Reading - American Jewish Archives

Reading - American Jewish Archives

MS-603: Rabbi Marc H. Tanenbaum Collection, 1945-1992. Series F: General Chronological Files. 1960-1992 Box 98, Folder 6, General correspondence, memo...

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MS-603: Rabbi Marc H. Tanenbaum Collection, 1945-1992. Series F: General Chronological Files. 1960-1992 Box 98, Folder 6, General correspondence, memos & working papers, September-December 1982.

3101 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, Ohio 45220 (513) 221-1875 phone, (513) 221-7812 fax americanjewisharchives.org

·septernber 2, 1982

·Ms. Louise· Fran~lin Rita. Rezn.ik~ · Secretary to Rabbi Marc

Tanenbaum.

·

The title of the _Address·. for the pleaary seesion- which Rabbi Marc Tanenbaum is :- going to .de·l iver at youv'Cormnunity Confer~ . ence .in _April 19B3· is: • . The Hqlocaust: ·its Meaning for Mankind

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Enclosed. are the gl~ssy photo and vita which _you also requeste~~

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THE N ATI ON AL CO N FER ENCE OF CHRISTI ANS & J EW S , INC.

WASHINGTON RE G ION

1402 · 3 rd AVE .. SUITE 1 3 2 6 SEATILE. WASH INGTON 98 10 1

!Salman C. Szekely Executive Director

August 23, 1982 BOAR D OF DIRECTORS Ira H. Alexander M ona Bailey Richard E. Bangert Sanford M . Bernbaum, Sr. Robert J. Block Norman Calvo Lee Carter Willie H. Clay David L. Cohn John Ellis Sol Esfeld Phelps Fisher · M ax Gurvich Joe L. Hagman Kenneth Heiman H. Roy Johnson Carl Koch Henry L. Kotkins Donald B. Kraft Terry Lengfelder Donald D. M aclean M elville Oseran Dona1dG.Phe1ps

H;r;:::~~::~ Nats.Rogers Rosanne Gostovich Royer V.A. Schwarz David Senescu

Ea~~~s:_u~r;::e~ caro1e A. smith

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(206) 622-7310

Rabbi Marc Tanenbaum American Jewi s h ". Corranittee 16~ Eas t 56th St reet New York, New York 10022 Dear Rabbi Tanenbaum : This is to follow-up and confirm the details of our t e l ephone conversation earlier this month . The Steering Corranittee of the Hol ocaust Studies Project of Seattle is very pleased that you have accepted our invitation to speak at the ~orranunity Conference on April 17-18, 1983, to be held at Seattle University . The pr oject is Co-Sponsored by the 'University and The National Conference of Christians &Jews, along with a number of corranunity organizati ons , agencies, churches and individuals . Among those is American Jewi sh Corranittee. At present, the program calls for you to deliver a maj or addres s of about 50 minutes in duration to the general assembly on Sunday , and to conduct a workshop for a specific population group ( e .. g. , clergy, ethnics 1aw.ye rs) on Monday. Other program details a r e ·not yet fi rm but we will keep you apprised of the final draft when completed. The honorarium and expenses for this engagement will be negotiated through Arthur Abrams on of your Seattle American Jewish Corrani ttee off ice, an active member of our corrani ttee.

Charles z. Smith Phyllis Starr . Phillip B. Swain' James A. Thorpe



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Please forward to us a glossy photo , v1ta and title of your address Ru_th_'!fj.~ for the plenary sess·ion. We will confer further with you on the · . ~:~1°1tam ~9e'"SM~w_:;re;_ Jd'· '\·details and title for t he' smaller workshop session. . 11reJS'1e1 · r vl

Spruiell D. White Stanley H. w olfstone

NATIONALOFFicERs National Chairman.

Executive Board JrvingMirchell Felr

President Dr. David Hyatt

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Future correspondence and ca 11 s wi 11 . be coming from Ka l Szekel y , Director of The National Conference of Christians & Jews who will be serving as the Project Di rector in the coming months . I wi 11 be ret urnin g to Orlando on September 1, having concluded by conSUlting WOrk her e . Than k you f or your enthus ias ti c inte res t fn .this pr oject and f or agr ee ing to par ticipate . Thi s promi ses t o · be an outstandi.ng event for Seattl e .

oiJi.se Franklin Pr oject Consultant LF/ mb BROTHERHOOD:

GI VING TO OTHERS THE SAME RIGHTS A ND R ESPECT WE WISH F OR OURSE L VES

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SEPTEMBER 13, 1982 FROM:AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE 165 EAST 56TH STREET NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10022

ACCT. #CNY006110

THE FOLLOWING MAILGRAM IS TO BE SENT TO THE ATTACHED LIST OF NAMES: TO: AJC AREA DIRECTORS RE: AJC REACTION TO POPE'S PROPOSED AUDIENCE .WITH ARAFAT AT THE END OF THIS MESSAGE IS A COPY OF A CABLEGRAM SETTING FORTH

AJcss RESPONSE TO THE PROPOSED AUDIENCE OF PLO'S YASIR ARAFAT WITH POPE JOHN PAUL II IN VATICAN CITY. THIS TEXT WAS PRESENTED BY ROBERT S. JACOBS, INTERRELIGIOUS AFFAIRS COMMISSION CHAIRMAN, TO THE AJC'S BOARD OF GOVERNORS TODAY, AND IT WAS ADOPTED UNANIMOUSLY. SEVERAL BOARD MEMBERS SUGGESTED THAT THIS TEXT BE SENT TO EACH OF THE LOCAL CARDINALS AND BISHOPS IN YOUR COMMUNITY, TO OTHER CATHOLIC CONTACTS, AS WELL AS .TO THE CATHOLIC PRESS AND THE GENERAL PRESS. YOU MAY ALSO WISH TO SHARE THIS TEXT wITH

~~ 1 t-NllLY

PKUTESTANTS AND EV.l1.NGEL!C/\LS

/\~HJ ~·!HERE

POSSIBLE INVITE THEM TO ISSUE THEIR 9WN INDEPENDENT STATEMENTS OF CONCERN. PLEASE SHARE WITH US ANY CLIPPINGS OR OTHER STATEMENTS THAT EMERGE FROM THIS ACTION. MANY THANKS AND A SHANAH TOVAH ,MARC TANENBAUM . ... - ··--

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WESTERN UNION, THE BALANCE OF THE TEXT TO BE SENT• IS ON THE NEXT PAGE.,

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THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

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STATEMENT ON PRESIDENT REAGAN'S PEACE INITIATIVE (Based on RemaPks by Maynard I . Wishner; Adopted as an Interim AJC Position by the Board of Governors, September 13, 1982)

President Reagan's initi.ative clearly opens new possibilities fo.r a diplomatic breakthrough in the search fo.r Mi.ddle East peace if .a ll parties seize the opportunity it presents. Now that the U.S. "Talking Points" are in the public arena they deserve thoughtfu.l and thorough consideration. We be 1i eve that the Administration is offe.ring the "Talking Points" in the spirit th.at they are points for discussion and not pre-conditions the U.S. would seek to impose. We think the initiative would gain if .our government made this abundantly clear. At the Arab summit in Fez, regrettably, there was Arab refusal to recognize Israel explicitly, Arab refusal to enter into the broader Camp David negotiations and Arab refu.sal to envisage anything but a fully independent state headed by the PLO---a triple refusal contradicting key elements in the President's initiative. Responsibility for failure to advance the cause of peace in the Middle East, now as on so many previous occasions, must be put squarely where it belongs: on the continued Arab unwillingness - Egypt apart to recognize the reality of the state of Israel and negotiate with it . Israel, while rejecting President Reagan's approach, nevertheless continues to stand ever ready for negotiations. , Equally regrettably, the renewed insistence by the Arab summit on the PLO as the "sole and legitimate representative" of the Palestinians tends to vitiate the particular approach made by our government to King Hussein of Jordan with the corresponding particular responsiblity for Jordan, at last, to participate in the Camp David process. The American Jewish Corranittee twice in the ·past has called for restraint. and pause in further settlements by Israel. in the context of ongoing negotiations, at times when it appeared that this would serve the cause of peace. Were Jordan to respond affirmatively to Mr. Reagan's appeal for it to join the peace process we would again be prepared to call for such pause and restraint. The American Jewish Committee always has supported the Camp David process as the best framework for advancing peace. As envisaged in the Camp David framework, the final status of the West Bank (Judea and Samaria) and Gaza is to be negotiated among the parties concerned during the ftve year period after a self-governing authority comes into being there. All parties can then make their claim to eventual West Bank and Gaza sovereignty . We are opposed to any pre-judging now of what that eventual sovereignty should be, or actions that would create a de facto situation precluding a meaningful decision about these territorie~ Israel should not be called

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upon to fo_reswear in advance any negotiating position it may then choose to take. There are points in President Reagan's initiative that require There are others -- such as his call for negotiations on the status of Jerusalem -- that are unacc~ptable. We regret the procedure followed by our government where there was no· consultation with Israel prior to this initiative and any tendency fo.r the U.S. to m_ove away fr.om its role as mediator, that in which· it has been most successfu_l to date. · . . The peace initiative, however, must be judged as a whole. In this light, we see it as a reasonable approach to be dealt with on its merits. It is in this spirit that we shall be presenting our opposi'tion and . support for various of _its ·aspects as we give it that thorough consider· ation it deserves~ clarifi~ation.

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~eptember

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TAEnas . · AnALYSES • · . AEP[]ffi .

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AD Ho·c GROUPS:

NEW PLEADERS FOR THE ARAB .CAUSE .

by Sheba Mittelman

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I. ._1HEAMERICAll . . Bllbd9 al Human Relations, 165 East 56 Sinai, New Yaltl, N.Y. 10022 Oje J£WISH COMMITTE£, In ~

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With the outbreak of hostilities in Lebanon on June 6, 1982, a number of ad hoc anti-Israel groups emerged on the American sc-ene. This report identifies the most active groups, focusing on those that attracted national attention. Where possible, names and addresses of organizers and organizations are provided, since these often shed light on the behind-the-scenes coordination that exists among many of these groups. In numerous cases, long-time pro-PLO activists on the left were discovered to be operating under new cover names. These ad hoc groups engaged in a wide variety of activities-placing large newspaper ads, distributing leaflets, holding street rallies and teach-ins-- all aimed at encouraging public sympathy for the Lebanese civilians suffering from the aftermath of recent events and for Palesti nians. In all of their activities several issues were frequently stressed: -- Alleged atrocity stories and indiscriminate bombings were highlighted in an effort to portray Israel as criminal, inhumane and immoral. Although pro-Palestinian groups have for some time used terms like 11 genocide 11 and "holocaust" in thei·r literature to refer to Israel's policy toward Palestinains, such language appeared more prominently in current ads and statements. For example, there were widespread comparisons of Beirut to the Warsaw Ghett~ of 1942, the message being: Jews, with your history, you should know better. -- The US was bitterly criticized for allegedly. giving Israel a "green light" for the attack and for continui ng to supply r.srael . with large amounts of military and economic aid. There were many demands for a cutoff of aid to induce Israel s withdrawal from Lebanon, buttressed by the assertion that commitments of massive quantities of aid to Israel in a time of economic difficulties here in the US are detrimentaJ to ~merican interests. 1

-- The broader issue of the need to solve the Palestinian ·problem was cons i stently linked to the Lebanon situation. Pro-PLO activists renewed their long-standing demand that the US change its policy and deal directly with the PLO, without waiting for PLO recognition of Israel. Indeed, several _groups supported the idea of replacing Israel with a "secular, democratic" Palestine. -- Considerable emphasis was placed on the need· for Am~riCans to change their attitudes about Arabs in general. Some groups claimed ..that latent anti-Arab racism is responsible for lack of American concern for the innocent victims of Isra~l 's attacks in Lebanon. One significant development was the incr~ase in cooperation in some areas between Jewish critics of Prime Minister Begin's policies

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and anti-Israel groups. A distinction should be made between antiZionist Jews--such as Noam Chomsky, Elmer _Berger and others--who have long been critics of Israel and who have in the past publicly joined with pro-PLO groups, and those Jews who remain pro-Israel but have now come out publicly in opposition to the Lebanon war. As a result of the war, and in particular as a result of the heavy bombing of West Beirut, there was growing cooperation among various pro-peace and disarmament groups and pro-Palestinian organizations . Some of thes_e groups announced their intention of mounting their own "commissions of inquiry" into Israel's conduct of the war and its use of American-made weapons in Lebanon. The activities of the ad hoc groups bolstered the broad scale efforts of the Arab-American community to influence American public opinion. Mainstream Arab-American organizations shared materials with many of these groups, and in some cases, especially on the local level, coordinated the ad hoc groups. The most prominent of these national organizations are: -- The National Association of Arab-Americans (NAAA), hE;!adquartered i'n Washington, D.C. is the registered lobby 'o f the Arab-American community; · its curr:ent pres·i dent is Robert Joseph, a Pittsburgh businessman · -- The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), also based in Washington, D.C., directed by former Senator James Abourezk -- The Association of Arab-American University Graduates, based in Belmont, Massachusetts, has long ~dvocated a "secular democratic state" in Palestine -- The Palestine .Congress of North America, based in Washingt on, represents Palestinians in the US and supports the PLO These organizations,. some of which had begu n to organize the Arab-American community ory the grass roots level as long as 10 years ago, are now poised to reach out to other ethnic , church, civ.il rights and convnunity groups in order to capitalize on what they perceive to be a turning point in Amer ican sympathy fo r Israel. (The national Arab-American organizations will be dealt with in greater det ail in a separate study.) NAAA claims t o have col l ected thousands of signatures on a National Petition to Save Lebanon. Along with ADC , NAAA is lobbying for passage of Concurrent Resolution #359, introduced by Congressman Nick Ra hall II (D·-W.Va. ), himself an ArabAmerican, which calls for a suspension of "al l de·l iverfes ·of military equipment and all military sales financing to all combatants in the region. 11

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While they have not been successful i n such lobbying efforts to pro-Arab organizations now sense a greater receptivity to their

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ideas as a result of Israel's unpopular actions in Lebanon. Questions and doubts about the justice of Israel's course and US support for its policies are being raised more frequently, particu larl y in liberal circles where Israel's i mage as a moral nation has been badl y tarnished. The ad hoc groups, promoting the image of Israel as aggressor, have hel ped to create a new climate of criticism and anger about Israel 's policies. This mood Gould in the long run ·pave the way for a real change in US pol icy toward Israel . As l ong as I~raeli forces remain in Lebanon and the violence continues, the Jewish community ·and Israel's friends in the US can expect t hese and other ad hoc commi ttees and organizati ons to continue their efforts to sway Amer ican opini on. There i s evi dence t hat Palestinian acti vi st s , convinced of the destruction of t heir military opti6h, are now geari ng up for a major publi c rel at i ons campai gn in the US. For the suppor ters of Israel in thi s country, the propaganda war i s just beginning.

SM:ka September 28 , 1982 82-970-11

AD HOC COMMITI'EE IN DEFENSE OF ,TffE PALESTINIAN &: LEBANF.SE PEOPLES

P.O. Box 1499 Ansonia Station New York, NY 10023

.

The Ad Hoc Committee in Defense of the Palestinian & Lebanese Peoples first emerged in an ad in ..The New York Times , June 27, 1982, signed by over 200 people. The list included a large number of professors and prominent writers, as well as several long-time activists for the Palestinian cause, including former Senator James Abourezk, tne Berrigan brothers, ·former US attorney general Ramsey Clark and Rev. Jesse Jackson. The ad headlined "Death and Devastation in Lebanon" condemned 11 Israe·l i aggression," "the inhuman assault on the civilian population" and American support for Begin's policies.· The last paragraph urged Americans "to affirm that the national rights of the Palesti nians are central and indispensable to any resolution of the endemic state of conflict which exists between Israel and the Palestini an people. 11 A subsequent ad (July 11), also in The New York Times , featured allegations of Israeli torture of captured Palestinians under the heading "War Crimes in Lebanon." According to a report in the New York Post, July 27, 1982,. the post office box in Ansonia Station is registered to Martam· Said , wife of Prof. Edward Said, a writer and member of the Palestine National Council (the so-called parliament of the PLO). According to the Los Angeles Times, July 17, 1982, Prof Said and Ralph Schoenman, a writer based in New Jersey, were .the organizers of the committee, which has apparently never met formally as a gr~up. The ads also appealed for contributions to defray the .advertising costs, to pay for medical supplies for West Beir:ut and to "launch an inquiry into the conduct of the war and the trea~ment of refugees and . prisoners." No ads have appeared with this name since the beginning of August. AD HOC COMMITTEE OF TRADE UNIONISTS TO OPPOSE THE ISRAELI INVASION OF :LEBANON

P.O. Box 676 Old Chelsea Station New York, NY 10011

An ad with 150 signatures sponsored by the Ad Hoc Committee of Trade Unionists to Oppose the Israeli Invasion of. Lebanon appeared on September 5, 1982 in The New York Times ·. Headllned "Labor Speaks

Out On Lebanon," it asserted: "as trade unionists we cannot and will not stand for the identification of the trade union movement and ,workers of this .country with Israeli actions in Lebanon." This statement was apparently a response to one adopted by the AFL-CIO Executive Council on August 5, 1982, which strongly supported Israel and stated that the Israeli action in Lebanon was "entirely justified on security grounds . " (The AFL-CIO statement was reprinted in The New York Times on August 15, 1982.) Some members of the Ad Hoc Committee are also endorsers of the November 29 Coalition, which circulated the trade unionists' statement. The Ad Hoc Committee advertisement calied for an end to US arms deliver·ies to Israel, saying that "at a time when unemployment is the highest in over 40 years, we cannot justify arms an9 aid to Israel . tot~lling more than $7 mi llion/day. This subsidy has made it possible for Israel to carry out the destruction of major cities , schools and hospitals in Lebanon, while for lack of funds, our own cities, schools and hospitals are deteriorating and crumbling."

AMERICAN JEWS OPPOSED TO ISRAELI AGGR~iON Box 49 5825 Telegraph Avenue Oakland, CA 94609

17 members of Jews Against the Israeli Massacre in Lebanon signed an ad in The New York Times on August 8, 1982 placed by American Jews Opposed to Israeli Aggression, based in Oakland, Ca .. Among the signers of this ad were Hebert Aptheker, a member of the Communist Party USA and editor of their journal, Jewi sh Affa i rs; Noam Chomsky, Professor of Linguistics at MIT and noted opponent of Israel and others--including professors, doctors, l awyers, many of whom were identified as members of the New Jewish Agenda (a national organization of progressive Jews who support Israel but are critical of Begin's policies). The ad's opening copy asserted that "We cannot be silent" and stated that uwe are American Jews who are appalleq by the I$raeli invasion of Lebanon and by the fact that the killing and destruction are being carried out with the political support and military aid provided by the U.S." The group rejected the assumption that American Jews support Israel no matter what it does and expressed solidarity "with the ten$ of thousands in Israel who have demonstrated their opposition to the inhuman and brutal policies of their government." · The ad called on the U.S. to halt sales and shipments of all arms "to the combatants in Lebanon. "

AMERICANS CONC~NED FOR PEACE IN THE MIDD~E EAST

Washington, O.C.

This name was used by .Franklin Lamb, a former member of the Democratic National Committee· {now wanted for fraud by the FBI for . charging phone calls to other people's accountsJ Claiming he was on staff of the library of Congress, lamb and two friends called congressional staffers in July offering them a .free fact-find i ng tour of Beirut. Reports omitted the fact that the trip was sponsored by the Palestine Red Crescent Society, an arm of the PLO, . run by Yasir Arafat's brother. · This group attracted attention when a UPI story of August 7 reported that a "US Congressional delegation . charged Israel used a U.S.-built vacuum. bomb" in Beirut. Lamb's group consisted of one Congressional staffer and had no official authorization from Speaker .O'Neill or Senate Majority Leader Baker tQ go abroad. Susan Hedges, a friend of Lamb's who portrayed herself as an aide to Senator James McClure, was repor~ed to be the source of the information about the so-called vacuum bomb, which according to Pentagon officials, does not exist. {The N~w Republic, Sept. 6, 1982.) AMERICANS FOR PEACE .P.O. Box 57042

Washington, D.C.

20037

A ~eries of ads appeared in The Washington Post .and The New York Times the weeR of J~ne 22 under ~he spon~orship of Americans f6r Peace. The post office box iS rented to Hatem Husseini, formerly Director of the Palestine Information office in Washington, the official arm of the PLO in the U.S. (Husseini has now joined the PLO's UN staff.) The ads featured · . photographs .of children and were head 1i ned "Stop U.S. Weapons to Israel" . "Stop Israel's war of genocide." THE ARAB WOMKN1S COUNCll. P .0. Box 11048

Washington, D.C.

20008

The Council first surfaced in June, 1982 (although it is unclear whether it was organized before or after the date ·Israel Defense Forces moved into Lebanon). It comprises 104 women: 24 wives of Arab Ambassadors and 80 Arab-Americans including housewives and students . .The president of the Council is Nouha Alhegelan, wife of the Saudi Ambassador to the U.S. and its executive secretary is Hala Maksoud, wife of Clovis Maksoud, the Arab League re·p resentative to the UN.

The Council ' s activities have included mailings to _prominent American women urging them to ."use your influence to stop the genocide 11 in Lebanon; full page ads in newspapers around the country; a 20-city speaking tour including radio and TV interviews and meetings with political l~aders; and an eight-day hunger strike in Lafayette Park across from the White House . The Council also apparently serves as a channel for money and information to a group called Peace Corps Alumni for Middle East Understanding. (see below) Most of the Council's activities were coordinated by Gray &Co., a Washington-based public relations firm headed by Robert Keith Gray, a long time friend of President Reagan. Gr~y, .who is regi stered as a foreign agent to represent the Kuwait Petroleum Company in the U.S., arranged meetings for· Mrs .. Alh.egela.n with. Nancy· Reagan· and National Security Adviser William Clark, as well as wives of US Senators and Congressmen. · ·_ COMMITTEE FOR A DEMOCRATIC SECULAR PAL~E

P. O. Box 326 New York , NY

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10014

Thi s name appeared on a flyer distributed in June shortly after the beginning of the war in Lebanon. The text of the flyer began with the statement, "Menachem Begin has the bomb. Condemning Israel as "a colonial settler state" supported by "American corporate interests" that fear the threat of the Iranian and Palestinian revolutions , it said Israel "can never be at peace ... and win always· be a smoldering fuse ori the nuclear powder keg." It ended with the deinarid for "No U.S. troops or arms to the Middle East . " 11



Nothing more is known CONCBRN~ .AMERICANS

a~out t~is

group .

POR PEACE

P.O. Box 5305

Terminal Annex Los Angeles, CA 90054

The origin of Concerned Americans for Peace has remai_ned a mystery since the appearance of ful l-page ads under its sponsorship, published simultane9usly on July 11 in six major newspapers around the country. Headli ned "T~e Peopl e of Lebano.n, Innocent Victims of a Senseless War," the ad urged readers to write their Congressmen to take immediate action to stop the "merc il ess killing" of innocent civilians, and listed six relief organizations to which people, could donate contributions for Lebanon.

The ads stirred considerable controversy when the relief agencies-including the American Red Cross, CARE, Save the Children, and others-announced that they had not authorized the use of their names in the ad, and publicly di.ssoc.i ated themselves from the political views expressed. Subsequently, it was learned that no such group had rented any post office box in Los Angeles. Newspaper reports disclosed that the ads had been placed· through the Bernard Hodes Agency in Los Angeles ·for a client named Craig Lane and cost approximately $120,000. Payment for the ad was made from a Swiss bank and there was some speculation in the press that PLO funds were involved. According to The New York Times (July 14), the names Ralph Martin and John Kell~y were submitted to the Chicago .Tribune when the paper requested the n~mes of officers of the groyp. Ther~ is ho further available information on these individuals. JEWS AGAINST THE ISRAELI MA~ACRE IN LEBANON

P.O. Box 367 Midwood Station Brooklyn, "NY 11230

also

51 East 42nd Street Room 417 New York, NY 10017

According to an article in The Guardian, (self described "independent radical" · publication), ~ews against th~ Israeli massacre supports Palestinian self-determination and the PLO as the representati~e of the Palestinians . Five people affiliated with JAIMIL were arrested for trespassing after a sit-down strike at the Israeii consulate in New York on July 31. The protesters had demanded the immediate withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon and the right to visit detained Palestinians. Most of the supporters are apparently anti-Zionist Jews from the New York and Berkeley areas; .their funding sources. are unknown. This name appeared in the list of endorsers for the November 29 Coa 1i ti on March on Washington. A JAIMIL flyer di str·i buted endorsing the November 29 Coalition March on Washington identffied 4 Points of Unity" as: 11

Immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon - No U. S. arms· to Israel or other Middle East countries - Support for the Palestinians right .of

self-determin~tion

- Acknowledge the "Palestinian people have recog11ized their representatives."

t~e

PLO as

Prof. Stuart Schari, the coordinator of this group, is. also associated with The Natio.na 1 Emergency Committee on Lebanon.

· NATIONAL EMERGENCY COMMITTEE ON LEBANON P.O. Box 1757

New York, NY

10027

The National Committee on Lebanon app~ared as sponsor of an ad in The New York Times on July 25, 1982, which asked rhetorically "After Dresden, after Warsaw, after H.iroshima, must Beirut be dest11oyed? Twenty-nine prominent people signed the ad, including actress Melina Mercouri, peace activi~t Rev. William Sloan Coffin, and Atlanta Mayor Andrew Young. 11

The l_isted P.O. box number in New York is used by the Palestine Solidarity Cor.nmittee (PSC), a smal l group which supports the PLO as the "chosen representative" of the Palestinians. According to informed sources the PSC has, in the past, received money from the PLO. A PSC staff member, Shei l a Ryan, long active in leftist cau.ses, is also the coordniator of the Emergency Committee . . According to the Los Angeles Times (7/17/82), Ryan said that the National Emergency Committee was formed after a rally in New York on June 24, and that various ArabAmerican groups, including the Palestine Congress of Nort~ America and the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, are participating. Several peace activists and pro-disarmament .groups have also been attracted to the National Emergency Committee; the J·uly 25th ad carried the New York phone number of the People's Anti-war Mobilization. The National Emergency Commi ttee also sponsored lectures by Or. Chris ~iannou, a Canadian surgeon who returned from Lebanon with charges of Israeli atrociti es. The Committee favors a ban on arms shipments to the Middle East. It has circulated fact sheets on the Lebanon situation, identical to material compiled by the Association of ArabAmerican University Graduates, based in Boston, a pro-PLO group. PALFSI'INE-LEBANON COMMITTEE OF THE

NOVEMBER 29TH COALITION P .0. Box 115

New York, NY

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10113

The November 29 Coalition comprises a_pproximately 100 pro-Palestinian groups in the U.S., mostly on the left of the political spectrum. The Coalition surfaced in 1981 and takes its name from the date proclaimed by the UN as the "International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. 11

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Under the rubric of the 11 Palestine:_lebanon Committee, 11 the Coalition sponsored teach-ins and rallies opposed to the U.S.-Israel Invasion of Lebanon. 11 One meeting in New York at the end of July featured Zehdi Terzi, the PLO representative to the UN, and drew 1,500 people. A "Marc_h on Washington" on September 11 drew 2,800 people, accordfng to The New York Times (9/12/82), but it received very little press coverage. 11

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•...

PEACE CORPS ALUMNI FOR MIDDLE EAST UNDERSTANDING Washington, D.C.

The Peace Corps Alumni for the Middle East first emerged June 25, 1982. It contacted 80,000 former Peace Corps volunteers by letters, postmarked fn Washington and ·carrying a meter number registered to the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Washington. The letters desc,ribed the organization as composed of Peace Corps volunteers and ~taff who served in the Middle East, and· they urged recipients to "write to your congressmen, senators, White House and State Department and voice your outrage and opposition·" to the Israeli !'invasion of Lebanon . 11 The letters also urged a substanti al cut in U.S. economic and militar.y aid to Israel. The letters were signed by one Lili Wilson-Hishmeh, whose husband, George Hishmeh, is an officer in the U.S. International Communication Agency. The New York Post ·reported on July 23, 1982 that the office of the Executive Director of the Peace Corps referred callers requesting information about the alumni group to the Arab Women's Council,' which is headed by the wife of the Saudi Ambassador. Congressman Barney Frank (D.-Mass.) wrote to Attorney General William French Smith on August 11, formally requesting that the Peace Corps Alumni register with the Justice Department as a foriegn agent, since the group is working in conjunction with Saudi Arabia ~o sway American public opinion. At the time of this wri-ting, no determination has been made about whether br not the group must register. Li li and George Hishmeh are active members of tne National Association of Arab Americans, the registered ·lobby group of the Arab American community. George Hishmeh was on the board of directors from 1978 to 1981. ·

35 cents per copy Quantity price on request

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WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS CONGRES JUIF MONDIAL • CONGRESO JUDIO MUNDIAL ONE PARK AVENUE

NEW· YORK, N .Y. 10016 CABU:: WORLDCRESS. NEW YORK TEU:PHON£:

BUENOS AIRES Larrea 744 GENEVA 1 rue de Varembe

Septem~er

29, 1982

JERUSALEM 4 Rotenberg Street LONDON 11 Hertford Street



(212) 679-0600 23 61 29

TELEX:

Rabbi Marc Tanenbaum{

PARIS 78 Av. des Ch. Elysees

American Jewish Committee .

ROME Piazza Scanderbeg 51

Ne~ Yor~, Ne~

165 East 56th Street ' York

Dear Rabbi

'i~enbaum;

Enclosed .please f~d a copy of the draft response by IJCIC on the WCC stat~ents on Lebarion· and the. Middle East. I will · be calling you for you comments • .

~Me

~I\

~~Mar\( Friedman MF:rp Enc.

:.·· . .

. ., .

..

.

.•. . ·:·~·

.

:;

.

. . '

.. ·.... ..

DRAFT Dear Dr. Potter: I am instructed by a unanimous.decision of IJCIC to convey to you ...

our

deep regret and indeed dismay at the way in which the d·i rector of the Commission of the Churches on International Affairs of the WCC has thought fit to describe "the new situation in the Middle East" at

the

CICARWS

meeting on Lebanon on 5 July 1982. we also take strong exception to the pamphlet compiled

jointly by the

Commission of the Churches on International Affairs, and other churches and Christian bodies, and issued under the title Invasion of Lebanon. Christian Reponse in Face of the Threat to Lebanese and Palestinian Existence. While we recognize that the reading of the political situation in the Middle East and in other parts of the world is open to we strongly feel that a body

cla~ing

a variety

of analyses

moral authority like the wee owes it

to itself to avoid such radically one-sidtnterpretations.

~

We are at:::::#:E.est as concerned as you yourself are for "the establishment of a just peace in Lebanon a.nd the Middle East

as a

whole", and it is precisely

for this reason that we caf\not but deplore the language and arguments

'used in the above mentioned statements. Bearing in mind the nature and mandate of

IJCI,,~e

feel constrained to seek

clarification from you in particular of the last paragraph of Dr. Koshy's statement.

You will surely understand that it would be difficult for IJCIC

to maintain with the WCC the type of relations we have had until now and to ,

I

which both sides rightly attached such importance if we are told that "there

1

are new considerations and (you) may need to seek new partners for dialogue." Sincerely yours ,

---·-· . ·-

-~-------

WORLD

JEWISH

CONGRESS

One Park Avenue. New York, N.Y. 10016

TO:

Members of IJCIC

FROM:

Mark Friedman

October 1, 1982

j

Enclosed please find a copy of the draft letter to Msgr. Torrella. Please call me with your comments a~ soon as possible. Hag Sameach. MF:rp Enc.

o

(212) 679-0600

~

.· '

.. DRAFT

Excellency, On behalf of the International Jewish Committee on Interreligious Consultatioa

I must express to.you our deep concern .. .and sorrow at the recent meeting of His Holiness Pope John Paul II and the leader of the PLO.

It is

partic~larly

r egrettable that this should have occurred after years

of progress in the Jewish-Catholic dialogue and innnediately after the excellent meeting we had in Milano.

~

~·ee&_

When a major issue with considerable implications

~d

far-reaching consequences

"~~

./\

for the Jewish community arose it seems~her yo'}-n.oorr ~~re consult~d. f\

~~'

~

~~

·-~~gv..v ~ .

~

~

ere is an outcry in Jewish communities around the world asking what has the

"

~

dialogue achived and why should it be continued.

J

We respectfully ask t..ftat-

#\)

<)-.

d?4'~---

~ 4&r the cause for the breakdown in communications

. ·. and process behind this series of events.

These events reflect

~ a~shortcoming ,..

. ,, :I\}

in our

f'--Ve_r;.,-~~ dialegu~~hey

consequences of not addressing political issues regularly.

point out the

We see again that

no separation can-l:te-ma4e eetwee.n religious and political issues and

interests~

Our dialogue must be supplemented in some way, perhaps through an additional instrumentality, to facilitate a periodic exchange of views and concerns on

~ ~~~ ~a_; political~s~~t t~e hTghest level.

1~ ~~

lle.

""'11

~ .~

~

ttor~~4,

We would be obliged if you would share these views with the competent in the Vatican.

~

b f"J t-1
. author!~~

•C,

• THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

~~ \ q_g""}_../

NATIONAL EXECUTIVE COUNCIL NOTE:

In addition to the names listed here, the National Executive Council includes all members of the Board of Governors, who are listed on a separate roster.

No Symbol -- Chapter Delegate X -- Member at Large M -~ Mailing List Only THEODORE ELLENOFF; CHAIRPERSON, 551 Fifth Ave., 24th Fl., New York, N. Y. 10017 Abrahms, John B., 47 Brookside Blvd., West Hartford, Ct. 06107 Abram, ,Morton L., 2847 Lincoln St .• Hollywood, Fl. 33020 Ackerman, Alan, 637 Pitcairn Pl., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15232

...

