Quality Milk - Dairy Farmers of Ontario

Quality Milk - Dairy Farmers of Ontario

Milk ….One of ’s Milk….One of Mother Mother Nature Nature’s Most Perfect Foods Most Perfect Foods Why Why Bacteria Bacteria in in Milk Milk Matters M...

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Milk ….One of ’s Milk….One of Mother Mother Nature Nature’s Most Perfect Foods Most Perfect Foods

Why Why Bacteria Bacteria in in Milk Milk Matters Matters SP SP Oliver Oliver

Dept. Dept. Animal Animal Science Science The The University University of of Tennessee Tennessee http://www.tqml.utk.edu http://www.tqml.utk.edu [email protected] [email protected]

got milk?

Milk Quality ¾ ¾ Topic Topic of of continued continued debate debate in in dairy dairy industry industry

…. ¾ Issues ¾ Issues… Issues…. 99 public publichealth health(residues, (residues, pathogens, pathogens,toxins) toxins) 99 processors processors&& consumers consumers demanding demanding high highquality quality ¾ ¾ Several Several groups groups support support enhancing enhancing milk milk

quality quality (lower (lower SCC SCC & & bacteria bacteria counts) counts) via via regulatory …. intervention regulatory intervention… intervention….

¾ ¾ Milk Milk buyers/processors buyers/processors may may only only purchase purchase

high high quality quality milk milk even even though though milk milk meets meets minimum minimum regulatory regulatory standards standards

Quality Milk Low Low SCC SCC Low Low bacterial bacterial count count Free of human Free of human pathogens pathogens Free Free of of antibiotic antibiotic residues residues

Bacteria Bacteria in in Milk Milk …. ¾ defined ¾ Regulatory Regulatory limit limit defined… defined…. …. 99 << 50,000/ml Ontario 50,000/mlin inOntario… Ontario…. …. 99 100,000/ml US 100,000/mlin inUS… US…. …. ¾ concerns Safety concerns… concerns…. ¾ Safety 99 Some Some pathogens pathogensin in milk milkcan cancause causedisease diseasein in humans humans …. ¾ concerns Quality concerns… concerns…. ¾ Quality , ↓↓shelf-life, alter 99 Impacts taste shelf Impactstaste, taste, shelf-life, altermilk milkcomposition, composition, ↓↓ yield yield 99 High mastitis High milk milk bacteria bacteriacount count associated associatedwith withmastitismastitiscausing causing bacteria, bacteria,poor poor hygiene hygiene &&sanitation, sanitation,improper improper milk …. contamination milk cooling, cooling, environmental environmental contamination… contamination….

Bacteria Bacteria Found Found in in Milk Milk

Bacteria Bacteria & & Milk Milk Quality Quality Milk …. Pasteurized Milk Is Is Pasteurized… Pasteurized…. So ’s the What So What’ What’s the Concern? Concern?

¾ ¾Mastitis Mastitis pathogens pathogens ¾ ¾Psychrotrophic Psychrotrophic “cold “cold tolerant” tolerant”

bacteria bacteria ¾ ¾Thermoduric Thermoduric spoilage spoilage bacteria bacteria ¾ ¾Foodborne Foodborne pathogens pathogens

Quality Quality & & Shelf Shelf Life Life of of Pasteurized Pasteurized Fluid Fluid Milk Milk

-life… ¾ shelf life…. GramGram ¾Most Most significant significant cause cause ↓↓ milk milk shelfshelf-life…. Gramneg .these bacteria neg psychrotrophic psychrotrophic bacteria bacteria … ….these bacteria generally generally do do not not survive survive pasteurization pasteurization

-pasteurization contamination -neg ¾ Post Gram ¾PostPost-pasteurization contamination with with GramGram-neg psychrotrophic psychrotrophic bacteria bacteria which which can can grow grow at at refrigeration refrigeration temperatures temperatures significant significant cause cause of of ↓↓ milk -life shelf milk shelfshelf-life

