom du Président _ _ _

en assurant la présidence du Conqrés Régio_ 12D. Des réunions du Conseil seront orqanisées :

nal a la réparation duquel ce dernier sera _ _ _

étroitemeng associé. (1) Egigiégiigigi Zxant Chaque Conqres 10F.déces En cas d'empéchement, de démission ou un de (ii) iegncggmigi ;gi;Ei§t;o:;;§er§; d'un Vice-Président, successeur g , _ 1 ` ’ Pe2;§;_ sera designé par le Président pour la durée nal ou d,un Symposium International

, _ _ rence a l occasion d un Congres Réglo­

restante du mandat' patronne par la Société Internationale.

l'issue d'un mandat complet. ’ ’ p. _ . _

1OG. Un Vice-Président ne sera pas rééligible 5 12E En outre a [és Consultation du Bureau et apres en avoir donne une information rai sonnable, le Président sera autorisé a

GENE§XL Conseil pour soumettre a discussion des

11- LE SECRETAIRE GENERAL ET LE SECRETARIAT CON/Oquef “ne réunion eXtfa°1’d1"a1fe dl*

uestions ur entes. 11A. Le Secrétaire Général sera nommé par le q g 11B. 11C.

President aprés consultation du Bureau dans 12F_ Pour qu»une réunion du Conseil soit Vela­ les termes approuvés par celui-ci. blement constituée, le quorum sera : au moins un tiers des délégués ayant droit de Le Secrétaire Général sera directement vote pour les votes portant sur les Réso­ responsable devant le Président. lutions, le Reglement Intérieur, les Reqles de Fonctionnement et la suspension de la Le Secrétariat Général comprendra le Secré­ qualité de membre ; au moins deux tiers taire Général et les membres du personnel pour les votes portant sur les Statuts ou administratif enqaqés par le Secrétaire l'exclusion d'un membre.

Général. 11D.

Le Secrétaire Général exécutera d'une ma­ niere impartiale les téches et toutes les correspondances de la Société Internatio­ nale telles que définies par les Statuts, le Reglement intérieur, les Reqles de fonc­


13A. La réunion du Conseil tenue au moment d'un

Congres International doit se faire au lieu de ce Conqres.



Tout pays proposant sa candidature pour organiser la reunion du Conseil entre deux Congres Internationaux doit envoyer une invitation au Secretaire General six mois avant la reunion du Conseil precedent afin

que cette invitation puisse etre portée a l'ordre du jour dudit Conseil. Si plusieurs sociétés membres font parvenir une invita­ tion, le choix sera fait au scrutin secret.

16. LE BUREAU 16A.

Le bureau comprend le President, le dernier President precedent, les Vice-Presidents, trois membres individuels de la Societe Internationale desiqnes par le President et le Secretaire General.


Le r6le du Bureau est d‘assister le Presi­ dent dans l'interpretation et la mise en oeuvre des resolutions du Conseil ainsi que dans la conduite effective des affaires de la Societe Internationale.


Les Societes Membres doivent soumettre au

Secretaire General six mois avant une reu­ nion du Conseil toutes les questions qu‘elles souhaitent voir porter a l'ordre du jour. Trois mois avant la reunion le Secretaire General doit envoyer l'ordre du jour complet a chaque Societe Membre, aux dirigeants, aux anciens Presidents et aux membres designes du Bureau.






La reunion doit etre presidee par le Presi­ dent ou le premier Vice-President ou l'un des Vice-Presidents desiqne par le President. Les delegues doivent toujours s‘adresser au President et la reunion tout entiere doit étre menee selon des regles d‘efficacite acceptees et en accord avec les Statuts,


le reglement interieur et les regles de

fonctionnement. 15C.


Secretaire General. Cependant aucune per­ sonne ni Societe Membre ne peut avoir plus de quatre procurations.


puisse avoir lieu.

Chaque Societe Membre presente ou represen­

tee a la reunion possede une voix (sauf si elle a perdu les prerogatives de son appar­ tenance). Aucun autre membre du Conseil n'a de droit de vote. Une Societe Membre, dans l'incapacite d'étre presente, peut deleguer son droit de vote soit a son propre Vice-President soit au delegue d'une autre Societe Membre pour autant qu'elle en ait informé par ecrit le



Le President ne vote pas sauf en cas d'ega­

lite de voix, il aura alors la voix déter­

minante. 15F.


Les resolutions peuvent etre prises a la majorite simple des voix sauf pour la modification des Statuts ou la cessation de l‘appartenance pour lesquelles l'accord des deux tiers des votants est requis, Le vote a lieu, en general, a mains levees. Cependant pour l'election du President, pour le choix du lieu du prochain Congres International, ou d'une reunion du Conseil et pour d'autres sujets, specifies a ce moment la par le President, le vote a lieu au scrutin secret, chaque votant eligible optant pour un choix. Lorsqu‘il existe plus de deux choix et qu'aucun choix ne reqoit une majorite de voix au premier

depouillement, le choix recevant le moins de vote est supprime et un deuxieme scrutin a lieu. Ce processus doit étre repete jusqu'a ce qu‘un des choix obtienne une majorite de voix.


Des Congres Internationaux ont lieu tous les quatre ans environ dans un pays choisi par le Conseil. Toute proposition d'une Societe Membre d'organiser un Congres International et les reunions correspondantes du Bureau et du Conseil devrait étre recue suffisamment a l'avance pour qu'elle puisse étre portee a l'ordre du jour de la reunion du Conseil tenue six ans avant ce Conqres International. Les propositions peuvent etre examinees a la plus proche reunion du Conseil. Si, quatre ans avant la date prevue pour un Congres International, aucune invitation n'a ete regue, le nouveau President, en consul­ tation avec le Bureau, est autorise a faire les demarches appropriees pour que le Conqres Toute invitation d'une Societe Membre doit étre accompagnee d'un engagement solennel des Dirigeants de cette Societe Membre qarantis­ sant l'organisation et le financement du Congres International et acceptant de se conformer aux principes, regles et procedu­ res pour les Congres Internationaux inscrits dans les Statuts, Reglement interieur et Regles de fonctionnement en vigueur au

moment ou cette invitation est faite. Tous les membres, individuels et de soutien de la Societe Internationale ont le droit d‘assister aux Congres Internationaux. Toute invitation d'une Societe Membre doit etre accompagnee d'une declaration signee par les Dirigeants de cette Societe indiguant quelles restrictions courantes (s'il y en a) sont imposees pour l‘entree d'étrangers par le Gouvernement du pays ou le Congres Interna­

tional devrait se tenir. Si, apres l‘accep­ tation de l‘invitation, ledit Gouvernement augmente ses restrictions, le President doit solliciter l'avis de toutes les Societes Membres pour savoir si le Congres Inter­ national doit se tenir dans un autre lieu avec un autre pays h6te ou si la qualite officielle de Congres International doit lui étre retiree. Apres consultation du Bureau il doit agir dans les meilleurs interets de la Societe Internationale. 17F.

