Personal Pronouns: Suffix Pronouns A suffix pronoun is attached to the very end of a word (nothing can come after it), and it is marked in transliteration with a dot. The various cases1 are as follows: Gender and Number
Sign , ,
.T or .t
.Tn or .tn
, , ,
Suffix pronouns can be attached to different kind of words and have different grammatical functions: 1. Possessor in a direct genitival construction following a noun A: A.f “his A,” lit. “A of his,” and also “A of him;”3 2. Object of a preposition:
Hna.f “with him,”
r.i “against me;”
Certain suffix pronouns are characteristic to some dynastic era. In some texts the scribe replaced space saving device. 2 Depending on whom the suffix pronoun refers to. 3 For example, A=“fear, love, memory,” etc.
3. Subject attached to a particle or introductory word: aHa.n.i “Then I…,”
lit. “with respect to it,” they…” with the biliteral
4. Subject/object of an infinitive: sDm.f 4 “his hearing” or “hearing him;” 5. Subject of various verb forms: sDm.f “he listens, “he will listen,” sDm.n.f “he listened,” etc. Examples for noun + possessor: zA.i “my son”5 [Semna Stela 2, 18] with the biliteral
zA “son,” where the first
seated man is a determinative and the second is the suffix pronoun .i; Hm.i “my majesty” [Neferti 7] and in the next line of the same text
majesty;” snwi.k “your two brothers”6 [Urk. IV, 618, 2], and a few lines later in the same text snti.k “your two sisters”7 [Urk. IV, 618, 5]; sxrw.f “his plans” [Kanais B, 13]; snD.f “his fear” and also “the fear of him” [Khetty Stela 2, 7] with the triliteral
st.s “its place” [Neferti 68] (referring to Maat); mnat nt ib.f “nurse of his heart” [Khu-Sobek Stela 5, 2].8
inwi.fi “his eyebrows” [ShS. 65], with the biliteral suffix pronoun after a dual has an extra
in, where the
i ending (occasionally found in duals).
In Middle Egyptian the default verb is
Since the 1MS pronoun can be omitted, can also be read as zAwi(.i) “my two sons” or even as a dual zAwi “two sons.” The context almost always tells the correct meaning. 6 Horus and Seth. 7 Isis and Nephthis. 8 See T. Eric Peet, The Stela of Sebek-khu, Manchester Museum Handbooks 75 (1914).
awi.ki “your two arms”9
awi.si “her arms;”
Hr snnw.si “second time,” lit. “upon its second” [Urk. IV, 4, 9], where
Hr is the
preposition “on” and snnw is the cardinal number “second;” ity nb.n “sovereign, our lord” [Neferti 9] (apposition); zA.tn “(a) son of yours” [Neferti 6]; Xwt.sn “their bellies” [Neferti 8]. Examples for preposition + object: im.s10 “in it” [ShS. 38, 120] (referring to a (feminine) boat); im.f “from it” [Neferti 20] (referring to originating from the land), and a few lines later the feminine
Hr.s “from it” [Neferti 44];
Hna.sn “with them” [ShS. 122]; kA.k Hna.k “your ka (is) with you” [Nebankh Stela 4]; n.sn “to them” [Neferti 5]; Xr.i “for (lit. under) me” [Kanais B, 7] (spoken by Sety I) with the biliteral
More complex examples: zA.i nDti.i “my son, my protector/avenger” (Amun Re speaks to Thuthmose III) [Urk. IV, 611, 17] (apposition) with the spindle biliteral
nd often used with the nw-pot.
ib.i m snw.i “my heart as my (only) companion” [ShS. 42], where snw stands for snnw, the ordinal number “second,” and the seated man determinative converts this to a noun “companion,” lit. “second one.” 9
See G. A. Gaballa, JEA, 63 (1977), Plate XXIIA.
alone cannot receive a suffix pronoun.
xtm ib.f snw n pHt ib.f “seal of his heart (and) equal11 of his heart” [Khetty Stela 2, 6-7] (apposition of two direct genitives) with the ideogram
sDm r.k n.i “So, listen to me!” [ShS. 12] with imperative of the verb sDm. The preposition r lit. “with respect to” with the attached 2MS suffix pronoun acts as the particle r.k and it can be translated by “so.” sDd.i r.f n.k “So, I will relate to you” [ShS. 21-22] with the verb sDd “relate, tell” in prospective/subjunctive sDm.f.12 iw.tw r irt aHAw “one makes arrows” [Neferti 40] with the impersonal suffix pronoun tw attached to the very common introductory particle iw. The verb iri “make” (spelled with the biliteral
ir) is infinitive, lit. “one to make arrows.”