-forming strains ¾ (spore ¾Certain Certain bacteria bacteria (spore(spore-forming strains of of Bacillus Bacillus & & Paenibacillus) Paenibacillus) that that survive survive pasteurization pasteurization can can grow grow at at refrigeration refrigeration temperatures temperatures & & cause cause spoilage -processing post spoilage of of milk milk beyond beyond 14 14 days days postpost-processing

¾ ¾ Reduced Reduced quality quality of of raw raw & & processed processed milk milk & &

milk milk products products associated associated with with psychrotrophic psychrotrophic bacteria bacteria & & thermoduric thermoduric spoilage spoilage bacteria bacteria ….some ¾ pasteurization ¾ Most Most destroyed destroyed by by pasteurization… pasteurization….some produce produce proteolytic proteolytic & & lipolytic lipolytic enzymes enzymes that that survive survive pasteurization pasteurization ¾ ¾ These These enzymes enzymes degrade degrade protein protein & & fat fat in in raw raw & &

processed ….reduce shelf-life & products shelf processed products… products….reduce shelf-life & alter alter taste taste

Escherichia coli, Citrobacter fruendii, Klebsiella spp, spp, Enterobacter spp. Acinetobacter, , Hafnia alvei, Acinetobacter alvei, Coliforms Moraxella, P. aeruginosa, Moraxella,Coliforms aeruginosa, P. Non fluorescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens Non, coliforms coliforms spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp. Streptococci Streptococci S. salivarius, S. bovis, S. Enterococci equinus, S. uberis, E. faecalis, Enterococci E. faecium. E. avium, E. durans, E. malodoratus, S. thermophilus

S. S.aureus aureus S. S.uberis uberis S. S.agalactiae agalactiae Mycoplasma Mycoplasma S. S.dysgalactiae dysgalactiae Many Manyothers others

How How Do Do Bacteria Bacteria Get Get Into Into BTM BTM ? ?

Milking Milkingequipment, equipment,water, water, cleaning cleaning

Manure Manure Escherichia coli, Citrobacter fruendii, Klebsiella spp, spp, Coliforms Enterobacter spp. Acinetobacter, Acinetobacter, Coliforms Hafnia Pseudomonas alvei, alvei, Moraxella, Moraxella, P. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, , P. fluorescens, aeruginosa fluorescens, Streptococci Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus Streptococci spp., Serratia spp., spp., S. bovis, S. Enterococci uberis, E.Enterococci faecalis, E. faecium. E. Bacillus avium Bacillus

Infected Infectedudder udder

Soil Soil Coagulase neg. Staphylococci, Coliforms S. bovis, S. uberis, E. faecalis, E. Coliforms faecium, E. avium, Escherichia Non Noncoliforms coliforms coli, Citrobacter fruendii, Streptococci Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter Streptococci spp. Pseudomonas spp. Bacillus Enterococci Enterococci spp.


Udder, Udder,teat teat&&teat teatend end

Bedding Bedding

Assessing Milk Quality 9 9Standard Standard Plate Plate Count Count (SPC) (SPC) 9 9Laboratory Laboratory Pasteurization Pasteurization Count Count (LPC) (LPC) 9 9Coliform Coliform Count Count (CC) (CC) 9 9Preliminary Preliminary Incubation Incubation Count Count (PI) (PI)

Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas,Enterococci, Enterococci, Lactococci, Lactococci,Bacillus, Bacillus, Coliforms Coliforms

Bulk tank

Standard Standard Plate Plate Count Count (SPC) (SPC) 9 9Most Most commonly commonly used used throughout throughout

industry… …. industry industry….