Adler, Jack, Elkins Park House, ·7900 York Rd. f Apt. 406B, Elkins Park, . Pa. 19117

Albert, (Mrs. Philip J.) Dorothy, 8 LaBarre Ave., Trenton, N. J . 08608 Alexander, Cecil A., 2322 Mt. Paran Rd., N.W., Atlanta, Ga . 30327 Alexander, Miles J., 1127 Judith Way NE, Atlanta, Ga. 30324 Alpern, Erwin, 436 NW 43rd St., Oklahoma, Ok. 73118 Alpern, (Mrs. Robert) Marge, 5363 Brookdale Rd., Bloomfield Hills, Mi. 48013

·y \

I

- 2 -

Alpern, Robert, 5363 Brookdale Rd., Bloomfield Hi lls, Mi. 48013 Alschuler, Leon S. , 211

s.

Spalding Dr . , Beverly Hi ll s, Ca. 90212

Alschul er, Richard, 375 Hawthorne Ave . , Glencoe , Il. 60022 Al spector, Jack, 1670 Wabeek Way, .Bloomfi eld Hill s , Mi . 48013 Altenberg, (Mrs. Michael) Roslyn, 5891 Happy Canyon Dr., Englewood, Co. 80110 Al ter , James , 568

W~s t

Hawt horne, Chicago, 11 . 60657

X Alter, Neil, 9801 Col l ins Ave ., Bal Harbour, Fl . 33154 Altman, Richard, Pellet tieri, Rabstein &Altman, P.O. Box 630, 13 W. Front St., Trenton, N. J. 08604 Anderman, Basi l , 1000 Chestnut St ., San Francisco , Ca . 94109 Arnowi ch, Miss Syl via, 55 East End Ave., New York, N. Y. 10028 X Aronson; Arnol d, Box 17706, Raleigh, N.C . , 27619 Aronson, (Mrs . Robert L.) Cl aire , 4300 N. Marine Dr., Chi cago, Il. 60613 '•

Aronson , Paul R., % Alex Brown & Sons , 1 Bost on Pl. , Boston, Ma. 02108 Ash, Harry I., 13705 SE 44th St., Bel l evue, Wa . .98006 X Asher, (Mrs. Leonard) Betty , 83 Troy Dr. ; Short Hi ll s, N. J. 07078 4

...

I•

- 3 -

Asher, Leonard, 83 Troy Or., Short Hills , N. J. 07-078 Asher, Thomas J. , 3635 Nancy Creek Rd., N.W., Atlanta, Ga. 30327 Asia, (Mrs. Benjamin) Hilda, 7318 51st Ave. NE, Seattle, Wa. 98115 Askanase, Reuben W., 914 Niels Experson Bldg., Houston, Tx. 77002 Atlas, Richard P., 6516 High Dr., Shawnee Mission , Ks. 66208 Attias, Mrs. Elaine, 527 N. Elm Dr., Beverly Hills, Ca. 90210 Babin, Elmer J., Babin & Fink, 1220 Huron Rd., #910,· Cleveland, .Oh. 44115 Backer, Stephen, 3646 Brumley Mews, Carmel, In. 46032 Baer, John J.,. 1801 Ave . of the Stars, Los Angeles, Banash, Lee

A.~

~a.

90067

80 Park St . , Brookline, Ma. 02146

X Banks, Or. Benjamin M., 57 Chatham St ., Brookline, Ma . 02146 Banks, (Mrs. Peter A.) Naomi , 21 Willow Crescent, Brookline, Ma. 02146 Bardach, Peter ·H., 262 Laurel Ave., Providence, R. I . 02906 Barnett, Mrs . Minna K., 185 E. 85th ·St . , New York, N. Y. 10028

- 4 -

·Baron, Lewis R., One IBM Plaza, Suite 4040, Chi cago, 11. 60611 Bartnoff, Shepard , 280 Oakwood Rd., Englewood, N. J. 07631 X Baskin, Philip, Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15219 Baumann, James, 16 E. · 72nd St., New York, N. Y. 10021 X Baumann, Jay S., 20 Norman Dr., Rye , N. Y. 10580 Bay, James S., 432 5. Denslow Ave., Los Angeles, Ca. 90049 Bay, Max W., 10535 Wilshire Blvd., #711, Los Angeles, Ca . . 90024 Beber, Or. Charles, 1150

N~W .

14th St . , Miami, Fl. 33136

Beck, Sigmund J., 4325 N. Illinois St.,

lndianapoli~, I~.

46208

X Bel fer, Arthur B., 1 Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, N. Y. 10017 Bennett, Irving, 110 High Park Pl., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15206 Bennett,

( M~s .

Benjamin) Ruth, 711 Tyson Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 19111

.Bercu, Roger, 21331 Sydenham Rd., Cleveland, Oh. 44122 X Beren, S.O., 322 Lynwood Blvd., Wichita, Ks . 67218

..

.,

5 -

Berger, Meyer, 5000 Fifth Ave., #302, Pittsburgh, Pa·.

152~2

X Bergreen, Morris H., Bergreen & Bergreen, 660 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 10021 X .Berkley, E. Bertram, 6635 Indian Lane, _Shawnee Mission, Ks .. 66208 Berkman, Allen H., 803 Devons hire St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213 Berkman, Rtchard, 614 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19106 Berkowitz, (Mrs . E.B.. ) Kitty, 1249 W. 64th Terrace, Kansas City, Mo. 64113 Berl fein, Harold, 1900 Avei of the Stars, #1900, ·Loi Angeles, Ca. · 90067 Berlinger, George F. , 1120 Park Ave., New York, N. X Berliss , Arthur D., Jr., 1050 Nine Acres

La~e,

Y~

10028

Mamaroneck, N. Y. 10543

Berlstein,·George, Walter Conston, Schurtman &Gumpel, 90 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 10016 Berman, Daniel S., 551 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 10017 Berman, Howard, 139 Hartwood Dr. , -:Pittsburgh, Pa. 15208 Berman, Philip I . , Hess Inc., Hamilton Mall at 9, Allentown, Pa . 18101 Bernstein, (Mrs. Joseph A.) Bernice; 353 W. 56th St;, New York, N. Y. 10019

- 6 -

Bernstein, (Mrs. Ralph) Janice, 350 S. Bentley Ave., Los Angeles, Ca. 90049 Bernstein, Joseph, 3119 Prytania St . , New Orleans, La. 70115 Bernstein~

Richard P., 820 One Main Pl., Dallas, Tx. 75250

X Bernstein, Roger M., P.O. Box 144235, Coral Gables, Fl. 33114 Bernstein, Sumner T., 112 Craigie St., Portland, Me. 04102 Berrin, Mrs. Rosalyn. K., 9001 S.W. 56th Ct., Miami, Fl. 33156 X Berry, Harold, 2800 Fisher Bldg . , Detroit, Mi. 48202 X Berry, Louis, 7112 Suncrest Rd. , West Bloomfield, Mi. 48033 Berz, Paul, 5385 N. Angela Rd. , Memphis, ·Tn. 38117 Biederman, Jerry, Kanter &Biederman, Suite 2200, Three First National Plaza, Chicago; Il. 60602 Biltekoff, Mrs. Joanne G., 38 Hallam Rd., Buffalo, N. Y. 14216 Binkow, (Mrs. Maur ice) Linda, 19240 Burlington, Detroit, Mi. 48203 Binkow, Maurice, 19240 Burlington, Detroit, Mi. 48203 Blankman, Howard, 100 Murray Ave., Port Washington, N. Y. 11050

- 7 Blattner, Robert A., Guren Merritt Feibel Sogg & Cohen, 700 Terminal Tower, Cleveland, Oh. 44113 Blau, Edward, 2 Farbrook Dr., . Short Hills, N. J. 07078 Bleier, Richard M., 715 King St., Chappaqua, N. Y. 10514 Lane~

Block, (Mrs. Lawrence) Sharlene, 4923 Crooked

Dallas, Tx. 75229

Block, Robert J ., 1617 E. Boston Terrace, Seattle, Wa. 98102 Bloom, Sam R., P.O. ·Box 5975, 3000 Diamond Park Dr., Dallas, Tx. 75222 X Bluethenthal, (Mrs. Arthur) Joanne, 1001 Dover Rd., Greensboro; N.C. 27408 Blum, (Mrs. Jeffrey.) Eva, 1125 Wightman St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15217 Sodek, Gordon S.,'148 S. Bristol Ave., Los Angeles, ·Ca. 90049 .

.

X Boehm, Prof. Werner, 1050 George St., New .Brunswick, N. J. 08901 Bohm, Milford, 11502 New London· Dr., St. Louis, Mo. 63141 Bolsky, Abraham, 16659 Diamante Dr., Encino, Ca. 91436 Bonn, Milton. J . , 2422 E. Luke Ave., Phoenix, At. 85016 Bookbinder, Sidney, 828 Temple Blvd., Burlington, N. J. 08016

- 8 -

Bookman, Robert, 1270 Sunset Plaza Dr., Los Angeles, Ca . 90069 I

Borovsky, (Mrs. Herbert) Barbara, 685 Country Lane, Glencoe, 11. 60022 Brafman, (Mrs. Justin) Marilyn, 39 Cornell Dr., Livingston, N. J. 07039 Brand, Kenneth, 2419 Marbury Rd ., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15221 Bransten, Edward, M.J.B. Company, 665 3rd. St., San Francisco, Ca . 94107 Bransten, ·Ms. Sue V., 1333 Jones St . #1103, San Francisco, Ca. 94109 Braude, Abraham S., 2324 Madison Rd., #1707, Cincinnati, Oh. 45208 Brest, (Mrs. Robert) Freeda, Carl ton House, Apt. 2014, 1801 J.F.Kennedy Blvd., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 X Brickman , Steven A., 3604 Hunters Hill Dr., Birmingham, Al a. 35210 Bridge, Ms. Bobbe J., 2440 Montvista Pl . W., Seattl e, Wa. 98199 Bridge, Herbert M. , 2100 Third Ave ., Seattl e Wa. 98121 Brill, Robert, 6950 N; Barnett Lane, Milwaukee, Wi. 53217 X Britell, Or. Jenne

K.~

22 Gordon Way, Princeton, N. J. 08540

Broder, N. Brewster, 22 Cambridge. Pleasant Ridge, Mi. 48069 ·

- 9

Brodsky, Donald, 2347 Underwood, Houston, Tx . 77030 Brody, William, 2924 Parkside Lane, Harrisburg, Pa. 17110 Broida, Roma, 110 Dielman Rd . , St.

Loui s~

Mo . 63124

Brown, (Mrs. Ronald). Isabe.l le., 13435 N. Park Blvd., Cleveland, Oh. 4411"8. .

.

Brown, Maurice L., 121 W. 48th St ., Kansas. Ci ty, Mo . 64 112 Brown, Paul M:, 1809· Oak Knol l Dr. ,· Mobile , Al a. 36607 Buchal~er,

Stuart D., Standard Brands Paint Co . , 4300 West 190th St., Torrance, Ca. 90509

Budner, Stanley G. , 17 Gumwood Dr., Wil mi ngton, De . 19803 Budwig, Samuel Jr., The Warwick Apt. 19E, 1501 N. State Parkway, Cnicago, 11. 60610 Burg, Joseph L., 490 Marti n Lane, BeverlJ Hil l s, Ca. 90210 Bursak, George J . , 820 Washington St., Hol lywood, Fla. 33019 Burstin, Barbara, 1435 Bennington Ave.; Pittsburgh, Pa. 15217 Butle~, (Mrs. Dan) Lo~s, 19428 Lomond Blvd., Cleveland, Oh~ 44122

X Bylan , H. J . , 900 Santa Barbara Dr. ·s.E., Grand Rapids, Mi. 49506

- 10 -

Casselhoff, Jesse, 55 Palm Island, Miami Beach, Fl. 33139 Chandler, (Mrs. Burton) Dr. Harriette ·L., 7 Brook Hill Dr., Worcester, Ma. 01609 Charash, Dr. Leon, 31 Kodiak Dr., Woodbury, N. Y. .11797 Charash, (Mrs. Leon) Phyllis,. 31 Kodiak. Dr., Woodbury, N. Y. 11797 Chosak, Shelli, 3321 Patricia Ave., Los Angeles, Ca . 90064 Chotiner, (Mrs. Willard) Rita, 10501 Wyton Dr., Los Angeles, Ca. 90024 Cikins, Warren, 2004 Windmil l Lane, Alexandria, Va. 22307 X Citrin. Martin, 4393 Lahser Rd., Bloomfield Hills, Mi. 48013 Cohen, Allan H., 146 Beverly Rd., Chestnut Hill, Ma. 02167 Cohen, Gerald, 1450 Wesley Parkway N.W., Atlanta, Ga. 30327 Cohen, Harlan P., 7108 Claybrook, Dallas, Tx. 75231 Cohen, Henry, 37 W. 12th St., Apt. 7G, New York, N. Y. 10011 Cohen, Mrs. Hymen D.; 820 East Ave. Apt. l, Rochester, N. Y. 14607 Cohen, Joseph R., 101 N. County Rd., Palm Beach, Fl . . 33480 ·

- 11 Cohen, Lyman, 5 Horton St . , . Erie, Pa. 16508 Cohen, Miles A., 2223 W. 63rd. St., Shawnee Mission, Ks. 66208 Cohen , Sheldon, 881 Somerset Or. N.W., Atlanta , Ga. 30327 X Cohen , (Mrs. Charles M.) Stephan ie , 11 Heathcote Rd.,

Scarsdal e~

N: Y. 10583

X Cohn, (Mrs. Julius H. ) Bessie, 452 Twin Oaks Rd . , South Orange, N. J. 07079 Cohn , Donald M., 3038 East Ave., Rochester, N. Y.

14610

X Cohn, (Mrs. Avern) Joyce, 3277 Interlaken, Orchard Lake, Mi.

480~3

X Cohn, Marvin, 143 Fairoaks St . , Gasden, Al a. 35901 Col e, (Mrs. Sylvan) Dorothy, 250 Bradley Pl., Palm Beach, Fl . 33480 Cole, Sylvan , 250 Bradley Pl ., Pal m Beac·h, F-1 . 33480 Coli.ver, Mrs. Edith,

T~e

Asia Foundation, P.O. Box

3588~

Manila, Phillipptnes 4551

Col lins, Lee, 1707 Tropical Ave., Beverly Hills, Ca . 90210 Colman, Alex, 1012 Wallace

Ridge ~ Rd.,

Beverly

Hill s~

Ca. 90210

Colvin, Reynold H., 283 29th Ave., San Francisco, Ca. 94121 Comar, Mrs. Gertrude M., 680 Green

B~y

Rd., Winnetka,· Il. 60093

- 12 Comar,

Steph~n

R., 140 Laurel Ave., Wilmette, Il. 60091

Cooper, Ms. Elaine, 69-24 18lst . , Flushing, N. Y. 11365 Cooper, George W., 489 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 10017 Copeland, Bert, 106 N. Warbler Lane, Sarasota, Fl. 33577 Coren, (Mrs. Armand) Shirley, 7114 S. Poplar Way, Denver, Co. 80112 Cortell, Ms. Nina, 4444 First lnternatidnal Bldg., Dallas, Tx. 75270 Corwin, Toni, 708 N. Sierra Dr., Beverly Hills, Ca. ·90210 Cowan, Mrs . Ruth, 499 Emerson Ave., Teaneck, N. J. 07666 X Croll, (Mrs. Abram S.) Irma, 35 E. 76th St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Crown, Lester, 1155 Mohawk, Wilmette, 11. 60091 X Cummings, Nathan, Waldorf Towers, 100 E. 50th St., 28A, New York, N. Y. 10022 Cushman, Alvin, 3770 Crown Point Or. #301, San Diego, Ca. 92109 X Daniel, (Mrs. Ralph, Jr.) Beverly, 4025 E. Wood Dr., Jackson, Ms. 39211 Davis, Leon, 502 Thamer Lane, Houston, Tx. 77024 Davis, Ronald S. , 33 N. Dearborn St., Chicago; 11. 60602

- 13 -

Dennery, Moise W., 505 Hibernia Bank B1dg., New Or1eans, La. 70112 Deutsch, Barry I., 209 Gotham Lane, Monroesville; Pa . 15146 Deutsch, Jack, 243 Magna Carta Dr., St. Louis, Mo. 63141 X Dichter, (Mrs. Sol) Jean, 6673 La Jolla Sceni c Drive S. , La Jolla, Ca. 92037 Donnenfeld, Bernard, 17421 Margate St., Encino, Ca. 91316 Oriker, Eugene, 1525 Wellesley Or., Detroit, Mi . 48203 O~bin,

(Mrs. Seth H.) Dorothy , 875 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 10021 .

.

.

Dubin, Seth H., 875 Park Ave . , New York, N. Y, 10021 Dubinsky, Henry, 917 Fee Fee ·Rd . , Maryland Heights, Mo. 63043 1

X Dunkelman, Melville J., 2324 Madison Rd., Apt. 1809.· Cincinnati, Oh. 45208 Durkheimer, Stuart, P.O . Box 14397, Portland, Or. 97214 Durra, Joseph B., 9 N. Point Ctrcle, Belvedere, Ca. 94920 Eckstein, (Mrs. Paul )· Flo, 22 W. Haywood Ave., Phoenix, Az. 85021 Edi din, Gary R., Edi di n AssoCiates; 601 Skokie Bl vd., Northbrook, Il. 60062

14 Ehrenwerth, David, 716 Pin Oak Rd., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15243 Ehrmann, (Mrs. Herbert) Sara, 1340 W. Pleasant St., Brockton, Mi. 02401 X Eigen, Robert J., 1616 N. Ocean, Palm Beach, Fl. 33480 Eisenberg, Gerson, 7940 Stevenson Rd., Baltimore, Md. 21208 Eisenpreis, Alfred, 40 E. 83rd St., New York, N. Y. 10028 Ei senstatt, Leo, 1 Merrill Lynch Plaza, 10330 Regency Parkway Dr., Omaha, Ne. 68114 Elsas, Or. Fred, 3408 Bethune Dr., Birmingham, Ala. 35223 Endlar, Stephen P., 26 Willow Crescent, Brookline, Ma. 02146 .Engel, Marvin, 2970 Cherokee Rd:, Birmingham, Al. 35223 Epstein, Lloyd, 2605 N. Camino Valle Verde, Tucson, Az. 85715 Epstein, Morton, Schoeneman &Co., P.O. Box 17, Owing Mills, Md. 21117 Epstein, Norman, 6324 Limewood Cricle, Louisville, Ky. 402:22 Epstein, William W., 231 Peachtree Battle Ave. N.W;, Atlanta, Ga. 30305 X Epstine, Harry M., Park Mansions, 5023 Frew Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213

- 15 Eshman, Aaron R. , Drexel, Burnham, Lambert Inc., 1901 Ave. of the Stars, Suite 1100, Los Angeles, Ca. 90067 Estey, Lora Lee, 104 Fernwood Rd., Chestnut Hill, Ma . 02167 Everett, (Mrs. Henry J.) Edith, 150 E. 69th St., Suite 28K, New York, N. Y. 10021 Everett, Henry J., 150 E. 69th St., Suite 28K, New York, N. Y. 10021 Fabe, (Mrs. Harry G.) Helen, 760 Red Bud Ave., Cincinnati, Oh.45229 X Faber, Hon. Barry M..• P.O. Box 266, Rockland, Me. 04841 Falender, Frederick J., 1170 Sacramento, Apt. 110, San .Francisco, Ca. 94108 Familian, Gary R., 9595 Wilshire Blvd., #605, Beverty Hills, Ca. 90212 Feldman, Philip, 6141 S.W. Seymour St., Portland, Or. 97221 Feldman, Sidney, 897 Adamson St. N.W., Atlanta, Ga. 30315 X Ferer, Stuart L., 711 Marchmont,

Housto~,

Tx. 77024

Fetter, Bruce, 2937 N. Summit, Milwaukee, Wi. 53211 Fetterman, Iris, 237 Suzanne Circle, Mobile, Ala. 36608 X Fielding, Edward, 40 Oxford Dr., Tenafly, N. J. 07670

- 16 Fierst, Herbert A., 4114 Rosemary St., Chevy Chase, Md. 20015 Fine, Dr. Charles S., 2360 43rd E., #115, Seattle, Wa. 98102 Fine, Jesse 0., 1131 S. Southlake Dr., Hollywood, Fl. 33020 Fink, Prof. Nancy H., Brooklyn Law School, 250 Joralemon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 11201 Finkelstein, (Mrs. Charles H.) Audrey, 815 Catalonia Ave., Coral Gables, Fl. 33134 Fisher, Solomon, 1108 Coventry Ave., Chel tenham, Pa. 19012 Fisher, Ted V., 533 Hollydale Court N.W., Atlanta, Ga. 30342 Fleishman, Alfred, 1 Memorial Dr., St. Louis, Mo. 63102 Fleming, Joseph, 620 Ingraham

Bl~g.,

25 S.E. 2nd Ave., Miami, Fl. 33131

Flink, Julius, 787 Ocean Ave., West End, N. J. 07740 Fogle, Andrew J . , 920 E. 60th St., Indianapolis, In . 46220 Follman, (Mrs. Gary) Joyce, 712 Engelton Or ., St. Louis, Mo. 63132 Folloder, (Mrs. Harry) Muriel, 12607 Mossycup Or., Houston, Tx. 77024 Foosaner, Aaron, 7331S.w.· 116th Terrace, Miami, Fl. 33156

- 17 Forscher, ·Frederick, 144 N. Dithridge St., #211, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213 X Fox, (Mrs: Asher J.} Marion B., 211 Marvin Rd., Elkins Park, Pa. 19117 · Fox, Robert, 943 Coates Rd., Meadowbrook, Pa. 19046 Fox, Sam, 60 Villa ·coublay., St. Louis, Mo. 63131 Fraiman, Melvin L., 48 Village Hill

Rd~,

Belmont, Ma. 02178

Franco, Albert M. , 602 Tower Bldg., Seattle, Wa.

~8101

Frank, Alfred, Jr;, P.O. Bo~ 1301, Venice, Fl. 33595 . X Frank, Irvin, 2705 E. 39th Pl., Tulsa, Ok. 74105 <

Frank, John J.,

Jr~,

363 Warren Ave., Cincinnati·, Oh.: 45220

Frankel, Lester, 44 Avondale Rd.. , White Plains, N.

v:. 10605

X Frankel, (Mrs. Raymond) Marge, 211 ·Ho·nunocks Rd . , Larc.hmont," N. Y. 10538 X Franklin, DeJongh, First National Bank Tower, 24th Fl ., Atlanta, Ga. 30303 freed, (Mrs. frank H.) Eleanor, 5328 Institute Lane, Houston, Tx. 77005 Freedman,

R~dolph,

17 Brazillian Court, St. Louis, Mo . 63124

Freeman, Kenneth, 5225 Pooks Hill Rd.,

Bethesda~

Md. 20014

- 18 -

'Freilich, Robert

}i.,

1263 Stratford Rd., Kansas City, Mo. 64113

Frenkil, Steven p. , 23 Penny Lane, Baltimore,

M~.

21209

Fried, Harvey J., 4003 Homestead Dr., Shawnee Mission, Ks . 66208 Friedland, Jerry, 814 E. .Buttles Rd., Milwaukee, Wi. 53217 . . Friedman, Ernest, 1800 E. Washington Blvd., Los ·Angeles, Ca. 90021 Friedman, J. Kent., 1645 North Blvd., Houston, Tx. 77006 Friedman,

Justin~

2444 Madison Rd., #1606, Cincinnati, Oh. 45208

Friedman, (Mrs. Jerry) Marilyn, 877 Woodacres Rd., Santa

Monica~

Ga. 90402

Friend, Henry C., 238 W. Wisconsin Ave., Rm. 1000, Milwaukee, Wi. 53203 Froimson, Jerome, 4745 N. 32nd .. St., Phoenix, Az. 85018 Fruhauf, Henry, 310 E. 70th St . , New York, N. Y. 10021 Fuerst, Harrison, 300 National City Bank Bldg,, _Cleveland, Oh. 44114 Gal es, Harold 0. , 18665 Muirland Ave., Detroit, Mi. 48221 Gallent, -Martin, 37-06 82nd St., Jackson Heights, N. Y. 11372

- 19 -

Ganick, Saul S., 82 Charles St., Boston, Ma. 02114 Gardner, (Mrs. Arnold) Sue, 89 Middlesex. Rd . , Buffalo, N. Y. 14216

Garten, Herbert S., 2300 Charles Center S., 36 S..Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 21201

X Gelb, Harold S., S. D. Leidesdorf &Co., 100 E. 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 10017 X ·Gelb, (Mrs. Harold S.) Sylv ia, 181 Fox Meadow Rd., Scars.dale, N. Y. 10583 Gershen, Alvin E. , 60 Philip Dr., Princeton, N. J. 08540 Gevertz, Allan, 34 Oxford Rd., Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 Gibbs, Mrs. Roslyn, 1107 W. Pratt Blvd., Chicago, 11. 60626 Gidwitz, Ralph W., 368 ·charal Lane, Highland Park, 11. 60035 Gilbert, Howard A., 1245· Fairfield Rd., Glencoe, 11. 60022 Ginsberg, Michael, 7430 Yamini 'Dr., Dallas, Tx. 75230 Ginsberg, Reuben, 820 Hartford Bldg., Dallas, Tx. 75202 Gips, (Mrs . Walter) Ann,

92

Brookstone Dr., Princeton, N. J. 08540

Given, Bertram, 12316 16th Helena Dr., Los Angeles, Ca. 90049

- 20 -

Gladstone, Susan Berg, 7521 S.W. 96th Court, Miami, Fl. 33173 Glenn, Martin, 653 Hightree Rd., Santa Monica, Ca. 90402 Glenn, Morton B., 35 E. 75th St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Glickman, David G., 2200 First National Bank Bldg., Dallas, Tx. 75202 Goberman, Mrs. Nathan L., Rd. 3 Box 250, CSC, Hockessin, De. 19707 Goff, C.

David~

X Gold, David

R.~

1114 Prospect Ave., Melrose Park, 610 Briarhill Dr.,

Greensbur~,

Pa~

19126

Pa. 15601

Gold, Richard E., 300 St. Pierre Rd., Los Angeles, Ca. 90024 X Goldberg, Harold H., 1064 Clinton Ave .•. Irvington, N. J. 07111 Goldberg, (Mrs. Victor) Harriet, 17 Chesterfield Rd., Sc~rsdale, N. ·y; 10583 Goldberg, .Ms. Roz, 110 East End Ave., New Yor.k, N. Y. 10028 Goldberg, William I., 111 E. Wacker Dr., Suite 3000, Chicago, 11. 60601 Goldblatt, (Mrs. Albert) Lenore, 11033 Westmere Circle, Dallas, Tx. 75230

- 21 Goldblum, Arthur, 5555 Del Monte, Apt. 1701, Houston, Tx. 77056 Golden, Jonathan, 3156 Nancy Creek Rd., N.W., Atlanta, Ga . 30327

Golden, Raymond L. , 10513 Stratt Lane, Dallas, Tx. 75229 X Goldfarb, Jerry, 30 Brodwood Dr., Stamford, Ct. 06902 Goldfarb, Matthew, 106 Longwood Dr . ; Portland, Me. 04103 Goldman, Michael, 214 Hitching Post Dr., Wilmington, De. 19803 Goldman, Richard N., 1 Maritime Plaza, San

Francisco~

Ca. 94111 .

X Goldman, Robert I., Congress Factors Corp., 1133 Ave. of the

Americas~

Goldmann, Robert, 150 E. 69th St., New York, N. Y. 10021 '

~

X Goldminz, Dr. Abraham E., 616 W. Pierce St., Carlsbad, N.M. 88220 Goldrich, David L., 1 N. Broadway, White Plains, N. Y. 10601 Goldsmith, Frank, 1170 Mam!}roneck Ave.,

\~hite

Plains, N. Y. · 10605

Goldsmith, Kenneth, 5607 :Ay1esboro Ave:; Pittsburgb, -Pa. !5217 . ~

Goldsmith, Robert, 150 Montrose Ave., South Orange, N. J. 07079

New York, N. Y. 10036

- 22 Goldstein, Dr. August, 6815 S. Delaware Ave., Tulsa, -Ok. 74136 Goodman, Morris, Box 8888, Jacksonville, Fl. 32211 Goodwin, Eugene S., 450 N. Roxbury Dr., Beverly Hills, Ca. 90210 Gordon, Arnold, 116 Kensington Ave., Trenton, N. J . 08618 Gordon, (Mrs. Harvard) Dorothy, 8 Rolling Hill Rd., Short Hills, N. J. 07078 Gordon, Harvard, 8 R91ling Hill Rd., Short Hills, N. J. 07078

, C'c

Gordon, (Mrs. Bertram) Marjorie, 3504 . Seven Mile Lane, Baltimore, ·Md. 21208 Gordon, (Mrs. Jerome) Martha, 301 Beech St., Hackensack, N. J . 07601 Gordon, Milton G. , 10504 Cheviot Dr., Los Angeles, Ca. 90064 Goren, Robert, 23 Great Oak Lane, Pittsford, N. Y. 14534 Gould, Lawrence R., 915 Knollwood Rd . , White Plains, N. Y. 10603 Gover, Alan Shore, 2423 Bluebonnet, Houston, Tx. 77030 Graceman, Ronald F., 10044 Wimbledon Court, Cincinnati, Oh. 45242 X Grant, Eugene M., 839 Orienta Ave., Mamaroneck, N. Y. 10543 X Graubart, (Mrs. Noel) Mickey, 22 Will iamsbur·9· Lane, Houston, Tx. 77024

.- 23 Greenberg, Allan J. Wilshire Terrace, 10375 Wilshire Blvd., Apt. 5J, Los Angeles, Ca. 90024 1

Greenberg, (Mrs . Hugh) Carolyn, 27530 Fairway Hills Dr.,

Fr~nklin,

Mi. 48025

Greenberg, Sanford, 700 New Hampshire Ave. N.W. #106, Washington, D. C. 20037 Greenblatt, Benjamin, 33. Beachcrest Dr.,

Burlington~· Vt.

05401

Greenbu_rg, (Mrs . . William) Ethel", 1 Gracie Square, New York, N. Y. 10028 Greene, James I . , 4004 Purdue, Dallas, Tx. 75225 Greenland, (Mrs. Leo) Rita, 20 Dolma Rd.,

Scarsdale~

N. Y.• 10583

Greilsheimer, James G. , 1111 Park Ave.,, New .York, N•. Y. lOOZB Greilsheimer, (Mrs. James G.) Louise, 1111 Park Ave :,

~ew

York,

N~Y.

10028

Grenley, Jerome W., 1816 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, ca:. 94612 Grimes, Raymond L., P.O. Box 14018, 1290 Harlan St., Denver. Co. 80214 Grinnell, (Mrs. Fred)

Pa~la,

6017 Del Roy, Dallas, Tx. 75230

Gross., (Mrs.· Alfred) Margery," 16 Long Hill Farm, Guilford, Ct., 06437 . Grossberg, Marc E., 8939 Briar Fnrest, Houstoo, Tx . . 77024 Grossman, Lewis, 32017 Michigan, Wayne, M1."48184

- 24 X Grossman, (Mrs . Ronald K.) Miriam, 6429 Candlewood Cove, Memphis, Tn. 38119 Grossman, Raymond R., 7685 S.W. 143rd. St., Miami, Fl. 33158 X Grotta, Harold

E.;

65 Livingston Ave., Roseland, N. J. 07068

Grubstein, Joseph; Claremont Rd., Bernardsville, N. J. 07924 · X Grumbach, (Mrs. George} Virginia, 6 Fernwood Circle, West Orange, N. J. 07052 Guggenheim, Howard, Smith, Barney, Harris, Upham & C9., 150 E. Palmetto Gunther, {Mrs. Richard) Lois, 2431 Century Hill, L.os Angeles, .Ca. 90067. X Haas, (Mrs. Leonard) Bee, 3786 Ivy Lane, Atlanta, Ga. 30342

J .r

'

Haas, (Mrs. Robert) Carolyn, 280 Sylvan Rd., Glencoe, 11. 60022 Haas, Peter, 3376 Clay St., San Francisco, Ca. 94118 Haber, (Mrs. Herbert) Faith, 80 Brewster Rd., Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 X Haber, William, 530 Hillspur Rd., Ann Arbor, Mi. 48105 Hafetz, Frederick P., 31 Seton Rd., Larchmont, N. Y. 10538 Haft; Carolyn, 434 Chilian Ave., Palm Beach, Fl. 33480 X Hahn, Norman L., 5770 Calle Miramar, La

Jrill~~

Ca. 92037

Pk.~

Boca Raton, Fl. 33432

- .25 Halpern, (Mrs . Bernard) Ethel, W. Woodland Rd., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15232 Halpern, Ralph, 84 New Amsterdam Ave'. , Buffalo, N. Y.. 14?16 Halpern, Mrs. Ruth, 19 Sylvan Way, Short Hills, N.J. 07078 X Hamburg, Lester A., Hamburg Hros Inc., 24th & R.., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15222 Hamerslough, Jr., Phi)ip, Cherry Valley Rd., Greenwich, Ct. 06830 X Handleman, David, 2081 West Valley Rd., Bloomfield Hills, Mi. 48013

x

Harmon, Mrs. Mimi, 370 E. 76th St., New York, N. Y.. · 10021 Harris, Irving B., 120 S. LaSa11e St., Suite 1320,· Chicago~ 11. 60603. _, .

Harris, Joseph C. , 386. S. River Blvd., St. Paul, Mn; 55105 Harris,

Ma~shall,

Harshman, Mrs.

21 N. E. First Ave., Miami, Fl . 33132

Ab~,

3000 Belmont

AV~ ; ,

Youngstown,- Oh. 44505

"'

X Hecht, George, 1903 Li.ncoln Dr., Sarasota, Fl. 33577 Heiman, David G·. , 800 National City E. 6th Bldg., Held, Sigmund, P.O. Box 888, Nashville, Tn. 37202

Cleveland~

Oh. 44114

- 26 Hermann, Akiba, 95 Dudley Rd., Newton

~enter,

~

Ma. 02159

Hermann, (Mrs. Maurice B.) Gertrude, Carlton House, 1801 Kennedy Blvd., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 Herst, Perry S., Jr., 10960 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Ca. 90024 X Hervey, Eugene, 3843 Croydon Dr. N. W. , Canton, Oh.. 44718 Hess, (Mrs . Robert L.) Frances, 115 Westminster Rd., Brooklyn, N. Y. 11218. Hess, Howard S., 814 Huntington Rd., Louisville,

Ky.