Le programme general a suivre lors d'un Congres International doit etre decide par le Comite consultatif du Congres desi­ gne dans ce but lors de la reunion du Conseil tenue au moment du precedent Congres International.

Les arrangements detailles seront de la 19B. Les Comites auront une composition inter­ responsabilite du Comite Organisateur du nationale et traiteront de sujets tech­ pays hote en consultation avec le President niques ou professionnels qui sont interes­

et le Secretaire General. sants et importants au plan international. La responsabilite de chaque Comite sera

assuree par une Societe-membre bien definie 18. CONGRES, REUNIONS ET SYMPOSIA REGIONAUX qui en fournira le president, le secretaire,

et le soutien administratif necessaire, 1BA. Des Congres Regionaux seront organises Tout rapport de Comite sera soumis a dis­ aPProximativement a mi-parcours de la cussion ouverte a un Conqres International

période séparant deux conqres interna- ou en un autre lieu approuvé par le Presi­

tionaux consecutifs. dent, avant publication finale.

1BB. Lors de tels Congres Reqionaux, les délé- 19C. Le President est autorise a mettre en place

gues des Societes-membres de la region des Sous-Comites charges de traiter de su­ peuvent tenir une reunion, presidee par jets d‘administration ou de politique de la

le Vice-President, pour discuter des Societe Internationale qui sont interes­

sujets d'interet commun. sants et importants pour celle-ci. Ces Sous­ Comites rendront compte au Bureau qui peut

1BC. Toute proposition de la part d'une Societe- soumettre les rapports, avec des amende­ membre pour accueillir un Congres Regional ments, au Conseil. Tout rapport d'un tel devra etre soumise au vice-President de 1a Sous-Comite fera l‘objet d'une discussion region concernee et au Secretaire General ouverte lors d'une reunion du Conseil avant environ six mois avant le Conqres Regional publication finale. precedent. La proposition devra, apres consultation du Secretaire General, preci- 19D. Les suggestions de themes de travail pour ser la date, le lieu et le theme du Conqres les Comites devront etre adressees au

Regional. Secretaire General par les Societes-membres au plus tard six mois apres la nomination

1BD.Vice-President, Si une seule proposition est recue, le reunion du President et, de au preference, avant la il apres les consultations du Conseil cours de laquelle appropriees, peut decider d'en faire un est procede a son election, de facon que Congres Regional de la Societe Interna- l‘avis du Conseil puisse étre recueilli. tionale. 19E. Un rapport sommaire d'avancement des tra­

1BE. Si deux propositions, ou plus, sont vaux de chaque Comite doit etre adresse au recues, le Vice-President organisera une Secretaire General six mois avant le Con­ Reunion regionale lors du Congres Regional gres International suivant pour presenta­ precedent pour discuter ces propositions. tion lors de la reunion du Conseil. Le La decision sur le choix sera prise a la nouveau President a le pouvoir de decider majorite simple dans un vote a bulletin de la poursuite des travaux de chaque Comi­ secret, chaque Societe-Membre presente ne et de la Societe-membre qui doit en disposant d'une voix. Le Vice-President assumer la responsabilité.

ne vote pas sauf en cas d'egalite de voix pour la premiere place : il aura 19F. Des Comites Regionaux peuvent etre mis en alors la voix determinante. place par leconsultation Vice-President concerne apres du President et du Secretaire 18F. Si, a l'epoque du Congres Regional prece- General pour traiter de problemes techni­

dent, aucune proposition n‘a ere reque, ques ou professionnels de geotechnique gui le Vice-President (ou le futur Vice- sont interessants et importants pour cette President s‘il a deja ete elu), apres Region. La responsabilite de chaque Comite les consultations appropriees, est auto- Regional sera assuree par une Societe-membre rise a conclure les arrangements adéquats bien definie qui fournira le president, le pour qu'un Congres Regional puisse avoir secretaire et le soutien administratif

lieu. necessaire. Tout rapport d'un Comite Regio­ nal fera l'objet d'une discussion ouverte

186. Les sociéués-membres sont encouragees a au Congres Regional concerne ou en un autre Organiser des symposia internationaux et lieu approuvé par le Vice-President, avant

regionaux mais le patronnage de la publication finale. Societe Internationale ne sera accorde

que si la date, le lieu et le theme en

ont ete approuvés par le President (pour 20. FINANCEMENT les symposia internationaux) ou par le ViC9*PIéSid€nt conserné (POUF les 3YmP0Sia ZOA. Afin de couvrir les depenses engagees par

réqionaux), dans les deux Cas sprés la Société Internationale pour son fonc­ consultation du Secretaire Général. tionnement chaque Societe-membre paiera, a l'ordre de la Societe Internationale, sa cotisation annuelle, d'avance, le 1er Jan­

19- COMITE5 ET SOUS-COMITES vier de chaque annee.

19A. Afin de promouvoir les objectifs de la 20B. A un instant donne quelconque, la cotisa­ tion sera calculee sur la base du nombre Societe Internationale, le President peut creer des Comites et des Sous­ Comites. Il sera alors rendu compte de ces creations lors de la reunion suivante du Conseil

de membres individuels declares de chaque

Societe-membre et sur la base de la repar­ tition des indices de groupes la plus recente approuvee en reunion par le Conseil. 3047


Les autres sources de financement seront les revenus provenant des publications suivant des régles édictées par le Con­ seil, les dons sans contre-partie, et toute autre source acceptée par le Conseil.



Chaque année, chaque Société-membre enverra

au Secrétaire Général et au Vice-President la liste mise a jour de ses membres indi­ viduels déclarés, sous la forme précisée dans le reglement intérieur. Les listes seront reproduites et distribuées selon les directives du Conseil.




Des amendements aux Statuts, Réqlement

intérieur et Réqles de fonctionnement peuvent étre proposes par toute Société­ membre. Ces amendements seront envoyés, dans leur formulation écrite, au Secré­ taire Général suffisamment avant une réunion du Conseil pour qu'ils puissent fiqurer comme un point de l'ordre du jour

communiqué pour cette réunion. Tout amendement aux Statuts qui est

approuvé a l'unanimité par le Conseil

prendra effet 5 la date fixée par le


Conseil. Hors ce cas, un amendement aux Statuts devra recueillir la majorité des deux-tiers a deux réunions du Conseil consécutives. Les amendements au Reglement Intérieur et aux Regles de fonctionnement devront

recueillir la majorité simple du Conseil.