9 9Indication Indication of of total total aerobic aerobic bacteria bacteria

present present in in milk milk

9 9Milk Milk samples samples plated plated & & incubated incubated 48 48 hr hr at at

….bacterial colonies 32 F) C (90 (90ooF)… F)….bacterial colonies counted counted 32ooC

PI Counts

Standard Standard Plate Plate Count Count Good Good Acceptable Acceptable Concern Concern (low) (high) (low) (medium) (medium) (high) << 10,000 10,000 <<20,000 20,000 >> 20,000 20,000 45000 40000

Improper Impropercleaning cleaningof ofmilking milkingsystem system Strep Strepagalactiae agalactiaemastitis mastitis Dirty Dirtyudders udders&&teats, teats,dirty dirtyequipment equipment Inability Inabilityto tocool coolmilk milkrapidly rapidlyto to40 40°°FF

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

¾¾Performed °C (55° °F) for …. 12.8 (55 hr Performedby byholding holdingmilk milkat at12.8° 12.8°C (55°F) for 18 18 hr… hr….

Reasons Reasons for for high high SPC SPC

bacteria bacteriaenumerated enumerated using usingSPC SPC

….normal microbial ¾¾Theory… Theory Theory….normal microbialflora floraof ofcow cow(skin (skin&&teat teat

bacteria) bacteria)will will NOT NOTgrow grow substantially substantiallyduring duringincubation incubationat at 55° °F….however, bacteria 55 55°F….however, bacteriaassociated associatedwith withinadequate inadequate hygiene practices will be able to grow… … . PI counts should grow hygiene practices will be able to grow….PI counts should ALWAYS ALWAYSbe becompared comparedto tofresh freshSPC SPC

Failure Failureof ofwater waterheater heater Failure Failurein insanitation sanitation

….detect farm ¾¾Goal… Goal Goal….detect farmhygiene hygieneinadequacies inadequaciesthat that may maynot not be be

Residual Residualwater waterin inlines lines Wet Wet&&humid humidweather weather

…. ¾¾Factors counts Factorsinfluencing influencingPI PIcounts… counts….

apparent apparent with withSPC SPC alone alone

99Precision Precisionof ofincubation/temp incubation/temp 99Age Age&&storage storageof ofmilk milksample sample 99Types, Types,number, number,stage stageof ofgrowth growth&&growth growthtemp tempof of

Wet Wetmilking milkingconditions conditions < 10,000

< 20,000

bacteria bacteriain insample sample

> 20,000 Murphy, 2007

PI PI Counts Counts Good Good Acceptable Acceptable (low) (low) (medium) (medium) <10,000 <10,000 <50,000 <50,000 <3-4X SPC <3 <3-4X SPC


Concern Concern (high) (high) >50,000 >50,000 >3-4X SPC >3 >3-4X SPC

80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 30,000 20,000

6. 6. Extremely Extremelywet wet&& humid humid conditions… ….PIPIcounts conditions counts&&SPC SPC conditions…. < 10,000

< 50,000

> 50,000

LPC LPC Classifications Classifications Good Good (low) (low) <100 <100

Acceptable Acceptable (medium) (medium) <100 <100 --200 200

Concern Concern (high) (high) >200 >200


spike spikeday dayafter afterrain rainwhen whencows cows milked milkedthat thatare arewet wet&&dirtier dirtier

Why Are LPC’ LPC’s High? Unclean Unclean milking milkingequipment equipment ?? Most Most often often seen seenwith with persistent persistent cleaning cleaning problems problems Faulty Faultymilking milkingmachine machine or or worn worn out out parts parts ?? Leaky Leaky pumps, pumps, deteriorated deteriorated pipe pipeline linegaskets, gaskets,inflations inflations and and other other rubber rubberparts, parts, and and milkstone milkstone deposits deposits

400 350 300 250 200

Extremely Extremely dirty dirty cows cows ?? Significant Significantlevels levelsof of contamination contamination from from soiled soiled cows cows can canalso also contribute contributeto to high high LPC LPC

150 100 50 0

1. 1. Cleaning Cleaning &&sanitation sanitationof of the the milking milkingsystem system 2. Poor udder preparation 2. Poor udder preparation before before milking milking 3. 3. Failure Failureto tocool cool milk milkrapidly rapidly 4. 4. Prolonged Prolonged storage storage times times 5. 5. Milking Milking cows cowswith with wet wetteats teats


10,000 0

Generally Generally >> SPC....a SPC....a 3-4 3-4 fold fold higher higher PI PI count count than than SPC SPC suggests…. suggests….

