HISTORY OF JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY IN QUEBEC by Marcel Gaumond May, 2015 To my knowledge, the story of Jungian Psychology in Quebec started with the creation of the C. G. Jung Society in Montreal in 1975. Le Cercle C. G. de Montreal was founded in 1977. During the 70’s, a book entitled Transformations, co-written by people involved in Cercle C. G. Jung who had been providing lectures on diverse subjects related to Jung’s psychology, was published. People of that group, including Guy Corneau, were in touch with Henri F. Ellenberger, Swiss psychiatrist, criminologist and historiographer. Ellenberger’s book, The Discovery of the Unconscious, became a fundamental reference in the field of dynamic psychiatry. Henri was born in Rhodesia in 1905, and died in Montreal in 1993. When I was sixteen years old, I chanced upon Freud’s Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. A year later, my brother introduced me to Jung’s Modern Man in Search of a Soul. At the age of 21, an elder friend gifted me with Jung’s autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections. In 1974, at the age of 29, I entered training. I began training in Zurich the same year that Marion Woodman, Fraser Boa and Daryl Sharp – all from Toronto – started their training. I graduated in 1977 and returned to Quebec, where I developed my private practice and was in charge of the Psychological Support Service in a college. Four years later, I left my position with the college because my analytical practice had grown to full time. Being the lone analyst in Quebec, I joined the Inter-regional Meeting of North America in order to meet other colleagues and be nourished and stimulated in our common field of interest. In 1981, Guy Corneau finished training and established his practice in Montreal. In 1983, I took a sabbatical in San Francisco. Jan Bauer had just graduated and I asked her to take care of my practice in my absence. In 1986, Tom Kelly completed training and set up practice in our province. Two years later, in 1988, the four of us founded l’Association des Psychanalystes Jungiens du Quebec (APJQ). During the following years, eight other people joined the APJQ. (Not all of these were Jungian analysts.) Currently, Quebec requires that analysts qualify to practice under Law 21, which protects psychotherapy in the province. Some analysts have left practice because they were not able to fulfill the requirements imposed by Law 21. At present, the APJQ has nine analyst-members. Six received their training from Zurich, one from the Inter-regional, one in Pittsburg and one in Toronto. Half of us have French as our mother-tongue; half have English. All of us have published papers; half of us have published books. The IAAP database lists twelve Jungian analysts in Quebec. As Jungian analysts, we are a marginal group of practitioners in the province of Quebec compared to several thousand psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers. We have personally experienced the profound and permanent effects of the analytic process, and
it puzzles me that only one new Jungian analyst has joined our group in Quebec once every four years since its inception in 1988. When I think about this, these factors come to my mind as a possible explanation: • Practical factors such as age, training location, high tuition fees and the challenges of combining both professional practice and training make the process very demanding. • The discipline of psychoanalysis, whatever the school, has been very much criticized in the last decades. Jungian psychology is still marginally known in comparison to Freudian psychology. • Jungian psychology has been associated with spirituality. It is possible that the reaction against religious traditions in the last few decades has something to do with the shortage of interest in Jung’s work. • As well, I am inclined to think that the very individuated way in which the four pillars of APJQ (Jan Bauer, Tom Kelly, Guy Corneau and myself) have oriented our professional lives may have something to do with the lack of new analysts. We have devoted most of our energies outside our analytic practices to activities not primarily concerned with the recruitment or training of new candidates in our field.* • I am concerned about succession. One of the new requirements to conduct a clinical practice in Quebec is a PhD in psychology. I know three or four people who are already involved in the helping professions and might be interested in training. The road is long, and expensive in terms of time, energy and money, especially if they have to get a doctorate as well as analytic training. *For example, I have published a chronicle on cinema in a magazine for the past 20 years. For each chronicle, I lecture on a chosen film, in a Quebec studio, followed by an exchange with the people attending the lecture. Guy Corneau has conducted multiple performances in the world of media. Jan Bauer has been director of training for the Inter-regional Society of Jungian Analysts, and director of AGAP’s ethics committee. Tom Kelly held the presidency of IRS and the IAAP.