40207

Himeles, Martin S., 2505 Stone Mill Rd., Baltimore, Md. 21208 Hirsch, (Mrs. Edward) Gloria, 7441 Byron St., St. Louis, Mo. 63105 X Hirsch, Mrs. Judith, 8 Carriage Way, White Plains, N. Y. 10605 Hirschhorn, {Mrs. David) Barbara, 3510 Old Court Rd.; Baltimore, Md. 21208 . Hirshorn, Lynn B., 3850 Oaks Clubhouse Dr., Apt. 409, Pompano Beach, Fl. 33060 Hoffman, Arnold, P.O. Box 3091, Palm Beach, Fl. 33480 Hoffman, (Mrs.

P~ilip)

Bee, 218 N. Woods Dr., South Orange, N. J. 07079

Hoffman, (Mrs. Arnold) Helen, P.O. Box 3091, Palm Beach, Fl. 33480

._

- 27 X Hokin, Edwin E., 180 E. Pearson, Apt. 3705, Chicago, Il. 60611 Hollander, Brian, 35 Juniper Rd . , Blo·omfield, ·ct. 06002 Hollander, Stanley A., Tower Vallandry, 2150 Ibis Isle . Rd . , Palm Beach, . Fl . 33480 Holstein, Alex

E~ ,

3l4 Kimber Rd., Syracuse, N. Y. 13224

Holstein, David, 227 Scottholm Terrace, Syracuse, N.· Y. 13224 Holzman, (Mrs. Irwin) Renee, 3725 S.W. 50th Ava .•

Portland, · o~ .

97221

Horwitch, Ms. Myra, % R. Silver, 9200 Sunset Blvd., ·suite 301, Los Angeles, Ca. 90069 Hyams, Norman, 50 Lyman Circle, Cleveland, Oh . 44122 X Imber, Dr. Irving, 428 Walnut St., Reading, Pa. 196Q1 Imberman, (Mrs. Jacob} Arlyne, 41 Auerbach Lane, Cedprhurst, N. Y. 11516 X Imberman, Jacob, _Proskauer, Rose, Goetz &Mendels, 300 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 10022 Ir~ll ,

Lawrence, 1800 Ave. of

the ~ S~ar s,

#900, Los Angeles, Ca. 90067

Isaacs, Myron, 3 Seymour Pl., White Pl ains, N. Y. 10605

x Jacobson, Robert J .,

Benja~in,

Jacobson &Co., 61 Broadway, New

York~

N. Y. 10006

- 28 Jaeger, Richard L., 650 Euclid Ave., Berke.l ey, Ca. 94708 X Jaffe, Irvin J., 5130 Southbrook, Dallas, Tx. 75209 Janco, Albert N., 801 N.W. 49th St., Oklahoma City, Ok. 73118 X Janson, Mrs. Marion A., 2038 Caleta Court, Carlsbad, Ca. 92008 X Javits, Hon, Jacob K., 375 Park Ave., New York,

N~

Y.. 10152

X Jelin, Martin, Karnak Chemical Corp., 330 Central Ave., Clark, N. J. 07066 X Jelin, {Mrs. Martin) Sima, 57 Crest Dr., South Orange, N. J. 07079 Jenkins, Stanley, 675 Ives Dairy Rd. #406, North Miami, Fl . 33179 .

.

Jennes, Dr. Sidney W., 3800 Oak Club Dr.,

#30~.

Pompano .Beach, Fl. 33060

M Jeremias, Rerald S., 152 E. 94th St., New York, N.

y. 10028.

Johansen, {Mrs. Keith) Gayle, 6608 Longfellow, Dallas, Tx . 75230 Jolles, Ira H. 610 West End Ave., New York, N. Y. 10024 Jolson, {Mrs~ Richard A.) Lois, 2675 Fair Oaks, Cincinnati, Oh. 45237

x Joseph, Marc; 25 Karens Lane, Englewood Cliffs, N.. J. 07632 Joseph, Mark K. 2209 South Rd., Baltimore, Md. 21209

- 29 X Joseph, Myron L., 5420 Plainfield St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15217 Judd, (Mrs. James) Eleanore, 6660 E. Exposition, Denver, Co. 80222 Julian, J. William, 6917 N. Pennsylvania St., Indianapolis, In. 46220 Kahn, Charles, Jr., 1147 Rydal Rd., Rydal, Pa. 19046 Kahn, Norman, 2400 Drury Lane, Shawnee Mission, Ks. 66208

X Kahn, (Mrs. Lawrence) Ruth, 7023 Lupton Dr.,

Dall~s,

Tx. 75225

Kaiman, Rabbi Arnold G., 233 E. Erie, Chicago, 11. 6061 1 Kalichman, (Mrs. Nathan) Bet te , 18965

Muirla nd ~

Kaltenbacher, (Mrs. Joseph C. ) Helen, 2100 S.

Detroit, Mi. 48221

Dcea ~

Blvd., Apt. S201, Palm Beach, Fl. 33480

Kamholz, Dr. Jack H., 7252 Kenny lane, Dal las, Tx. 75230 Kantor, Michael, 333 Lombard St., Pacific Palisades, Ca . 90272 Kaplan, Dr. Gerold, The Biltmore Estates, 2412 E. Luke Ave., Phoenix, Az. 85016 X Kaplan, Leonard, 24 Gibson St., Cambridge, Ma. 02138 X Karp, George, 1005 Sea Haven Dr., Mamaroneck, N. Y. 10543 Karsten, Thomas L., 1521 N. Amalfi Dr., Pacific Palisades, Ca. 90272 Kasdan, Howard, 2675 Warrenville, Center Rd., #7 , Shaker Heights, Oh. 44122

- 30 Kasen, Daniel, 277 West End Rd., South Orange, N. J. 07079 Kassanoff, Arnold H., 7120 Midcrest Dr., Dallas, Tx. 75240 Kassoy, David P., 745Holmby Ave., Los Angeles, Ca . 90024 Katcher, Ger.ald, United National Bank Bldg., 1399 S.W. First Ave., Miami, Fl. 33130 Katz, Ira, Hartman Luggage Co., Lebanon, Tn. 37087 X Katz, Joseph M., Human & Marshall, Papercraft Corp., Papercraft Park, Pittsburgh, Pa . 15238 Katz, Kaufman Ray, 115 E. 86th St. , New York, N. Y.. 10028 Katz, Lloyd, 127J Park Circle, Las Vegas, Nv. 89102 X Katz, Samuel, 6499 Caminito Catalan, La Jolla, Ca. 92037 Kaufman, (Mrs. Frank) Clementine, 2516 Stone Mill Rd., Baltimore, Md. 21208 Kaufman, Stephen M., 754 Kuhlman Rd., Houston, Tx. 77024 X .Kaufmann, Richard J., 25 E. 86th St., New York, N. Y. 10028 Kaye, Richard A. , 196 Morton St., Newton, Ma. 02159

X Kazis, Earle W., 380 Park Ave., Rye, N. Y. 10580

- 31 X

Kea~s,

(Mrs. Ira L.) Joan, 1130 Houston Rd . , Yardley, Pa. 19067

Kelber, Robert, 2710 S. Ottawa Ave., Minneapolis, Mn. 55416 Kellner, Martin, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Suite

218~

Los Angeles, Ca. 90028

Kelman, Kurt, 21 Stoner Ave., Great Neck, N. Y. 11021 Kempner, (Mrs. Harris L., Jr.) Peaches, 4816 Denver Dr., Galveston, Tx. 77550 -

'-1· 0 1-- I

tf '11~· 13

Kentor, Michael, 600 ·Littlefield Bldg., Austin, Tx. 78701 Kerschner, Dr. Lee, 21579 Cabrini Blvd., Golden, Co . 80401 Kessler, Douglas, 3201 Rilman Rd., Atlanta, Ga. 30327 Kind, Ms. Alice, 7 Milton Dr., Yardley, Pa. 19067 King, Shepard, 11050 S.W . 69th Court, Miami, Fl. 33156 X Kirkell, L. Harold, Blairsville Machine Products, Martha &Moorewood Sts., Blairsville, Pa. 15417 X Kittredge, (Mrs. Edward) Francine, 1095 Park Ave., 10028 Klafter, Richard, 607 Park Lane,

\~yncote ,

Pa. 19095

Kleiman, Joseph, 601 Three Islands Bl vd ., Apt. 304, Hallandale, Fl . 33009

- 32 Klein, (Mrs. Jack Lopez) Hanne, 7427 Malabar Lane, Dallas, Tx. 75230 Klein, Jerry E.,

N.M.S. Insurance Co., 2133 Luray, Cincinnati, Oh. 45206

X Klein, Jonathan, 39 Bryfield Road, Newton, Ma. 02168 X Klein, (Mrs. Irving) Reva, 3501 Aspen N.E., Albuquerque, ·N.M. 87106 Klein, Dr. Robert, Lightstreet Rd., Bloomsburg, Pa. 17815 Klein, Dr. Rubin, 300 N. 20th Ave . :. Hollywood,· Fl. 33020 · Klineman, William, 1075 Riverside Terrace N.W., Atlanta, Ga. 30328 Klorfein, Dr . .Elliot, 254 N. Woods, Rd., Palm Beach, Fl. 33480 Koblitz, Richard J., 928 Trimble Pl., Northfield, Oh. 44067 Koenig, Leonard, .6007 Robin Hill Rd., Nashville, Tn. 37205 Kohl, (Mrs. Benedict) Linda, 37 Hickory Rd., Short Hills, N. J. 07078 Kohn, Rik , 2011 Laurel Hill Drive, Cleveland, Oh. 44121 X Kohnstamm, Paul, Lower Shade Rd., Pound Ridge, N. Y. 10576 Koppelman, Julius, 59 Stetson Way, Princeton, N. J. 08540

- 33 Kornfeld, (Mrs. Leo) Laura, Turf Ave., Rye, N. Y. 10580 Korshak, Stuart R., % Hyman Bautzer, 2049 Century Park E., Los Angeles, Ca. 90067 Kotz, Richard, 330 Skokie Lane N, , Glencoe, 11. 60022 Kraemer, Waldron, 5 Euclid Ave., Maplewood, N. J . 07040 Kraft, Joe, 1907 Tyne Blvd., Nashville, Tn. 37215 X Kram, (Mrs. Irving) Florence, Puritan Rd., Rye,. N. Y. 10580 X Kramer, (Mrs . Homer G.) Genevi eve, 7113 Cheshire Dr., Knoxv i l l e, Tn. 37919 · Kranzel, Isador, 6827- Crittenden St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19119 Krantzohr, Leon, Claridge House II, Verona, N. J . 07044 Kranztohr, (Mrs. Leon) Millie, Claridge House II, Verona, N. J. 07044 Krause, (Mrs. Seymour) Corinne, 7 Darl ingtorr Court, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15217 X Kravis, Raymond F. , 1705 First National Bldg., Tulsa, Ok. 74103 Kreeger, David Lloyd, 2401 Foxha11 Rd. N.W., Washington, D. C. 20007 Kremer, (Mrs. Richard) Marjean, 6609 Conifer Cove, Memphis, Tn. 38119

- 34 Kreuter, Jack, 11804 Edinborough Square, Richmond, Va. 23233 Krigel, Melvin E., 2911 W. 68th

St~,

Shawnee

Mis~ion,

Ks. 66208

Krinsky, Dr. Susan G., 69 Evans Rd·., Brookline, Ma. 02146 Krisel, William, 568 Tigertail Rd., Los Angeles, Ca. 90049 Kroll, Irving, 19605 Stratford Rd., Detroit, Mi. 48221 Kronfeld, Harvey S., 353 Baird Rd., Merion, Pa. 19066 Kunen, James, 1730 Rhode Island Ave., N.W., #1212, Washington, D. C. 20036 _ Kurzman, Stephen, Nixon,_ Hargrave, Devans & Doyle~ 1090 Vermont Ave. N.W., Suite 1200, Washington, Labaton, Edward, 75 Merrall Dr., Lawrence, N. Y. 11559 Lachman, Seymour P., 2156 79th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. l1214 Landis, (Mrs. Donald) Betsy, 14 Colonial Rd., White Plains, N. Y. 10605 Landis, Donald M., 14 Colonial Rd., White Plains, N. Y. 10605 Landrum, Ms. Cecile, 1681-B S. Hayes St., Arlington, Va. 22202 Lane, (Mrs. Bert) Ann, 224 S. June St., Los Angeles, Ca. 90004

D~C.

20005

- 35 -

Lane, Nicholas, 426 Glen Arden Dr., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15208 Lane, Miss Ruth H., 20 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 10016 Lappen, Chester, 1550 San Remo Or., Pacific Palisades, Ca. 90272 Lasky, Henry B. , 2338 Leimert Blvd . , Oakland, Ca. 94602 Laub, Sidney, P.O. Box 2206, Wilmington, De. 19899 X Lautenberg, Frank R., 36 Stonebridge Rd., Montclair, N. J . 07042 Laventhol, Lewis J . , 7101 Greene St., Philadelphia, ·Pa . 19119 Lavine, ·Raymond, 19110,

~a

Pradera, Yorba Linda, Ca. 92686

Lavine, Richard A., 3327 Bennet .Dr., Los Angeles, Ca. 90068 X Lazar, (Mrs. Harry) Doris, 6 St. James Eastboro, Wichita, Ks. 67206 X Lazar, Dr. Harry, 6 St. James Eastboro, Wichita, Ks. 67206 X Lazarus, Charles Y., 236 N. Columbia, Ave., Columbus, Oh. 43209 Lazarus, (Mrs. David) Eleanor, 2 Pinehurst Lane, Cincinnati, Oh. 45208 X Lazarus, (Mrs. Simon, Jr.) Harriet, 2298 Dana Ave., Apt. GS, Cincinnati, Oh. 45208

- 36 Leavitt, (Mrs. David) Joyce, 1515 N. Astor, Chicago, 11. 60610 Leavitt, Shel don J., 5909 Studley, Norfolk, Va. 23508 X Leff, Jay C., 10 Linden Pl., Uniontown, Pa . 15401 X Lehman, Hon. Orin, 67 E. 82nd . St., New York , N.. Y. 10028 Lemann, Thomas B., Whitney Bldg., New Orleans, La. 70130 Lemberg, Bradley, 7400 Fair Oaks Dr., Cincinnati, Oh. 45237 Lerman, Arthur J., 2553 Cherosen Rd., Louisville, Ky: 40205 Lerner, Harry, 241 First Ave. N., Minneapolis, Mn. 55416 Lesser, Herbert A., 5235 Contour Pl., Houston, Tx. 77096 Lesser •. Joseph, 119 Buckingham Rd., Tenafly , N. · J. 07670 Lettvin, (Mrs. Norman) Roslyn,% Epton &Mullin, 140 S. Dearborn St. , Chicago, Il. 60603 Levenson, Ms. Frances, The New York Bank for Savings , 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N. Y. 10020 Levien, Francis ·s., The Pierre, 2 E. 61st St., New York, N. y. 10021 Levin, Mrs. Gloria B., Rittenhouse Plaza , 1901 Walnut St., Apt. 16A, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103

- 37 Levin, Richard, 5573 Thunderbird Lane, La Jolla, Ca. 92037 Levine, Irving

B.~

1501 Beacon St., #1402, Brookline, Ma. 02146

Levine, Sally, Reliance Pen & Pencil Corp., 100 Reliance Ave . , Lewisburg, Tn. 37091 Levitt, William J . ,

Jr.~

140 Middle Rd., Santa Barbara, Ca. 93108

Levy, Alan J., 236 Greenway S., Forest Hills, N. Y. 11375 Levy, (Mrs. Richard T. ) Alice Rush, 400 E. 52nd St., New York, N. Y. 10022 Levy, Andrew H., Greenberg & Glusker, 1900 Ave. of the Stars, Suite 2000, Los Angeles, Ca. 90067 X Levy, Arlene, 1211 King Ave,, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15206 Levy~

David, 515 N. Wilcox Ave . , Los Angeles, Ca. 90004

X Levy, I~vin, 9122 Inw6od Rd., Dallas,· Tx. 75209 Levy, Jerome S., 3 E. Palisades Dr., Little Rock, Ar. 72207 Levy, J. David, 11105 Hermitage Hills, St. Louis, Mo . 63131 Levy, Mont, 7452 Cromwell, St . Louis, Mo . 63105 X Levy, Willard J., 10176 Corporate Square Dr., St . Louis, Mo. 63132

- 38 -

M Lewin, Henry J., P.O. Box 15087, Las Vegas, Nv. 89114 Lichten, Sue, 6338 Aberdeen, Dallas, Tx. 75230 Lieber, David, 305 El Camino Dr., Beverly Hills, Ca. 90212 Lieberman, Joseph I., 175 Ellsworth Ave., New Haven, Ct. 06511 Lifson, Judith, 3601 Turtle Creek Blvd., #306, Dallas, Tx. 75219 Like, Irving, 200 W. . Main St., Babylon, N. V. 11702 Linden, Milton, 85 Grove St., #408 Lincoln House, Wellesley, Ma. 02181 . Lippert, David I., 916 S. .Hauser Blvd., Los Angeles, Ca . .90036 Livingston, David M., P.O. Box 95, Tiburon, Ca . . 94920. Livingston, Dr. John, 2933 S. Columbine St., Denver, Co. 80210 Loeb, (Mrs. Robert) Betty, 2940 Virginia Rd., Birmingham, Al. Lo~b,

Milford II, 1 Pershing Square,

S~ite

~5223

600, 2301 Main St., Kansas City, Mo . 64108

Lowenberg, Michael, 5551 Montrose Dr., Dallas, Tx. 75209 · Lowenstein, (Mrs. Benjamin S. ) Eleanor, 1430 Land Title Bldg., 100 S. Broad

St.~

Philadelphia, Pa. 19110

- 39 Lowenstein, Kenneth Larry , 33 Chaumont Square, Atlanta, Ga. 30327 X Lubin, Emanuel, 550 Doctors Bldg., Tulsa, Ok. 74104 Mack, Jerome D., 2961 Augusta Dr., Las Vegas, Nv. 89109 Magid, Maurice, 150 Bradley

Pl ~ ,

#416A, Palm Beach, Fl. 33480

X Mailman, Joseph, 2 E. 61st St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Makovsky, Kenneth D., 11 Bobwhite Dr., Westp.o rt, Ct. 06880

._ I. r·

Mallet, Ms. Dorothy, The Atrium, 307 S. Dithridge St:, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213 X Mankoff, (Mrs. Ronald) Joy, 5839 Colhurst St., Dallas, Tx. 75230 Mann, Maurice, 3255 Jackson

St.~

San Francisco, Ca. 94118

Mann, (Mrs. Gene) Priscilla, 5740 S.W . . 64th Pl., Miami, Fl. 33143 Manshel, Roger, 15 Cambridge Dr., Short Hills, N. J. 07078 Marcus, (Mrs . Alan) Leila, P.O. Box 431j21, Miami, Fl. 33143 Margolin, Jesse, Becker, Ross, Stone, Destefano & Klein, 41 E. 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 10017 Margolis, Barry H., 411 Ramblewood, Houston, Tx. 77079

- 40 Margolius, Edwin, 1 Park Lane , Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 10552 Mark, Dr. Julian, 1707 Summer St. , Stamford, Ct. 06905 Mark, (Mrs. Julian) Rebecca, 1707 Summer St., Stamford, Ct. 06905 Markowitz, {Mrs. Miltoh) Selma, 21 Gallaudet

D~ . ,

West Hartford, Ct. 06107

Marks, Al bert L. Jr : , 98 Colony Rd., West Hartford, .Ct. 06117 Marks, Leonard M., %Gold, Farrell &Marks, 595 Madison Ave . , New York, N. V. 10022 Marks, (Mrs. Walter N. Jr . ) Suzie, i1443 Bolas St., ·Los Angeles, Ca. 90049 . Markstein, Donald, 112 High Point Dr., Marsha~l ,

~pringfield,

(Mrs. Jonathan) Maxine, 5520 E. Calle

~el

N. J. 07081 Norte, _Phoenix, Az. 85018

Martin, Donald, 10 S. La Saile St., Rm. 355, Chicago, 11. 60603 Mason, Mark E., 1129 Beechwood Blvd . , Pittsburgh, Pa. 15206 Massing, Bertram K., 17101 Strawberry

Dr. ~

Encino, Ca. 91316

Mathews, Irving .A. , 707 Corona Ave . , San Antonio, Tx . 78209 X Matthews, Norman S., 60 Park Dr . , Columbus, Oh. 43209

- 41 -

May, Mrs. Linda, 9 Legend Way, Houston, Tx. 77024 Mayer, Michael F., 9 Inverness Rd., Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 X Mayer, William D., 975 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 10028 McGhee, Charlotte Davis, 24 Arden Rd., Wellesley, Ma. 02181 Mellen, Judy, 1505 Fresno Rd., Wilmington, De. 19803 Me11man, (Mrs . Richard) Nancy, 105 Farley Rd., Short Hills, N. J. 07078 Meltzer, (Mrs. Edward Jr.) Mimi, 610 N. Walden Dr., Beverly Hills, Ca. 90210 Mendel l, (Mrs. David) Miriam, 3611 N. Braeswood Blvd., Houston, Tx. 77025 X Mand.e lson, Leonard M., 230 Grant ·Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15219 Menschel, Robert B., 920 Fifth Ave., Apt. 5A, New York, N. Y. 10021 X Merians, (Mrs. Melvin) Elaine, 10 Bonnie Briar Lane, Larchmont, N. Y. 10538 Mesnekoff, David, 6920 S.W . !26th Terrace, Miami, Fl. 33156 Meyer, Mrs. Louise R., 63 Old Hill Rd., Westport, Ct. 06880 Meyers, M. Richard, 6 Douglas Circle, Rye, N. y. 10580

- 42 X Meyers, Philip M., Sr., 230 W. Galbraith Rd., Cincinnati, Oh. 45215 Midonick, Millard, 32 Washington Square W., #lOE, New York, N. Y. 10011 Miller, Aaron, 320 S. Harrison St., East Orange, N. J. 07018 X Miller, (Mrs. Wi lliam) Bernice , 116 Wilson Rd., ~rtnceton, N. J. 08540 Miller, Howard 8., 13555 Bayliss Rd., Los Angeles, Ca. 90Q49 Miller, Loui s , 1037 Elm St. , Manchester, N. H. 03101 Miller, Miriam T., 280 .Redmond Rd., South Orange, N. . J. 07079 Miller, Ralph, 2211 S.W. First, #1804, Portland, Or. 97201

~

J/.

Miller, (Dr. Herbert ) Rose, Claridge House 11, Apt. 2E East, Claridge Dr., Verona, N. J. b7044 Milt, Harry, 29 Washington Park, Maplewood, N. J. 07040 Mines, Jeffrey, 63 Croydon Dr., West Hartford, Ct. 06117 Minkin, Davi d, 480 Riverhill Dr. N.W., Atlanta , Ga. 30328 Mirowitz, Saul, 41 Ladue Estates St. , St. Louis, Mo. 63141 X Mitnick, J. George, 1304 College Hill Rd., Jaspar, Al. 35501

- 43 Moldover, Edward D., Moldover, Hertz, Presnick, &Gida, 750 Third Ave., Suite 2400, New York, N. Y. 10017 Molod, Alan H. Esq., Packard Bldg., 12th Floor, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102 Morgenthau, Henry, 45 Highland, Cambridg.e , Ma. 02138 Morris, (Mrs. Bruce H.) Jaclynn, 386 Herrington Dr. N.E., Atlanta, Ga. 30342 Morrison, Arthur, 105 W. Adams St., Suite

1250~

Chicago, 11. 60603

X Morse, Carl A., 969 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 10028 Mosk, Richard, -% Mitche 11 , 1800 Century f>ark East. Los Ange1es, . Ca. 90067 X Moskowitz, Mrs. Rita

J~,

P.-0. Box 2875, .Tulsa, Ok• . :74101 <

Moss, (Mrs. ·Harold o.) Norma, 1617 E. MaM111a~ St., 41705, Cincinnati, Oh . 45206 Most, Prof.

~icus,

10390 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, .,

ca.

'

Moyer, John P., 5701 Sampson Dr., Girard, Oh. 44420 .. '

Muchin, Arthur, 1 IBM Plaza, Sutte-3301, Chicago,· 11. 60611 Myers, Allen M., 343 E. 30th St., New York·, N. Y. 10016 Nagusky, David, 2733 Endicott Rd., Cleveland, Oh. 44120

90024

- 44 X Nash, Jack, 784 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 10021 Nasher, Raymond 0., P.O. Box 31705, Dallas, Tx. 75231 Nathan, Walter, 1053 Skokie Ridge Dr., Glencoe, 11. 60022 Neaman, (Mrs. Pearson E. ). Annabelle, 45 E. 89th St., Apt. 80, New York, N. Y. 10028 Neman, Albert H., Wood, Lamping, Sl utz & Reckman, Tri -State Bldg. , Ci nci nnati, Oh. 45202 Newberger, Shel, Apollo Containers, 2902 Central St., Evanston, 11. 60201 Newburger, George, 2444 Madison Rd., Apt . 502A, Cincinnati, Oh. 45208 . .

.

X Newman, Jerry W., 7729 Cassidy Lane, Indianapolis, In . 46260 X NeWl)'lan, Jllle M., 8990 West Dodge Rd., #211 , Omaha ,

~e .

68114

Newman, Stanley, 5537 Christiana Ave. , Chicago, 11 . 60625 Newman, Stephen M., 1800 One M&T Plaza, Buffalo, N. Y. 14203 Newmark, Dr. Kenneth, 7102 Hfllowbrook Lane , Cincinnati, Oh. 45237 Newmark, Michael, 18 Crestwood Dr., St. Louis, Mo.• 63105 Newmark, (Mrs. Kenneth) Susan, 7102 l~illowbrook Lane, Cincinnati, Oh. 45237

-45 Newmyer, • (Mrs. Arthur Jr.) Alice, 4501 Linnean Ave. N.W., Washington, D. C. 20008 X Niemetz, Sara, Ninburg~

P~O.

Box 1268, Meridian, Ms . 39301

Or . Daniel,. 1781 W. Romneya Dr., #F, Anaheim, Ca. 92801

Nudelman, (Mrs. Walter) Norma , Fawn Hill Dr .• Morristown, N. J. 07960 Oberfeld, Donald S., 3600 S. Yosemite #370, Denver, Co. 80237 Oberman, Samuel E., 65 Chenango Dr., Jericho. N. Y. 11753 Obletz, (Mrs. Benjamin) Lila, 800 W. Ferry St., Apt. -48, Buffalo, N. Y. 142.22 Opotowsky, Stuart B., ·Feit & Ahrens, 488 Madison Ave., New York,

N~

Y. 10022

Ornstein, Fr·a nklin, Central Federal Savings & Loan Assoc. of Nassau, 249 E. Park

Ave~,

Long .Beach, N.Y. 11561

c" •

Pearlstein, Carl, 225 Roblar, Hillsborough, Ca. 94010 Perlstein, Harris, 1 E. Wacker Dr., Chicago, Il. 60601 Petschek, Charles I., 245 Park Ave., 15th Fl., New York, N. Y. 10017 Phillips, Jay, The Phillips Foundation, 2345 Kennedy St. N.E., Minneapolis, Mn. 55413 Phillips, Lawrence, Phillips Van Heusen Corp., 1290 Ave. of the Americas . New York, N. Y. 10019

- 46 X Picker, Arnold, 200 Golden Beach Dr., Golden Beach, Fl. 33160 Pierce, J. Harvey, 330 Shadywood Cove, Memphis, Tn. 38117 Pincus; Theodore, 2136 N. Cleveland, Chicago, 11. 60614

X Pines, Ned L., 355 Lexington Ave.,·New York, N. Y. 10017 Piwoz, Dr. Seymour, 656 Foxcroft Rd., Elkins Park, Pa. 19117 Plotkin, (Mrs . Franklin) Patricia, 17906 Parkland Dr., Cleveland, Oh. 44122 Pokross, Ms. Nancy. 14 .Monmouth Court, Brookline,

Ma~

02146

Polacheck, (Mrs. Herbert) Isabelle, 944 W. Shaker Circle, Mequon, Wi. 53092 -__ J,, ),..--/ : Pollin, Abe, 2 Goldsboro Court, Bethesda, Md., 20034 Pollock, (Mrs. Leo) Adele, 6601 Wenonga Terrace, Shawnee Mission, Ks. 66208 Pollock, Louis, 4620 Harborview Dr., Erie, Pa. 16508 X Port, Charles S., 12 Cohawney Rd., Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 X Port, (Mrs. Charles S.) Reggie, 12 Cohawney Rd., Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 Powar, Lee, 22300 Shaker Blvd., Cleveland, Oh. 44122

- 47 Preuss, Kurt, 621 N. Forest Dr., Teaneck, N. J . 07666 X Price, Michael, Goose Hill ·Rd., Chester, Ct. 06412

X Price, Mrs. Revel la, 1701 Gulf of Mexico Dr., Apt. 68, L'ongboat Key, Fl. 33548 Prizant, Ms. Hannah, 2604 N. Burling, Chicago , 11. 60614 Rabin, Irving, 660 Third St., San Francisco, Ca. 94107 Rabin, Stanley A., 6927 Oelmeta, Dal las, Tx. 75248



u

Rachlin, Ms . Elaine, 360 W. 55th St., New York, N. Y. 10019 Rackoff, Ms. Nancy, Woodcliffe Rd . , Pittsburgh, Pa . 15238 Rackoff, S. Raymond, 535 Linden Lane, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15208 Rattner, (Mrs. William) Ruth, 12944 Tal bot Lane, Huntington Woods, Mi . 48070 X Regenstein, Louis, 3100 Equitable Bldg . , 100 Peachtree St., Atlanta, Ga. 30303 Reichman,. Julian, 625 Longview Rd-. , South Orange, N. J. 07.079 Reichman, (Mrs. ·Julian) Regina, 625 Longview Rd., Sou.th Oran.ge, N. J. Q7079 Riesman, Robert A., 806 Hospital Tr·u st Bldg., Providence, R.I. 02903

- 48 -

Ring, (Mrs. Edward) Geraldine,, 45 Hodge Rd., Princeton, N. J. 08540 Ringel, (Mrs. Stanley) Rhoda, UTC, Plaza F, Latham, N. Y. 12110 Ringel, Stanley, UTC, Plaza F, Latham, N.. Y. 12110 Rivitz, Richard, 17719 Fernway Rd., Cleveland, Oh. 44122 X Robinson, Carol, 124 Woodland Rd., Pittsburgh, Pa . 15232 X Roddy, William 2323 Columbus, Waco, Tx. 76702 "·

Rogat, Kenneth L., 2928 W. Park Blvd., Shaker Heights, Oh. 44120 Rogers. Ben J., P.O. Box 1310, Beaumont, Tx. 77704 Rome, Stuart H., 1800 Mercantile Bank & Trust Bldg., 2 Hopkins Plaza, Baltimore, Md. 21201 Romm, George M., P.O. Box 1900, Brockton, Ma. 02403 l

Rosen, Edward, 941 Bryn Mawr Ave . , Narberth, Pa. 19072 X Rosen, Leo S., 644 Ruddiman Dr., N. Muskegon, Mi. 49445 Rosen, Leonard S. , 2014 Stone Ridge Lane, Villanova, Pa. 19085 X Rosenbaum, Daniel, 2616 Prospect Rd., Tampa, Fl. 33609 Rosenberg, Mrs. Frances L., 90 Lylewood Dr., Tenafly, N. J. 07670

- 49 -

Rosenberg, Martin H., 4430 White Oak Pl ., Encino, Ca. 91316 Rosenbluth, Ms . Bernice, 288 Melrose Rd., Merion, Pa. 19066 Rosenfeld, Ms. Enid R., 12615

Huntingwick~

Houston, Tx. 77024

Rosenson, Robert, 1100 Laurel Way , Beverly Hills, Ca. 90210 Rosensweig, David, Rosent~al,

16~

Brite Ave., Scarsdale, N. Y. .10583

Arlene, 8107. Club Court, Austin, Tx. 78759

Rosenthal, Leonard, 8107 Club Court, Austin, Tx. 78759 Rosenthal, Stanley, Peat, Marwich, Mitchel, 313 E. Wacker Dr . , Chicago, 11. 60601 Rosove, Eve, 535 Ocean Ave., Santa

Monica~

Ca. 90402

Ross, George, 1116 Barberry Rd., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 19010 Roswell, Dr. Arthur E., 137 Edgewood Dr., Bridgewater. N. J. 08807 X Roswell, (Mrs. Arthur) Betty, 137 Edgewood Dr., Bridgewater, N. J . OS807 Rotter, Marshall, 2119 W. Quincy Court #102N, Mequon, Wi. 53092 Rowe, (Mrs. Seymour) Beatrice, 28450

B~ll

Rd., Southfield , Mi. 48034

.

- 50 Rowen, David, Sunset Lane, Harrison, N. Y. 10528 Rubel, Julius Sydney, 590 Birdie Lane, Longboat Key, Fl. 33577 Rubin, Leonard, 11 Berkeley Dr., Tenafly, N. J. 07670 Rubin, Or. Robert, 300 E. Little Creek, Norfolt, Va. 23505 Rubinstein, Sam, 111 W. Highland Dr., Seattle, Wa. 98119 Rubnitz, (Mrs.

Myr~n

E.) Susan B., 1170 Lindenwood Dr., Winnetka, Il. 60093

X Ruby, Ja.ck M., 311 Kenwood Pl., Michigan City,, Ind. 46360 X Rutenberg, Charles, 57 Southwind Dr., Largo, Fl. 33540 Ruttenberg, Harold, The Atrium, 307 S. Dithridge St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213 Sachnowitz, Gary W., 1214 Hillcrest, Longview, Tx. 75601 Sachs, (Mrs. Sidney) Betty, 2717 Daniel Rd., Chevy Chase, Md. 20015 Sack, Nathaniel, D'Ancona, Pflaum, Watt & Riskind, . 30 N. LaSalle St., Suite 3100, Chjcago, 11. 60602 Sadi n, Samuel, 6 Peter Lane, New Hyde Park, N. Y. 11040 X Safer , Arnold E., 8301 Kerry Rd., Chevy Chase, Md. 20015

- 51 X Saferstein, Dr. ' Lester, 8308 Somerset, Shawnee Mission, Ks. 66207 Sainer, Abraham L., 21 Sandy Hook Rd., N., Sarasota, Fl. 33581 X Samuels, J. Victor, 5 Waverly Court, Houston, Tx. 77005 Sa~uels,

Seymour, 45-45 217th St., Bayside, N. Y. 11361

Sandle~,

Dr.