< 100

< 100-200

> 200

Lab Lab Pasteurization Pasteurization Count Count (LPC) (LPC) heat¾ heat-loving’ loving’ (thermoduric) ¾ Measures Measures ‘‘heat-loving’ (thermoduric) bacteria bacteria 99 Resistant Resistant environmental environmental bacteria bacteria 99 Survive Survivepasteurization pasteurization °C (143° °F) & ¾ 62.8 (143 ¾ Sample Sample heated heated to to 62.8° 62.8°C (143°F) & held held for for 30 30 min, min, then then bacterial bacterial colonies colonies counted counted

….selects ¾ pathogens ¾ Destroys Destroys most most mastitis mastitis pathogens… pathogens….selects for for those those bacteria bacteria that that can can survive survive pasteurization pasteurization temperatures temperatures ….some milk ¾ test ¾ Not Not aa regulatory regulatory test… test….some milk plants plants perform perform this this test test to to ensure ensure quality quality of of final final product product

Coliform Count ¾ ¾Not Not aa regulatory regulatory test test ¾ ¾Measures Measures coliform coliform bacteria bacteria ¾ ¾Associated Associated with with fecal fecal & &

environmental environmental contamination contamination

¾ ¾No No legal legal limits limits for for raw raw milk milk

unless unless coliforms coliforms cause cause SPC SPC to to exceed exceed 100,000/ml 100,000/ml

¾ ¾Achievable Achievable goal: goal: << 50 50 cfu/ml cfu/ml

Coliform Count Good Good (low) (low) <50 <50

Acceptable Acceptable Concern Concern (medium) (high) (medium) (high) <50-100 >100 <50 <50-100 >100


High High counts counts suggest: suggest:

Quality Milk Low Low SCC SCC

1. 1. Poor Poor milking milking practices practices

350 300

2. 2. Dirty Dirty equipment equipment

250 200

Low Low bacterial bacterial count count Free Free of of human human pathogens pathogens

3. 3. Contaminated Contaminated water water


4. 4. Dirty Dirty milking milking facilities facilities


Free Free of of antibiotic antibiotic residues residues

50 0

< 50

< 100

> 100

5. 5. Cows Cows with with mastitis mastitis

Should Should Dairy Dairy Industry Industry Be Be Concerned Concerned About About Food Food Safety? Safety? You ’s Why!!!! Here You Bet Bet & & Here’ Here’s Why!!!! ¾ ¾ Raw Raw milk milk contains contains foodborne foodborne pathogens pathogens & & toxins toxins

that that can can cause cause human human disease disease & & illness illness

¾ ¾ Human Human disease disease outbreaks outbreaks associated associated with with

consumption consumption of of unpasteurized unpasteurized milk milk

¾ ¾ Raw Raw milk milk consumed consumed by by dairy dairy producers producers & & their their

families, families, farm farm employees, employees, neighbors, neighbors, raw raw milk milk advocates advocates ¾ ¾ Contaminated Contaminated raw raw milk milk could could contaminate contaminate processing processing & & slaughter slaughter facilities facilities

Raw Raw Milk Milk Consumption Consumption …. ¾ milk ¾ Reasons Reasons for for consuming consuming raw raw milk… milk…. ….  benefits Health Health benefits… benefits…. ….  qualities Enhanced Enhanced nutritional nutritional qualities… qualities…. ….  taste Better Better taste… taste…. Green” ….  Green” movement… movement ““Green” movement…. ….  choice Freedom Freedom of of choice… choice….