La dissolution ou la liquidation de la Société Internationale ne pourra étre prononcée qu‘a la majorité des deux-tiers de la totalité des membres du Conseil

ayant le droit de vote. Le Conseil décidera de la répartition de l'actif restant de la Société Internatio­ nale aprés apurement des dettes et du passif. Il ne pourra étre dispose de cet actif qu'au profit d'organisations sans but lucratif dont les intéréts primordiaux sont semblables a ceux de la Société Internationale.





During the meeting on ll December l9B4 the Brazilian National Soil Mechanics Association (ABMS) required its Rio Section to install the XII Conference Organising

The ABMS sent an enquiry to all ISSMFE Member Societies in

order to identify the best structure to the Conference and the favourite themes.


On l4 January 1985 the Basic Committee was elected as follows: A J da Costa Nunes, Dirceu de Alencar Velloso and Marcio Miranda Soares. This committee immediately

began its activities elaborating a proposal for the Organisation Chart.

On 4 February, during a meeting of ABMS Rio Section, the Organising Committee was installed, as follows:

Chairman: A J da Costa Nunes Vice-Chairmen:

Secretary General:

Dirceu de Alencar Velloso Marcio Miranda Soares Luciano Jacques de Moraes Junior

l. Program Committee:

Chairman - Luciano Medeiros

2. Finance Committee:

Chairman - Francis Bogossian

The associations from Germany, Australia, Syria, Greece, Belgium, France, Portugal, Argentina, Japan, Sweden, USSR, India, Great Britain, South Africa and Hungary answered the enquiry. After compilation of the answers, the Organising Committee arrived at the following suggestion that the Conference should promote plenary sessions, lectures and simultaneous sessions, in agreement with the following concepts.

(a) PLENARY SESSION: every participant is invited and it

is the only session during that period of time. It

is held by one or more reporters and a panel.

(b) LECTURE: a plenary session in which the lecturer talks about a specific theme, without any discussion. (c) SIMULTANEOUS SESSIONS: sessions which are held simul­

taneously, presenting specific themes, with discussion

3. Publications Committee:

Chairman - Francisco Rezende Lopes

4. Technical Tour Committee:

Chairman - Flavio Miguez de Mello 5. Program Support Committee: Chairman - Maria Beatriz C B Sarto 6. Social Program Committee: Chairman - Mauro Viegas

7. Publicity Committee: Chairman - Manuel Almeida Martins B. Exhibition Committee: Chairman - Marcio Almeida

In addition, there will be a team of Advisors constituted by former presidents of ABMS and other professionals who can contribute to the Conference. In the same way, Regional

Secretaries will be installed in the different sections of the ABMS in order to give local support to the Committee.


Considering the questionnaire already mentioned, the following themes are suggested, without disregarding any

other suggestions that we can still receive:

(a) To the plenary sessions:

- "In-situ" testing

- Deep foundations - Shallow foundations - Earth works

- Stability of natural slopes (b) To the simultaneous sessions:

- Subsoil investigation in weathered profiles

- Underground works in soft and weathered rocks

- Special design oriented laboratory and field testing THE ORGANISING COMMITTEE OFFICE

By a special deference from the School of Engineering Veiga de Almeida, the Organising Committee office was

installed in this school's director bureau. Therefore,

any information can be obtained by writing to:

- Aggressively and geotechnical environmental control - Impact of advanced technology professional practice on developing countries.

With the aim to get support to the technical exhibition, it has also been suggested the inclusion of a theme about instrumentation.

XII ICSMFE Organising Committee

Caixa Postal 1559 CEP 20001 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil


The Organisation Committee selected the firm CONGREX, which

was linked to the company that participated in the organi­ sation of the Stockholm Conference.


Taking into consideration the climate and the facilities of housing and air travel, the Committee suggests the Conference be held during the first fortnight of June, 1989 OFFICIAL TRANSPORTATION

VARIG Brazilian Airlines has been appointed as the official international carrier for the Conference.



On the initiative of the Presidents of the 3 Geotechnical Societies, Prof. V de Mello, Prof. Brown, Prof. Langer, an informal meeting of the PCS was held at Cambridge on 2 September 1934, in order to improve the co-ordination of

the policies of the 3 International Geotechnical Societies. According to the Statutes of the PCS, approved by the 3 International Societies, the Council of the PCS consists of the 3 Secretaries General. As the policies of the 3 Societies are defined by the respective Presidents, a beneficial measure could be that the PCS should consist of the 3 Presidents. However this would necessitate a change of the Statutes of the PCS. Furthermore the office of Secretary General has generally a more permanent character

than that of President. The role of the PCS is not to take decisions but to make proposals to the council of the 3 Societies, which need the agreement of all 3 Councils, before being adopted.

societies. 3. Conferences and symposia organised by organisations

not directly linked to the International Societies.

To limit the number of papers in International and Regional Conferences the topics should be more restricted and more strictly specified. For local conferences and symposia possibly subjects of common interest to two or more Geotechnical Societies should preferably be chosen. In

the choice of the subjects, and of the dates, attention should be paid to the interference with the International

and Regional Conferences. Concerning the events organised by independent organisations not much can be done, except by individual interventions.

Attention was drawn to the possible creation of new

International Societies: their proliferation can only

At Cambridge it was decided to include this point on the agenda of the statutary meeting of the PCS.

increase the amount of publications and the possibility of contributions not belonging to the specific field.

The annual statutary meeting of the PCS was held at Brussels on 7 March 1985. Besides the 3 Secretaries General, the 3 Presidents also attended the meeting.


After a large exchange of ideas, the continuation of the

As generally, because of a rotating policy, the Organising Committees of International and Regional events are mostly new, they should be advised as soon as possible of the other events planned by the 3 Geotechnical Societies, in order to prevent clashes. Each year at the meeting

the actual statutes of the PCS.

the list of their events and to plan the necessary measures for co-ordination.

Consequently, as before, the council of the PCS consists of the 3 Secretaries General. However the wish was expressed to promote as far as possible the presence of the Presidents at certain meetings of the PCS.

In some cases it can be worthwhile that the dates and the places of two events are chosen in such a way that atten­ dance at both events is possible. Further, a co-ordination should be tried with the events organised by the "user" Societies (for instance, ICOLD, ITA, etc.).


discussions at the informal meeting Cambridge, September 1984, it was decided to make no proposal of any change to

In the PCS each Secretary General can, in agreement with his President, make proposals, which can be presented to their Presidents by the other Secretaries General, in order to get an eventual approval at the next meeting of the PCS.