Bernie~,

1818 R St ., N.W.,

Washington~

D. C. 20009

Satin, Jack H., 7219 .S. Gary Place, "fu.l sa, Ok. 74136 Saulson, (Mrs. Saul S.) Marjorie, 31477 Lost

Hollo~

Lane, Birmingham, Mi. 48010

Schaalman, Rabbi Herman E., Emanuel Congregation, 5959 N. Sheridan Rd., Chicago, 11. 60660 (

.

·.·} .

Scha~lach, (Mrs . .Arthur) Bernice , 504 Allegheny

Pr., Walnut Creek, Ca. 94596

Scharlin, Howard R., Uni ted National Bank Bldg., 1399 S.W.

Fi~st A~e.,

Miami , Fl . .33130

'•

Schaumberger , Donald, Bennett & Kahnweil.er Assoc., 9650 W. Bryn Mawr, Rosemont, 11. 60018 Scheuer, Hon. James H., 2402 Rayburn House Offi ce .Bldg., Washington, D. C. 20514 X Scheuer, Richard., % f. River Management Corp., 1040 Ave. of the Americas, New York, ·N. Y. 10018' Schiller , Philip J., 33 N. Dearborn; Chicago, Il. 60602 X

Schine~

Joan, 27 Darbrook Rd., Westport,

Ct .~ · 06880

- 52 X Schlesinger, Theodore, 580 Yardarm Lane, Longboat Key, Fl. 33548 '

Schlossberg, Albert, P.O. Box 401, Canton, Ma. 02021 Schneider, Harvey, 2 West Point Lane, St·. Louis, Mo·. 63131 Schneider, Mrs. Stanley, 2450 Avenida de Posada, Tucson, Az. 85718 X Scholle, (Mrs. Roger) Ellen, 8 White Birch Lane, Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 X Scholl e, Roger, 8 White Birch Lane, Scarsdale, N. "Y. 10583 Schorr, Norman A., 6 East 43rd St., New York, N. Y. 10017 X Schreiber, (Mrs. E. Martin) Maurine K., 799 Pa'rk Ave., New York, N. Y. 10021 Schulman; Melvin L., 7201 Fair Oaks Dr., Cincinnati, Oh. 45237 Schulman, (Mrs. Melvin L.) Zelma, 7201 Fair Oaks Dr., Cincinnati, Oh. 45237

x

Schusterman, Charles, 2142 Forest Blvd., Tulsa, Ok. 74114 Schwartz, Harold, 8232 Terry, Huntington Beach, Ca. 92647 Schwartz, Joan C., 945 Fifth Ave., Apt. 16A, New York, N. Y. 10021 Schwartz, Susan, 1400 ·Candler Bldg., Atlanta, Ga . 30303

x

Schwartz, Amb. William B., Jr., 35 Valley Rd., N.W., Atlanta, Ga. 30305

- 53 Schwartz, William B. III, Colony House, 145 15th St., N.E., #627, Atlanta, Ga. 30361 Schwait, Allen, 1001 Keyser Bldg, Baltimore, Md. , 21202 Schwarzschi ld, Richard I., 5110 Cary St . . Rd., Richmond, Va. 23226 X

Sclove~

Mrs. Louise H., 37 ·W. 12th St., New York, N. Y. 10011

Scobey, Raphael, 9 Lenox Pl, Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 Scofield, (Mrs. Milton N.) Nanette, 30 E. 62nd St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Seder, James K., 60 State St., Suite 1800, Boston, Ma . 02109 Selig, Mrs. Martha K., 22 E. 88th St., New York, N. Y. 10028 X Seli g, S. Stephen III, Selig Enterprises, 1100 Spring St., N.W . #550, Atlanta, Ga. 30367 Seligson, David J., 165 E. 72nd St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Shack , (Mrs. Richard) Ruth, 1174 N.E. llOth St., Miami, Fl. 33161 Shapera , {Mrs . Richard P. ) Marilyn, 5000 Fifth Ave., Apt . 204, Pit t sburgh, Pa. 15232 Shapero, (Mrs. Walter) Mary , 19200 Kingston Rd., Detroit, Mi. 48221 .

.

Shapi ro, (Mrs. Leonard) Annette, 717 N. Beverly Dr. , Beverly Hills, Ca. 90210 Shapiro , (Mrs. Daniel S. ) Ell en, 1111 Park Ave., New York , N. Y. 10028 Shapiro , Dr. Zalman, 1045 Lyndhurst Dr.,

Pitt~burgh,

Pa. 15206

- 54 Sharenow, Alfred, 5804 Mulberry Dr., Tamarac, Fl. 33313 Shasha, Alfred, 15 Cotswald Way, Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 Shasha, (Mrs. Alfred) Hanina, 15 Cotswald Way, Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 Shatkin, Mrs . Joan Ellis, 37 Eltham Dr., Eggertsville, N. Y. 14226 Shaw, Irwin, 7368 Balsam Court, W. Bloomfield, Mi. 48033 Sheinbaum, StanJey

K~,

345 N. Rockingham Ave. , Los Angeles, Ca. 90049

Shepard, Irving A., 3 Somerset Downs, St . Louis, Mo. 63124 Shepard, (Mrs. Irving A.) Sue, 3 Somerset Downs, St. Louis, Mo. 63124 Sherman, Henry, 115 E. 70th St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Sherman, Norton, 21 Fairhaven Rd., Newton Center, Ma. 02159 Sherwood, Richard E., 611 W. 6th St., Suite 3600, Los Angeles, Ca. 90017 X Shiffman, Abraham, 1040 W. Fort St., Detroit, Mi. 48226 Shlipak, Carqle, 1500. Colony Dr., Irving, Tx. 75061 Shpal l, (Mrs. Harvey) Dena, 2609 S. Quebec, Apt. 22, Denver, Co . 80231





- 55 Shulbank, Mildred, 5 Pomona N., Apt. 9, Pikesville, Md. 21208 Sideman, Richard J., 69 Cazneau, Sausalito, Ca. 94965 Siegel, Barry D., American S.avings, 17801 N.W. 2nd Ave . , Miami, .-Fl. 33169 X Siegler, _(Mrs. Morton) Carol, 19 Elba Ave.,

H~patcong,

N. J. 07843

X Sigal, Myer O., Macon Bank &Trust Co., 700 Walnut St., Macon, Ga. 31208 . X Silverberg, Jay, Box 1734, Corsicana, Tx. 75110 ~

Silverberg, Michael J;, 205 Silverman, Alvin,

110

ie~t

End

Jt

Ave.~

Redwood Dr., Roslyn.

New York, N.Y. 10023 N.

Y~

11576

Silverstein, Elaine. 3361 S.W. Third Ave •• Mia"'lni, Fl ;,~ 33145 Silverstein, Martin, 60 Broadway, Apt. 415-R , Providence, R.I. 02903 . ·~

Simon, Rabbi Matthew, B'nai Israel Cong., 6301 .Montrose Rd. , Rockville, Md. 20852 . Simons, (Mrs. Broudy) Judith.

~150.

N.· Lake Shore Dr., Apt. 24A, Chicago, !1. 60611

Singer, (Mrs. Irvin) Ruth, 1001 Loma Vista Dr., Beverly Hills, Ca. 90210 · Sinton, Edgar, 155 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Ca. 94104

---- ------··-------- - --- --- - -- -- -- -- - - - -- - -

- ··-

- 56 Sinton, Robert E. , % Dean Witter Reynold, P.O. Box 7597, San Francisco, Ca . 94120 Sklar, Jer ry, 6356 Old Orchard Cove . Memphis, Tn. 38138 Slaff, George, 712 N. Whittier Drive, Beverly Hi1ls, Ca. 90210 X Slaner, Alfred P., 10 Normandy Lane, Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583 ·Sloan, (Mrs. Richard ) Sheila, 1025

G~engarry

Circle E. , Birmingham, Mi. 48010

x _Smfth, Mrs. Beth, 1010 W. 64th Terrace, Kansas City, Mo. 64113 Smith, (Mrs Manny H.) Ileane, 9712 Basket Ring Rd., Columbia, Md. 21045 Smi th , Hon. Manny H. ·, 9712 Basket Ring Rd., Columbia, Md. 21045 X Smith, Robert H., Charles E. Smith Corp., 1735

Jeff~rson

Davis Hwy #1200, Arlington, Va. 22202.

Snyder, _Herman, 50 Colony Rd., Springfield, Ma. 01106 X Snyder, Mrs. Linda, 45 E. 89th St., New York, N. Y. 10028 Sobel, Herbert L., 90 Edgewater Dr., Apt. 717, Miami, Fl. 33133. .

.

Sobel, Rabbi . Ronald 8. , Temple Emanu-el, 1 E. 65th St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Sogg, (Mrs. Wi l ton S.) Linda Lehman, 21175

Sha~er

Blvd., Shaker Heights, Oh . 44122

Sogg, Wilton S., 21175 Shaker Blvd., Shaker Heights, .Oh . 44122



..



- 57 -

X Sokobin, Alan M., 4930 Pine Ridge Rd., Toledo, Oh. 43615 Sokolow, Bart, 5354 Aldea Ave., Encino, Ca. 91316 X Solnick, Ben R., P.O. Box 15250, Amarillo, Tx . 79105 X Solomon, Joel W., 30 W. 63rd St . , Apt. 26N , New York, N. Y. 10023 Somberg, Louis, 115 S. 92nd St ., Omaha, Ne. 68114 .. ·1

1 11 :

Spiegel, Mark A., 11349 Bolos St., Los Angeles , Ca. 90049 Spound, Albert M. , 1036 Cove Way, Beverly Hills, Ca. · 90210 Stahl, David G., 100 Magnolia Rd., Manchester, N.H . 03104 X Stanley, (Mrs. Nathan) Miriam, 885 Park Ave., New Yo.rk, N. Y. 10021 Star, Alvin D., 320 Euclid Ave.,

Wi~netka,

Il .. 60093 ·

Star, (Mrs. Alvin D.) Esta, 320 Euclid Ave. , Winnetka, 11. 60093 Stark, Melvin, 2801 New Mexico Ave., Washington, D. C. 20007 X Starr, Harry, Lucius N. Littauer Found., 622 Third Ave ., 31st Fl., New York, N. Y. 10017 Stein, Elliot, 9 Maryhill, St. Louis, Mo. 63124

- 58 Stein; Morris, 99 Moran St., Waterburx, Ct., 06704 Stein, Richard W., 26 Thorndell, St. Louis, Mo. 63117 Steinberg, Elliot, Avi va Enterprises, 111 Potrero , San Francisco, Ca . 94103 X Steiner, Philip, 317 E. 8th St. , Cinci nna t i , Oh. 45202 Steinig, Michael, 707 B Elki ns Park House, Elkins

P~ rk,

Pa . 19117

Stern, Al fred P., Drexel , Burnham, Lambert Inc . , 1901 Ave . of the Stars, #1100, Los Angeles, Ca. 90067 Stern , David, 2845 N.W. Cumberland Rd. , Portland, Or . 97210

' Stern, Robert D., 2346 Dana Ave ., Apt . 05 , Ci ncinnati , Oh . 45208 X Stern, Saul I., 9600 Barrell Lane, Kensington , Md . 20795 Stern, Dr. Thomas N., 346 Wari ng Rd.,

Memp h~ s,

Tn . 38117

Stone, (Mrs. Walter N.) Ceci ll e , 291 Ri tc hie Ave. , Cincinna t i, Oh. 45215 Stone, Robert F. , 901 Grandview Towers, Pi ttsburgh, Pa. 15211 Straus, Joseph, 295 Auburn Ave . , Winnetka, Il . 60093 Strauss , Peter, 156 Brite Ave., Scarsdal e, N. Y. 10583

,.

..



- 59 X Strauss, Robert S., 6223 De Loache, Dallas, Tx. 75225 Strauss, Sam. B., Jr., 1531 First

Nationa ~

Bank Bldg., Little Rock, Ar . 72201

Suda koff, Harry, 192 N. Washing.ton Dr. , Sara so ta~ Fl . 33577 Sunstein, Leon C., 1100 West Allens Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 19119 Susskind, (Mrs. Stuart) Terri, 224 Hillcrest Dr., Cintinnati, Oh. 45215 Suttenberg, Joel P., .% Paul Nyer &Assoc., 40 School St., Framingham, Ma. 01701 Swados, Robert, 815 N. Forest Rd., Williamsville, N. Y. 14221 Swig, Melvin M., Fairmont· Hotel, San Francisco, Ca. 94106 Swig, Steven, 555 California ·st., #2660, San Franci sco, Ca. 94104 Sykes, Melvin J., 3811 Fords lane, Baltimore, Md. 21215 Tanne, (Mrs. Emanuel) Amy, 6517 Buena Vista Dr., Vancouver, Wa. 98661 Tannenwald, (Mrs. Theodore) Pete, 2916 Albetmarle St. N.W., Washington, D. C. 20008 X Tansky, Burton M·., Saks Fifth Ave., 611 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 10022 Tarlow, Merton B., 180 Beacon St., Boston, Ma. 02116

- 60 -

Taub, Henry, 111 Oevriese Court, Tenafly , N. J. 07670 X Taubman, A. Alfred, 3270 W. Big Beaver Rd ., #300, P.O. Box 3270, Troy, Mi . 48099 Tayer, Donald , 100 Bush St., San Francisco, Ca. 94104 Teweles, (Mrs. Richard) Charlotte, 402 E. Daphne Rd., 'Fox Point, Wi. 53217 X Thaw, Murray C., Littel l Steel Co., P.O. Box 298, Fallston, Pa. 15066 Tilles, Norman D., 25 Capwell Ave . , Pawtucket, R.I . 02860 Tobolowsky, (Mrs. Edwin) Shi rley, 6946 Aza l ea Lane, Dallas, Tx. 75230 X Toor, Harold 0., Sun &Surf Apts., 100 Sunrise Ave., Palm Beach, Fl . 33480 X Trachtenberg, Dr. Stephen J., 85 Bloomfield Ave., West Hartford, Ct. 06015 Traurig, Col. Max R., Traurig & Traurig, 111 W. Main St., Waterbury, Ct. 06702 Travis, Doris, 200 E. 66th St., New York, N. Y. 10021 Treister, Kenneth, 2699 S. Bayshore Dr., Miami, Fl . 33133 Tukel,

Irvin~,

3000 Town Center, Ste. 2360, Southfield, Mi. 48037

Tumarkin, Mrs . Maurice, 35 E. 84th St., New York, N. Y. 10028

4"

..



•• - 61 -

Ulltan, Arthur D. , 292 Franklin St., Newton, Ma. 02158 M Ungar, Richard G., 5647 Royal Ci-rcle, Paradise Valley, Az. 85253 Vapnek, Paul W., 3015 Baker St., San Francisco, Ca. 94123 Volpert, Richard S., 4001

Stansbu~y

Ave., Sherman Oaks, Ca. 91403

Wagm.an, Lee, 23 Berkley Lane, St. Lou·is, Mo. 63124. Wagner, Naomi, 4222 .E. McDonald Dr., Paradise Valley, Az. 85253 X Wall, Rabbi

Ma~

B., 472 North St.,

B~rlington,

Vt. 05401

~ l

Wallace, Jerome, 1150 E. Standish Pl.,

Milwa!J~ee_,

Hi. 53217

Warren, George, Warren, Goldberg & Berman, P.O. Box _645, Princeton, Wasserman, Robert, 7305 Lancet Court, Oklahoma City,·Ok. 73120 Weber, Mrs. Patsy, 4902 E. Berneil , Paradise Va 11 ey, Az. 85253 Weil, S. Douglas, 22 Cartwright Rd., Wellesley Hills, Ma. 02181 X Weinberg, Louis S., 33 Angelfish Cay Dr., Key Largo, Fl. 33037 Weinberg, Paul S., 272 S. 2nd St., Philadelphia, . Pa~ 19106

N~

J: 08540

- 62

Weinberg, (Mrs. Paul S.) Susan, 272 S. 2nd St.,

Philad~lphia,

Pa. 19106

Weiner, Rabbi Martin S. , 1733 14th Ave., San Francisco, Ca. 94122 Weintraub, Dr . .Marvin, 36 West Ferry Dr. N.E., Atlanta, Ga . ·30319 Weisberg, Charles, . 1400 Willow Ave •., Suite 1901, Loui sville, Ky. 40204 Weisfield, Douglas, 1616 39th St ., Seattle, Wa . 98122 X Weisfield, Richard, 2563 Magnolia Blvd. W., Seattle, Wa. 98199 Weiss, {Mrs. Ju·l ian D.) Shirley, 435 N. Oakhurst Dr.·, Beverly

H~lls,

Ca. 90210

Wei ss, Stanford L., 441 Orchard W., Newberry Estate9 Dallas, Pa. 18612 Weltman, David L. 15 Hammond St;, Chestnut Hi.11', Ma.

021~7

Wernick, Lester B., 102 Briarcl iff Rd . , Longmeadow, Ma. 01106 Whiteman, Paul, 400 W. Silver Spring Dr., Milwaukee, Wi. 53217 X Wiener, Lester, Wies~nberger,

43~

S. Gu1fstream _Ave., Sarasota, Fl. 33577

Leslie, 1800 Union Commerce Bldg., _Cleveland, Oh . 44115

X Williams, Edith E., 1355 Normandy Rd., Golden, Co. 80401

.,,

..

---.-

•... \

\

~

- 63 Winter, {Mrs. Elmer L.) Nannette, 8014 N. Lake Drive, Milwaukee, Wi . 53217 Wisbaum, Wayne D., 180 Greenaway Rd., Buffalo, N. Y. 14226 · X Wisebram, Elijah, 141 Stafford Ave., Barnesville, Ga. 30204 Witheiler, (Mri. Saul) Paula, 524 E. Olive St., Long Beach, N. Y. 11561 Wizel, Lawrence S., 1915 Leslie Lane, Merrick, N. Y. 11566 Wolens, Jerry, 6314 Desco, Dallas,

Tx.

75225

Wolf, Edwin, 2200 Erie City Savings Bank Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 14202 Wolf, Robert B., 2106 Harts Lane, Conshohocken, Pa. 19428 Wolff, Dr. Hugh L. , 7510 Forrest Glen, San Antonio, Tx. 78209 Wolfram, (Mrs. Julius) Rhea, 13928 Hughes Lane, Dallas, Tx. 75240 M Yalern, Richard L., 18022 Edison Ave., Chesterfield, Mo. 63017 X Yaseern, Leonard C., 2 Bay Ave . , Larchmont, N. Y. 10538 Yellin, Ira, 9454 Wilshire Blvd., #800, Beverly Hills, Ca. 90212 Youkilis, (Mrs. Victor) Ruth, 7218 Winding Way, Cincinnati, Oh. 45236

- 64 Zahn, Donald J., 2800 Republic National Bank Bldg., Dallas, Tx . 75201 Zelnicker, Edwin A., 151 Tuthill Lane, Mobile, Al. 36608 X Ziff, Seymour, 2660 S. Ocean Blvd., #706 W, Palm Beach, Fl. 33480 Ziffren, Paul, Gibson, Dunn &Crutcher, 2029 Century Park E., Suite 4100, Los Angeles, Ca . 90067 Zilber, Maurice, .44 Willow Crescent, Brookline, Ma. 02146 X Zimet, (Mrs. Philip) . Estelle, 530 E. 72nd St.,

N~w York~

N. Y. 10021

Zimet, (Mrs. Marvin J. ) Fran, 600.6 Balcones #13, El ·Paso, Tx. 79912 Zimet, Marvin J . , 6006 Balcones #13, El Paso, Tx. 79912 Zimmerman, Arthur B., 2218 Lombard St., San Francisco, Ca. 94123 X Zimmerman, Harry, The Rokeby, 3901 Harding Rd . , Nashville, Tn . 37205 Ziskind, David, 2339 Silver Ridge Ave., Los Angeles, Ca. 90039

September 1982 300-82-95

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(.)C.l C.. ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE OF B' NAI B' RITH 823 United Nations Pl aza N ew York, N .Y. 10017

MEMORANDUM

To:

..

Dr. Gerhart Riegner

From:

'.

Theodore Freedman.

Date:

October 4,

19~2

Subject: This memorandum proposes to raise some questions . as to the conduct of our recent meeting in Milan and subsequent events, which suggest that serious consideration be given to the folowing by IJCIC .members: 1. An evaluation of the Milan meeting: its content, structure, use of outside "experts," etc. 2. An examination of the so-called limitations imposed by· the Orthodox members of the Synagogue Council regarding theological .discussions. It would appear to me at least that there should be greater candor with our Orthodox brothers with a more open recognition ·that "theology" ls in fact a part of the discussions.

3. IJCIC's serious differences with the Vatican which ·have not been adequately resolved; i.e., the failure of the V~tlcan to -.d eal. appropriately with the activit'ies of Capucc1; the meeting of the Vatican's Secretary of State with representatives of the PLO; the meeting of the Pope with Arafat. Given the special concerns of IJCIC and its constituencies, the strong negative reaction and distress of .the Jewish conununlty over the most recent event and the fact that the PLO continues to be committed to the destruction of Israel, the murder of Jews outside. of the Middle East, as well as the role of the PLO as the purveyor of worldwide terrorism, it behooves IJCIC to engage in a process of evaluation as to the nature of our relationship and the content of future meetings with the various Vatican Commissions. · Accordingly, I would suggest that until such an evaluation process can be engaged in by IJCIC, the prQposed December planning meeting between representatives of the Commissio.n and IJCIC should be po~tponed to some later date.

~~7

TF/m . ~

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cq r jt'abbl Walter Wurzburger, Dr. Joseph Lichten, Dr. Ernst Ehrlich, ../Rabbi Marc Tanenbaum, Dr. Geoffrey Wigoder,· Rabbi Leo n .Klenickl, Rabbi Israel Singer \~ ~

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RAEL'S MILITA~Y. IS . NON -II ·cAMPAI G N IN. LEBA .

· ·1

·.

. Response The American . Mie ki

Alperi~

by Milton Ellerm and

Oc tober 11 ' 1982

G) cge TllEAMER

. 22 ICAN JEWISH CO·MMtmE, Institute of Hum.an Relations, .. 165 East 56 Street, Ne~York, . ..100 .. - . N.Y

REACTION TO ISRAEL'S MILITARY CAMPAIGN IN LEBANON--II The following analysis of ·American reaction to Israel's military campaign in Lebanon examines opinions expressed in 43 newspapers from representative areas of the country {see Appendix), and it covers the period of Jrine 22 through August 21, when evacuation of the PLO from Beirut began. Reaction to the emot~on­ laden events of September, i ·. e., ~resident Reagan's proposal for resolution of the Middle East conflict, Israel's reentry into West Beirut following the assassination of L"e banese Presidentelect Bashir Gemayel, and the massacre of Palestinians in Shatila and Sabra, will be treated in a subsequent report. Editorials, columns , political cartoons, and letters to the editor ·have been surveyed . No analysis of television coverage has been attempted, but there was a continuing impression that because of television ' s visual focus on the physical devastation and civilian anguish in Lebanon the average viewer could conclude that Israel ' ? military operation was indiscriminate and disproportion~te · to the provocation. The immediacy of events in the first weeks of the war elicited responses reasonably definable as support of , opposition to, or ·even-handedness regarding Israel's campaign. In the ensuing weeks, howeve·r, editorial comments were increasingly broadened to include numerous related topics and, in that process, it became more difficult to characterize a given editorial in terms of support for or opposition to Israel ' s actions. Generally evenhanded e~itorial treatment was maintained , although its volume diminished somewhat during late June, July., an<;i up to August 21. The balanced approach was intermittently impaired by· condemnation of events such as the Israeli bombardment of residential areas in West Beirut in late July , the withholding of food, water and medical . supplies from civilians, the advance over the "Green Line" into West Beirut on August 4, and the 11-hour bombardment of West Beirut· on August 12 when negotiations for the withdrawal of the PLO appea~ed to be culminating. In addition to this event-oriented re~ponse, a number of issues· received almost continuous attention: ci vilia.n ~asual ties, Israel's alleged use of American weapons for offensive pcirposes ~n violation .of existing agreements, and resolution of Paiestinian aspirations for a homeland as the sine qua n o n for achieving peace in the Middle East. Of the 167 editorials examined, 35 (21 %) were preponderantly supportive and uncritical of Israel's · ac~ions: they endorsed Israel's use of military force to remove the .PLO from Beirut and agreed with the WALL STREET JOURNAL'S (7/21) opinion "that the PLO isn't likely to negot~ate seriously as long as it believes the UoS. will restrain the Israelis from . attacking." Moreover, while these editorials deplored the civilian casualties, they maintained that the numbers reported had been .hugely inflated,

-2-

that the Israelis had. attempted to min1m1ze casualties and that ultimate responsibility for the bloodshed lay with Yasser Arafat, who, it was alleged, ransomed defenseless women and children so as to "have a ready-made propaganda weapon" (KANSAS CITY TIMES, 7/ 14) . Also·, they perceived a congruence of Arqerican and Israeli interests in eliminating the destabilizing influence of the PLO, proving the Soviet Union's power to be ineffective, and strengthening America 's role in the Middle East . While these editorials were generally optimistic about new opportunities for peace in the Middle East, it was recognized that accommodation to Palestinian nationalism was still the central issue to be dealt with, and some suggested that "with the PLO out of business • . • , Israel is splendidly situated. to show magnanimity--to concede broad automony " (DALLAS MORNING NEWS, 8/3). Forty-nine editorials (29%) were clearly antagonistic on most issues , usually paralleling each other on several salient topics. THE BOSTON GLOBE (7/1) scored Israel for causing heavy civilian casualties and declared: "Sharon' s relentless attacks have stretched far beyond the original 'limited' objectives • • • and have outraged much .of the rest of the world." The CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR (7/2) asked, "how l ong will Americans tolerate supplying virtually unlimited military aid to Israel when ~sraeli policy so often is at variance with the U.S. natiohal interest? " Despite recognition that "the PLO since its inception has been a thoroughly despicable phenomenon," the BIRMINGHAM NEW$ (8 / 5) maintained that "the wrongness of the PLO does not justify wrongness on the part of Israel." Charging that President Reagan "has indulged the Israeli strategists," the WASHINGTON POST (8/3) contended, " that makes the United States co-sponsor of a cruel attack on an innocent city." A majority of 83 editorials (50%) were relatively balanced -~ positive and negative toward Israel depending on the topic, or condemning both Israel and the PLO and emphasizing the plight of Lebanon or the Palestinians . Nevertheless , it cannot be concluded that the overall impact of editorial opinio~ is one of even-handedness because the quantitative results belie a quali tative effect of disapproval. Whil e a numerical majority of editorials strove to be impartial, the combined e~fect of consistently critical and relatively balanced editorials produced an impression of pervasive censure of Israel's actions, because many of the topics addressed were the same and received like treatment. For example, in an otherwise balanced editorial that took to task Israel's critics for having "erected a cynical double standard" in restricting their censure to Israel, the NEW YORK TIMES (7/1) reiterated the charges elsewhere leveled against Israel: "the Begin government, • • • lied at the start" about its military goals in .Lebanon; " the slaughter in Lebanon was clearly dispro-

-3portionate to any inunediate P.L.O. threat": and "such brutal warfare requires more justification than Israel has so far provided~" There was gefieral agreement that Israel had achieved its primary goal in southern Lebanon--the elimination of terrorist attacks across its northern border--and that its advance toward and siege of Beirut was disproportionate to the provocation. Fearing an all-out attack on Beirut, a WASHINGTON POST editorial (6/25) contended, "That would be the ultimate barbarism." Lauding "Israel's desire to expunge PLO terrorism, restore Lebanese sovereignty, and protect its own population," the MIAMI HERALD (7/8) nonetheless demanded, "How much carnage is Israel willing to inflict?" The CHICAGO TRIBUNE (7/8) protested, " The Israeli invasion of Lebanon has cost the United States heavily in both cold cash and good will," while urging that the u.s . government obtain "a promise from the moderate Arab countries to stop bankrolling anti - Israel violence. " In generally hosti le and ba l anced ed~toria l s, the Israeli bombings of heavily populated residential areas i n West Beirut on July 27, August 1 and August 4 evoked renewed expressions of horror at the devastation and killing. Those events also generated firm criticism of President Reagan for permitti ng the United States to appear " impotent in t h e face of aggression by its close friend and client" (CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR , 8/3). Other editorials lamented the continuing violence but considered the poss~bility that "only the Israeli threat • • • makes the P.L.O. willing to consider withdrawal " (NEW YORK TIMES , 8/5). The WASHINGTON POST (8/8) agreed that the carnage should be protested, "but those very protests, encouraging the PLO to hang on and thus s~ir Israel to press harder , may have increased the casualties . " The LOS ANGELES TIMES (8/4} and other newspapers castigated Israel and the PLO , who were both seen to be "demonstrably · willing to sacrifice West Bei rut . " On August 12 , as Philip Habib ' s mediating efforts appeared to be bearing fruit, Israeli jets bombed West Beirut continuously for eleven hours and the Lebanese government suspended negotiations. The NEW YO~ TIMES (.8/13) r.egis t ered the prevaili ng reaction: "much has b~en put in jeopardy • • • • General Sharon knows how to make war; he should no longer be allowed to divebomb the peace. For the first time, an outraged Mr. Reagan is saying out loud • • that United States support may be firm but it is not unconditional." Thus, understanding of Israel's goals in association with criticism of its tactics produced an ambiguous result that nonetheless contributed to a greater sense of disapproval than might be indicated by a mere tally of each type of editorial.

-4Columns, by nature more discursive than editorials, were · even less accessible to clear categorizations . Few dealt exclusively with Israel's military actions: most presented a number of topics as inter-related, and rarely did all the topics in a given column generate comments that were uniformly favor~ able or unfavorable toward Israel. Given that q~alification, of 122 national columns, both syndicated and local, 25 (21%) were more pro-Israel than not, that .sentiment being expressed by means of concern with the PLO's challenge to Israel's right to exist; defense of the military action: "the scores of provocations · were real, the threat was worsening, the retaliation was justified " (William Safire, NEW YORK TIMES, 7/2); o'ptimism about new opportunities for peace in the Middle East; denials of the large numbers of casualties reported: "there has been no carpet bombing and little indiscrim.inate destruction" (Richard Cohen, WASHINGTON POST, 7/25); and apolog i as for casualties that did occur despite the Israel Defense Force's attempts to prevent civilian deaths . Of these 25 columns, 9 focused almost entirely on castigation of the PLO. Among the issues addressed were the PLO' s terrorist t ·a ctics against Israeli civilians : " The PLO is the only political organization on Earth that as a matter of policy eschews battle with its enemies ' soldiers fo~ attacking its enemies ' civilians. Now Israel has cornered these dreadful killers and is being diabolized" (R . Emmett Tyrrell, Jr., WASHINGTON POST , 8/9); ·the PLO's and Syria~s oppression of the Lebanese since the 1975-76 civil war in Lebanon: "Both armies laid waste to Lebanese territory long before the Israeli bombardment began" (Jack Anderson, WASHINGTON POST , 8/14); and the PLO ' s consequent disservice to Pales tini ans and their cause. Although not always specifically expressing support of Israel , these 10 columns were included as pro-Israel because their intent appeared to be to create a context and rationale that justified Israel's actions. Thirty- eight (31%) of the columns examined were predominantly .opposed to Israel's methods. These columns concentrated on civilian casualties; the use of American weapons, particularly cluster bombs , for off~nsive purposes; involv~ment of "the people of the United States whose taxes help pay for all this bloodshed " (Pete Hamill, PHILADELPHIA DAILY NEWS, 7/22); Israel's "contempt for American views" ·(Anthony Lewis, NEW YORK TIMES, 8/5) ; Israel's repressive treatment of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza; and its expansionism. Several columns perceived and· were sharply critical of a lack of firi.nness in President Reagan's articulation of American policy and demands upon Israel . In the instance of the President ' s ostensible "coolness" toward Israel ' s Foreign Minister, Yitzhak Shamir, on August 2, Philip Geyelin was unconvinced: "For all the theater • • • Reagan said nothing to Shamir · that could be read in Jerusalem as a threat of some U.S. action

-5to back up • . POST, 8/6).

• deterrence--or of retaliation"

(WASHINGTON

Forty-nine (40%) columns were rela.tively balanced in their approach toward Israel's actions in Lebanon, or they addressed specific aspects of the campaign, or explored scenario~ for the future of the Middle East. Arafat and Begin were both blamed for ~aying waste to Lebanon and a number of columns resonated with Flora Lewis's estimate that "there is no virtue to support here. Let's j ust admit it and try to stop the slaughter" (NEW YORK TIMES, 8/6) . As has been indicated, an overwhelming majority of edi~ torials and columns focused attention on three issues: the urgent need to remedy the Palestinian refugees' p ligh t by seeking a resolution of Palestinian aspirations for a homeland, the heavy civilian casualties, and Israel's offensive use of American arms in apparent vio l ation of existing agreements; From June 22 through August 21 , with few exceptions and regardless of opinions about the legitimacy of Israel's campaign, there was a broad consensus tha t "defeating the PLO .will not solve the Palestini an problem" (CHICAGO TRIBUNE editorial, 6/26). Virtually al l perceived an Israel- Palestinian settlement as a first step toward achieving a comprehensi ve Middle East peace, and they urged expediti~n of the Camp David process. Those in support of Israel's move into Lebanon tended to recall the geopolitical history of the Pa l estinians ' dispersion, to ascribe greater responsibility to Arab nations, who "resisted the resettlement of Palestinians within their own borders in good part because they felt that to allow this would be to accept tacitly the pepnanence and legitimacy of Israel" (LOS ANGELES TIMES editori a l, 7/1 1) , and to advocate a solution that requires absorption of the refugees in Arab countries. Some mirrored William v. Shannon (BOSTON GLOBE, 8/11) in urging Arab recognition of Israel, since " only if Israel ' .s nationhood is recognized and accepted can it be expected to be generous and forthcoming in its approach to the problems of the Palestinian people." Those who objected to Israel ' s military actions in Lebanon and those relatively even-handed more often minimized the historical foundation of the Palestinians' status or presented it in such a way that Israel's culpability was equal to or greater than that of Arab nations. .Israel ' s management of the West Bank and Gaza was seen as repressive and an impediment to resolution of the problem: "Over the objections of the United States and Egypt, • • • Jewish settlements on the West Bank have proliferated.