ir.n.i “I have made” [Nebwaui Stela 1, 3]13 and in line 10 of the same stela
“I have said.” The seated man is replaced by the reed leaf to save space; see footnote 1 above. anx.tw m Xr(i)-nTr 14 “one lives in the necropolis/cemetery” [Neferti 55]. The noun
Ds “self” with an attached suffix pronoun is used as a reflexive pronoun:
Ds.tn “you yourselves”[Kanais B, 13]; awi.i ds.i my own (two) arms [Urk. IV, 612, 13]; Hrw Ds.f Horus himself [Itrysen Stella 6]; Dd Ds.tn “Speak your own (words)!” [Kanais B 13]. Dd “speak” is imperative and the plural strokes indicate that the exclamation is addressed to several persons (actually gods). There occurs here an interesting use of Ds.tn with literal meaning: you yourselves. Since the pharaoh asks the gods to speak, it means: your own (words). 11
Lit. “second end.” One of the six sDm.f verb forms. In Standard Theory it is called prospective sDm.f and in Allen’s terminology it is the subjunctive sDm.f. 13 See E. Frood, JEA, 89 (2003) pp. 59-81. 14 For the nisbe construction Xri-nTr, see Adjectives. 12
Personal Pronouns: Dependent (Enclitic) Pronouns The dependent pronouns can stand by themselves as separate words but they depend on a word that they follow. (Consequently, they are never the first word of a sentence.) The various cases are as follows: Gender and Number
i often suppressed
Tw or tw
Tn or tn
Tn or tn
The dependent pronouns have different grammatical functions: 1. Second and third person subjects of adjectival sentences;15 2. In adjectival sentences of possession ni AB16 with A a dependent pronoun: “A belongs to B;” 3. Subjects of adverbial sentences (after certain introductory particles such as m.k, nn, isT etc.); 4. Subject of imperatives (if expressed); 15 16
See Adjectival Sentences. See Adjectival Sentences.
5. Objects of various transitive verb forms. Examples for adjectival predicate + subject: nfr st “it was good.” [Pr. II, 6]; dSr sn “they will be red” (like a firebrand, a pharaoh’s threat) [Kanais C, 12]. Examples for imperative + subject: mr wi “love/take pity on me!” [Neferti 45]; ia tw “Wash yourself!” [ShS. 13]; in n.i sw “Bring him to me!” [Neferti 11] with the bilateral
in, and the dative n.i “to
me” in forward position; zAw tn “you beware” [Kanais C, 4]. Examples for verb + object: Hzy.tn wi “you will bless me” [Kanais B, 11] with prospective /subjunctive sDm.f . Hs.n wi (the pharaoh) “favored me” [Nebwaui Stela 1, 11], and in line 16 the same phrase is written as
Hs.n w(i). Clearly the scribe was trying to save space.
Example with introductory particle: m.k tw “Look, you…” [ShS. 117].
More complex examples: mnwi tw m st.k nt nHH “How firm are you in the seat of eternity!” [Nebankh Stela 3] with the biliteral
st and exclamatory adjectival predicate mnwi;
aHa.n rdi.f wi m r.f “then he put me into his mouth” [ShS. 76-77].
Personal Pronouns: Independent (Stressed) Pronouns Independent pronouns are separate and independent words and almost always stand at the head of a sentence. The various cases are as follows:
Gender and Number
ntT or ntt
ntTn or nttn
The independent pronouns have different grammatical functions: 1. In AB nominal sentences: First- or second-person independent pronoun in part A as subject or predicate, and third-person independent pronoun in part A as predicate.17 2. In A pw nominal sentences: Independent pronoun in part A is always the predicate. 3. In A pw B nominal sentences: Independent pronoun in part A is always the predicate (rare). 4.