The role of the PCS is to co-ordinate, not to amalgamate, the 3 International Geotechnical Societies. On a national level, the member Societies are completely

free to organise a close co-ordination. In several countries there exists a tendency to have but one National Society, with 3 groups affiliated to the respective International Societies.

of PCS the 3 Secretaries General have to communicate


President V de Mello mentioned that in order that ISSMPE could be registered with UNESCO as an International

Organisation, it is in the process of revising its statutes. It was considered that for certain problems it could be worthwhile that in their relations with International

Bodies (for instance UNESCO) initiatives should be taken simultaneously by the 3 International Geotechnical Societies

and that eventually they should register as a unity. DISTRIBUTION OF PAPERS WITH RESPECT TO RELEVANCE IAEG, ISRM, ISSMPE

Before making any proposal, more data are to be gathered concerning the possible benefits of an affiliation to UNESCO and if probable membership of UITA (Union of International Technical Associations) is not needed.

In a letter President de Mello drew attention to the fact that in Bulletins and Proceedings papers are often published which do not belong to the specific field of the organising Further steps will be taken by the PCS in order to get this body, and wondered if a better selection could not be made. information. During the discussion, it clearly appeared that a distinction has to be made, for problems related to: l. International Conferences and Regional Conferences organised by one of the International Societies. 2. Local conferences and symposia organised by member



Professor de Mello communicates that at the occasion of the revision of the statutes of ISSMFE a proposal has been made to achieve more simple and logical denominations of the

bodies of this Society. The question arises if on this

occasion a uniformity of the denominations of the bodies of the 3 Geotechnical Societies could be reached. One of the important proposed changes is that of "Member Societies instead of "National Societies” allowing Societies to cover several countries (for instance, South East Asian Society) and preventing political interferences.

The expenses for this participation are to be covered by the Academy or the Institution.

Such procedure is traditional for the basic scientific societies (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, etc.).

After an exchange of ideas it appeared that IAEG and ISRM

see no need for any change for the moment. In the event


ISRM and IAEG have a category of individual membership

Committees have been appointed, on the following subjects

of a possible change of their statutes in the future, they will on that occasion see if a change of denomination is justified. without voting rights. Because of the advantages, it is advocated that this possibility should also be introduced

In the lifetime of the PCS, Technical Co-ordinating


in the revised statutes of the ISSMFB.

Presentation of Papers (committee consisting of the 3 Secretaries General)


Literature Classification

In the past some political difficulties have arisen con­

Symbols - Units and Definitions

cerning the addresses of some members.

To avoid these difficulties in the future list of members ISSMFE will put a disclaimer, indicating that the addresses are as given by the individual members through their member

society, and that the International Society does not take any responsibility about formulation or possible mistakes. In ISRM such a disclaimer has already been provided in the past and Secretary General Grossmann draws attention to

the fact that in the formulation of the addresses, that of the International Postal Union can be followed.

Field Investigation and Sampling.

Experience has shown that the creation and working of a Technical Co-ordinating Committee is rather difficult.

After a thorough discussion of the problem, in order to

improve the co-ordination among the 3 Geotechnical Societies, the following procedure has been agreed. When

a president of a Society decides to install a technical

committee, he communicates this decision to the President

of the two other societies, mentioning the task of the committee, and the list of the members which will be


Because of the large number of members, editing a list of

members becomes a time and money consuming event.

The IAEG list is in printing, but its council has not yet taken a decision concerning the possible payment by the

appointed. He asks the Presidents of the Sister Societies if their society is interested in the work of the commit­

tee. If so, the President of the initiating society

presents the name of a liaison member, and asks for the

approval of his choice. If he wishes the President of the Sister Society can present other names until agreement is reached.


The ISRM list will be printed in 1987 but here too until now no decision has been taken concerning a possible payment.

The Secretary General of ISSMFE considers that because of the large number of members it is impossible to supply the

list of members free of charge.


Proposals have been issued by the officers of ISSMFE to make a profound change of its Statutes. Suggestions have been made by the PCS to secure and improve

the spirit of cooperation and co-ordination among the 3 Geotechnical Societies.

The sister Societies will receive a copy of the revised Statutes as they will be fixed by the council of the ISSMFE.


The liaison member has the duty to co-operate actively in the work of the Committee, and to report to the Council of the Sister Society. The Council decides whether to go further, or to withdraw, or to propose the creation of a Co-ordinating committee.


The Co-ordinating Committee, consisting of the 3 Secretaries General have come to an agreement on a text concerning the Preparation and Presentation of Papers, Slides and Overhead Projections. The agreed proposals are given in Addendum 1. The recommendations for the presentation of papers are intended for the Proceedings of all Conferences sponsored by one of the International Geotechnical Societies.

For national or regional conferences not sponsored by an International Society the decision concerning the presentation of papers belongs to the local organising committee.


It is suggested, that in order to enhance the prestige of their international events, and at the same time to in­ crease participation, official invitations should be sent to the Academies of Sciences (or Applied Sciences), and

Engineering Institutions of the different countries to send a representative.

The co-ordinating committee on literature classification

was disbanded after the Executive Committee Meeting of ISSMFE at Oaxaca, as ISSMFE adopted its own decimal

classification system, without taking into account the changes and additions proposed by the two other Societies. 3051

Yet President V de Mello advocates the advantages of a Key Word System.

If ISSMFE should also introduce a Keyword System, the

question arises concerning the opportunity to have a co­ ordinating committee on that subject. However for the

the Council of ISRM at Zacatecas (Mexico). September 1985.

The work of IAEG could be a good base for the future work of the Co-ordinating Committee.

that subject and see no need for it.

The creation of a Co-ordinating Committee should necessi­ tate as a preliminary the creation of a Commission on Landslides by the Council of ISRM.



The co-ordinating committee on Symbols, Units and

The Presidents, V de Mello, Brown and Langer, feel very much for a better co-ordination and improved backing of the 3 Geotechnical Societies. The impact of the Presidents has given a new impulse to the work and the activities of the Co-ordinating Secretariat.

moment neither ISRM nor IAEG have their own commission on

Definitions still exists under the chairmanship of Dr Baguelin.

This co-ordinating committee is not very active. On the

other hand, the Committee on Symbols, Units and Definitions of the ISSMFE, also under the chairmanship of Dr Baguelin is very active, but the Committee of ISSMFE has some members of the co-ordinating committee who are also members

of a Sister Society.

In the Societies the situation is actually as follows: IAEG has a committee on Definitions (chairman

Mr Shadmon). It is possible that the ideas of that

committee will be published in the IAEG bulletin, asking for discussion. The definitions concern more specifically engineering geological subjects. ISSMFE has an active committee on Symbols, Units and

Definitions. The Definitions are, however, limited to the topics covered by symbols.