-6Elected Palestinian mayors . have been clumsily deposed" (PITTS~ BURGH POST-GAZET'.l'E editorial, 9/12). James Reston (NEW YORK TIMES, 6/23) maintained that "[Begin] cannot get the United States to defend the rights of the Israeli people so long as he denies the rights of the· Palestinians . That is the heart of the problem ." There was a strong sense of urgency about the issue and a perception that its resolution is crucial to terminating the cycle of Arab/Israel wars. Collateral to this was the notion that Israel had metamorphosed into "Goliath" and, having demon- · str~ted its military superiority, could well afford to be magnanimous in its dealings with the P~lestinians. Their yearnings for the rights to a homeland were frequently. equated with the centuries- o ld experience of Jews, and that sentiment was reflected in a CHICAGO TRIBUNE editorial ( 6/76) , among otllE~rs, which pos~d the question, "Is it possible that Jews, of all people, will become the instrument of another nation's diaspora?" Acknowledging that the West Bank and Gaza are territorially inadequate for all Palestinians, the NEW YORK TIMES (7/11} asserted, "The Palestinians deserve a homeland that, like Is~ael, will be a beacon to a scattered people even if it cannot absorb them all." · · This widespread focus on Fesolution of the Palestinian dilemma was a clear .harbinger of future accelerated pressure on Israel to _ cooperate. It was equally clear that as Israel's chief ally and supplier o f aid, the United Sta~es was perceived a~ the key agent in fut~re negotiations. The highly publicized civilian casualties were another topic that received almost continuous treatment throughout July and August. Israel was rarely e xcused from responsibility for them and they were universally deplored. Generally pro-Israel or even-handed attitudes were demonstrated by assertions that the initial casualty figures released were, in all probability , highly exaggerated since they emanated from the Red Crescent , headed by Yasser Arafat .' s brother, and in any event no approximate count could possibly be taken until the war ceased. Visits to southern Lebanon and interviews with Leba.nese were ~i ted which seemed to substantiate casualty figures much closer to Israeli estimates and to demonstrate efforts by the Israeli army that were "ca 'r efully calcula.t ed to minimize civilian casualties " (WALL STREET JOURNAL editorial, 7/21), often at its own cost. In addition , reference was made to numerous reports that the PLO was "using the frightened citizens of West Beirut as ~ human shield (William Safire, NEW YO~ TIMES , 8/5}; that they prevented civilians from departing West Beirut

-7and deliberately placed artillery, ammunition, and command headquarters in civilian areas; and that many of the refugees depicted as fleeing the Israeli siege of Beirut were actually returning to their ·homes in southern Lebanon from whence they had run to escape PLO oppression. It was also pointed out that much of the destruction attributed to the Israelis was actually caused by the PLO prior to the Israeli campaign, and that far larger numbers of Lebanese civilian casualties were caused by the PLO during and since the 1975-76 Lebanese civil war. Negative journalistic comments were marked by acceptance of the high casualty figures and graphic descriptions of civilian wounds, particularl y those "of parents racing through rubble with bleeding children in their arms" (Mary McGrory, WASHINGTON POST, 7/4). Israel's siege qf Beirut was consistently portrayed as "shockingly out of proportion to the threat" (COURIER-JOURNAL editorial, 7/7). Neither evidence that invalidated the initial .claim_s of thousands of civilian casualties in southern Lebanon nor the PLO 's deployment as the cause nor virtually unan,i.mous agreement with Is rael 's gqal of removing the PLO from Lebanon diminished the intense censure of Israel's tactics. Couched in terms that demonstrated a sha ttering of Israel's -image as a "moral beacon ," the CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR (editorial, 8/13) asked , " Does Israel wish to be viewed as a nation that knows no limits to the suffering i t is willing to .i nflict on i nnocent people? " · - ~nother extremely sensitiv~ topic· was Israel's alieged misuse o'f American weapons in an offensive campaign, in violation of the U.S. Arms Control Export Act. The use of cluster bombs was considered p~rticularly offensive, and the PITTSBURGH POSTGAZETTE (editorial , 7/22) deemed i t "only one , • • • example of Israel's refusal to defer to a calculus of its security needs made in Washingt s:m. 11 The WASHINGTON POST (editorial; 7/21)' approaching the issue with less rancor, remarked, "they ~luster bombs] are not i llegal or intrinsically more inhumane than other weapons • • • • Israel used them without political incident in 1973. Why the fuss now?" The issue of cluster boinbs received very little attention among supportive. writers, and those who did comment advocated reserving judgment. until an investigation clarified the matter.

Related to Israel's use of American weaponry was its skill therein and its proven military capability . Philip Geyelin (WASHINGTON POST, 7 /30) declared , "Israel is now Golia th , • • • unmenaced by Jordan or Syria or by any combiriation of Arab military might," and he speculated that Israel "is probabl~ more capable of deploying more military force, faster, in almost · any corner of the region than is the United St.a tes.". Israel ' s

-8prowess was ~urther adduced by many as a reason for reevaluating the necessity for future shipments to Israel of U.S. weaponry and for urging a more balanced distribution of American arms in the Middle East. Another implication of Israel's unrivaled military superiority was that · it invalidated any claim by the Begin Government that Israeli settlement or annexation of the West Bank and Gaz~ is · netessary for Israel's security. Supporters of Israel's actions in Lebanon tended to laud its demonstration of military skill and to assert the benefits for American interests in the region, as did the 'NEW YORK POST (.editorial,· 7/9): "the PLO ' s defeat has been a grievous blow to the Soviet Union." · Cartoons, more emphatic than the printed word by virtue of their visual character and the dramatic subject matter intrinsically suitable for treatment by them, produced a predominantly negative view of Israel ' s actions . Out of 81 cartoons examined, almost half (35) were clearly hosti l e . Of those 35 , the vast majority dealt with the civilian casualties and destruction in Lebanon. Two of the most damning were: l} Israeli tanks marked with Magen Davids positioned on a ridge overlooki ng .the smoking rubble of a Lebanese town, with the horror-striken wraith of ·a Jewish World War II concentration camp victim in the foreground, lamenting, "Oh my God" (.PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER , 6/25} ; and 2} Menahem Begin , a kni fe in his raised right hand, menacingly po:j.sed to sacrifice " LEBANON," i n the fqrm of a child bound to a rock, with the voice of God roaring from clouds above, "ENOUGH!" (.LOS ANGELES T.IMES, 7 /7) • The next largest category of hostile cartoons depicted Begin and Ariel Sharon as militaristic, expansionist , deceitful, · and recalcitrant; and others showed the United States supporting a destructive, irresponsibl~ israel , or Israel as ~ military super. power in the form ·of "Goliath ," with vulnerable Palestinians pibtured as " David." Only 18 cartoons addressed topics that did not involve castigation of Israelo Twe l ve depicted Yasser Arafat and the PLO as defeated and power l e~s, with no support from other Arabs, or egregiously mistaken in not having recognized Israel on a diplomatic basis and, thus, being forced to "recognize" it at the end of a cannon. · Six cartoons were clearly anti-PLO, most of them showing Arafat hiding behind wounded _or dying civilians. Letters to the editor were about evenly divided between those that were generally supportive of (76} and those that were hostile to (.74) Israel . Very few (20) letter-writers · exhibited a balanced viewpoint .

-9-

As in editorials and columns, the content of letters reflected concern with particular issues. Among those that approved of Isra~l's actionsJ written predominantly by Jews, the topic of civilian casualties received the most attention. Responding to criticism of Israel for inflicting huge numbers of casualties, many grieved for the death and destruction but asserted "the numerical impossibility" of the figures or reminded readers that "the terrible specter of loss pf life came long before Israel's tanks crossed into Lebanon." cl.ting the enormous numbers of civilians killed and displaced in the 1970's during . the Lebanese civil war, others wondered "where were the voices who now denounce Israel" when those victims suffered their misfortunes. A number of writers charged the media with bias and irresponsibility· for disseminating unsubstantiated casualty figures and giving prominence to stories and pictures of the bloody details. Many pro-Israel letters deplored fhe PLO as "the real ~ul. prit • • • , which deliberately used Lebanese civilians as a : < shield·," and they castigated the media for presenting Yasser Arafat and the _PLO as "moderates," omitting or minimizing the · activities of "a . PLO that plants bombs in buses and .marketplaces" and whose covenant 11 is a blueprint for Israel's liquidation." · Israel's campaign against the PLO was viewed by ·.some as an opportunity "for bringing peace to the Middle East.~ Others asserted that "the Israeli expenditure [by the p.s.] repre~ents about the best-spent dollars .in our inflated defense budget" because the Israelis "are doing the world a favor by fighting terrorism." Hostility toward Isr~el was expressed primarily in letters that decried Israel's use of American weapons and criticized "the [Re~gan] Administration's tacit support .for such . actions." Some urged cessation of military aid to Israel, .whether or not it would be used for defensive purposes, contending that the cost to · American taxpayers is too :great, particularly in a time of domestic economic difficulty. Many critical ~riters resorted to the · use . of epithets such as "genocidal," ·"militaristic," and "terroristic" to describe · Israel's actions. Some echoed one writer's remark that "Israel must realize that its actions are no more acceptable than were those of Hitler," and others drew an analogy between West Beirut and the Warsaw Ghetto. Some suggested · that Menahem Begin, "a one-ti~e notorious terrorist and extremist,·~ was behaving in a manner consistent with his involvement in the Deir Yassin massacre of Arabs in 1948.

-10Another recurrent theme was that of ostensible amazement that Jews, ~'who suffered the indignit.ies and cruelty of the pogroms in Europe have instigated their own 'program' of c .r uel ty, " the results of which would be as futile: "Palestinians cannot be blotted out by Begin, any more than Jews 9ould . be blotted out by Hitler." During the period covered by this report, there was a moderate quantity of letters censuring Israel that were written by. Jews. Among ~hem was a letter from 40 members of the Greater Pittsburgh Jewish Community who declared "Menahem Begin does not speak for us, " and called "for the imrnedia,te and complete withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon and for .a halt in arms sales to all combatants ." Other Jews, while "not in any way [calling] into question the existence of the Jewish homeland , condemned "the Israeli invasion as a betrayal of Jewish ideals . " A few writers , angered about United States involvement as a supplier of arms to Israel, expressed outrage about "the special [U . S.-Israel] relationship • • • due to the Jewish lobpy in this country." One writer , indignant about "the cold- blooded testing of American technology against the· refugees of Pa.l estine, ,; and U. S . inaction , deman ded , "does our government not wish to offend Jewish' voters? " Relatively even- handed letters, while lamenting civilian casualties, acknowledged the necessi t y for Israel.'s campaign against the PLO . Letters of this type were concerned with historical perspective, the merits of both Israelis ' and Palestinians' claims r and some suggested that since " c l early, neither the Arabs nor the Israelis are capable" of resolving their conflict because "the issues are too heated, the hurt is too deep~ the problem is too complex, " the two superpowers (the U. S . and Russia) "will have to start talking • • • before progress can be made toward that elusive peace. " Other writers advocated ~hat t~e United States take the lead to devise a plan for peace in . the Middle East. Israel ' s campaign in Lebanon continued to elicit a vigorous response from American- Arab and pro-Arab organizations. During July and August, their continuing efforts to seize wh?tt ·they perceived as an opportunity to influence American opinion regard ing the Arab-Israel conflict were manifested in public demonstr~tions , mass mailings to political leaders~ petitions, and full-page ads in newspapers across the country . This amplified campaign confirmed a conclusion arrived at in the initial report that ethnic Arab groups now represent a significant political force to be confronted on the American scene .

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By no means monolithic, the Arab-American community's response to Israeli and United States · actions ranged from neutral to scathing. Proceeding with its earlier program, the American Lebanese League (ALL), whose primary concern is restoring a · strong ' .c entral authority in Lebanon, came· out .openly proclaiming the Israeli action as a "prelude to liberation." In full-page ads that appeared ln the NEW YORK TIMES and other papers in midJuly, the ALL demanded: "The PLO Must Quit Lebanon!" and· described Beirut as a city "held hostage by PLO criminals." More typical, . however, of the a.nger within the Arab-American community was a series of ads placed in July by the American Arab Anti-Discrimination Cof!Ullittee (ADC), led by former Senator James Abourezk and Dr. James Zogby, former professor· of. history at · Shippensburg State Colleg~ (PA) ~nd a Palestinian r~ghts activist. In huge letters, the ad's .headline read, "Should (Atlanta's) taxes be ·used to· kill peqpie in Lebanon?" According to the WALL STREET JOURNAL, the ad, . which called for an end to U.S. foreign aid to Israel, appeared- in 60 cities around the country, including Cleveland,· Philadelphia , Pittsburgh, Pho~nix, San Francisco and Wichita. Many Arab · g~oups, irate about what _they pe·r ceived to be a lack of U.S. restraint of Israel , called· for significant reductions in U.S. aid to Israel, an end ·t6 .u . s.- arms sales· to Israel, and Arab sanctions against the ·u.s. The National Association of Arab Americans (NAAA), the registered lobby of .Arab-Americans, urged the ·u.s. to recognize the PLO and . to negotiate directly with it, and continues to stress the theme that American interests in the· Middle East are being severely damaged by Israel's actions. The NAAA and other Arab groups paid parti.c ular attention to American Jewish cr.i tic ism .of Israel. The July 15 issue of ·''Poli tical Focus," the NAAA newsletter, devoted two full pages to state~ents by various Jewish writers , including ·Nahum Goldman, Pierre Mendes-France and . Philip Klutznick. Arab-American groups also conducted public brief.i ngs on the Lebanon crisis and submitted testimony tb Congressional hearings. The main points raised in these .efforts were, again, the issue of terrible civilian casualties, Israeli inhumanity, and the need for the U.S. to be involved not . just in relief ·efforts but in pressuring Israel. Alongside intense efforts to mo:Qilize · on the .grassroots level, the Arab community engaged professional public relations experts to assist in its campaign to sway .American opinion. For example,_ it was revealed early in July that the activities of the Arab Women's Counci~; composed of 24 wives of Arab ambassadors and 80 Arab-Americans, were bei~g coordinated by Gray & Co.

-12Furthermore, a report in AL MAJALLAH (7/17 -23), an authoritative Arab journal published_ in London, indicated that . a major new public relations effort to create a more pro-Arab American policy is now being ~!anned. As the Israeli bombardment of West Beirut intensified, and the devastation of civilian areas was graphically portrayed on nightly television news programs~ overall Congressional support for Israel continued to erode. Some o·f the more outspoken critics, such as Oregon Senator Mark Hatf·i eld, called upon President Reagan to demand an immediate cessation of hostilities and urged that ~f Is~ael did not comply , the President should lead a call for internati onal sanctions~ - a freeze on all u. s. military supplies and a reassessmen t of all future military aid to Israel . Rep. Nick J . Rahall of West Virginia asked ~or , and secured, the co - sponsorship of a dozen Congressmen for hi~ bili demanding an investigation to det ermine whether or not Israel violated existing military agreements by using U.S. arms and military equipment for the invasion. In mid-August , North Carolina ' s Senator Jesse Helms vented his ange~ towards Israel when, during the course of an interview on television, he i ns~sted that the U.S . threaten t9 and, if nece~s·ary , actually break diplomatic relat ions with Israel unless i t ceased its pressure on West Beirut. Perhaps more than by any other event , the Congress was angered by reports that Israel utilized cluster bombs in its siege of Beirut in apparent ·violation of its agreement with t he· Uni, ted States. Hedrick Smi th, ·NEW YORK TIMES Washington columnist, concluded on July 20 that "Isra'e l' s support in the Congress h.a s significantly eroded to its lowest poirit." Staunch friends of Israel , such as Senator Henry Jackson, took Israel to task for failing to consult with the United States about its military ac~ i on, ~nd California Senator Alan Cranston publicly declared he would vote to censure Israel if i t was determined that the Israelis had used cluster bombs in the shelling of West Beirut. Few if any of Israel ' s usually firin supporters spoke on its behalf on the floor of the Congress .

As the s iege of Beirut came to a close and the PLO evacuation began, Congress and Administration officials , perhaps with an eye on the forthcoming elections, began to draw a distinction between support for Israel and disagreement with the policies of Prime Minister Begin and Defense Minister Sharon, and there was little · or no evidence of sµ~port for the PLO.

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It that in reached gone."

was also apparent, as proclaimed by Senator Paul Tsongas, the Congress, the "love affair with Israel," which its zenith during the administration of Golda Meir, "is There was some sentiment that aid to Israel should be redu~ed, in part be6ause its demonstrated military prowess and superiority diminished its need for substantial military aid. · It is still unclear, however, if the attacks on Israel were anything more than rhetorical criticism or if in fact there was a shift in substantive support. Informai observers of the Washington scene were inclined to believe that despite all the adverse comments Israel could still muster a majority ~n the Con- . gress. During the period covered by this report, the leading polling o~ganizations attempted to assess public opinion about various

facets of the military campaign. Harris, Roper, Gallup, Merit Opinion Survey, NBC , and ABC-WASHINGTON POST were among the more prominent agencies reporting. Because the various polls asked different questions , or when similar , they were nuanced, it is impossible to determine conclusively if the Israeli campaign in Lebanop seriously eroded pre-existing sympathy or · friendship among Americans toward Israel. A Harris poll conducted from June 18-21 found overwhelming support (76% --14 %) for Israel's stated objective in invading Lebanon· if it resulted_ 'in 'the r ·e mov·a ·1· ·o ·f ·a-i-1 foreign· p·o we·rs from that country. In response to the same question d~ring the period from July 9-14, support droppeq significantly from 76% to 44%, with 36% registering disapproval. Between July 12-15, ·"The Merit Report: A Public Opinion Survey" simply asked if the interviewee approved or disapproved of the invasion. Fiftytwo percent disapproved, 24% approved and 24% had no opinion. Gallup, · conducting a survey for NEWSWEEK August 4-5 asked, "Do you approve or disapprove of Israelis sending troops -into Lebanon?" In response, 60% d i sapproved, 30% approved, and 10% had no· opinion.. Yet, when the same poll asked if Israel was justified in .invading Lebanon to remove the PLO, 47% felt the invasion was justified, 41% felt it was unjustified,· and 12% had no opinion . The Associated Press- NBC opinion survey, conducted August 9-10, found that . 51% disapproved of the invasion, 25% approved, and 16% were not sure. (Fifty-nine -percent indicated that Israel's actions in B~iiut had ~gone too far," 18% believed that ·Israel had not gone far enough, 7% ~ndicated that they were "about right," and 16% were not sure if the · Israelis had gone too far.) A WASHINGTON· POST-ABC poll revealed that on August 17, 41% of those pol.l ed felt the invasion was not justified, while 37% felt that it was. A Harris poll conducted August 5-10, asking

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the same question about the invasion as i t did on July, revealed that 43 % approved and 42% disapproved, a finding not materially different from their July poll . Significantly , when the Harris interviewers asked for an opinion on the assertion that Israel's move into Lebanon was justified because i t was "right to take defensive action against the PLO because it had bases there from which Israeli villages were being ~helled," 57 % agreed , 28% disagreed . While the Harris poll- :,:r-·e vealed significant support for Israel's actions against the PLO,° 52% of those interviewed believed that "it was wrong to kill thousand~ of Lebanese civilians ." In add ition· to significant misgivings about the justification of the invasion of Lebanon, all poll d ata revealed that .Americans were strongly opposed to sending a peace keeping force to Lebanon, had reserva tions ~bout sending military supplies to . Israel, and were seriously concerned about the heavy c ivilian casualties. Nonetheless , in mtd- August both the Harris and t he. WASHINGTON POST polls, the only ones asking aboµt overall s y mpathy or support for Israel , as ' opposed to the PLO or ~rabs , repo rted ~hat despite some erosion , ?Upport for Israel remained high . The Harr~s organization in its Augus t 5 -10 sampling, found that 59% considered themselves pro-Isra el , 15% pro-PLO and 10 % n e ither . The WASHI~GTON POSTABC sample revealed that in response to the question, "In the Middle Eas t situation are your s ympa t h ies more with t he Israelis or the Arabs ," 52% were· more sympathetic to the Israelis, · 18 % to the Arabs and 16% to both or neither. These findings deviated only minutely from the find ings of a s i mi lar question asked in March, 1982, before the Lebanon campaign, when 55% were proIsrael, 18 pro-Arab, and· 13% both or neither . Based on the pol l data published while the siege of Beirut was unfolding, and despite disapproval of various facets bf that campaign , it would appear that a ma jority of Americans remained sympathetic to Israel . As particular eyents c l aimed headline attention in American newspapers , press reactions ~t t imes seemed t~ suggest that American public opinion might be changing in a way that would erode support for Isr~el, alter u.s . ~Israel relations, and possibly have an adverse impact on American Jewry . While a majority of editorial opinion and columns was even-handed , the overal l effect was one of criticism of Israel ' s actions in Lebanon. Yet, letters to the editor reflected a fairly even distribution of viewpoints , and public- opinion polls indicated sustained sympathy with Israel among Americans despite reservations about specific issues . Undoubtedly more significant was the noticeaple erosion of support expressed in Congress , but it was not clear whether or not that erosion would be translated into concrete decisions to reduce or withhold aid to I srael .

-15As the departure. from .West Beirut of the PLO began, the climate of opinion became iess charged with judgments about particular incidents and more reflective about possibilities for peace in the Middle East. By late August, it was not yet possible to evaluate what ~ong-term domestic effects there might be on policy toward Israel . As stated at the beginning of this report, the. events of September, which again exacerbated tensions and produced ~ . vast quant~ty of opinion, will be analyzed in a . su~sequent rep~rt.

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-16'A ppend·i·x NEWSPAPER SOU.RCES NEW ENGL~NP ,

{Massachu~etts,

Conn~cticut)

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'(Pennsylvania, D.C., New York, New Jersey)

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... -17NEWSPAPER SOURCES (CONTINUED) WESTERN REGION

(Oregon, Washington, ·c alifornia)

California Voice Journal American (Washington) Los Angeles Herald Examiner Los Angeles Times The Oregon Journal The Oregonian San Diego .Union San Francisco Chronicle San Francisco Examiner Seattle Post-Intelligencer

October 11, 1982 82-970-10 35 cents per copy Quantity

pric~

on request

RABBI DAVID L. GREENBERG, 0 . 0 . 740 E.

FR~SNO. PHONE

V ASSAR

CALIFOR NIA

93704

12091 229 · 1425

JD/ J1 )'f ~

WASHINGTON REG ION

THE N ATIONAL CO NFEREN CE OF CHRISTIANS & JEWS, I NC .

Kalman C . Szekely Executive Director

1402 -3rd AVE .. SUITE 1326 SEATILE, WASHINGTON 98101

.

October 21°, 1982 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Ira H. Alexander Mona Bailey Richard E. Bangerr Sanford M. Bernbaum, Sr. Robert J. Block Norman Calvo Lee Carrer Willie H. Clay David L. Coh n John Ellis Sol Esfeld Phelps Fisher Max Gvrvich Joe L. Hagman Kennerh Heiman H. Roy Johnson Carl Koch Henry L. Kotkins Donald B. Kraft Terry Lengfelder Donald D. Maclean Melville Oseran Donald G. Phelps Harold I. Poll Fred Rogers Nat S. Rogers Rosanne Gostovich Royer V.A. Schwarz David Senescv Earl N. Shvlman Max A. Silver Carole A. Smith Charles Z. Smith Phyllis Starr Phillip B. Swain James A . Thorpe Rvth Vega George S. Weigel, Jr. William M. Weisfield Spruiell D. White Stanley H. Wolfstone

NATIONAL OFFICERS National Cha irman, Executive Board Irving Mitchell Felt President Dr. David Hyatt

(206) 622-7310

Rabbi Marc Tanenbaum . American Jewish Committee 165 East 56 Street New York, New York, 10022 Dear Rabbi Tanenbaum: In preparing for the Clergy training session to be . held in February, and the Religion .workshop· to be held during the .Conference in April, ·the Religion Corranittee has identified 'the following as · potential theme? ·and questions: 1

Clergy Session: General Theme:

"Bringing Jews and Christians Together Theologically on th~ Holocaust: Understandi~g God After · Au~chwitz.

11

Questions: l) How can I believe in the God of Auschwitz? ·2) If I must believe, how do I love the God. of Auschwitz? 3) If God is just, how do Jews find justice in the Holocaust? Conference Workshop: General Thome:. .."Role .of Christianity in Holocaust.".. . What Christian .cler:gY.· and laity did and did not do. Sources of Christian anti-semitism" in the New Testament and Christian Tradition. 11

The Committee has requested that I write you for your opinions and comments regarding these topics, and to solicit your suggestions either for exp.and fog the to pi cs'· or for different topics . · .· The Committee ·meets next on .November 8, 1982. It would be very help- . ful if you were able to .respond prior to that time . . However, if your schedule will not permit that, please feel free to .respond whenever you have the opportunity. Thank you for your help. Sincerely,

~~-~ Kalman C. Szekely Project Director, Seattle Holocaust Study Project BROTHERHOOD :

GIVING TO OTHERS THE SAME RIGHTS AND RESPECT WE WISH FOR OURSELVES

AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

Report from the National Women's Issues Committee

The National Women's Issues Committee was reconstituted in May 1981. Its purpose is to coordinate the programs of the Domestic Affairs, Interreligious Affairs and Jewish Communal Affairs Depts' Women's Issues Conunittee programs, to recommend issues and directions, to disseminate information and to monitor the status of women within AJC. Chaired by . Mimi Alperin and staffed by Marilyn Braveman, the Committee has a member from each Chapter, representatives from each Commission and several at-large members. I --

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National Programs - Women's Issues Committees Domestic Affairs Commission The Committee's work concentrates on, but i's not limited to economic issues effecting women, including equality of job opportunity, equal pay for work of comparable value, the discriminatory effect of social security insurance and pension laws, day care, social club discrimination etc. It will continue to develop and disseminate information to oppose governmental attempts to set legal and psychological barriers to freedom of choice in abortion and access to family planning and will issue briefing papers on the so-called "Family Protection Act" as it is reintroduced in Congress. Our Pertinent Paper, "The Abortion Debate" was widely circulated to Jewish and non-Jewish organizations and individuals and has been well received. A Consultation on social club discrimination is planned for December 14. Chairperson - Bernice R. Sandler Staff - Marilyn Braveman

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Interreligious Affairs Commission The Interreligious Affairs Department of AJC has pioneered in the development of two ongoing programs involving Christian and Jewish women leaders around the country. WIDME, the_Women's Interreligious Dialogue on the Middle East, meets in half a dozen cities on-a regular basis. Founded in New York-in 1974, it focuses particularly on questions relating to Israeli survival and security as well as some form of self-determination for Palestinians in the context of regular meetings and long-term commitment to a process that involves building trust and understanding. A more .recent program, Women of Faith in the 80's, is an outgrowth of a national conference held in November 1980 which brought together women theologians, clergy, educators, writers and .others to address the role of women of faith in strengthening the position of women, particularly in religious institutions, and questions of peace and justice in world communities. A second national conference will take place in the Washington D.C. area late in 1983. Chairperson - Mimi Alperin Staff - Inge Lederer Gibel

-- The Jewish Communal Affairs Commission This year the JCAC is sponsoring a series of four lunch Forums titled "New Perspectives on the Family." The first program in October featured. AJC's 1982-83 Scholar-in-Residence, Dr. Dafna Nundi Izraeli, soci~logist and lecturer in the Department of Labor Studies at Tel Aviv University. · Dr. Izraeli spoke on "The Impact of Individualism and Collectivism on the Jewish Family" with special attention to the history of the tole of women. She described Israel today as a collection of sub-societies rather than one large collective. Women as one sub-group are caught in the tension between their traditional role in the large collective and their growing attempts for equality. The Commission and the Community Services Department co-sponsored Dr. Izraeli's community visits in Seattle, Portland, Dallas, Houston and New York where she spoke on women's issues and family· issues in Israel. A second round is being planned . Chairperson - Nancy Fink Staff - Gladys Rosen

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-- Oral History Library ·:.. Jewish . Women of Achievement In 1979, the library had recorded about 800 memoirs. Of these, only 40 were women and most of them were relatives of famous men. A special project to identify women who. had accomplished on their .own, either in professions or as philanthropic leaders, .was developed in New· York and, as a resul~. about 100 memoirs have been added and include judges, attorneys, musicians and writers etc., as well as presidents of Hadassah, League of Women Voters and Planned Parenthood. AJC Cleveland, Miami, Dallas, Houston and San Antonio Cl1apters are now in various- stages of this project in their communities. Chairperson Mimi Alperin - Irma Krentz Staff

· Chapter Programs The following is an listing of programs and activities conducted or contemplated ·by ~C Chapters which may prove of interest and may be suitable for adaptation by your Chapter. This material was developed through responses .t o a questionnaire and telephone calls to and from area offices. Please acc~pt 'our apologies if your Chapter was omitted or the report is incomplete, our gentle chiding if your Chapter did .not respond and our hopes that the next newsletter will be twice as lqng.

Atlanta -- The Chapter designed a pamphlet on the need for an Equal Rights Amendment and distributed 3500 copies to Jewish individuals and . institutions. A Jewish Women of Achievement Panel with panel.ists ranging from a suffragete (whose husband was the first chair of the Atlanta Chapter) to the member of the Georgia ijouse of Representatives who introduced the E.R.A. is being planned. Baltimore ·-- Women of Faith - An Interfaith dialogue group. 100 women of various faiths attended a program on ."Women of Faith: Instruments of Peace." Panel of Jewish Women: Strength and Diversity - An on-going program in which reform, conservative and orthodox women speak to interfaith groups _for a better understanding of Judaism.

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Boston

Chicago

Participates in C.R.G. Women's Issues Committ;ees. To .counter movements to amend. the Massachusetts Constitution to include a "human life amendment, " they distributed a "call-to-action" to physicians, primarily gynecologists, which explained the implications of such laws. Is conducting a survey (adaP.ted . from the Pittsburgh Chapter) of the participation of ~9~en · in the Jewish community on boards, key connnittees, as officers, presidents ·and executive directors of both religious and secular organizations. It is designed to make the Jewish community .more aware of the potential its women offer. Task Force on the Jewish Single parent. A panel visits Jewish institutions to explain the needs and problems ·of the Jewish single parent familY, predominantly female, in assuring children's Jewish education, problems of divorce, Bar or Bat Mitzvah, and participation in the ritualistic and financial aspect of the Synagogue. A meeting on "Feminism in the Arab World."

Cincinnati

The Chapter is considering a program on family issues titled "To be Young and .Jewish in Cincinnati."

Cleveland -- The Chapter Women's Task Force co-sporisored and is staffing an exhibit table at the Cleveland 1982 "Women at Work" Exposition. It is participating in Jewish Women of Achievement Oral History Proj.ect. Data gathering and training are completed.Dallas

Will participate in a regional/local Jewish Women of Oral History Project with Houston and San 'Antonio.

Achi~ve~ent

Denver -- Joint program with Women's Bar Association on "Discrimination against Older Workers" featuring Cathie Shattuck, Vice-Chairman of the Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Detroit -- The Detroit Women's Forum is an AJC pioneer project bringing together representatives of a, w.i de variety of civic, religious and ethnic groups etc. to discuss and share information and, when .appropriate, work together on issue of concern to women. · Recent Forum sessions have dealt with "Making it as an Older Woman in America," and "The New Wave ~o.litics: Women, November 1982," a tri-partisan analysis of the power of women to. shape elections a~d what they have to gain or lose by the outcome.

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Houston -- In addition to a projected Oral. History Jewish Women of Achievement Project~ the Chapter is conducting a Womeri's Interreligious Dialogue on the Middle East (WIDME) with the ultimate goal of an interreligious trip to . Israel. It ·also ~o-sponsored a day on women's issues, political and economic, : with the Houston Area Women's Center~ · · Long Islai:id

Initiated a Family Is.sues' )'
Los Angeles

For 6 years, the Los Angeles Chapter has co-sponsored a CatholicJewish Women's Dialogue with the Archdiocesan Commission on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs, the Los Angeles Board of Rabbis and the N.C.C.J. This year's Conference will explore ways of achieving world peace.

Miami

Worked to pass E.R.A. · in the state legi~lature and will explore anti-semitism in the women's movement. · 50% of new members of the Chapter are wome~.

Milwaukee

Will adapt the Chicago Single. Parent Jewish Family program beginning with a seminar weekend to define the needs of single Jewish parents. The seminar will also involve Jewish institutions. such as Jewish Family and Childrens Services and the Wisconsin Council of Rabbis etc. to urge them to adapt to changing realities and needs. (One out of two families in Milw~ukee is headed by a single parent.) . New York -- With New York City's Conunission on the Status of Women, the Chapter co- sponsored an all day leadership training conference on "Strategies for Women in the 80's," focussing on organizing around an issue, . litigating, changing corporate attitudes, electing women to office etc. "

Formed the New York N'e twork, modeled after the Detroit Women's Forum. Network meetings have had an average attendance of over SO members representing a wide variety of civic, religious, racial, ethnic, ' business, education and government groups. Topics have included ·issues of adolescent health and family planning new strategies after ~he de~eat of E.R.A., and women in politics, including the gender gap 1n voting . · Philadelphia -- ·Put the need for Jewish day care on the agenda of the Philadelphia ·J ewish community. Formed WIDME group in 1976 as a result of participation of Chapter leaders in first interreligious women's study tour or Middl e East . Pittsburgh -- Session on Women and Power in philanthropies with NCJW and Federation members .as guests.