First person (singular and plural) subjects of adjectival sentences;18
5. Part A in adjectival sentences of possession ni AB: “B belongs to A;” 6. Agent of an infinitive (rare). Examples: ink xtmt(i)-nTr “I am a royal seal bearer/treasurer” [Khetty Stela 2, 2]; ntf zA wsir “He is the son of Osiris” [CT IV 37 f Sq6C]
Here and below; for details see Nominal Sentences. Here and below; for details see Adjectival Sentences. 19 CT is reference for the 7-volume work of A. de Buck, The Egyptian Coffin Texts, Oriental Institute, Chicago. 18
nts ra “She is Re” [CT VI 166c B4C];
nttn nA nbw “You are the lords” [Kanais B, 13]; ntsn nbw pt “They are the lords of the sky;” n(i)-ntk nbw “Gold is yours” [Urk. IV, 96]. A more complex example: ntf swAH irrt.i “He is someone who makes/shall make my deeds endure” [Kanais C, 8] (swAH “set, make endure” is a causative verb, here a participle “who makes endure.” irrt.i lit. “(those) that I have been making” is a feminine (imperfective) relative form and as such it often has future meaning. The plural is indicated by strokes and the suffixed subject is visibly a king, actually Sety I).
Demonstrative Pronouns One of the forerunners of the Middle Egyptian demonstrative pronouns were adjectives with deictic20 functions. They are formed by the pronominal bases MS p-, FS t-, MPL ip-, FPL ipt-, and the deictic indicators –n (nearby), -f (distant), -w (< i, nearby), and –A (vocative and/or colloquial). Combining these yields the early Egyptian n-series pn, tn, ipn, iptn, the f-series, the w-series, and the A-series (in the latter the plurals are not attested). In addition to these, another set of neutral demonstrative pronouns was formed by the pronominal base n- and the deictic indicators: nn, nf, nw, nA. In Middle Egyptian, the n-series replaced the w-series pw (< pi), tw (< ti), ipw, iptw (the latter found mostly in older religious texts) and the pronoun pw acquired the function as copula21 “this [is]” > “is” in nominal sentences. In addition, the earlier plurals (in both genders) have been replaced by a construction using the neutral n-demonstrative pronouns followed by the genitival adjective n.
The most frequently used Middle Egyptian demonstratives are summarized in the following table: 20 21
Specifying location or identity from the perspective of the speaker. Linking verb; see Nominal Sentences.
pf, pfA22 pA
The n-series and the f-series are usually used together for contrast: “this” and “that.” In later Egyptian the A-series evolved into the definite article. When the demonstrative pronouns are used by themselves (without an accompanying noun), Middle Egyptian usually uses the neutral forms. The relative position of MS/FS demonstrative pronouns to a noun A are as follows: A pn/tn, pA/tA A, pf/pfA/tf/tfA A or A pf/pfA/tf/tfA The plurals always precede the noun: nn n A, nfA n A, nA n A Examples for n-series: ra pn “today,” lit. “this day” [Neferti 4]; tAS pn “this border” [Semna Stela 2, 17-18]; iw pn n kA “this island of ka” (or phantom island23) [ShS. 114], with pn in forward position within the indirect genitive; similarly: 24
abA pn n Dt “this offering stone of eternity” with the bA-bird
dmi pn “this town” [Urk. IV, 4, 3] and a bit later in the same text: pA dmi [Urk. IV, 4, 6]; Hwt-nTr tn “this temple” [Kanais B, 10] with honorific transposition in A; st tn “this place” [Urk. IV, 3, 16]; 22
The members of the f-series occasionally show an extra A-ending (always in plural).
Maspero’s translation. British Museum Stela 233, line 2; see this web site.
wa m nn n hrw one of these days [Neferti 2] (emended from Liverpool wa;
Ostracon) with the biliteral
Dd.n.i nn n “I speak as follows,” lit. “as these” [Kanais C, 2]. Examples for f-series: Dw pf n pr-Hrw-n-xtiw-mfkAt “that mountain of the House-of-Horus-of-the-Turquoise-Terraces” [Khetty Stela 2, 4] with (
is a determinative); nfA n bw-nfr “those good things” [Neferti 30] with bw-nfr, an
Egyptian idiom for good things; nfA n DfAw “these provisions” [Neferti 32]. Examples for A-series: pA mAw pA bik “the sight of the falcon” [Kanais A] (referring to the swiftness of the falcon’s eye), where
pA is originally a demonstrative pronoun but here
it is used as the definite article “the;” tA Tzt pA nbw “the transport (lit. journey) of the gold” [Kanais A]; nA n dmiw n tA kmt “those towns of Egypt” [Kamose Stela 2, 24]; nA (n) nbw “the lords” [Kanais B, 13] (the genitival adjective is suppressed as the following noun starts with n).