Introductory Notice:

These recommendations have a general character, but are mandatory for the preparation and presentation of Papers, slides and overhead projections, for all Conferences sponsored by one of the International Geotechnical Societies.

International Society for Soil Mechanics and

ISRM has no committee.

It is suggested that ISRM should be asked to be represented at the committee of IAEG by a liaison member.

Dr Baguelin will be asked to put together all that was agreed by the 3 Societies in the co-ordinating committee, and present it to the 3 Councils. There it will be decided if the co-ordinating committee is to be continued or dis­ banded.

Besides the internal work in the 3 Societies, the Inter­

national Organisation for Standardisation ISO decided to

establish a classification of Soil and Rock, and a list of

Symbols. It has charged the Swedish Geotechnical Committee

to run the secretariat. The View is expressed that the International Geotechnical Societies have to co-operate, since otherwise the danger exists that a Standard is imposed from outside.

The member society of Canada of ISSMFE proposes the creation

of a committee on peat, with the aim to establish symbols and definitions.

If the next President of ISSMFE should decide to appoint such a committee, he should contact the President of IAEG, according to the procedure outlined under item B, in order to have a liasion member of IAEG. COMMITTEE ON LANDSLIDES

On behalf of UNESCO, IAEG has established a Study on Landslides Zonation, which has been published by UNESCO. ISSMFE has a Technical Committee on Landslides.

The question arises if it would be worthwhile to have a

Foundation Engineering

International Society for Rock Mechanics International Association of Engineering Geology They are, however, also a good guideline for other con­ ferences and symposia. REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION OF PAPERS

1.1 The Special Sheets Special sheets are provided by the Organising Committee and the original paper must be carefully typed on these. The sheets are 420 x 297 mm and have printed on them in pale green-blue ink two rectangles, each 320 x 122 mm with a space of ll mm between them. The typing must lie within these frames and the guide lines will disappear in the final reproduction when the overall page size is reduced by about 4:3 to give a page which is A4 size (ISO Format).

The finished typed sheets must be returned to the Organi­ sing Committee carefully packed between heavy cardboard

sheets or rolled in an appropriate carton. 1.2 The typewriter

A typewriter which produces a result similar to that shown on the example sheet should be used. Please note the following points:

(i) the letter spacing should be 10-points (i.e. 47 letters per rectangle width of 122 mm). (ii) the line spacing should be single, i.e. 4.23 mm between lines (75 lines in 320 mm rectangle). (iii) the type face should be clear (e.g. Pica design or

co-ordinating committee between ISRM and ISSMFE. This

question could be put on the agenda of the Executive

Committee of ISSMFE at San Francisco, August 1985, and of



as close as possible to this (see sample page)). Note: A different style of letters may be used for titles or to stress individual words. ensure that the type face is perfectly clean and

that the strength of the impression is uniform. Use an electric typewriter if possible. (v) use a good quality black ribbon of the kind which is usable only once (paper or polyethylene); or alternatively use a new nylon ribbon. (vi) any errors must be corrected cleanly and impercept­ ibly. Any blemishes on the top copy will show in the printed version.

1.3 Lay-out of text (i) Follow carefully the instructions printed on the special sheets. (ii) Type on one side only of the special sheets, taking care not to run over into the marked margins.

(iii) Use single spacing except (a) between paragraphs, where double spacing should be allowed, or (b)

before the use of a title of a main section (e.g. INTRODUCTION, CONCLUSIONS, etc.) where quadruple

spacing should be allowed, followed by double spacing before the commencement of the text of that section.

Subscripts need more space. If the line contains subscripts or indices then 1% spacing should be used between this line and the adjacent one. (iv) The start of each paragraph should be at the begin­ ning of each line. (v) The whole of a minor section may be indented in order to emphasise it.

reproductions of diagrams would be acceptable, provided they are made on special high contrast photographic glossy

paper, and are of excellent quality.

Photographs should be in black and white, clearly contrast­ ing and of glossy finish. The requirements limiting sizes are the same as those mentioned above for line drawings.

Authors must keep in mind that all the lines in the drawings should not be less than 0.2 mm thick and all the

letters in the inserted figures will undergo a standard

reduction of approximately 4 to 3 and therefore 2 mm should

be the minimum size of the original letters.

Drawings and photographs should not be pasted on the

special sheets, but sufficient blank space should be left for them in the text. Every copy of each figure must be marked both on the margin (or back), and on the space left

for it in the text. These labels must all be written clearly using a lettering device and not freehand. 1.7 Tables

All tables should be typed or drawn on the special sheets or prepared on special sheets to the same require­ ments as for figures. They should be consecutively numbered, with Roman numbers (i.e. I, II, III, etc.), and

located in the text as close as possible to the first

reference to them.


Type main headings in capitals starting flush with the left-hand margin. Continue text on a new line after a double spacing.

(vii) Sub-headings

Type sub-headings in small letters, starting flush with the left-hand margin, and underline. Continue text on a new line after 1% spacing. 1.4 Equations and Formulae

These should be typed if possible centred within the column and numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance

in the text; they will be referred to by these numbers.

Symbols which cannot be typed should be drawn in black ink and traced mechanically if possible. Allowance of 2% spacing should be made between the top of the equation and

the previous text, between the bottom of the equation and the following text, and between equations.

Abbreviations should be avoided in the headings of the columns and the units should be indicated on the line immediately below the heading. All notes and explanations

(as short as possible) should be given at the foot of the table.

l.B Title The title of the paper should be written in English and

French (for ISRM: and German) (see example at the end of

this Bulletin). It must be concise, consisting of a

maximum of 50 characters (spaces included) in each

language. The first letter of each word should be a capital. The name(s) of the Author(s) must be written at the top of each page. The initials should precede the surname. The name should be followed by the position held by the

Author and his affiliation. The full postal address of

the main Author should be given on one of the copies (not

the original).

1.5 Svmbols and Units

1.9 Synopsis

This paragraph is to be filled in by each International

Each paper should begin with a synopsis, in the language or languages to be fixed by the organising committee, each version not exceeding 150 words in length.


1.6 Figures This category includes both drawn diagrams and photographs. They should be numbered consecutively with arabic numerals

in the order in which reference is made to them in the text,

1.10 Conclusions

The conclusions should contain in a concise form the most important propositions of the paper and should state the

without making any distinction between diagrams and photo­

author's views on the practical applications of the results

if they occupy two columns.

1.ll References

All figures should be inserted by the author as close as possible to the first reference made to them in the text, and captions should be typed on the special sheets at the foot of the figures. Excessive notes and designations in the figures should be avoided.