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Portland -- Worked wi th public. officials to oppose anti-abor_tion· legislation in U.S. Se~ate. · Conducted. a series of joint classes with .the Institute for Adult Jewish Stupies on _the Jewish family in the contemporary American .s cene, including changing family roles. San Diego

Conducted .interreii·g ious women's issue s .breakfast forum series dealing with such issues as mid-life problems, women in religion, anti-SeJI\itism in the women'.s movement and health issues. Will co-sponsor a Jewish Women ' s retreat to deal with spirituality.'

San Francisco -- . Conducted a · series on "Issues of the 80's : Ethics, Morality and Legislation." Background· study papers were prepared by· A.JC members and dealt with such issues as abortion, pornography, censorship, women in the miiitary and equal and comparable pay for work of comparable wort h. Seattle Syracuse }'lashington Westchester

Forum and meetings with the Jew·i sh Women's Network. With N..C.J. ~ - , co- sponsored a "School For Community Action" on "The New Right Agei:ida: A Threat to the Family?" Session on "Women's Issues are Not for Women Only:" A.JC has two appointed representatives on the County Executive's Task Force for Women .

Prepared by Mimi Alperin

MA/MB:ar 10/29/82 .82-620-46

_&

Marilyn Braveman

'}

THE AMERICAN iJEWISH COMMITTEE

date

October 31, 198.2

to a/Rabbi Marc H. Tanenbaum from

subject

Ms. Judith Banki Sam Weintraub · S~minarr: .P~je.ot,

and research about Dr. Martin Luther King

Please find attached a revision of my summary Seminary Project paper, "The Teaching of Christianity and Jewish-Christian Relations at Majo~ American Rabbinical Schools". It now includes information about HUC-Cincinnati, as well as JTS, UJ, HUC-JIR, HUC-Los Angeles, R.RC, and YU. . . I have also, upon Rabbi Tart~nbaum's instruction, read his . January 1980 address ?t the· Ebenazepr-Baptist Church· ecumenical service. At first glance, it appears ~hat Dr. King's views on · Jews arid. Judaism might be divided, and furthur researched, by these categories: · l)Need for Jewish-Black alliances, 2)Anti-Semitism--~n general and in the · Black commu,nity, 3)Israel and the· Midd).e . East, and 4)tpe Holocaust. I'd like now to continue with that research, and will be in touch· this week about that and other matt.e re.

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AMERICAN \JEWISH COMMI TTEE 165 ~~st : S6th Street New Y.ork, NY 10022

National Women's Issues Committee Meeting November S, 1982 NEC, Beverly Jµlton Hotel Los Angeles, CA Minutes·

About SO AJC women and men from around the country attended this meeting, which was geared to reviewing past national and chapter activities and identifying continuing and future issues . I- · · Keynote: Joy Picus, Member, Los Angeles, City ~ounci l - Ms. Picus gave a brief overview of the el~c t ions , noting that the "gender gap" appears to be real and that more women and young women are voting in increasing numbers for candidates who support their issues -- child care, domestic violence, economic equality for women, legal services, tax credits -for volunteer work etc. They also differ from men voters, particularly in• disagreeing with the President's economic and defense po l icy. Although it has been hard for women candidates to raise money in the past, now women are forming Political Action Committees to support women candidate s. . She views the major women's ~ssue of BO' s to be equal pay for work of .comparabl~ worth, noting that most women are still employed in sex-segregated, low paying jobs. When men were secretaries in the early 1800's, these jobs were viewed as apprenticeships for higher positions. But when Katherine Gibbs began to ·train wome'n to be · secretaries and they went into the work' force, they were paid lower salaries because they "didn't need the money." By t})e late 1800's, when the field was dominated l;>y women, salaries were lower and the work less prestigious. A similar pattern occurred i n teaching. Women teachers still earn less than their male conterparts . Women ar~ still , by a large, ~n nurturing jobs -- nurses, social workers, teachers, etc. where people are s1;1pposed to be working "for the love of it, " not money. It will be diffi cult to determine just how to reward people appropriately for the skills in~ valved. in this work, but Ms . Picus. is' sure . it can be done ahd will be done. II- Mimi.· Alperin, Chair of the National Women I s Issues Conuni tt ee described the st rue. ture of the Committee and the work of the program Commission Committees on Women's Issues and _called atte~tio~ to the plethora of materials distributed in the hope that they would proyide ideas f~r chapter programs. She then introduced Fran Kittredge, chair of the Women ' s Campaign Board, who announced th~t the multig enerational Board composed of 82 members, over 40 of them active, -raised.$455,770 in 1980; $5 14 ,788 in 1981 and $556,393 in 1982. Two months into the 1983. campaign year, which starts in the Fall of 1982~ they have already raised $350,000. This comes mostly from women whose husbands are not active and might not support AJC. Members are also active in developing the Left/Right Dj.gest, the Oral History Library and the Women's Interreligious Dialogue on the Middle East.

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Next, Ms. Alperin asked Rita Hauser, chair of the Foreign Affairs Commission to report on its activities. Ms. Hauser noted ~hat there was nothing unique to women at this time, although the Commission will get involved in the upcoming Women's Decade Conference in Nairobi. We will try to counter anti~Israel, anti-U.S. actions, but there is little chance of success. Ms. Hauser also noted that the Foreign Affairs ·steering Committee is heavily male-dominated and urged women to learn more and participate more in foreign affairs. She agreed with Ms. Picus' statement that t he gender gap is based to a large extent on issues of war and peace and that women are anxious about · the use of force as· a way to solve foreign affairs. The same dissonance exists in Israel. · Middie Geisberg of Los Angeles was asked to report on the Chapter's 6th Annual Catholic-Jewish Women!s Dialogue Conference. This year t}le theme was "In ·Search of Peace." · Planning was particularly difficult because of sensitivities on both sides about Lebanon, but. over 200 women attended this very successful forum. Mimi Alperin announced that this year's fo cus would be on economic issues effecting woni~n, pay equity (we will distribute discussion guides to Chapters), Social Club Discrimination (we will have a con ~u lta tion on December 14). She also noted that social cluh discrimination is a long standing program of A.JC, but that once Jewish men began to get into clubs, the issue was pretty much dropped. We will also deal with the problems of elderly women, pension and social security discrimination, the threats to equality contained in the so-called Family Protection Act and any attempts to ·limit _p sychological and financicil access to ·freedom of choice. Marilyn Braveman announced that Mainstream will be published in a new form, still to be finalized, that staff and lay leaders will form an editorial Board and requested that articles or ideas for arti~les be sent 'to her. In discussion from the floor, it wa s suggested that the issue of seniority vs. affirmative action in layoffs needs t~ be addressed. It was also observed that the struggie for state E.R.A is h ighly sensitive and that we should lay the groundwork for passage carefully rather than risk early defeat. response to a question about· whether or not A.JC should hold meetings in unratified states , Marilyn Braveman noted th;:Lt t.he National Organization for Womea sees no reason t'o continue that policy.

In

There was also discussion about whether or not there should be separ ate women's 'groups · ~nd Committees. An A.JC representative from Tulsa noted that, as a woman professional realtor, she was still barred from Nat ional Association of Realtors .membership . We will look at what happens to women's issues in the AJCongress .now that they have integrated the Women's Division . Susan Wohlaner from Denver ·announced that the Chapter was conducting a workshop on discrimination· against older women with Kathie Shattuck, Vice Chairman of the Federa·~ Equal Employment Opportunities Commission and that Ms. Shattuck was available to other AJC Chapters for similar programs. Prepared by Mari lyn Braveman

MB:ar

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.J

National Women's Issues CollD'lli tte·e AJC National Executive Council November

?, 1982

A g e. n d a

I-

Keynote

Joy Picus, Member, Los Angeles City Council "Economic issues will bring together activists from every racial, religious, and ethnic background as the focus for women's coalitions across the United States in the 1980."

II-

AJC National Priorities G Programs. .

Mimi Alperin, Chairperson National Women's Issues Committee

"With representatives from chapters across the United States, we have the opportunity to accept the challenge of our mandate and to provide leadership for all women from all walks of life and effect change." Francine Kittredge., Chairperson AJC Women's Campaign Board Rita Hauser, Chairperson A.JC Foreign Affajrs Commission III-

AJC's Chapters - Discussion We call your attention to the newsletter which lists national program emphases and Chapter activities which you may be interested in adapting .for you·r Chapter's use.

MB/ar 82-620-45

,,

·-A~1ERICAN

JEWISH COMMITTEE

.·.

Report from tne ..National Women's issu.e s Conunittee

I.

The National Women's Issues Committee was reconstituted in May 1981. Its purpose is to coordinate the programs of the Domestic Affairs, Interreligious Affairs and Jewish Communal Affairs Depts' Women's Issues Committee programs, to recommend issues anq directions, to dissemina'te information · and to· monitor the status of women within_AJC. Chaired by Mimi Alperin and staffed by Marilyn .Braveman,. the :Committee has a member from each Chapter, representatives from each Commission and several at-large. members .

N?-tional Progr ams - Women's I.ssues Committees Domestic Affairs .Commission The Committee's w~rk concentrates on, but is not limited to economic issues· effecting women, including equality of job opportunity, equal pay for work of co~parable value, t he discriminatory effect of social security insurance and pension laws, day care, social club discrimination etc. It will continue to develop and disseminate information to oppose attempts to set legal and psychological ·barr.iers to freedom of choice in abortion and access to family planning and will issue briefing papers on the so-called "Family Protection Act" as it is reintroduced in Cong·.-ess. Our Pertinent Paper, "The Abortion Debate" was widely circulated to Jewish and non.- Jewish organizatiqns _and individuals and has been well received. A Consultation on social club discrimination is planned for December 14. gov~rrunental

Chairperson - Bernice R. Sandler Staff - Marilyn Braveman

- 2 -

Interreligious Affairs Commission The Interreligious Affairs Department of A.JC ..has pioneered in the development of two ongoing programs involving Christian and Jewish women leaders around the country. WlDME, the Women's Interreligious Dialogue on the Middle East, meets in half a dozen cities on-a regular basis. Founded in New York-in 1974, it focuses particularly on questions relating to Israeli survival . and security as well as some form of self-determination for Palestinians in the context of regular meetings and long- term commitment to a process that involvesbuilding trust and understanding. A more recent program, Women of Faith in the 80's, is an outgrowth of a national conference he1d in November 1980 which brought together- women theologians, clergy, educators, writers and others to ad~ress the role of women of faith in strengthening the position of women, p~rticularly in religious institutions, and questions of peace and justice in world communities. A second ~ational conference will take place in the Washington D.C: area late in 1983. Chairperson - Mimi Alperin Staff - Inge Lederer Gibel

-- The Jewish Communal Affairs Commission Thi·s year the JCAC is sponsoring a series of four lunch Forums titled "New Perspectives on the Family." The first program in October featured A.Jc·· s 1982-83 .Scholar-in-Residence, · Dr. Dafna Nundi Izraeli, sociologist and lecturer in the Department of Labor Studies at Tel Aviv University. Dr. Izraeli spoke on "The Impact of Individualism and Collectivism on the Jewish .Family" with special at~ention to the history of the role of women. She described Israel today as a collection of sub-societies rather than one large collective . Women as one sub-group ~re caught in the tension between their traditional role in the large collective and their growing attempts for equality. The Commission and the Community Services Department co-sponsored Dr . · lzraeli's community visits in Seattle, Portland, Dallas, Houston and New York where she spoke on women's issues and family issues in Israel. A second round i s being planned. Chairperson - Nancy Fink Staff - Gladys .Rosen

·... -.: : ·

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-- Oral History Library - Jewish Women of Achievement .....· In 1979, the· 1ibrary had recorded about 800 mei;noirs. Of these• only 40 were women and most of them ~ere relat~ves of famous men. A · spec~al project to identify women who had accomplished on their own, either in professions or as philanthropic leaders, was developed in New York arid, as a result, about ·1 00 memoirs have been added and include judges, attorneys, musicians and writers etc., as well as presidents of Hadassah, League of Women Voters and Planned Parenthood. AJC Cleveland, Miami, Dallas, Houston and San Antonio Chapters. are now in various stages of this project in their communities. Chairperson - Mimi Alperin Staff - Irma Krentz

Chapter Programs The following is an listing of programs and aetivities conducted or cont'emplated by AJC Chapters which may prove of inte~~st and may be suitable for adaptation by your Chapt er . This material was .developed through responses to a questionnaire and telephone calis to and from area offices. Please accept our apologies if your Chapter was omitted or the report is incomplete, our gentle chiding if your Chapter did . not respond and our hopes that. the next newsletter will be twice as long.

Atlanta - - The Chapter ·designed a pamphlet on the need for an Equal Rights Amendment and distributed 3500 copies to jewish individuals and institutions . A Jewish Women of Achievement Panel with panelists ranging from a suffragete (whose husband was the first chair of the Atlanta Chapter) to the member of the Georgia House of Representatives who introduced the E.R.A. is being planned. Baltimore -- Women of Faith - An Interfaith dia~ogue group. 100 women of various faiths attended a program on "Women of Faith: Instruments of Peace." Panel of Jewish Women: Strength and Diversity - An on-going program in which refonn , cons ervative and orthodox women speak to interfaith groups for a better understanding of Judaism.

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Boston - - Participates in C.R.C. Women's Issues Committees. To counter movements to amend the Massachusetts Constitution to include : a "huma,n life amendment, " they distributed a "call-to-action" to physicians, _primarily gynecologists, which explained the implications· of such laws. , · I-:; conducting a survey (adapted from the Pittsburgh ·Chapter) of the participation of womeh in the Jewish community ·on boards, key committees, as officers, presidents and executive directors of both r.eligious ~nd secular organizations. It is designed to make the Jewish community more aware of the potential .its ·women offer.

Chicago

i

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Task Force on the Jewish Single parent. A panel visits Jewish institutions to explain the needs and problems of the Jewish single parent familr, predominantly female, in assuring children's Jewish education, problems of divorce, Bar or Bat Mitzvah, and participation in the ritualistic and financial aspect of the Synagogue . . -- .A meeting on "Feminism in the Arab World." Cincinnati - - The Chapter is considering a program on family issues titled "To be Young and Jewish in Cincinnati." · Cleveland -- The Chapter Women ' s Tas~ Force co-sponsored and is staffing an exhibit table at the Cleveland 1982 "Women at Work" Exposition. It is participating in Jewish Women of Achievement Oral History Project. · Data gathering and training are completed. Dallas

Will participate in a regional/local. Jewish Women of Achievement Oral History Project with Houston and San Antonio.

Denver. --

~oint

Detroit

program with Women's Bar Association on "Discrimination against Olde!' :work<:rs" featuring Cathie Shattuck, Vice-Chairman of the Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

The Detroit Women's Forum is an AJC pioneer project bringing together representa't ives of a wide variety of civic, religious and ethnic 'groups etc. to discuss and share information and, when ~ppropriate, work together on issue of concern to women. Recent Forum sessions have dealt with "Making it as an Older Woman in America," and "The New Wave Politics: Women, November 1982," a tri-partisan analysis of the ·power of wo~en to shape elections and what they have to gain or lose qy the outcome.

...,

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Houston -- In addition to a projected Oral History Jewish Women of Achievement Project, the Chapter is conducting a Women's Interreligious Dialogue on the Middle East (WIDME) with the ultimate goal of an interreligious · trip to Israel. It also co-sponsore4 a day on women's issues, political and economic, with the Houston Area Women's Center. Long Island -- Initiated a Family Issues Task Force to look at issues relevant to the needs of the changing family. Los Angeles

Miami

Milwaukee

For 6 years, the Los Angeles Chapter has co-sponsored a CatholicJewish Women's Dialogue with the Archdiocesan Commission on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs, the Los Angeles Board of Rabbis and the N.C.C.J. This year's Conference will explore ways of achieving world peace . Worked to pass E.R.A. in the state legislature and will explore anti-semitism in the women's movement . 50% of new member.s of the Chapter are women. Will adapt the Chicago Single Parent Jewish Family program beginning with a seminar weekend to define the needs of single Jewish parents. The seminar will also involve Jewish institutions such as Jewish Family and Childrens Services and the Wisconsin Council of Rabbis etc. to urge them ·to adapt to changing realities and needs . (One out of two families in Milwaukee is headed by a single parent.)

New York -- With New York City's Commission on the Status of Women, the Chapter co-sponsored an all day leadership training conference on "Strategies for Women in the 80' s," focussing on o.r ganizing around an issue, .litigating, changing corporate attitudes, electing women to office etc.

Philadelphia

Formed the New York Network, modeled after the Detroit.. women's Forum. Network meetings have had an average attendance of over SO members representing a wide variety of civic, religious, racial, ethnic, business, education and government groups. Topics nave inc luded issues of adolescent health and family planning new strategies after ~he de~eat of E.R. A. , and women in politics, including the gender gap in voting . Put the need for Jewish day care on the agenda of the Philadelphia Jewis h communi~y. Formed WIDME group in 1976 as a result of participation of Chapter leaders in first interreligious women's study tour of Middle East.

Pittsburgh -- Session on Women and Power in philanthropies with NCJW and Federation members as guests.

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·:.·. Portland

Worked with public officials to oppose anti-abortion legislation in U.S. Senate. Conducted a series. of joint classes with the Institute for Adult Jewish Studies on the Jewish family in the contemporary American scene, including changing family roles.

San DieE

Conducted interreligious women's issues breakfast forum series dealing with such issues as mid-life problems, wom~n in religion, anti-Semitism in the women's movement and health issues. Will co-sponsor a Jewish Women's retreat to deal with spirituality.

San Francisco

Seattle Syracuse Washington Westchester

Conducted a series on "Issues of the 80's : Ethics, Morality and Legislation. " Background study papers were prepared by A.JC members and dealt with such issues as a~ortion, pornography, censorship, women in the military and equal and comparable pay for work of comparab ~e worth . · Forum and meetings with the Jewish Women's Network. With N.C.J.W., co-sponsored a "School For Community Action" on "The New Right Agenda: A Threat to the Family?" Session on "Women's Issues are Not for w·omen Only." A.JC has two appointed representat ives on the County Executive's Task Force for Women.

Prepared by Mimi Alperin

MA/MB:ar 10/29/82 82-620-46

&Marilyn

Braveman

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THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE date to

from

Al

November 5, 1982

:J

Field Off ices Staff Advisory Committee Hyman Bookbinder and Howard Kohr

subject . Washington Update

The Congress re~urns to Washington for a lame duck session of . three weeks starting on November 29th. The main focus of .this session will be the 10 aPpropfiation Eills that Congress failed to pass before ~t ·left for the election reqess. To provide interim funding for the bulk of. Federal programs, Congress passed a continuin a ro riations resolution. This funding will expire on Dece er 17th. So between. vember 29th and December 17th Congress must pass the remaining appropriation bills or another continuing resolution. Most observers feel th~t only a few of the appropriation bills will pa~s and that Con~ress will have to pass another continuing resolution to take care of the · controversial appropriations. Among the controversial appropriation bills that must be passed are the Defense de artment, ener r rams food stamp P..f?grams, foreign ai ~, and health, .edµcation apd welfare progr In addition to these eo11ttoversial bills, other controversial measures that may be taken up include: another attempt at a balanced budget amendment, enterprise zone legislation, reform of the f~d~ral..r~ulation making process, and a .major reform of ex• isting immigration la'1s. Only the federal regulation reform bill . and the ilimu,gration bill appear to have any chance of passing. There simply will not be sufficient time to give adequate consideration to more than the .absolµtely critical bills. •.

-

Some important issues of specific interest to the Jewish community which may come up in the lame duck session include: tuition tax creditS, which has already passed the Senate Finance Committee. It may come to the Senate floor but if it does Senator Hollings (D., South Carolina} is expected to filibuster. The Committee-passed bill includes credit up to.,2300 a year for each child in private e],einentary or secondary school. We are on record op- · posing tuition credits. The Foreign Aid Bill includes military and economic aid to Israel and Egypt. Foreign aid authorizations have been pending in both houses since May. Neither Senate nor House appropriation sub-committees have written an aid bill for 1983. The House Foreign Affairs Committee recommended $1.7 billion ($750 million-loan,

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in militar Economic a&sistance for Israel (total 5 ipn of the total is in the form · .o~s. e Senate Foreign Affairs Committee recommended ~~n ($.8-50-grant, $750~loan) in Military aid and ·$910 million in economic aia for ·a t6tal of $2.6 billion. The administration is requesting $2.485 billion wit-h~­ $1. 7 billion in I!'lilitary aid ($500 million-grant, $1.2 billionloan) and $785 million ($525-grant, $260-loan) in economic assistance. Most observers feel that neither an authorization nor an appropriation bill will be passed this session thus putting foreign aid ' in the continuing resolution ·at the FY 82 levels of $2.2 gillion. We u·r ge you to contact your senators asking them to support the aid levels recommended by the Senate Foreign Relations and · House Foreign Affairs Committee: You also should urge them to vote ·against amendments to cut aid to ·Israel specifically or any cuts to fo~eign · aid that do not exempt Israel.

c~~50 million-qran~)

· The National Association of Arab Americans (NAAA) has just launched a major national effort, including expensive newspaper advertising, calling for an end ~o aid to Israel because of its activities in' Lebanon. This . NAAA c'ampaign must be counteracted by pro-aid forces. · The Immigration Bill (Simpson- Mazzoli) will come to the House floor early in the lame duck sessio~ . The House Judiciary committee made ·some substantial revisions to the original House Bill ~impson - Mazzoli) and it ·is now significantly different from the Senate-passed bill. The Judiciary Committee restored the 5th ---..pr~ference for brothers and sisters of U.S. ·citizens, maintained the current 2nd preference system , and del eted the admissions ceiling of~25,000 by maintain~ng the current law. These changes along with some others in the· asylum a nd legalization sections are ones the AJC has supported in our public testimony. Both the Judiciary Committee and Senate versions of · the bill contain empl oyer sanctions and some kind of I . D. system (AJC is neutral on this issue.) Amendments will be offered on the floor of the House to restore the ceiling on legal immigration and to include refugees in an overall immigration ceiling. .Pleas~ contact your representative urging them to oppose these amendments . Our final position on the passage ' of this important . bill will be determined in large part by ·what happens on the House floor. [Even if the House passes ,a bill it must go to a conference committee to work out the differe'nces with the Senate ve.r sion .] This issue is one of our top vprioritie~ in the lame dµck session! The Social Issues·. School Prayer and Abortion Bills are not likely to come before the Congress until the beginning of the next session of Congress in January. The Senate tabled a proposal to ban abortion and with 3 procedural votes it laid aside a ·rneasure on school prayer. The issue of busing m~y still come up on the House floor on a bill to remove the federal court's authority to hear cases.

-3-

Looking

~head

Issues that we are almost certain to see in the next session of Congress include: (1)

The Social Security system, which may r~quire some immediate financial relief. The President's National Commission and Social Security reform is expected to iss·ue its recommendations before the end of the year.

(2)

The · social . issues ·such as abo~tion, school prayer and bµsing. President's constitutional amendment calling for voluntary school prayer will be re-introduced and attempts by Senator Helms (R., North Caro- · lina) and others will be made to 1.restrict abortions and the use of busing.

(3)

·.The Economy. High levels of unemployment wi.11 be the dominant concern. Efforts will be made to -decrease the size of the federal deficit. Heated deb~te will surround· such issuei as further dbmestic spending cuts, limiting the growth of defense spending and finding ways of raising revenues.

(4)

Arms sales to Jordan. The administration is expected to make a .request 'for. F-SG fighter planes and mobile Hawk missles. The request is expected sometime in early 1983.

Elections It is not clear just how the election results will affect any of these issues when the new · Congress convenes in January. While the over-all numbers may suggest . likely trends in the broad areas of domestic policy, specific issues will be affec~ed py changes tn Cong~ ressional committees and "in the views held by the new members ·in the Congress whose views are yet to be revealed on some of the more controversial subjects. There are a number of. interesting results of the election: The .§enate remained a Repphlic.an mc:Qority (54-46). The House picked up_~ new Democratic seats giving Democrats an even-ta-rger majority -1167-166 -- with two seats in Georgia tq be filled on November 30)~olls conducted by ABC (sample size 22, 960) estimated that voters prefered Democratic to Republican House candidates by 57-40 percent. Every demographic group -- Hispanic, Catholic, Jew~otestant, ' men, women, young and old, except those with ( $40,000 or more income per year -- prefered Democrats. unemployment was · identified by 43% of the voters as the nations most serious prob----1em. Inflation was identified as the next most · serio~s - problem ~(17%). In those districts with unemployment rates of 10% or more,

-461 of the 101 Republican candidates were defeated. Finally, ABC polling data revealed that union members cast 41%, women 53%, elderly 19% and Blacks 15% of the Democratic vote. Which voting bloc made the difference in specific races is not known. Other exit polls are not yet available.

r·.)

There will be nine new Jewish members of Congress, two . Senators, (Chic Hecht, R-Nev. and· Frank Lautenberg, D-NJ) and s~ven Representatives (Berman, D-Calif; Boxer, D-ealif; Erdreich, D-Ala; Levine, D-Calif; Levin, D-Mich; Sisisky, D-Va; . anq_ Smith, D-F·&a). This bri:ngs the total of Jewish Senators tq eight and th~ number of Representatives to thirty.

(

The "Friehds of Jsrael" were very successful this time in both Senate and House races. In addition, several outspoken critics of Israel were defeated. This Congress should be more sympathetic to foreign aid for Israel; for getting tougher with the UN; moving toward strategic cooperation with· Israel and moving ahead with the peace proces. ~· : · · There will be at least nine new members of the House Foreign Affairs Committee and with the addition of Democratic seats in the House, more Democratic committee seats. There i~ no change. in the House Foreign Operations Committee, but it too will most likely, add new Democratic seat~. In the Senate, the Foreign Relations Committee maintains its nine to eight . Republican to Democratic ratio. A replacement for Senator Hayakawa (R-Calif .-retired) must be found. There is no change in the Senate Foreign Operations Committee.

A number of referendums were on state and local ballots this time. Voters in Califor~ia, Mass., Michigan, Montana, New Jersey, N. Dakota, Oregon and Rhode Island and the District of Columbia; approved nuclear-fre~ proposals along with voters in about 30 --.. cities aiia' counties. Arizona and one county in Arkansas and one in Colorado defeated· the measure. In California, strict gun control ,---legislation went down to defeat. In Mass., voters approved by a · 2-1 margin a measure to restrict construction of nuclear power plants and disposal sites for low-level nuclear waste. Idaho and Maine voters endorsed future construction. Voters in Alaska refused """ 3-2 to end state funding for abortion. Portland, Oregon and two Vermont towns called for an end to U.S. aid to El Salvador. What the impact of these referendums will be on shaping national poilcy is unclear. Finally, while it is true that the "new right" political organizations suffered major setback this election it is too early to "count them out". · They still have s.o me very influential supporters in the Congress and are still able· to raise large sums o.f money. Thus it is likely that they will continue to have an impact on the national debate on the social and economic issues that are vital to . their agenda. In response, we mu.st maintain our ef~ forts and continue to be vigilant on the issues that effect our interests.

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The Congressional Agenda Major Legislation As o,f_ Oct. 15, 1982 ..

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(Nurn~;. 01 end ol eoch

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of.the

97th Col)gress, 2nd Session

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item indi
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Bill and Background

~ouse

final

Senate

'· Fii11 8 11dget lflOl111ion. (S Con Res 92) Establishet ·binding budgel !eYels for the 1983 facal year beginning Oct. 1, 1982. (1508)

Passed

Passed

Cleo red

6 /10 / 82

5/21 / 82

6/ 23 / 82

Omn ib111 Reconciliation. (HR 6955) Provides S 13.3 .billion in spending reclvc· lions in fiscal 1983·85. (1047) · . ' ·

Passed

Passed

8/ 10/ 87

8/ 11 / 82

Signed 9/ 8/ 87 Pl 97-253

Paned 11/15/81 (dilferent led)

7/23/ 82

Finance/ Ways and Means Reconciliolion. (HR 4961) Providos for $98.3 billion in to• increases and $17.5 ~illion in spending reductions in fiscal 1983·

85. (1035) Debt ~iling. (H J Res 520) lncre-• the temporary ·ceiling on the nafionol debt to S1.29 t1illion. (1358} ·

Po.sed

Passed

Passed

6/ 23/ 82

9(13; 82

Siqncd 9/ 3/ 82 Pl 97-248

Signed 9/ 30/ 82 Pl 97-270

--Supplemental Appropriation1. (HR 6863) Providei S 14.2 billion in ' supplemental appropriations for fiu9I 1982. {113n

Passed 7 /19/82

Baloncod Budget Amendment. (S J Ru 58, H J Res JSO) Requires Congress . to adopt a balanced budget each year unless three-fifths of menib.n oppro-.e deficit spending. (2687)

Rejected

Paned

10/1 / 82

8/ 4/ 82

Immigration Revision. (S 2222, HR 6514) Tightens federal immigration laws to curb entry of illegal aliens. (2688)

Jud1c1ory a pproved 9/ '17/82

8/ 17/ 82

Nuclear Armt Resolutions. (HJ Res 521) fkprelSes congressional sentiment on nuclear c11ms talk• with the Soviet Union. (2683)

8/ 5/ 8'1

Passed

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Foreign Relations approved 6/ 9/ 8'2

Passed 7/29182

5/ 14/ 8?

Clean Air Act . (HR 5252) Reouthoriaos and revises the Cloon Air Act . (2684)

Energy & Commerce markup to continue

Environment apptoved 8/ 19/ 82

1983. (26S6J

Passed

Po>1cd

' Posscd

6/21 / 82

7/ 14/ 82

Bon l ing reported 5/ 17/82

8onk1ng 1eported 5/28/ 82

8111 Deie911lotion. (HR 3663) Removes many government controlt on the interci!Y bus industry. (1134)

Passed

Passed

11 / 19/ 81

6/ 30/ 8'1

Tele
Withdraw,n by sponsor 7 / 20/ 82

Passed

Re9ula lory Reform. (S 1080, HR 746) Revise1 rule-malling olllhority of federal age!l
Rules took up

Passed

9/ 30/ 82

3/14/ 82

NuclllOr Waste. (S 1662, HR 7187) E11ablishes a timetable for ovoluotion and selection of polentiol 1ites for pe1monent disposcil of rodioodivo wost~. (2684)

Debate began 9/ 30/ 82

· Passed

NRC AvthOfiaation. (HR 2330) ~alllhorizes Nuclear Regulatory Commission and. ollo'IV\ inle1im licenting of nuclear plonh. (1684)

Conferen
Conle1ence report ado pted 10/1 / 82

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Pl 97-257

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Poued

' Defense A11thOfi1a tN>n. (S 2248) Authorizes defense procurement, personnel. reseoteh. o pe rations o.n d maintenance for fiscol l 983. (20$9)

Housing A11lhori1alion. (HR. 6296, S 2607) Reouthoriies hovsillg and other pro~!foms of the Oepo11rnent of Housing ond Urban DeYelopme•t for fiscal

9/10/ 82

8/11 / 82

Passed

Tobacco P109rom. (HR 6590) Revises the fed01al tobacco program by requir· ing tobacco producen to reimburse' the govemment for losses under the price support loon program. (1729)

Veto overtiddcn

:(J Signed 9/ 8/ 82 Pl 97-252

. Signed

7/ 20/ 82 Pl 97-218

Signed 9/20/ 82 Pl 97·?61

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10/ 7/ 81

4/29/ 82

CG#flttG1iC IOU 'r.oNCtU~!-fONA I OOUllRI' INC l•p1.,,....,,,I""'" poolrlobotf'd"'

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Oct. !.">, 1982- PAGE 2701 ·

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Status of Appropriations 97th Congress, Second Session

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Funding for agencies whose fiscal 1983 appropriations bills hod not cleared by Oct. 1, 1982, wos inclu~ed in o continu ing resolution (H J Res 599 - Pl 97-276). (p. 2623)

Appropriation Bills

House

Senate

Weekly Report Page

Final

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Agriculture a nd related agencies {HR 7072, S 2911 )

Pos5ed

·Pos5ed

9/2 \

9/ 28

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Committee reported

Defense (S 295 1)

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(HR 7145)

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9/21

~f):

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Committee reported

Military Construction (HR 6968)

State, Justice, Commerce, Judiciary (HR 6957, S 2956)

Transportation and related agencies {HR 7019, S 291-4)

2432

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2697

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Committee reported 9/ 9

Committee reported

9/ ?2

Full-yeor funding included in Pl 97-276 .

Passed

Passed

Cleared

8/ 19

9/ 27

10/ 1

Committee reported

Committee reported

8/\ 0

9/ 24

Passed

Committee reported

9/ 2\

T;eas_ury, Postal Se rvice, General Government (HR 7158, S 29 16)

9/ 30

Pl 97-272

·~

9/ 29

l egislative Branch (HR 7073, S 2939)

Signed

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labor, Heohh and Human Services, Education (HR 7205)

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9/24

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Interior o nd related agencies

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2371

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Housing ond Urban Development, Veterans, NASA (HR 6956)

PAGE 2700- 0ct. Hi, 1982

2648

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Fore i_g n Aid

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9/16

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Jl_I

Committee reported

Paned

Energy ond Water Development

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Cl.<-'

ri,\ {HR 7144. S 2917)

2649

9/ 23 ' :"\

District of Columbia

2434

2624

2655

2436

I

. 2375

9 / 22

Committee reported

Committee reported

9/2~

9/ 16

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2378

CQl't ll'IC..I 111181 ( ()NGW(\)f('IH&l QU.t.tlf lf l" lN(, •...P. ·~

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... T:H~ ··AMERICAN ·JEWISH COMMITTEE date

to from subject

November 16; 1982 Harold Applebaum Judi.th H. Banki

..

Attached · .

· .. . It occurr.ed to me that. the. attached . article fr.om · the New · York Tfmes would be. a very heipful item to distribute to our· area staff, since i:t effe~.tively demonstrates the menace of· th.e .P .L. o. without any reference to I~rael or ·Jews. · I have a feeling this story
w~ll

known thro.ughout

_ .,I JB : ln

enc . cc: Rabbi .M. Tanenbaum

...

...

NEW YORK TIMES 10/27/82

., .

~, -:y:.•

PJ1,0, USED SCHOOL

!!-:~. ~ ~.... .. - ~

. RUN BY U.N. AGENCY v~'\-

·~ __, _,_ .,

,·.