-based data ¾ Science ¾ ScienceScience-based data to to substantiate substantiate these these claims claims limited limited & & in in most most cases cases lacking lacking

Raw Raw Milk Milk Consumption Consumption ….assumed that ¾ find ¾ Estimates Estimates difficult difficult to to find… find….assumed that << 1% 1% of of

US US population population consume consume raw raw unpasteurized unpasteurized milk milk & & products .(Yilmaz et products made made from from raw raw milk milk…….(Yilmaz etal., al.,2009) 2009) 99Many Manydairy dairyfarm farmfamilies, families,farm farmemployees employees&&neighbors neighborsdrink drinkraw raw

milk milkfrom frombulk bulktank tank

…. ¾ increasing ¾ Consumption Consumption increasing… increasing…. 993.2% 3.2%of ofthose thosesurveyed surveyedin inCA CAhad hadconsumed consumedraw raw milk milk(Headrick (Headrick et al., 1997) et al., 1997) 993.5% 3.5%who whoparticipated participatedin inaa2002 2002survey surveyconsumed consumedunpasteurized unpasteurized milk milkwithin withinaa77day dayperiod periodbefore beforesurvey surveywas wastaken taken(CDC, (CDC,2004) 2004) 99Promoted Promotedby byraw rawmilk milkadvocates advocates 99Demand Demandfor fornatural, natural,unprocessed unprocessedfoods foods 99Consumers produce, sell ” local Consumerswho whosupport support““produce, sell&&buy buylocal” local”

Raw Raw Milk Milk Consumption Consumption Reasons …. milk Reasons NOT NOT to to consume consume raw raw milk… milk…. ….FOOD SAFETY… ….FOOD SAFETY  SAFETY SAFETY FOOD FOOD SAFETY… SAFETY….FOOD SAFETY….FOOD SAFETY -based data ™ science ™much much sciencescience-based data

to tosubstantiate substantiatefood food safety safety hazards hazardsof of consuming consumingraw raw milk milk

….commercial raw  Cost Cost… Cost….commercial raw milk milk demands demands aa premium premium price… ….even more price price….even more than than organic organic milk milk

 Costs Costs associated associated with with disease disease outbreaks, outbreaks, illness illness

& & product product recalls recalls

Is Is Raw Raw Milk Milk Safe Safe ? ?


May May contain contain several several pathogens: pathogens:

….significant cause ¾ BTM ¾ Found Found frequently frequently in in BTM… BTM….significant cause of of mastitis mastitis throughout throughout world world

¾¾ Enterotoxigenic Enterotoxigenic Staph. Staph. aureus aureus ¾¾ Campylobacter Campylobacter jejuni jejuni

-H) && toxic ¾ (A ¾ Produce Produce enterotoxins enterotoxins (A(A-H) toxic shock shock

syndrome -1)… (TSST 1)….enterotoxigenic Staph syndrome toxin toxin (TSST(TSST-1)….enterotoxigenic Staph aureus aureus can can cause cause disease disease & & food food poisoning poisoning ¾ ¾ 73 73 of of 78 78 (93.6%) (93.6%) Staph. Staph. aureus aureus isolated isolated from from milk milk of of cows cows with with mastitis mastitis positive positive for for one one or or more more enterotoxin genes; 69 of 73 (88.5%) harbored enterotoxin genes; 69 of 73 (88.5%) harbored >> 11 enterotoxin enterotoxin gene gene (Srinivasan (Srinivasan&&Oliver, Oliver,2006) 2006)

¾¾ Salmonella Salmonella species species ¾¾ E. E. coli coli (EHEC (EHEC && ETEC) ETEC) ¾¾ Listeria Listeria monocytogenes monocytogenes ¾¾ Mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis ¾¾ Mycobacterium Mycobacterium paratuberculosis paratuberculosis cattle) ¾¾ Brucella Brucella spp spp (abortus (abortus ––cattle)

(melitensis- goats) (melitensis (melitensisgoats)

¾¾ Coxiella Coxiella burnetii burnetii ¾¾ Yersinia Yersinia enterocolitica enterocolitica

Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus aureus

Bulk Bulk tank tankmilk milkplated plated on on blood bloodagar agar

..many more ¾¾ … …..many more

Milkborne Milkborne Disease Disease Outbreaks Outbreaks

¾ ¾ Large Large outbreak outbreak in in Japan Japan caused caused by by consumption consumption

of -fat milk low of lowlow-fat milk produced produced from from skim skim milk milk powder powder contaminated contaminated with with Staph Staph aureus aureus enterotoxin enterotoxin A A