References should be standardised as follows:

graphs. Figures may be of two possible widths: 120 mm if they fill one single column of the special sheets, or 250 mm

Line drawings should be prepared with Indian ink on drawing

cloth, drawing paper or any other material suitable for reproduction. In exceptional cases the use of photographic


(a) In the text: The Author's name (without initials)

and the year of publication in parentheses (b) In a list of references (unnumbered) in alphabetical order of Authors names. The following are examples

of a paper presented to a conference, an article from a journal, and a book:


Fukuoka, M., Yoshida, Y. and Masuda, T. (1977). Kine­

tic friction landslides. Proc. 10th ICSMFE, (2), 71-74, Tokyo

Kerisel, J. (1975). Old structures in relation to soil conditions. 15th Rankine Lecture,

Geotechnique (25), 1, 433-483

Peck, R. B., Hanson, H. E. and Thornburn, T. H. (1974) Foundation Engineering. 2nd edition, pp. 1-514. New York: Wiley

Note: Titles such as Dr. and Prof. should not be used. If there are more than two Authors only the first need be given, followed by et al. 1.12 Copyright

If the paper contains any matter from another source, it is the responsibility of the Author to obtain any necessary permission for the reproduction of this matter in the paper from the holder of the copyright. Acknowledgement

must be given in the text or figure caption and a full reference supplied.

The copyright of the paper submitted will be held by the conference publishers. REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION OF SLIDES AND OVERHEAD PROJECTIONS

In making a slide or overhead projection it is important to keep the message clear, simple and direct. The pro­ jection should convey only one idea. Drawings or text should be prepared especially for slides or overhead pro­

jections. If text is to be projected it should be no more

than 6 lines double spaced so that the viewer can assimi­ late it quickly. It should not be necessary to read the text to the audience.

If the slide is to be clearly visible to the audience it should be possible to read the entire slide if held at arms length against a bright background. The whole of the slide

area should be used, with minimal margins, thus making the projected image as large as possible.

Slides should be prepared for horizontal projection. On diagrams axes should be labelled clearly and boldly,

with curves and points identified as directly as possible. Avoid the use of a legend. Letters should not be shown sideways.

Lettering height should be l/40 the length of the projected area for normal characters, l/30 to 1/20 for important characters and no less than 1/60 for subscripts and exponents.

The width of lines should be l/200 to l/100 the length of the projected area for curves and drawings, no less than l/600 for gauge lines or dimension lines. Slides should be mounted between glass, in plastic or

metal frames, with a maximum thickness not more than 3.2 mm. Outer dimensions should be 50 mm x 50 mm. The order of projection should be shown clearly by Arabic

numerals on the slides and a clear mark, preferably a red mark on a white mount, made in the left hand corner as seen on the screen.




Based on Present Subscription Rates

1985 1986 1987



Subscriptions 100,000 100,000 100,000 List of Members Sales 8,000 6,000 3,000

Other Sales 4,000 1,500 1,500

Advertising 7,500

Other Incomes including Interest 5,000 5,000 5,000 124,500 112,500 109,500 EXPENDITURE

Emoluments 55,000 60,000 63,000

Travel - General Secretariat 20,000 28,000 28,000 Supplementary travel support for

President and Vice Presidents 15,000 15,000

Photocopying 4,500 2,000 3,000

Telephone and Telex 6,000 6,000 6,500

Postage 4,000 4,000 4,500

Stationery 4,000 2,000 2,500

Auditors Fees 1,500 1,500 2,000 List of Members 16,000 2,000 10,000 Newsletter 16,000 18,000 20,000

Sundries 4,000 4,000 5,000

131,000 142,500 159,000

INCOME-EXPENDITURE (6,500) (30,000) (50,000)



Based on increased subscriptions to

produce Balanced Budget for 1986 and 1987

1985 1986 1987



Subscriptions 100,000 130,000 150,000

List of Members Sales 3 ,000 5 ,000 3 ,000

Other Sales 4 ,000 1 ,500 1 , 500

Advertising 7 , 500

Other Incomes including interest 5,000 5,000 5,000 124,500 142,500 159,500 EXPENDITURE

Emoluments 55 ,000 60 ,000 63 ,000 Travel - General Secretariat 20 ,000 28 ,000 28 ,000 Supplementary travel support for

President and Vice Presidents 15 ,000 15,000

Photocopying 4 , 500 2 ,000 3 ,000

Telephone and Telex 6 ,000 6 ,000 6 , 500

Postage 4 ,000 4 ,000 4 , 500

Stationery 4 ,000 2 ,OOO 2 ,500

Auditors Fees 1 , 500 1 , 500 2 ,000 List of Members 16 ,000 2 ,000 10 ,000 Newsletter 16 ,000 18 ,000 20 ,OO0

Sundries 4 ,000 4 ,000 5 ,000

131,500 142,500 159,500





Meeting in Stockholm 1981 is not clear. The Minutes

1983, B June

state "Presidents and Past Presidents are not eligible to receive the Award". what is meant by "Presidents"? Are they the President and the Presidential Candidates? I think that the candidates are included. After the election of the President at the Executive Committee Meeting, there is a President Elect. It seems to me that the President Elect would be one of the "Presidents". The Selecting Co mittee should finish their work about

The Secretary General sent a letter to the Past Presidents drawing attention to the resolutions of

the l9Bl Executive Committee Meeting in Stockholm and the 1983 Steering Committee Meeting. A Committee

consisting of Past Presidents will select the reci­

pient for the "Kevin Nash Gold Medal of the ISSM E". Chairman: Professor Masami Fukuoka, the Immediate Past President. Members: A W Skempton, J Kerisel,

three months before the Executive Committee or the ICSMFE. Therefore, the President Elect has the

R B Peck.

possibility to be chosen as the recipient. If the

There may be more than one recommendation by any Member Society and a nominee need not be a member of

President Elect is regarded as one of the Presidents,

that Society or its geographical Region.

the Selecting Committee should select a second choice.

In making their choice the Selecting Committee is not bound to follow any of the suggestions made by

It takes a long time to select the recipient by letter. It took six months. The deadline set by the Secretary General should be kept strictly by the

Member Societies.

Professor Fukuoka asked the Secretary General to

Member Societies. Some Member Societies responded

1984, l0 February

Member Societies to remind them.

The Secretary General sent the invitation letter for

There is a possibility of finding better recipients

Societies. The deadline was one year before the llth

right of selecting the recipient freely should be given to the Selecting Com ittee.