Dy BERNARD D. NOSSITER Sr>«i~ltoTI-.r:-c.-~ YOTkT1!;!." \

\,

.

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. C:OntJnUed From Page Al

pen."

.

needed t 'le police, they were forced to l!•m to t1e guerrillas. "I don't think tt contd h11ppcn again," Mr. Rydbeck said. His ag•mcy's report on Siblin ch:\rgcd th11t "th! military training witl1in Uie center's premises and the control exerclscd by the P.L.O. military personnel over cerialn parts of the premJses was known to those In the center."

!

' I

1

and conduct military classes for young men and women studying trades. DipJC>-·

mas were withheld from vocational graduates 1;,ntil they had served a year

~

with the guerrilla organization, the report said. "TI1e ccntl'r's premises were evidently used to provide sy:.tematic military t.mining to the center's students," the repo:t on an Internal inquiry said. The 2,000.word document said that "the agency is satisfied that its training ccnlln was misused" and that . an "obvious violation of ar;cncy r egula!ions" took place. The report said, '.'It is 1clear that for around two years pnor to I 19~2 a parallel program of organized : military training by the P.L.O. had ! been carried out within the center~s ~ premises which 1s totally incompatible (. . ~ ~ Qmtlnued on Pago A9, C:Olumn l 61

, ...



:ll

I

~



Siblin'.;

principal,

a

Palestinian

The agency began Its l.nquiry into SibUn last summer after Jsrctcl complnined that the scho91 was a cover for a P .L.O. training camp. According to Amc rtcar. diplomats, nothing .was heard of the lnvcsti13aticn until this month. Jeane J. Kirkpatrick, the United States delegate, t.'len wrote Mr. Rydbeck, saying that the United States was holding up a $15 million payment untilthe studywascompleted. . The United States Ws year is contributlng $67 million, or more U1an a third of the $181.6 million budgetfor the agency.· The report was dated Oct. 18 and reachod Washington the next day.

UNITED NATIONS, N.Y., Oct. 26••nie special position given to the whom tt c agency will not namE:, has A trade school near Beirut run by a P. L.O. created special problems," he been su.~ ;>ended. The school's two chief· United Nations rE'lief agency was used said. He meant that the region south of lnstructc rs and two officials troro Unrby the Palrs tinc i.iberation OrganizaBeirut was under the control of the wa's Be rut office also face charges, P .L.O. and, when the camp.aut1'oriUes Mr. Rydl>ecksaid. . . tloh for military cour~cs for 78l stu-. dents 0ver two years, according to a re. . p-:irt by the aaency. ! rJllc rcpcirt by the United Natimts Re:. ' · uet :md Works Agency, which has been \ - :nlted States law prohllHts payments they mmm.,ndeered th,.. ground-Oooi tonance ol -h•nd

· caring for Palestinians since 1950, said · the Sihlin Trai11ing Center allowed . arrnc.'l:i P .L.O. Instructors to liye in th,e I : camp. store arms in a basement that was barred to United Nations employees and ~end r;::dio mrssagcs from it

.....)

P.L.O. Trained Yout,~s at U.N. School Near Beirut with tht! aeency's ' status nnd functions." In Vienna, where the agcnc}' has its he.1dquarters, Olof Ryd'>cck of Swoocn, the commls:;ioner general. said in a telephone interview thnt t:hls "was a most regrettable thing" and added, "l a1n very concerned that It could h.1p.

Relief Group Says Guerrillas Gave Youths Arms Training ~_.:fl.,

.

to the agency unless It "takes all poss!· ble measures to nssur:e" that no funds reach refugees receiving military trainIng by the P.L.O. or any other "terror·ist"organization. Arrival or the P .LO. ' The agency report described how the P.L.O. came to Slblln sometime after . September 1979. Factional clashes had broken out among the students, 594 men nnd 187 women, Md the school auUum! ties invited the P.L.O. military police to mnintain order. Terry Davidson, the agcncy's spo~csman, said the P .L.O. wns t.he eftecuve authority south of Belrut. . The · P.L.O. members, however, stayed on. Never fewer than 6 and sometimes as many.. as 15, au armed, . .. .

rooms and the basement and usually kept theni Jc eked. The report said the p t o commander Abu Walid took ~e~ ~e room 35 h~omce.anttdistributcduniformsfrom anoUter. In the !ockcd bnsement, one agency stnf~ member saw 500 Kalashni· kov autom ltic r1nes, 20 rocket· ro. pellcd-gren:tde launchers ammwliton lor both a.nd radio cqwpinent to send and receive messages . • . ·All the sc 1001's ymmg men dolled between 7 aml 9 A.M. or after 2 P .M .. AJI theyoung\\omcn•. daystudents, tralne
:~po~

and on the production and use of explosives." Two manuals on el!Jllosives were found at ~e school. . · At the same time, the youths pursued courses In IS trades and training as teachers. How many diplomas were 'held up until the men and women had served their time with the P.L.O. Is not known, but Mr. Davidson said it was "doz.ens and doz.ens.•• The agency's field director in Beirut Robert Prevot Jearited or this last and the report said he complained to the P.L.O. The study said, however, that Mr. Prevotinsisted tic knew nothing of the military training at Siblin and that he had re. tired to France. -----------

May

1

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THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

date to

from subject

::J

November 18, 1982

a.

Area Directors

c

Yehuda Rosenman AJC Prograrruning on "New Pockets of

J~wish

Energy"

3

I am p l eased to send you a copy of the report of . our study ·on· "New · Pockets of Jewish Energy." This was a pilot study which explored the process enabling individual's to feel more deeply about their Jewish identity than they did in the past. Although the study was conducted in Boston, New York and Philadelphia, we feel that. its implications apply nationally and .to many types of Jews. \

Therefore we would like to suggest the following program possibilities : 1.

. : ; ':':"

AJC outreach A study of this nature will be of great interest to · · younger Jews, involved -in professional activities, who have not as yet· ·identified the extent and content of their Jewish activities. The study speaks to them in the context of "here are a group of people--just like you and me--who have revitalized their lives by intensifying their Jewish corrunitments." In other words_, i t connects the intelligent Jew to the Jewish corrununity. In that sense, the study may be used in tandem with outreach efforts to involve new people in AJC activities and to bring them closer to the Jewish corrununity. · In turn, such individuals may find programs within the AJC through which they may revitalize their own Jewishness, e.g. the Academicians Seminar in Israel. 2.

Impact upon· corrununal· lea'de·rs The study should be brought to the attention of leading figures within the Jewish community, who are involved in outreach efforts and attempts to intensify Jewish commitments. These should include rabbis, Hillel directors, academicians, and staff people of Jewish corrununal agencies involved in ".':~-·.,.,. programmatic activities. The study may · be sent to them, as //".~tf;'i~<>

:.cata;;;t~;:;~:h:::e::::::rc::::::th::na:::::~st material, :~. ;1-ft,! which may be utilized as stories within the local Jewish news- · ~(.:"',.r papers. At the very least, the local media should be informed of the study's release and its availabjlity. C· ~f

...:2-

4.

Conference The national office will be convening a conference of key communal professionals, academicians, rabbis and others who should be interested in this study to discuss its findings and to focus on its implications · for Jewish programming and policy planning. Chapters may consider sponsoring a local conference along these l~nes in order to focus attention upon the local dimensions of these questions. For instance, all communities are concerned about the large number of unaffiliated Jews. Your local conference could focus on the implications of this study for outreach programs to the unaffiliated. The . national office will be please~ to provide consultation and assistance in carrying out progra~ possibilities. Please keep us · informed as to what is going on in your area and how we may be of assistance to one another in enhancing these program possibilities.

YR:kl 8 2-7 50.- 155

THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE Hi lda Katz Blaustein Staff Institute Decembe r 5-8, 1982 The Jeroni mo 's, Wa lker Valley, N.Y . PNiTICIPANTS

Arthur Abramson, Seattle Ha rol d Applebaum, National Shula Bahat, National And rew Bake r, Washington, D.C. Evan Bayer, National $.teven Bayme, National He rman Blumberg, Boston Hyman Bookbinder, ~ashington , D. C. Ell e n Cohen, Hous ton Eugene DuBow, Natiorr.a.l Dona ld Feldstein, National Arthur Feuer, National She rry Frank, Atlanta Murray Friedman , Philadelphia Joyce Ga lpern, Pi ttsburgh Willi am Gralnic k, Miami Geor ge Gruen , National Mil ton Hi mmelfarb , National Se lma Hirsh, National Ab r aham Karlikow, National Sonya Kaufer, Nat ional Haske ll Lazere , National Irvi ng Levine, Nati onal Jonat han Levine , Chicago Be rnice NeWTian, Westchester Samue l Rabinove, National Ber na r d Resnikoff, Jerusalem Vehuda Rosenman, National Marilyn Rot hman , Nationat James Rudi n, National Seymour Samet, ~ationa t Nei l Sandberg, Los Angeles Philli p Saperi a, New Jersey Phi:li p Shamis , National Phy l l i s Sherman, National "Adam Simms, .National Dav id Si n ger:~ National Diane St~'i-hn;ia n, Denver Marc Tanenba·um, National Mi 1t on Tob'i an, Dallas Will iam Tros t e n, Na tional Er nes t We i ner, San Francisco Mor t on Varmon, National

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#82-315-155 December. 1 , ·:·1982

·"

:

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···THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE Hi lda Katz Blaustein Staff Inst i tute December 5 -- December 8, 1982 The Jeronimo's, Walker Val ley, N.Y., (914) RE 3-1219

SCHEDULE

SUNDAY, DECEMBER 5 10;00 A.M.

Bus leaving for The Jeronimo's from 165 E. 56 Street, New York

12:00 Noon

Check in at The Jeronimo's

12 :30-1:30 P.M.

Lunch

1 :30- 1:45

Welcome Do.naZd Feldstein

P.M.

1 :45-4:00 P.M .

Opening Plenary Session "Changing Tl'ends & Characteristics of the Jewish COTTTmW'l.ity in the U.S."

Pl'esentation: MiZton Himmelfarob Responses &Irrrplications for AJC: Neil Sandberg Disaussion Leader: Yehuda Roserunan Conclusions : Evan Bayer Reporter: Ellen Cohen 4:00-5:45 P.M.

Free

5:45-7:00 P.M.

Dinner

7:00-9:15 P.M.

Plenary Sess ion "The AJC- -PhiZosophy, People, Pl'ogram -Strategies for the Future"

Pl'esentation: Bill Trosten Chapter Perspective: Joyce Galpern Discussion Leader: Marc Tanenbawn Conclusions: Phil Saperia Reporter: Bernice NeUJman 9:15 P.M.

Social Ti me

Monday, Decerriber 6 8:00-9:00 A.M.

Breakfast

/more/

.. _

:-

121

Monday, · December 6 (Continued) . 9:00-10:45 A.M.

Plenary Session

"Jewish Life in America AJC's Unique Role & Program Potential" Presentation: Jim Rudin Response: David Singer Discussion Leader: Sam Rabinove Conelusions: Steve Bayme Rep~rter : Andy Baker 10:45-11:00 A.M.

Break

11:00 A.M .-1 2:00 Noon

Plenary Di scus s ions Continued or Small Groups

12 :00 Noon-1:00 P.M.

Lunch

1:00 P.M.-3:30 P.M.

Plenary Sess ion

"The American Society -- Dilemmas & Directions for AJC" Presentation : Hy Bookbinder Response : Adam Simms Discussion Leader: Gene DuBow Cone lusions : Diane Steinman Reporter: Evan Bayer 3:30- 5:45 P.H.

Free

5:45-7:00 P.H.

Dinner

7:00- 9:00 P.H.

Plenary Session

''AJC's Response to Global Concerns : Energy, Defense, Human Rights" Presentation : Phyllis Shel71?an Discussion Leader: Seymouzi Samet Conclusions : Milton Tobian Reporter: Jon Levine 9:00 P.H·.

Social Ti me

Tuesday, December 7 8:00-9:00 A.H .

Breakfast

9:00-10:45 A.M.

Plenary Session

"The Middle East Conflict:

The American Dimension"

AJC 's .Position & Political Behavior: Abe Karlikow Community Implications : Ernie Weiner Discussion Leader: Sonya Kaufer Conclusions: Jon Levine Reporter: George Gruen

13/. . Tuesda.y, Deoember 7 (Continued) 10:45-11:00 A.M.

Break

11 :00-12 :00 Noon

Plenary Di scussion Continued or Small Groups ·

A.

New Approaches to Media & Public Education

B.

Influencing PoZitica"l Leadership

C.

Working with Hosti"le Audiences

12:00 Noon-1 :00 P.M.

Lunc h

1:00 P. M.-2 : 45 P.M.

Plenary Session

"The AJC & Israe"l:

Ties , Tensions & Opportunities"

f?resen-t;ation: Art Abramson Discussion Leader: Irving Levine Conc"lusions: Sherry Frank Reporter: Sam Rabinove 2: 45-4: i 5 P. M.

Plenary Sess ion

"Jewish CoTT'UTTUnities Abroad -- AJC ' s Ro"le

&

Responsibility"

Presentation: Andy Baker Discussion Leader: Mort Yal'mon Conclusions : Bi"l"l Gralniak Reporter : Phi"'/, Saperia 4:15-6:00 P.H.

Free

6 : 00-7:15 P.M.

Dinner

7: 15-9: 15 P.H.

Plenary Sess ion

"The Status of Jews -- Friends & Foes in the 80 's " Presentation : Harold Applebaum Response : Ml£t>ray Friedman Discussion Leader: Haskell Lazere Conclusions: Herman Blumberg Reporter : Adam Simms

9: 15 P.H.

Soc ial Ti me

.

- •#-

/4/

Wednesday , December 8 8:00-9:00 A.M.

Breakfast

9:00-11:1 5 A. M.

Plenary Session ·"Looking Ahead:

Prospects & ChaUenges for the Organization"

Presentation : Donald Feldstein Discussion Leader: Selma Hirsh Rep9rter: Sonya Kaufer 11:15-11:30 A.M.

Break

11:30 A.M.- 12: 00 Noon

Concluding Remark s Donald Feldstein

12:00 Noon-1 : 00 P.M.

Lunch

1: 00 P .M.

Departure for New York

#82 - 315-154 December 1, 1982

.

· - ·· - -··- ··

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F.·

THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

;·. -~.

1: .

date to

from

December 20, 1982 Donald Feldstein



George Gruen ~ ..:

subject

Lebanese Casualty Figures in Sabra and Shatila

Following up on Ariel Sharon's report to the Presidents Conference citing official Lebanese figures on casualties in the massacres in Sabra and Shatila, I asked Consul General Naftali Lavie for the source of Sharon's figures. · In response I received the attached one-page report, which attributes the information to Asad Germanus, AttorneyGeneral of · the Lebanese Army. The Information Office of the Israeli Consulate tells me that this report was distributed to the press on December 9, 1982. (This was the same day Sharon spoke in New York.) cc: Hyman Bookbinder ·David Geller Lois Gottesman Abraham Karlikow Sheba Mittelman; Marc Tanenbaum\/' Mort Yarmon

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800 SECONO AVENUE

~'O ,;~.,~;, n~.,·nmpn

NEW YORK. N . Y. 10017

v.,,,,,l2. .,t
_' .: OXFORD 7 ·5500

CONS41..ATE GENERAL 0

.

Oe.c:ember 9_, 1982

OF I SR A.EL IN NEW YORK

THE TOLL OF VICTIMS IN THE BEIRUT CAMPS AMOUNTS: TO 479 . .

. THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL OF THE LEBANESE ARMY .I · . . . .

.

.

MR. .

ASAD

.WHO WAS IN CHARGE OF INVESTIGATING THE MASSACRE IN. THE

.

GERMAN US·,,

TWO

.

PALESTINIAN " . .

· · ..REFUGEE CAMPS,, SABRA AND. SHATILA IN BEIRUT,, PUTS THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ·.. ''. VICTIMS AT

479,

Acc~rding

.. . to

~eliable

:

•ources . in Beirut, the report of . the



.

.

At t 0 r n e y .. Gen e.r a 1 . 0 f t he . a rm y publ~shed,

... . ..

t

wh i ch h as n 0 t ye t b e en

0

f f i c i a 1 1y

is based on the body count which was conducted by the

Lebanese Red Cross, the International Red Cross, the Lebanese Civil .·

.

•' Def_en_.s :e, the medical corps of the Lebanese army and the relatives of

the victims .

The· .procedure of the body count lasted between September

18, 1982 and September .30, 1982. Following are the figures based -on this investigation: \t)

-Palestinia-ns.. :. 328, among them 313 men (includi ·ng 21 of unidentified nationality), 7 women and 8 children. ·

2)

Lebanese - 118, among them 98 · men, 8 women and ·12 children.

3)

·Syrians . .. 7 men.

4) .· Algerians 5) . ~6) ._:

2 men.

Iranians - 21 men • Pa~istanis ~

THE REPORTS

. 29 1 1982

3 men. OF

THE LEBANESE SECURITY

INDICATE THAT

DURING

THE DAYS OF

AUl"HQRITIES OF

SEPTEMBER

SEPTEMBER 16-18,,

WHEN

THE MASSACRE WAS COMMITTED, A BATTLE TOOK PLACE IN THE TWO CAMPS,

FROM:

INSTITUTE ON PLURALISM AND GROUP IDENTITY For Your Information

CULTURAL PLURALISM IN THE UNITED STATES Siivano M. Tomasi, cs The National Catholic ConfererJce of Bishop's Committee's on Social Deuelopment 4,500 word stat.ement made in January 1981, was desJgned to devote greater attention to the ethnic diuersity of Contemporary Ame"rica. The cent7al part ofthe statement Is reproduced here. Complete copies are available · from the Office of Pt.iblications, U.S. Catholic Conference (1312 Massachusetts Aue., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005). Stat.emerit of the Committee on Social Development and World Peace of the Nati_onal Catholic Conference of ~ishops. We urge all Americans to accept the hK:t of religious and cultural pluralism not as an historic oddity or a sentimental jowneiJ into the past. bu~ as a vital, fruitful and challenging phenomenon of our society. Americanization doe$ not call for the abandonment of cultural differences but for their wider appreciation. We solicit the help of all thoughtful citizens of this republic in an effort to blot out of public and private life the stains of ethnic prejudice and disaimination. This element becomes all the more despicable when linked, as·it too often · has been, to anti-Catholic "nativism". We ask that the public and private sectors give consideration to those ethnic groups who have too long been unrepresented in large and important areas of American life. With special urgency we call public attention to the continued immigration of the large Hispanic population, one of the oldest ethnic American groups, which is just now beginning to receive appropriate recognition. '

.-

CHURCH AGENDA

... .

Within the Church itSelf .,,.;e .have a task set before us that

cannot be taken Ughtly Parishes must not fear to be centers of cultural as well as spiritual inspiration, relating the customs and folkways of people t~ contemporary, gospel teaching. This may often require special language provisions in catechesis and worship. In· sensitivity on the pastoral level can alienate even the most devout Church organizations, whether local or national. should encourage participation in the wide range of opportunities offered by the ethnic diversity of the people of God in our count?y. · Church schools and Catholic education on every level, must s1rive to make Catholics more conscious of the bfoad range of cultural experience available in our multiple Church traditions. This should not be limited to history, but related also to contemporary ethnic expression. In the life of the Christian family ~n opportunity ~f singul~

importance is proYided for the Inculcation of values in th~ developing minds of the young. Here parent$ can eradicate stereotyping and develop appreciation of the principle of human· diversity, which will be enriched by the growing ex· perience bf:the youthful mind. Lltwgical life, so fruitful a vehicle for understanding, shoula reflect the Catholic traditions of the ·whole hwnan family helping to promote the community of all. The feast of Pentecost itself might appropriately suggest both liturgy and celebration acknowledging and rejoidng in the variety.of ethnic riches. Seminarians must take special care to include the history of the ethnic communities and their cultures in the training of young men for the ministries, as already directed by the Conference of Bishops (Program of Priestly Formation, 1976, · pp 542·557 and passim). MoNCNer, the seminary envircrunent Itself must be such as to include broad ethnic apptedaion. In this connection. the several religious orders. which have so effectively supported ethnic identity in the semiriartes, shout~ be lauded for their fidelity and foresight Eastem Catholic Churches - theirorigjns and Church practices - can also be made familiar'in the Western Chureh,· even where certain disciplines and theological insights of these "sister Churches" may appear unusual. Leadership positions in Church life should be open to those of all ethnic backgrounds who are canonically eligible and qualified. The Spirit blows when and where He wills. We remind social servjce agencies, public and private, and ·human service systems generally, of their obligations to respect the diverse traditions of their clientele and be resi>onsive to their special .needs. All aspects ol pubUc policy should be attentive to these concerns. We call attention. in particular. to juvenile justice and criminal justice systems to bring under· standing to their responsibilities under the law. Aware of the powerful effect of the mass media, we en· courage a wider public expression of Ch~rch life in all its forms, with a special emphasis on pluralism within the Church as it manifests itself in the arts, literature and devotional practice. We must censure the practice of stereol~lping e~nic groups In · a.negative and often offensive manner. Even when thisls done for humor and entertainment, it betrays a lack of sensitivity which society should not accept. . A thoughtful development of the relation5hip of theology and cultural pluralism, already discussed at meetings of the Catholic Theological Society of America, should be further promoted. We commend and encourage new studies in this area which cannot fail to °give depth and meaning to public dialogue and understanding. 0

Vo 1.ume

x, ·Jo. 3/4, 1982 .

• I

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Interreligious Affairs Department 1HE .AMERICAN JEWISH CDf.fITI'EE

165 East 56 Street New York, N.Y. 10022 Rabbi Tanenbaum-



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l Support of Israel·eroding, priest says ~.J.,L ~k-')u,,,fA,ef­

. 1:i./S'jtz-

·1

1

Rev. John T. Pawll· kowakl: 'Policies are on a disaster course.'

·•

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,.

An increasing number of Christian supporters of lsr:icl <.111? beginning to reassess their posllion In light of present policies or the administration of Prim~ Minister Menachc!ft Begtn, espcc1ally the one concerning latad rights on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, a Roman Catholic expert on Christian.Jewish relations said here· Tuesday. "Some of the policies are on a dlsasrer !=OUrsc,'' said the Rev. John T. Rawlikowskl, O.S.M. "AS I· GET Increasing literature from the Is r ae li government suggesting, for example, that Jordan Is a Palestinian state - part of which I can agree to- the bottom line seems to be, 'Therefore, the West Bank and Gaia · are ours.' " UnleiJs "the growing, almost impromptu, aMexatlon policy of lhe West Bank by virtue of the Increased settlement policy" ls stopped, Father Pawlikowski said, he fears that "the possibility of any klrid of meaningful negotiation In the West Bank will be simply Irrelevant." Father Pawlikowski spoke to 12 members ol the St. Louis Chapter of the American Jewish .Committee Tuesday during a luncheon meeting. He Is professor of Soc:lal ethics at the Catholic . Theological Union In Chicago and

author of several books on Christian· The fact that Christians and Jews Jewish relations, Including the recently have passed the "euphoria stage" of published "Christ In Light of . the their discussions and are now willing to Christian-Jewish Dialogue." openly discuss the dlfficult questions THE CHRl$TIAN·JEWJSH d.Jalogue shows a maturity In their :relaUonshlp, that started In the 1950s and '&Os still he said. exists, despite some tension· recently Father Pawlikowski will speak on caused by the Israel! Invasion of "The Cat.flollc Church In Light of the Lebanon and Pope John Paul n·s .•' Holocaust" at 2:10 p.m. Thursday In meettna with Vasser Arafat, leader of Room 201 of Busch Memoria l Center, 2
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THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

~

STAFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE Meeting of December 13, 1982

..

Summary Present Donald Feldstein, Chairman · Harold Applebaum Eugene DuBow Mi 1ton Ell eri n Arthur Feuer David Geller Sonya Kaufer Haskell Lazere Irving Levine Yehuda Rosenman Marilyn Rothman Seymour Samet I.

Philip Shamis Phyllis Sherman Marc Tanenbaum William Trosten Guest Theodore Ellenoff Absent Lee Bi 11 i g Milton HilTiTielfarb Abe Karl i kow

GOOD ANO WE LFARE

Marilyn Rothman announced tha·t th~re would be a meeting of staff to discuss financial and other arrangements that they may wish to make in anticipation of retirement. New developments i n tex sheltered annuities and other such matters will be presented by a team of experts in financial planning. · Dr. Feldstein sai·d that his memo re staff attendance at the Board of Governors meeti ng did not apply to department heads who are free to attend the meeting should they choose to. There was some discussion on the possibility of overlap and/or confusion of responsibility between AJC's Foreign Affairs Department and that of the new American-~srael Institute staffed by Bert Gold and Selma Hirsh. SAC was concerned that there might be misunderstandirg about who speaks for the agency on a major area of AJC's concern. Dr. Feldstein said that the Institute's Advisory Councfl at its first meeting made clear that it did not intend the Institute to be a policy-making body. Dr. Feldstein saw the Institute, which is an arm of the AJC, as a way of reinforcing AJC's work in this area. He recognized, however, that there needs to be some clarification of areas of responsibility, but he did not think that this would constitute a major problem.

II.

PUBLIC POSITIONS TAKEN BY INDIVIDUAL LAY LEADERS ANO STAFF

SAC discussed the conditions under which an indi vidual staff member or lay person can speak or write publicly on a matter of concern to the agency wheJJ such expressions may cause potential probl.ems for the agency. Distinctions

.

:.· .

-2- ·

were made between use or non-use of AJC identification and, of course, between statements which might run either contrary to AJC position or cause confusion about AJC's point of view,and those on which AJC had not taken a position. SAC was presented with the 7/27/70 statement on the subject by the Committee on Staff Roles (see attachment). One SAC member felt that very strict restrictions should be placed on individual staff or lay expression of opinion, even in areas where AJC 1 s point of view was not clearly spelled out. All were agr~ed that the agency name belongs to the agency, and that individuals should not use agency identification when speaking out in a way that is contrary to existing AJC policy. Certainly, they should not do this in fields outside their expertise. On the other hand, some felt that the shading of issues by individual staff might have positive results. It would indicate that AJC, for one thing, is an agency that allows diversity. It was suggested that a new study committee be formed to make policy in this area, put it was decided that this would not be necessary since the 1970 study covered the problem adequately. There was no sympathy for a proposal that there should be a moratorium on all individual public expression by staff or lay leadership. In summary, Dr, Feldstein said that it was clear, in his.view, that when there is an agency position that has been clearly enunciated, staff and lay leadership should never use their AJC identification when expressing contrary views . On the other hand, he did not believe that one should completely restri ct freedom of expression. And certainly not in areas where there is no clear agency position. In the gray areas, staff should always infonn the Executive Director when they intend to sign. public statements tbat may create any problems for the agency. As for our lay leadership, Dr. Feldstein said that he would review existing practice and any past Board decisions on this matter to see if anything further was required. III.

VEHICLE~ FOR SHOWING

Ajc•s DISTINCTIVENESS

. Mort Yarmon discussed some of the ways in which he lets the AJC family, the Jewish community, and the outside world know about AJC 11 doings. 11 This takes .the form of press releases of AJC activities and such publications as AJC's Leaders' Djgest. Sonya Kaufer reported that the Leaders' Digest was well received and that we get about 30 to 100 responses asking for materials from each issue. Many expressed the view that there was inadequate reporting to membership of unique AJC activities. On the other hand, a. few thought that we were sending our membership too much material . The problem identified was that our material is not focused properly. It should highlight basic themes, AJC's unique areas of empha$es, or its special approach to its work . Some suggestions for vehicles to accomplish this were offered, such as reinstituting News and Views or a publication that might be called "This Week at AJC . It was also recommended that we might expand Leaders• Digest to include highlights of AJC work, whicn could be sent to the VIP list. It was pointed out that we are not utilizing audio-visual mat~rial to te11 our story. It was recqgnized 11

\

-

·-3-

that there are different problems for the different audiences that we try to reach. Distinctions need to be made in the types of materials we send and the message~ : they carry. It was agreed that a staff task force on communications ought to be formed to consider the matter and, . in particular, what is fed to fundraisers. · IV.

THEODORE ELLENOFF REPORT ON MEETING WITH CONSERVATIVES

Theodore 6llenoff was asked to report · on a meeting of Jewish and non-Jewish conservatives . ·He said that the attendees at the meeting had obviously worked together before on issues of common concern; they knew each other well. There were representatives of the Orthodox Jewish community, establishment Jewish cormnunal organiz~tions {who were there primarily as observers), neo-conservative writers and intellectuals, and Jewish and non-Jewish figures who are ~ctive on the political ·scene, including well known figures of the political ·new right. The group had in common a desire for greater ilJllaCt on the Reagan Administration. Jews have complained that they have little access to the . President and little impact. T~e New Right has ready access to the A~ministra­ tion and yet no power or impact. These representatives of the New Right obviously would like to coalesce with the Jewish community on issues high on their ag·enda, but it is not clea·r whether such a coalition is possible. Partly this is because it is not clear that each side can deliver to the other side what it wants. SAC agreed that it was important for there to be continued .contact with this group, but that coalition probably was not possible. Maintaining contact is particularly vital because it is likely that the New Right will mount a very strong populist campaign for the .1984 election that ~ill have important implications for Jews. The ·campaign themes may be very close to the late 19th century populist movements, e.g., 11 a curse on all elites," that created .-··· vicious forms of anti-Semitism at that time. Another important reason to maintain dialogue is to help downplay the Christian thrust of the movement: The antiel itist, anti-establishment populist movement may not fly if it .has an antisemitic overtone, but there is still this danger to be alert to. The danger of coalitiqn is that it is DOt clear who will be able to co-opt whom . So in sum, it was suggested that we continue to maintain dialogue, but that we be ·very cautious in entering into any alliances.

PS:mb 83-900-8

.

.

5 -

·'

and .institutional objectives must also be taken into consid-' er at ion. With the increasing importance of the electronic media .~ individual ability to communicate should be an additional factor in determining the AJC spokesman when the use of such media ts ·involved. In interpreting AJC services to potential donors, it is effective practice to select and emphasize tho$e activities which are deemed to be of greatest interes~ to tht: group concerned. However, any aspect of the agency's program: should always be fully reported in response to questions from: ·the audience. ~roper ~nd

Taking a Pµblic Position on Issues Examining the conditions under which a professional · staff member can speak or write publicly on a matter of immeciate or potential concern to the agency produced many comple:c philosophical, ethical and practical questions for the committee . . These questions aris~ ·out of the difficulties ·in reconciling the needs of the AJC as th~ employing organizaticm with the individual needs of the professional staff employee. In this discussion, the basic objective of the committe~e was t o encourage freedom of expression for professional staff while protecting the agency from possible embarrassment, a task involving the application to any given situation of common sense and a spirit· of mutual respect, trust and recognition of needs between the agency and the .professional stafr:. All members of the connnittee maintained that professioc.al staff should have complete freedom of expression, including t::l~ righ.~ to dissent from established agency policies, within prc·fessional staff circles, at meetings of professional associat:iora and when writing in professional journals. Positions contrary to agency policy, however, should be clearly designated as "private". · .Although it was recognized that sta~ements before: professional societies may sometimes get into the public pres;s, it was felt that the agency should be prepared to accept whatever risks were involved in encouraging such freedom of profes~ional expression. There was also general agreement that acceptance of pai.= (over)

6 -

employment with the agency implied giving hostages to fortune although there were some differences about the extent involved. Thus, it was the consensus · that a professio.n al "staff member could not take a public positio~ in the cormounity, e'ither through speech or writing, agairist _an agency policy when acting as: an agency representative. In addition, a · majority of the committee felt that this principle should also apply to professional staff members when acting in their priv~te capacities as citizens i.e. one could not divorce the . public expre.ssion of personal views on matter:s of agency concern from one's professional responsibility to the goals of the agency. A few held, on the contrary, that professional · creativity demanded tha~ there be no such restrictions on a staff member's right as a pr.ivate individual to give public expression to his views. All agreed, of course, that staff members should. be encouraged to write or speak out in support ·o f established agency policies. In regard to matters potentially related to AJC concerns but on which the agency has not taken a posi tion, it was agreed that there should be no restrictions on the freedom of staff . to wr~te for publication or speak out. This principle should also apply when a s~aff member writes in a field not germane to AJC interests. Under either of these circumstances, however, the comrµittee felt that the views expressed by the staff member should be identified as those of an individual . It was felt, however', that when writing about an issue on wh~ch the agency has taken no policy position, or in a field -which appears tp be not germane to AJC interests, the staff member should be sensitive to µotential problems relating to AJC concerns and notify the agency if in his professional judgment such a potenti~lity existed. Similarly., it should be the· professional responsibility of a staff member, who intends to lend his name with agency identification to a public adv~rtiseruent dealing with a subject of this nature, to notify the agency in advance if in his judgment possible difficulties might be created for the agency as a result. Staff members should be expected to accept full responsibility for their actions .in relation to the agency after publication or other expression o.f their views on . these matters . . In the possible instance of a staff member who may also be a member of another organization, including .perhaps one with political or idealogical coloration, it was agreed unanimously

- 7 that he should be free to speak to the conmrunity on behalf of that group on subjects unrelated to AJC concerns so long as the principles of the group are not in conflict with those of AJC. The role of- Commentary editorial staff was introduced into this discussion. It was recognized· that special situatio:is· could arise where individuals holding positions on both the editorial staff of Commentary and on the regµlar professional · staff of the agency might find themselves in conflict with their· dual professionat responsibilities. It was felt, however, that this represented a special administrative problem for " management decision. D.

Advancement of Professional Skills

As the pace of change accelerates, requiring new method: and skills either to foster or inhibit social change, the responsibility of staff and agency toward the maintenance and · advancement of professional skills has become a significant issue. The question was raised as to what professional. skill~. are specifically related to AJC, inasmuch as staff ·come from many disciplines, and have jobs 'with a great variety of compoo - . ents. It was acknowledged that there is no curriculum or any single source of training which would be applicable to all professional positions, and that it is the staff member's responsibility to keep up:...to-date in his own particular field. · The agency's responsibility in the area of staff training was expressed in principle in the agreement with the Staff Organiza=io:-. that "it is the intent of° the Commi~tee to encourage and make possible opportunities for advancement of its professional me!ll'!bers which will enha"nce their professional capabilities". The committee endorsed that statement. · The g~oup felt that there may be an even greater need t . ~d~: for .!!:_-training of staff based upon new emphases in the agenc7, as . for example, new. approaches to leadership development. Th·.:: opinion was expressed that the agency does not now do enough to encourage staff to seek training. It should consider some form of recognition or reward_, such as including this aspect ~n performance· evaluations and providing the necessary subventicc.s. It was also pointed out that . the agency appears to have been discouragi~g one form of staff training, i.e. attendance at those profes~ional conferences which, while not precisely in the immediate area of the person's AJC assignment, present an (over)

1HE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

Harold :Applebaum

From:

JF

.~ .