Foodborne Foodborne Pathogens Pathogens in in Bulk Bulk Tank Tank Milk Milk

¾¾ Raw Raw milk milk long long been been recognized recognized in in transmission transmission of of aa

variety variety of of microbial microbial pathogens pathogens



C jejuni

3.7 (0.4 – 12.3)

STEC E. coli

1.8 (0.8 – 3.8)

L monocytogenes

4.4 (1.0 – 12.6)

Salmonella spp.

3.6 (0.2 – 8.9)

Mean (range)

¾¾ 29 29 outbreaks/yr outbreaks/yr in in US US from from 1880 1880 && 1907 1907 (Chin, (Chin,1982) 1982) ¾¾ Caused Caused ~~ 25% 25% of of all all reported reported disease disease outbreaks outbreaks from from

contaminated contaminated food food && water water in in 1938; 1938; since since then then milkborne milkborne disease disease outbreaks outbreaks decreased decreased significantly significantly (Grade A PMO, 2007) (Grade (GradeAAPMO, PMO,2007) 2007)

-1992, 46 ) reported ¾¾ From 1973 (~2.4/yr From 19731973-1992, 46 outbreaks outbreaks (~2.4/yr) (~2.4/yr) reported (Headrick (Headricket etal., al.,1998) 1998)

-2006, 68 ¾¾ From 1993 From 19931993-2006, 68 outbreaks outbreaks (~5.2/yr) (~5.2/yr) associated associated

with with unpasteurized unpasteurized milk milk or or milk milk products products made made from from unpasteurized (CDC,2008) 2008) unpasteurized milk milk reported reported (CDC,

Detection Detection of of Foodborne Foodborne Pathogens Pathogens In the Dairy In the Dairy Farm Farm Environment Environment TN River

Summary of 20 studies conducted between 1982 and 2004

UT UT Dairy Dairy Study Study Summary Summary 9 9Most Most (44%) (44%) foodborne foodborne pathogens pathogens

were were isolated isolated from from fecal fecal samples samples

9 9Bovine Bovine feces, feces, lagoon lagoon water, water,

bedding, bedding, bird bird droppings, droppings, & & rats rats were were areas areas of of concern concern on on dairies dairies studies studies

9 9Good Good manure manure management management is is

important important for for dairy dairy farm farm hygiene hygiene

Recycling Recycling of of Foodborne Foodborne Pathogens Pathogens on on the the Farm Farm

GOT Milk ? Make Sure It ’s It’s Pasteurized RAW MILK

Quality Quality Milk Milk ¾ ¾ Safety Safety & & quality quality of of dairy dairy products products start start at at the the

farm farm level level & & continues continues throughout throughout processing processing 99 cannot cannot transform transformaalow(er) low(er) quality qualityraw raw product productinto intoaa

high high quality qualityfinished finished product product

¾ ¾ Consumers/processors Consumers/processors demanding demanding aa higher higher

quality …low SCC product quality raw raw product… product…low SCC & & bacteria bacteria counts counts

McCord McCord Hall Hall Fire Fire Dec. Dec. 2009 2009 A A few few pictures pictures of of Lab 56 Lab 56 Lab Lab 57 57

¾ ¾ Many Many tests tests used used to to determine determine quality quality

….SCC && bacteria 99 regulatory… regulatory regulatory….SCC bacteria counts counts -regulatory but ….PIC, LPC, 99 nonnon industry non-regulatory but used used by byindustry… industry….PIC, LPC, CC CC

roducers must ¾ pproducers ¾ To To meet meet ↑↑ quality quality standards, standards, producers must

adopt adopt production production practices practices that that reduce reduce mastitis mastitis & & bacterial bacterial contamination contamination of of BTM BTM

Taken Taken the the day day after after the the fire, fire, before before any any cleanup cleanup had had started started

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