1984, 5 April

There are two types of persons who are entitled to be the recipient: those who contributed remarkably to the development of activities of the ISSMFE or rescued a crisis of the ISSM E, and those who con­ tributed remarkably to the science and technology of our profession. Of course, they must fulfil the con­ ditions written in the Minutes of the Stockholm Executive Committee Meeting. It is not obligatory to

after the deadline. It would be pratical to give the Selecting Committee the right to accept the nominees after the deadline, as we did this time. The

write letters to all Member Societies to suggest names of suitable candidates based on the last para­ graph of the letter by the Secretary General.

Secretary General should send second letters to the

nominations for the Kevin Nash Gold Medal to Member

who are not nominated by the Member Societies. The

ICSMFE in San Francisco.

Professor Fukuoka proposed the method of selecting

the recipient roughly as follows. First, the top 5

candidates are selected by voting. Each member is given l00 points. The selection is made before the Christmas of 1984. The proposal was agreed except that an exchange of view should be made before the second vote.

Not all of the Member Societies sent their letters to the Chairman before the deadline set by the Secretary

General. The latest nomination reached the Chairman in January 1985; but all of the nominees were accepted by the Selecting Committee. The names of the nominees are given below. The Chairman enquired of the committee members the

possibility of selecting two candidates instead of one. He asked the President his opinion at the same time. The President did not agree to choose two candidates. Professor H B Seed was selected as the

choose two, but the Selecting Committee should be

entitled to choose a recipient from each category. NAMES OF NOMINEES FOR THE KEVIN NASH GOLD MEDAL Name

Supported or Nominated by

Professor A W Bishop Professor B B Broms


Professor J B Burland Professor E de Beer

recipient of the Kevin Nash Gold Medal for the ISSMEE

Dr D J Henkel Professor N Janbu

on 17 March.

Professor Aziz Jayaputra Professor R Marsal

1985, B April

Dr Z C Moh

The Chairman reported the result of selection to the President by letter. OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS BY PROFESSOR M FUKUOKA, CHAIRMAN OF SELECTING COMMITTEE

Professor D Mohan Dr O Moretto

Professor H G Poulos Professor Soekrino Rammelan Professor H B Seed Professor Z Wilun Professor C P Wroth


South Africa

Belgium, Brazil, Italy, Venezuela, J Burland UK


Indonesia Portugal Japan, South East Asia India Venezuela New Zealand

Indonesia USA



The meaning of "Presidents" in Article 62, any other business, in the Minutes of the Executive Committee



Report by the Comité Francais de la Mécanique des Sols et des Fondations

The so-called "UITA" has been created on 12 October 1950. ISSM E was one among the ten earlier International Technical Associations which founded UITA. The main aims of this Association sponsored by UNESCO, are:

coordinating activities of the member Associations (programmes and dates of International Confereces) taking all necessary steps to provide member Associations with moral and material assistance

providing assistance in the formation of new organi­ sations in areas theretofore insufficiently represented by existing associations, by receiving proposals and making recommendations.

establishing mutual assistance relationships between member associations and other similar associations as well as the United Nations and its specialised


From 1950 up to 1980, UITA suffered a real lack of dynamism

due partly to some finanical difficulties and mainly to

the absence of demands from Developing Countries concerning

technological transfers.


Since 1980, UNESCO helped these countries to join the

International Technical Associations (financial facilities such as coupons for instance) and UITA seems to be one of the best ways to make contacts easier through UNESCO, UN facilities and services such as ONUDI, FAO.

Some new relationships were created with International Scientific Associations (Confederation of International Scientific and Technical Organisations - CISTOD or International Council of Scientific Unions - CIUS). The present members of UITA are about 26.

The list is here attached with the minutes of the executive council meeting held in Paris, 14 March 1984.

Here enclosed too the Statutes, the Annual Activity Report for 1985 and an orientation note concerning UITA assistance to International organisations.

The present registration fees are about 500 US Dollars per year. The question is: "Does ISSMFE intend to join UITA again or give it up definitely?"




In 1980 an agreement was reached between the Commission of the European Communities (CEE) and the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE) according to which the ISSM E should undertake

to survey existing codes of practice for foundations

within the Member States of the European Economic Community (EEC) and to draft a model code which may be adopted as Eurocode No. 7 for Foundations.

Eurocode No. 4 - for composite steel and concrete structures Eurocode No. 5 - for timber structures Eurocode No. 6 - for masonry structures Eurocode No. 7 - for foundations Eurocode No. 8 - for structures in seismic zones

The objectives of the Eurocodes are to: - promote functioning of the Common Market by removing

obstacles arising from differing rules


- provide common technical rules for an efficient applica­ tion of the Council Directive 71/305 on the coordination of procedures for the award of public contracts, which can be applied as an alternative to the national rules.

During the early months of 1981 the ISSM E established an ad-hoc committee for this task. The committee consists of one member from each of nine of the members' countries of the EEC: Belgium (Professor E Lousberg), Denmark (Professor N Krebs Ovesen , Chairman), France (Mr F Baguelin alternating with Mr S Amar), FRG (Dr N Sadgorski replacing Professor U Smoltczyk from 1981), Greece (Dr A G Anagnosto­ poulos alternating with Dr D Coumoules), Ireland (Dr T Orrh

- establish a harmonized basis for the intended common

Secretary assisted by Mr H Nelissen) and United Kingdom (Dr B Simpson); Luxembourg has no member at present.

1.2 The application of the Eurocodes

Italy (Professor R Japelli), the Netherlands (Mr Heijnen,

The Committee has met a total of 15 times in sessions lasting normally two full working days: Brussels (April 1981), Stockholm (June 1981), Paris (October 1981), London (January 1982), Munich (April 1982), Athens (June 1982),

Copenhagen (September-October 1982), Dublin (January 1983), Helsinki (May 1983), Rome (September 1983), Delft (January 1984), Louvain la Neuve (May 1984), Athens (September 1984), Paris (January 1985), and London (May 1985).

On the occasion of the Eighth European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in Helsinki in May 1983 the Committee met with about 50 representatives from the nine National Geotechnical Societies within the EEC

to discuss preliminary versions of four of the chapters of

the model code.

