Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America
Module 1 - Radio Basics BSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012
Purpose Make You a Radio Expert Basic Familiarity With Radio Emergency Preparedness ..
Class Format Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio Module 2 – Electronic Components & Safety Module 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications
Introduction To Radio
Key Topics in This Module
1 - What is Radio? 1a,1b - Types of Radio Services 1c - Radio Call Signs & Identification 1d - The Phonetic Alphabet 2a - Radio Wave Propagation, WWV & WWVH 2b - The FCC & ITU 3a - The Electromagnetic Spectrum
What Is Radio?
Electronic communication from one location to another without wires 1920s-era Radio Receiver
Where Radio is used
Radio is used in:
broadcast receivers two way radios televisions cellular telephones wireless LANs garage door openers
car locks EZPass satellites pagers radar microwave ovens etc, etc Requirement 1
Broadcast - One-way transmissions to the public. Could be commercial (music, news, sports with advertisements) or non-commercial (National Public Radio, school radio stations, Voice of America)
Broadcast Radio Towers Examples of radio transmission towers you may see: AM / FM Radio
NOAA Weather Radio Television
Two-Way Communications Two Way Radios both send (transmit) and receive messages.
walkie-talkies Amateur Radio cell phones fire and police aviation ships military, etc.
Use of the radio by the public to communicate with others or to control models. Amateur radio is a licensed type of Hobby Radio
A volunteer non-commercial radio service devoted to educational, recreational and emergency purposes
Why Amateur Radio?
A place to learn about radio! Called the Amateur Radio Service because it can’t be used for profit. An important part of disaster response. A lot of fun!
Technology In The Wilderness
From the BSA Field Book, page 436… Many SAR teams use ham radio technology, especially the two-meter band and the FCC Technician license, to facilitate communications. Requirement 1
Radio Call Signs Call Signs are identification. They show you have a license to transmit. Broadcast Call Signs WHO, KDKA, KORA, WNBC
Ham Call Signs WW3Y, KB3BOY, VR2DK, 9N1MM, JA1ABC A92EB/OZ, G4RZC/MM All ham call signs contain a number
US Call Signs Every US station has a call sign issued by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Broadcast call signs begin with K or W KXAS
Amateur call signs begin with A, K, N or W AB2SN KF5WT
W3ZLP Requirement 1
Amateur Radio Call Signs
International Call Signs International*call*sign*preﬁxes*assigned*by*the* International*Telecommunications*Union*(ITU)* Countries*issue*speciﬁc*call*signs* Examples:****
• • • • •
*XE * – Mexico VE – Canada VK – Australia ZL – New Zealand PY – Brazil
G – Great Britain F – France I – Italy 4X – Israel JA – Japan
Station Identification Rules
Broadcasters - Once per hour. Amateurs - Every ten minutes and at end of a conversation. Requirement 1
Phonetic Alphabet Alfa AL fah Bravo BRAH VOH Charlie CHAR lee Delta DELL tah Echo ECK oh Foxtrot FOX trot Golf GOLF Hotel hoh TELL India IN dee ah Example:
Juliet JEW lee ETT Kilo KEY loh Lima LEE mah Mike MIKE November no VEM ber
Oscar OSS cah Papa pah pah Quebec keh BECK
Romeo ROW me oh Sierra see AIR rah Tango TANG go Uniform YOU nee form Victor VIK ter Whiskey WISS key X-Ray ECKS RAY Yankee YANG kee Zulu ZOO loo
My name is Tom – tango, oscar, mike – Tom Requirement 1
How High Frequency (HF) Radio Waves Travel (Propagation)
Ground Wave Sky Wave Ionosphere Skip Local DX
Ionosphere (80 km) Sky Waves
How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel (1)
How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel (2)
Radio Propagation Characteristics
HF Wavelengths (160 – 10 meters) - Generally utilizes skywave propagation - Affected by solar activity
VHF Wavelengths (6 meters – 2 meters) - Generally utilize line-of-sight - Affected very little by solar activity
UHF Wavelengths (70cm and shorter) - Generally utilize light-of-sight propagation - Affected much by terrain, buildings .
WWV • Provides accurate frequencies, time, and HF propagation forecasts. • WWV & WWVH transmit on 5,10,15 and 20 MHz • WWV is in Ft Collins, Colorado.
WWVH is in Kauai, Hawaii
Radio Station WWV Transmits on standard frequencies
2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Mhz
If you can hear WWV, the HF bands are open
Fort Collins, CO ..
Regulation of Radio ITU International Telecommunications Union Meets every few years. Sets International Frequency assignments. Assigns prefixes to countries.
FCC Federal Communication Commission Set Frequency Assignments in US. Issues Licenses & Call Signs in US. Enforces Radio Laws in US. Requirement 2
Frequencies (One Hertz is cycle per second)
0 Hertz (goes in one direction only)
60 Hertz (Hz)
100 Hz to 20 KHz (100 - 20,000 Hz)
30-300 kHz (30,000-300,000)
.3-3 MHz (300,000-3,000,000)
HF or Shortwave
3-30 MHz (3,000,000-30,000,000)
30-300 MHz (30,000,000-300,000,000)
300-3,000 MHz (well, you get the idea)
Frequencies above 500 MHz
400-800 THz (400,000,000- 800,000,000 MHz) Requirement 3
So, what frequencies are assigned to whom?
AM Broadcast Radio FM Broadcast Radio Short Wave Broadcast Television Broadcast CB Radio Police Radio Amateur Radio
540 - 1600 kHz 88 - 108 MHz 5 - 22 MHz Channel 2 = 54-60 MHz 27 MHz 450-470 MHz 3.5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 150 MHz 80, 40, 30, 20, 15, 10, 6, 2 meters Freq=C/meters C=300,000,000 or Freq (MHz)= 300/meters Requirement 3
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Long Radio Wavelengths
Short Radio Wavelengths
Frequency - Measured in Hertz (kilohertz, megahertz, gigahertz) Wavelength – Measured in meters (cm) Electromagnetic Radiation Demonstration .
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Medium Frequency (MF)
High Frequency (HF)
Very High Frequency (VHF)
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
DRAW the Electromagnetic Spectrum MF Marine
Marine / Navigation
HF International Shortwave Broadcast
UHF UHF Ham
300 Mhz .
WiFi 3 Ghz