- reinforce the competitive position of the European Construction Industry and allied professions in countries outside the Community.

rules for building products. The Eurocodes will provide an optional set of design rules which can be applied within the Community as an alternative to the corresponding national rules covering the same technical matters. EC l is not intended as an operational document. It provides the general philosophy and funda­ mental considerations from which unique solutions have been developed for practical use in EC 2, 3, 4 and 8 and will be used as a base document by those preparing future draft Eurocodes. Adaptation of the common rules to the respective national

safety level, by specification of appropriate values for safety coefficients, will be subject to national respon­ sibility. The application of the Eurocodes and the con­ tinuation of the harmonization effort will permit the

provision of the gradual establishment of common values. TH EUROCODE-SYSTEM

During 1984 draft versions of four Eurocodes (EC1, 2, 3 and 4) were published for discussion; the following is a quotation from the preface of these draft versions:

"l.l The Objectives of the Eurocode The Commission of the European Communities )CEC) intends

to issue European Codes - the Eurocodes - for the design and execution of buildings and civil engineering structures. These codes are intended to establish a set of common rules

as an alternative to differing rules in force in the various Member States.

The Commission's programme for aligning the regulations, laws and administrative provisions of the Member States

concerning the safety, serviceability and durability of the different types of construction and materials provides initially for the following eight Eurocodes:

Eurocode No. 1 - common unified rules for different types of construction and material Eurocode No. 2 - for concrete structures Eurocode No. 3 - for steel structures

The control of design and execution and any approval pro­

cedure of structures will remain subject to national regulations. The same applies to technical supplements with regard to aspects which are not yet comprehenisvely covered by the Eurocodes or which cannot be covered in

terms of generally applicable rules." THE MODEL CODE

The ad-hoc committee proposes a model code based on the

concept of "performance criteria", whereby is understood

those conditions of stability, rigidity, durability, etc., which each structure or part of it is required to satisfy. Whenever a structure or part of it fails to satisfy one of its performance criteria it is said to have reached a "limit state". The model code is based on the "limit state method" in which each possible limit state is con­ sidered separately in the design and its occurrence is either eliminated or shown to be sufficiently improbable.

In order to establish minimum requirements for the extent and quality of geotechnical investigations, calculations, and construction control checks, the difficulty and com­ plexity of each geotechnical design is identified in the


model code through the introduction of the concept of "Geotechnical Categories". Three such categories are defined:

Geotechnical category l includes small and relative simple

structures for which it is possible to ensure that the performance criteria will be satisfied on the basis of experience and qualitative geotechnical investigations. Geotechnical category 2 includes structures for which quantitative geotechnical data are necessary to ensure

that the performance criteria will be satisfied, but for

which conventional procedures of design and construction may be used. These necessitate the involvement of quali­ fied engineers with relevant experience.

Geotechnical category 3 includes very large or unusual structures, structures involving abnormal risks, or unusual or exceptionally difficult ground or loading con­

ditions or structures in highly seismic areas. The invol­

vement of experienced engineers with relevant geotechnical

experience, will be necessary in these projects. No detailed code requirements will be formulated in the model code for category 3 projects. The model code will contain the following ten chapters:

1. General principles 2. Verification of safety and serviceability 3. Design situations and actions 4. Geotechnical data

5. Geometrical dana 6. Verification procedures for spread foundations 7. Verification procedures for pile foundations B. Verification procedures for retaining structures 9. Verification procedures for slopes l0. Supervision of construction The size of the model code is estimated to be 200-250 typed A4 pages. COMPLETION OF THE WORK

By the spring of 1985 the work on the model code has reached

a stage where 5 of the chapters exist in fairly completed versions while the remaining 5 chapters only exist in in­ complete versions. The ad-hoc committee foresee that one year's additional work is needed in order to finalize the draft. The model code will then he presented to the CEC with a covering letter in which the nine Geotechnical

Societies of the Member States of the EEC will have an opportunity to express their support or disagreement with the principles and details in the model code. From thereon the Steering Committee for the Eurocodes will decide the way in which the model code may be transformed into a Eurocode.

At the time of its completion the model code will be made available to the National Geotechnical Societies of the ISSMFE.

It should be recognized that the work of the ad-hoc commit­ tee has received no financial support from the CEC until now. The members' expenses for travel and accomodation,

secretarial assistance, copying, mailing, etc., have been covered entirely on a national basis by the members' Geotechnical Society, University, organization, firm, etc., or by the members themselves.

N Krebs Ovesen, Chairman Copenhagen, 26 April`19B5



Dear Professor de Mello, ISSMFE Secretariat

1. Ensuring that the permanent physical infrastructure needed for the efficient discharge of the Secretariat functions exists and is properly maintained.

Following our various discussions and correspondence over

2. Assisting the Secretary General on any matters on

the last few months, I am writing, on behalf of the British

Geotechnical Society (BGS), with specific proposals con­ cerning the organisation and management of the Secretariat for the ISSMFE. These proposals are being sent to you, as

which he may ask for help.

the current President, with a request for the matter to be

3. Responding to specific requests from the President and carrying out special tasks, such as the recent financial report prepared by Professor Sutherland at

Committee in San Francisco. I fully appreciate that signi­ ficant decisions concerning the Secretariat are the pre­ rogative of the incoming President, but trust that our proposals will be acceptable to him as well as yourself.

4. Ensuring continuity for the Secretary General func­ tions in the event of the demise or incapacitation of the Secretary General whilst in office.

discussed by the Steering Committee and/or the Executive

the request of the BGS.

Firstlv. the BGS Committee has received draft new Statutes from the Secretary General and generally these are accept­ able to the BGS, although I believe one or two points of detail may have been pointed out to the Secretary General by individuals of the BGS. The new Clause 3C states that

5. Preparing a short list of candidates when the selec­

the UK". The BGS would welcome and support the establish­ ment of a permanent Secretariat in the UK; however,

of Cambridge University and he would be willing to propose ways to put the current arrangements on a more permanent

“The official headquarters of the International Society shall be the seat of its General Secretariat which is in

although incorporation of this as a Statute would confirm the situation which has existed, de facto, since 1957, it

might perhaps be more appropriate as a By-Law.

Historically the Secretariat for ISSMFE has been based in Great Britain and there are good reasons why the Secretariat should be located more-or-less permanently in one country; certainly this seems to be the model adopted by many similar societies to the ISSMFE. So far the physical infrastructure for the Secretariat has been provided on an ad hoc basis by the institution in which the Secretary General works, but with the growth and increasing impor­ tance of the International Society perhaps the time has

tion of a new Secretary General is required, including the necessary research into the candidates' suitability for the post and recommendations to the President and


I have discussed the first point with Professor Schofield


In all these custodial functions the BGS would act at all times at the request of the President and with his full authority. we believe that if the Executive Committee and President adopt these proposals then the BGS, as a long-standing and permanent organisation, could provide the continuity needed to support the Secretary General and the Secretariat. Yours very sincerely,

been reached for a more permanent arrangement. The BGS, as the British national society member of the ISSMFE, are

willing to act as custodians of the Secretariat on behalf of the President and the International Society. We propose that these custodial duties would include, inter alia:

P A Green Chairman BGS