_ _ or your mi.onnation _ _ For approval

Please handle Please talk to me about this Read .and retilm Returned as requested __Your c01I111ents, please

__Per your request nts.ADVC!• ~.

:T·HE .~MERICAN JEWISH COMMIT'Te·E

date Decell1ber lS, 1982 to Harold Appleba1A ·

from ~rty Plax

f..v/. ~

. ~ubject Meeting with Bahai . Last week there wa~ a letter to the Editor from an Iranian physician appealing to Jews and Christians to pray for the Bahais in Iran. We sent him ' a note of understanding for the problem and offered to speak with him if he desired. He called _and we met yesterday. Prior· to the meeting, Lois Gottesman contacted .us and indicated that caution was necessary, given the precarious position of the Jews in Iran. When we met, I indi~ated our concern with the Iranian Jews, but suggested that I might be able to act as a conduit to Christians in town who might give more publicity to the situation in Iran. I ·didn't realize, at the start, how complicated the situation with the Bahais is. My initial response was that they have a temple in Haifa and that at some time there may be some publicity for Israel. However, when. Dr. Derakhshan .started speaking about the Jews and Bahais, he indicated that his mother's mother was Jewish and had fled to Israel. It suddenly dawned on me that we have an inter- · marriage issue on top of the political concerns •. We concluded the meeting by his agreeing to send me materials from their. headquarters in Wilmette and I would· speak with some Christ.i ans about spreading . the word, to the degree they were willing to do so. Dr. Derakhshan indicated that we were the only group to respond to his letter.

cc:

Lois Gottesman .

The <1\tnerican Gje"Wish Collllllittee Institute of Hwnan Relations· 165 East 56 Street, New Ym1<. N.Y. 10022 • 212/751-4000 ·cable WIShcom, N.Y.

':MARC

TANENBAUM "FYI" December 20, 1982

Dear Colleague: I am pleased to send you the enclosed summary of the essence of the discussion at the AJC Consultation on U. S. Policy and the Peace Process in the Middle East, which we held here in November. You will remember that it was agreed that thi s would be an informal discussion with no publicity, .and therefore this summary is being sent only to the participants and to American Jewish Committee officers and key staff members. I wish to acknowledge the help of my associate Lois Gottesman in arranging this consultation and the assistance of my colleagues David Ge ller, Drora Kass and Lois in sharing th~ rapporteurial assignments with me. In editing the summary, I have tried to accurately reflect the exchange of ideas on the complex issues discussed . However, this informal s ummary has not been reviewed by the participants and they are not responsible for its contents. Our thanks once again to you for your participation and your contribution to our thinking on these important issues. Cordial ly yours,

Dr. George Gruen Director, Middle East Affairs GEG/EL enc. 82-580-34

MAYNARD I. WISHNER, President • • DDNAUl FELDSTEIN. Executive Vlc&.President HOWARD I. FRIEDMAN, Chairman. Board ol Governors • THEODORE EUENDFF. Chairman. Natio'nal Executive Council • ROBERT L. PELZ. Chairman. Board of Trustees • l ROBERT GOOOKIND. Treasurer • MERVIN H. RISEMAN. Secretaiy 11 ELAINE PETSCHEK. Associate Treasurer • ALFRED H. MOSES. Cllairman, Executive Committee • Honoreiy Presidents: MORRIS 8. ABRAM. ARTHUR J. GOLDBERG. PHILIP E. HOFFMAN. RICHARD MAASS. ELMER L. WINTER • Honoraiy Vic~sidents: NATHAN APPLEMAN, MARTIN GANG, Rl!TH R. GOOOARO. ANDREW GOODMAN, JAMES MARSHAU, WIUIAM ROSENWALD a MAX M. FISHER, Honoraiy Chairman. Nlltlonal Executive Council • MAURICE GUNERT. Honoraiy Treasurer 1:1 Executive Vlce.Presiden1$ Emeriti: JOHNSLAWS-ON, BERTRAM H. GOLD • Vice-Presidents: MORTON K. BLAUSTEIN, Baltimore; EDWARD E. El.SON. Atlanra; RICHARD J. FOX. Philadelphia: ROBERT D. GRIES, Cleveland; RITA E. HAUSER, New York; HARRIS' L. KEMPNER, 'JR.• Galveston; JOHN D. LEVY. St. Louis; HAMILTON M. LOEB, JR.. New York; LEON RABIN, Dallas: GORDON S. ROSENBWM. Denver; JOHN H. STEINHART, San Francisco •

:

·......

FOR INTERNAL DISTRIBUTION ONLY · Not For Publication

SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS ACADEMIC CONSULTATION ON U. S. POLICY AND THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS

November 11, 1982

Rita E. Hauser, Clla.irperson

George E. Gruen, Coordinator

Foreign Affairs Department American Jewish Committee 165 E.ast .56 Street New York, NY l 0022

-:.7· ~

'

...

,



~

CONFIDENTIA.L . NOT FOR PUBLJ.CATION PARTICIPANTS IN MIDDLE EAST CONSULTATION November 11, 1982 Ac~de!llicians

Prof. Stephen Cohen, ·cuNY Graduate Center Prof. Michael Curtis, Rutgers

Univ~rsity

Dr. Adam Garfinkle, Foreign Policy Research Institute Prof. J. C. Hurewitz, Columbia University Dr . Nathan Pelcovits, S. A. I. S., Johns Hopkins Prof. Amos Perlmutter, American Univers ity Prof . Uri Ra'anan, Fletcher School, Tufts

Un~versity

Prof. Ita!Jlar. Rabinovich, Cornell. University Prof. Sara Reguer, Brooklyn College, and APPME Prof. Haim Shaked, Universi ty ·o f Mi·ami Prof . Avne r Yaniv, Georgetown University Affiliated wtth Amer ican Jewish Committee, and Observers David Gel l er

Drora Kass

Jerome Go l dstein

Sheba Mittelman

Loi s Gottesman

Al fred Moses

Dr . George Gruen

Alfred P. · Slaner

Dr. Rita Hauser

Walter Stern

Abraham Karlikow

William Trpsten Maynard· Wishner

·'

..~

.(

).

For internal distribution only Not for Publication

SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS AT AJC CONSULTATION ON U. S. POLICY AND THE MIDDLE EAST .PEACE PROCESS NOVEMBE.R 11, 1982 I.A.The Effect wi thin the Middle East of Recent Deve lopment s Pro f. Haim Shaked opened the mornin$ discussion with a brief analys is of the effects of the war in Lebanon.

He cau -

tioned that it is still too early to tell whether the Lebanese war has created enough change and turbulence in the region to make t he futu re substantially different from the past.

Expecta -

tions of change, aroused whenever there is a major war in t he region, don't necessar ily come to pass.

Nevertheless two point s are

clear: 1- The peace with Egypt, though fragile, still holds, despite a major and prolonged Lebanese crisis.

2- The only game in

town with regard to the solution of the Arab-Israel conflict is still the one managed by the U. S. Camp David process,

Washi~gton

Despite the critici sm of the

is increasingly seen as playing a

central role, while the Soviet Union is out o f the picture . There are several other development s in the Middle East arising out of the events of the past summer :

First, for the irmned-

iate future, Lebanon is on the r oad to relative s tab ilizat ion; even with ai l the problems it faces, Lebanon has to maneuver within the Arab world.

im~roved

its ability

Ironically, this means that

Lebanon will appear to be less positive in its relations wit h Israel, and thus the result of the war wil l be a lessening of the

.-2-

close relations Israel had earlier established with the Lebanese Maronites and particularly the

Second, with regard

~halange.

to Syria, although Syria . has · failed. in·

it~

plah to establish a

Greater Syria (includ.ing Lebai:ion), President Assad does not seem to be in a more precarious situation than before.

The converg-

ence of forces . within Syria is not necessarily going to . l~ad to destabilization of the region any more than was the case before the latest crisis in Lebanon. Third, Jordan - - which since 1967 has oscillated between two irends: complete, gradual disengagement from the West Bank and the Palestinian issue (in the past advocated by Crown Prince Hassan) versus continued close relations with the West Bank (advocated .by King Husseiri)-- now i~ le~ning toward the second option. Shaked commented .that in his opinion there will be a systematic, concerted at t empt by Jordan for more integration rather than disengagement, and perhaps even some agreement with the PLO on the West Bank . Fourth, Israel, which started "Operation Peace for '

.

.

Galilee" as a strategic war to open up options, ha s ended up with more rather than less

constrain~

on its ability to maneuver

given the domestic probiems and international criticism. mediate results of the war are thus the opposite ·

The im-

of the Begin

Gove.rnment 's original intentions, though in the long term these may be

realized~

Fifth, there is a kind of mirror image of this going on inside the PLO, with Fatah (the faction headed by Arafat) now trying to disengage from thi more. extremist groups (such as

.•

-3-

Habash's and Hawatmeh's) in order to maximize its political· gains fr6m the war in Lebanon.· For exampi~, a receni presentition .

.

by Professor Walid Khalidi, a leading Palestinian intellectual with "•

close connections to Fatah, was far more conciliatory than the official, PLO hard line, and may reflect the discussions and debate going on within the

The immediate goal of the PLO;

PLO~

strategically speaking, may

b~

to

recognition from. the U. S.

~ain

One· question to bear in mind, Shaked said, is whether we are now witnessing a further "Palestinization" of the ArabIsrael conflict.

It is possible that the conflict has

a new phase, though embryonic at this point, in

~hich

~ow

entered

it will

beco~e easier to resolve the A~ab-Israel conflict by concretiz-

ing it and creating a clear agenda. some fundamental problems for Israel, of Zionist

id~ology

However, this would pose ~i~ce

it goes

t~

the heart

anq would reQpen the old Zionist debates as

to the nature and objectives of Israel's society. All of these developwent~ are ta~1ng place in an interArab context that is completely

fra~me~ted.

There may now be

a realignment within the Arab world:

in the past a fragmented

Arab world united around the

rejectionists (Libya

ex~reme

or

Iraq) as tlle 'lowest .col)lillon denominator, whereas now tlle cqnsensus role seems to have shifted towarq the so-ca,lleq "moderate" Arab states.

If this is indeed the case, it is a very important
opment, and ma,y expiain the outcome of the latest Arab League summit meeting in

Fez~

As for the

.

Rea~a11 p~an,

a function similar to

~he

U.N.

Sha~ed

·felt that . it may serve

Security Council Resolution 242 in

that it too offers a . centrist position.

The Arabs feel it

~ives

-4-

them too little.

Israel

t~~nks

recalled that everyone . was also . the bCl..s is for peace.

it gives the Arabs too much. unh~ppy wi~h

He

242, yet it provided

The Shultz. style is quite different from

that of Haig and may turn out more effective. In conclusion, Shaked said, one· must remember that this being the Middle East, the unexpected can always upset things.

Fo i example, the Iran-Iraq war could go several ways

and there is no way to pr edict t he outcome .

Ri~ h t

now it depends

very much on the persona lit ies of t he two count ries ' leaders; and if one of th em goes , there will be a ve r y diffe r ent situation.

Also , it is unce rt ain whether t he Lebanese war of

1982 will act as a catal ys t for change, as did the 19 73 war, or whether it will lead t o a new f reeze or stalemate , like that after t he 1967 war.

Fina l ly , there is one major aspect

of the situation that s houl d be deal t with and that is the impact of Lebanon on the configuration of support towards Israel both within and outside the Jewish commun ity in the United States, and particularly how it affects the situation on college campuses. The latter

q~estion

should be examined in greater depth at a sub-

sequent consultation . B.

Post-Lebanon Trends ·in U. S. Mi44 1e East Policy Prqf.

J~

C. Hurewitz briefly discussed post-Lebanon

trends in U. S. Middle East policy, commenting that in · his opinion, we are. now at a crossroads .

Clear .U. S. leadership

could produce constructive results if there is cooperation on all sides and if the Reagan Administration "stays the course."

This

-sis not certain, however; seeing as how it took

18 . mont~s

for

the administration to -focus seriously on the Middle· East and stop blaming "the mess" irt the Middle .East on the Carter Ad-' ministration. The U. S. is engaged in the politics of mutual exclusion ·with the ful

~-

Russians~

and it appears that it has been success-

for the moment -- ·in this.

eliminate a superpower.

But, · he cautioned, you can't

There is another

pos~ible

explanation

for the relatively restrained Soviet .behavior during the Lebanese crisis.

With its two ·clients,

Syria and the PLO, located at

a substantial distance from the USSR, probably the best course for the Sovie ts was in fact to stay out of the fray in view of . Israel's military superiority in the immediate ·area of the conflict.

But the Soviet Union itiil has a role to play in the

Middle East and will reassert itself at some point. Another problem for the U. S. is how to deal .with its a llies on the Middle East

they don't agree· with us or even

with each othe r on how to deal with the Middle East. Suez cris i s

wh~re

In the 1956

the U. S. took primary responsibili ty for

crisis .management in the region, we humiliated our British and French allies. We did better during the Lebanese crisis of 1958. Now, -the ·u. S. is still the crisis .manager in Lebanon, but feels it would be better to share the risks and responsibilities with our allies. keeping force.

-This is the meaning of the multinational peace-

-6-

The U. S. also faces a pro6lem in how to deal -with the · second Begin administration in Israel -- especially an administration "with the tact of Begin, the clemency of Sharon and the elegance of Shamir."

There is a . problem in public re-

.lations and a breakdown in communication; there · is a sense that there is no real reporting on the U. S .. to the Israel Government · and there is selective h earing of what does get through. In Hurewitz's opi nion, the Reagan p l an is not a final plan, but a first position designed to bring others to the negotiating table.

Begin ' s

hard bargaining pos i tio.n . in mind:

reject~on

of it may also be a first

There are a number of things to keep

One is ·the cost to I srae 1 :of the Lebanese war, which

Hurewitz estimated to be about $1 billion a week during the heavy fighting and between $300 - 400 million a week during the lulls.

What's the ·impact of this on · Israel ' ~ indebtedness?

On inflation?

The Begin Government will have to deal with this

problem and if the U. S. is to provide allevia t ion for Israel's economic problem, there should ·be some accommodation by Israel to American concerns .

Another point to remember is that the

bottom line for .Israe l is

sec~ri ty,

and the Reagan Administra-

tion has made clear its commitment to assure Israel's security. But the U. S . . assesses

s~curity ve~y

differently from the way

Israel does: Israel measures security literally with a yardstick (e . g. the Taba dispute), but one can ·argue that peace with Egypt gives more security Gulf of Eilat.

~han

a few additional yards on the

-7-

Israel is militarily yery 5troqg today but this is not the issqe, fpr it doesn't give Israel security in the . long run .

You can't

solve . t~e P~lestini.an

as Sharon apparently

believed~

Th~

issue by military means,

Begin government, Hurewitz sa~eguard

believes, neglects political and diplomatic means to Israel's interests. Israel a

part~h

For example, the PLO's tactic is to make

nation in the international community, like

South Africa; and Begin doesn't begin to deal with this politically and diplomatically. position is clearly

wea~er

feac~

start of Operation

In tpis international sense, Israel's than it was on June S

for

(~efore

the

G~lil~e).

for the irnrneµiate future, Hurewitz forsees a period of very hard bargaining, just as there

w~s

after ·past wars.

For

example, ~n 1956 Ben Gurion reversed himself and agreed to leave the Sinai after receiving a stroni ~able from ~resident Eisenhower on November 7.

What PeQple tend to forget ts that Israel didn't

a.ctually leave the l'entnsula until March l957, after hard bargaining over security

arr~ngements.

The Eegin

goyernm~nt

will try

to maintain its ideological purity . regarding ultimate control of the West Bank.

O~r

role sh9µld be tq look at

ly and realistically? if

~e

want to

~aye

anY

t~ese

issues square-

~nfluence.

For

example, regarding settlements, with the present policy there are two possible outcomes--Israel will try to assimilate

a

very

large Arab population with a very htgh birth rate, thus resulting in an eventual Arab majority; or Israel will try to induce the Arabs to leave, as advocated by Meir Kahane.

Begin has used up

a lQt of political capital in the United States and will face

-8-

serious proplems with the American public and even within- the Jewi~h

community if he pushes either of these.

Di~cussion:

~isks

Opport~ni~ies

and

Prof.Micb~el

Curtis observed that there are

paralleled opportunities to move foreward now.

un-

For example,

though the signs are mixed, there is the possibility of greater accommodation between Syria and Israel, if the problem of the Golan can be solved.

In view of the alternatives, it is in

Israel's interes t after all that Hafez Assad remain in power; so it may be possib le for Syria to be . the second country to sign a peace treaty with Israel.

~e

Lebanon, Curtis felt it was pre-

mature of Israel to expect to be able to sign a peace t reaty with Lebanon.

Israel should be encquraged to pull out of

ly, settle for a security zone in the

~outh,

and

Leqano~

leav~

quick-

the Leb-

anese fractiona lized polit ical structure to be worked out, among the Lebanese.

He added that Lebanon, like Northern Ireland, may

just not be resolvable. As for Jordan, Curtis observed that it is in a position of change and that King Hussein is at last nizing that his own kingdom is in danger.

making a move, recogHe must move to counter

Sharon's thesis that Jordan is Palestine and one way to resolve the Palestinian problem is to overthrow the Hashemite kingdom. Curtis believes the Reagan administration is designing a variety of pressures against Israel.

In view of high unemploy-

ment and the unpopularity of foreign aid, the Administratipn may



-9-

scale down aid as a form of ·pressu_re on Israel and the American Jewish

commun~ty

has to be prepared for thi? possibility.

Another

issue is that of set·tlements , _which is .n·ow coming to a head, and the Jewish community, now come to grips with it~

~hi~h

has avoided it in the past, must

A decision will have to be . made either

to support Israel's present policies or to oppose them.

Present-

ly the number of set tle rs is 25,000; but if the goal of 100,000 is reached, then it wil.l be practically impossible fo withdraw them, and the political dis~greed

pr o~ lem

will become more acute.

Curtis

wit h Hurewitz's comment about a communication problem,

arguing that the Israelis - are well - informed about U. S. opinion,e.g. in meetings of APPME with Israeli officials.· The -reports go on to Jerusalem but the Begin government has made a conscious choice not to heed the warnings, based on its own views as to Israel's objectives and the role of the Diaspora as an instrument rather than as a partne r. Mrs. Rita Hau ser then turned the group's attention back to Lebanon, cit ing a meeting of experts with the State Department,~hort l y

before Bashir Gemayel's assassination, in which

she and others had urged . that the U. S. should fi rst have concentrated on resolving the problems ·in Lebanon, including Syrian and Israeli disengagemept, before embarking on a solution to the complex problems 9£ the Palestinians and the West Bank. There was a dispute

a~

to whether Syria might now be ready to

make a deal, and she -asked for comments on this. Prof. Amos

Perlmutter commented that in his view

there

is no such entity called Lebanon . either in terms of society or a

-10-

nation-state.

Amin Gemayel is irr effect only· the mayor of

Beirut .. The only two · people who believe that . it is possible to

recon~titute

believes that

Lebanbh

th~re

ar~ R~~gan · afid B~gin.

Perlmutter .

.

will be three Lebanons, and disagreed ·

with Shaked's scen,rio of . relative stabilizatibn,

~xcept

perhaps for Beirut. It is Syria and Israel --

two powers around Leb- ·

~he

anon -- who must reach an accommodation, and the U.

s.

now has

all the cards in its hands if it knows how to play them cor- · rectly. ·

Sinc~ · l973

Syria has

be~fi

a status qtio power and its

cautious behavior during the Lebanon war proves ·th i s "is so. As the Palestinian issue

become~

essentially an

I~raeli

domest-

ic problem par excellence (the "Pales tini za·t ion" of th'e confl ict) , it

~·hould

be eas·ier - to reach an agreement between Syria

and Israel inyolving,perhaps, a Bekaa

fo~

Golan

tr~de-off.

The

U. S. should send a Habib or a Kissinger to try to forge an agreement . . Israel's annexation of the

~clan

shbuldn't bi seen

as an insurmountable obS"tacle; after all, Golan is , not Eretz Yisrael and it was not annexed foiever.

1

0ne

ha~

Syria will have to have a role inLebanon -- · with

t6·accept that ~ome

kind of

presence in · the east, just· as there will have to be some kind · of Israeli presence in the sguth. · cisions to make.

Both ~ sides

have'· hard de- ·

Begin and Assad are both ideologues·, but Begin

has in the past demonstrated a capacity to compromise.

The

Israeli high command is ready · for an aocqiJtrti.6 d,tion · with syrici., and, Perlmutter said, ·it has a great deal of influence

-11-

on the goiernmerit.

H~ feel~

the best route

no~

is to seek an

Israeli-S~rian a~commodation; . which wiil ~lso Prbvide a way to

begin solving the Lebanon problem, starting .with some mutual troop withdrawal. As for the Palestinian issue, Perlmutter commented that this was a problem for the long-term and wouldn't be quickly

~olved

by King Hussein coming to the table

without the PLO .

~ith

or

The Lebanon war has changed . the map in the

Middle East, but Israel cannot take political advantage of its actions, while Jordan and the U. S. are trying to make Th~s

strategic ·gains at her expense.

was another reason,

in Perlmutter's view, for _Is-rael . now to seek accommodation with Syria, thus strengthening I srael's position with the Jordanians and others

o~

the·

Pai~stinian

in

dealing

issfie.

On Israeli domestic politici, Perlmutter remarked that Begin is the

on~

representing the symbols of the Israeli

nation, and thii appeals to ihe electorate and

~trengthens

his

After the commis~i~n of inquiry, Labor will becom~

position.

weaker, not Likud, because the break away,

contributi~g

~eace

movement will likely

to the fragmentation of Labor.

Mrs. Hauser mentioned a conversation she had had with an aide to President Amin Gemayel', whose reputation with the Phalange was as the t ·r e·asurer and "ba.k.6 he.e..6 h-payer" while Bashir was the gunman and the thinker.

According to this

Lebanese Christian source, their plan is to r·etain the multinational force for as long as possible, thus enabling Amin to

. ...

-12-

consolidate his power, get the Palestinians some accommodation with Israel. in its own right.

o~t,

and work out

Lebanon sees itself as a player

The aide outlined a scheme for creating a

Chtistian-controlled Lebanon by following the Zionist example of ingathering of exiles, which would attract Christians from throughout the Middle East and overseas, increasing the Christians' numerical strength and ±nfluence, backed by a strong military. However, most members of the group felt this was just not a realistic. plan. PrQf. Itamar Rabinovich observed that it was useful to compare the situation in the Middle East before and after the Lebanon war.

Before the war the U. S. had an advantage

over the USSR in the Arab-israel arena but no coherent policy. The Iran-Iraq war was the dominant iSS\le.

A "moderate" prag-

matic Arab bloc, consisting of Jordan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, was beginning to crystallize. · Egypt was looking for a way to return to the Arab fold through this bloc (for example, by providing military a$sistance to Iraq). assassination, it was expected

~hat

Fol.lowing Sadat's

destabilization would oc-

cur in several other Arab countries, e. g. Syria and Iraq . war in

Leb~non

A

was widely expected.

Now, since the war, a number of new have occurred, which . are positive. been overshadowed.

develo~roertts

The Iran-Iraq conflict has

The American advantage has grown, though

the opportunities may be missed, and there is a more coherent U. S. policy.

The

mod~rate

Arab states have been reinforced

-13-

and the PLO and Syria have . been weakened; evidence of this is the fact that the second Fez

of the Arab League

m~etipg

~c­

cepted what had been ~borted by the Syrian rejectiqn of last year's Fez

confe~ence.

The·

~otential

for instability in the

Arab world still exists, but much less has surfaced than was expected during a time of crisis and humiliation for the Arabs analogous to the· sit_u ation in 1967. ·The Begin government has been weakened and is now a lame duck government. · The -effect of these developments could be movement toward Jordan or toward·· Syria.

The U. S. prefers Jordan, which

after all is pro-Western, moderate, and interested.

As for the

Syrian option, it could also $Olve the problem of Lebanon, in a "package deal".

It would be easier to deal with Syria (from

Begin's point of view)

sin~e · Golan

is not

and Jordan '·s demands ·are too

hi~h.

negotiations .with Israel; in

Rabinov-i~h's

~art

of Eretz Yisrael ,

Jordan wc;mldn ' t enter into view, without . an .ad-

vance guarantee that it woul4 receive ~ big slice of the West Bank and .this is

somethi~$

the current Israeli government could

not agree to . . However, the Syrian option is also not a sure thing . Be cause the Begin-Sharon government is weakened, the chances of reaching an

acco~modation

with.

Sy~ia

are not so good.

When there

was a credible Israeli threa.t to .t he Syrians in the Bekaa Valley, .

.

the U. S. could use that as a way to bring Syria in; now that Sharon lacks a mandate to threaten Syria in the .Bekaa, there is

-14-

thus less

pressur~

on the Syrians and less inclination on the

part of Assad to deal with Israel. As for Lebarion, Rabinovich disagreed with Perlmutter, saying that there is an entity called Lebanon, which has existed for many years,

a~d

just as in the early 1960's Lebanon played

an active role, it will do so again.

Lebanon's tactic is

playing the "politics of the. weak," i. e. playing off several countries against each other in order to maximize its advantages.

Sharon's war aims were based on very shallow polit-

ical thinking, pinning all of Israel's hopes on one man, Gemayel.

Bashi~

With his assassination, and the election of Amin

Gemayel, the whole picture has changed.

Israel has given Amin

better cards -- a real chance to rebuild Lebanon. ing control of the Phalange party apparatus. ing power and knows how to do. it. is a change in the Lebanese

Amin is gain-

He believes in us-

As a result of the war, there

equati~n

-- there will be more assert-

iveness of the state in Lebanon, less PLO and Syrian control, and increased Israeli influence.

With the si.tuation still ·fluid,

the be s t role for the U. S. wduld be to help in reaching a SyrianIsraeli accommodation by playing its cards correctly and effectively. Prof. Avner Yaniv noted that a fundamental change has· been

taki~g-

place in ·the Middle East; from allegiance based on the

family and pan-Arabism to allegiance state.

~o

a specific territorial

When no state was .legitimate, neither was a Jewish state.

Now when states become increasingly legitimate, so does a Jewish state, at least in the long run.

-15-

Yaniv agreed that Syria is the pivot in the current situation.

The so-called moderate states are not capable at

this time of any

eff~ctive

move without Syria.

Yaniv disagrees

with Rabinovich about Syria's · abil~ty to act effectively now, because of its recent defeat.

Once the Syrians overcome the

problems with the SAM defenses ., they may

re~;ume

some fighting

against Israel as a possible prelude to negotiations.

Lebanon

can be turned into an Israeli/Syrian "Sinai" buffer zone. Lebanon will have to pay a price to Israel in terms of security in the southern area, either thro4gh effective . demilitarization or a multinational force. As for the Reagan plan, it was wrong for the U. S. to hurry to attempt a broader solution, Lebanon

withdraw~l

issues.

having

t~solyed

r~membered

that the

witho~t

It should be

the

Sadat trip to Jerusalem was not an initiative of the U. S. but an initiative that started in the into the game.

· r~gion

arid then

th~

U. S. got

The Reagan Plan is not a plan but an attempt at

taking the initiative and providing the withdrawal and pre-Fez

summit,~ith

Arab~

post-Beirut PLO

an indication of where the

U. S. stands on the issues as a litmus test for Arab responses. There is a paradox in Israeli politics -- peace is impossible with Labor in power and Begin in opposition; so with Begin in .power there is, in fact,

~petter ch~nce

in the search

for peace, because Begin can make decisions that others would find

mor~

difficult.

This ·Was true with regard to Sinai; the

question is does this hold up with regard to the West Bahk?

Yaniv

felt there has been too much emphasis on personalities: the in-

-16cursio~

int o Lebanon was not the private war of Begin and Sharon

but had the fu ll backing of the raeli popul ation .

Governme~t

and most of the Is-

The primary purpose of the Lebanese operation

was not po lit ical; it was in fact a military solution to a military problem - - the rapidly increasing strength of the PLO in armaments and capability. As for the Israeli settlements in the West Bank, Yaniv said that as an Israeli he personally

~pposed

the policy , but

as a political scientist he recognized it as an effective way to e xert pressure on the other side to hurry and come to the negotiating table. Afte r all, Sharon's settlement policy in norther·n Sinai put the pressure on Egypt to come to the negotiat ing table .

It should be remembered that the settlements which have

been set ·up by the Likud government are generally bedroom communities.

The ideologically motivated new

agri~ultural

settlements

are sparser and not as successful as tho se which we re set up by the Labor gover.nment in the Jordan Valley. On the results of Fez II, the most recent Atab League summit meeting, Yaniv ' s view is that Fez II r epresented a 90% withdrawal from the 1974 Rabat decisions , which had made the PLO sole, legitimate Palestinian spokesman

~nd,

though Fez did not

embrace the Reagan plan, it did not explicitly reject it either. He doubted that the PLO or Hussein was courageous enough to make a Sadat- li ke move.

-17-

Prof. Hurewitz remarked, regarqing the Christian rem~mber

"Zionization'' of Lebanon, that we should

that Christian

groups in Lebanon are . not homogen~o~s. · .For , e~~mpl~~ the Greek th~

Orthodox -- who are more numerous than

usually allied themselves with. the Moslem

Maronites -- have n~tional~st

elements.

Hurewitz disagreed with Perlmutter; there is a Lebanon and it can survive if helped by community.

region~l

elements an4 the .international

Notwithstanding the French/Maronite differences with

the Sunni Mos leros, tl')ey di4 nonetheless have a '.mutual interest in a Lebanese state.

But the U. S. must play an .active role as it

did in 1958 when Abdul .Nasser established in 1943.

so~ght

to challenge the system

In 1975 the U. S. was not prepared to take

action and regional realities took over,

ma~ked

by Syrian inter-

vention and civil war. Accommodation between

Syr.ia . ~nd

.Israel is pos sible

not only due to the Syriap defeat . bu~ also becaµse economy is hurting as a

re~ult

t~e

~sraeli

of military expenditures and the

problem of yeJi.ida.h· (emigratipn) . . Dr. Adam Garfinkl e

~?m~en~ed

that for the Reagan plan to

succeed there must be a resolution bf the Lebanese situation and a new Israeli government because the problems in Lebanon can be . used by Begin to

fig~t

Syria is left out.

the Reagan plan.

~nd

problem is .that

Syri• will ~ttemp~ to control much of the

.

PLO

Ano~her

.

continue to . exert a veto power on J<;>rdan . . Assad will I . .

not find ·it possible to negotiate with . Isr~el .. for peace, since Assad has to cause.

demons~rate

his · fid~ii ty to the Arab and Pa1estinian

-18-

Prof. Uri Ra 1 anan's view was th~t there i~ no ~uch thing as a Reagan plan .

What does exist is (1) a Reagan ·

speech, (2) the talking points sent to the parties, (3) the policy

stateme~ts

by Setretary Shultz.

The language used in the

three was not the same on some crucial points. reactions of

T~e

The positive

New YQrk Times and the Israeli Labor Party

were directed at the Reagan speech. For example, the Reagan speech spoke of "true peace," (the Arabs at Fez offered non-beliige!ency, not peace ) ; the spe~ch

the

called for "normalization" (and here we

Egy~tian

s~ould

remember

experience, where the Egypti an government never

lived up to the Camp David Agreements regarding normalization), and for security arrangements· ("on- the-ground" security and not simply international guarantees). The Reagan speech differs from the Rogers concept of "insubstantial chang.e s" in the border. The "Talking Points" d iffer .<.11te1t. a.l.ia., because they omit normalization as a specific criterion.

Ten days after the Reagan

speech, Secretary Shult~ in a policy statement aiso omitted mention of normalization, and a few days after that, in another policy statement , he omitted securi t y, but ·s poke of "the quality of peace." Re .Jerusalem; Reagan in his speech said Jerusalem must remain undivided but ihe final status will be determined by negotiations.

Secretary Shultz, ih testimony on September 10 before

the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said "We do not recognize unilateral acts with

regar~

to the final st'at'µs of Jerusalem."

-19-

Re the Palestinians, Reagan's speech said the U. ··s. would not support a Palestinian state in the West Bank ~nd Gaza, nor would it accept annexation by israel.

The Talking

Points focus on the fact that the U. S . will not support Israeli

so~ereignty

over the territories, they mention some as-

sociation wi th Jordan at the end of negotiations, but don't completely close

th~

door on the possibility of the proce ss

·1eading to a Palestinian · state at some time subsequent to the negotiations. Regarding the settlements, first of all we must differentiate between

var~ous

groups of settlements -- those in

the Jordan Valley , others such as Gush Etzion, shalayim, and those in the mountain rid ges .

Merchav Yeru-

In the Reagan

speech it says the U. S. will not support additiona·l land for settlements and calls for confidence-building acts. ;'Talking Points" · call for a

settlem~nt

The

:!

freeze and preclude

extra-territo rial sovereignty for settlements in the West Bank. How does one

expl~in

these differences?

The answer

is a combination of bureaucratic confusion and lack of sophistication in diplomatic ·negotiation.

There were at least seven

persons who helped draft · language for the various documents. The result is a "seven-headed hydra " that lacks precision or consistency.

The present administration, in this important

area of foreign policy, has

s~ill

not gotten itself together.

Some Israelis· console themselv·es into thinking that the variety of policies can mean greater ·f1eiibility but Ra'anan beiieves that the variety of policjes· may·

~n~ble

the 1 Arabs to push the

-20-

Administration closer to the Fez solution rather than in the direction of a genuine peace acceptable to Israel. Prof. Stephen Cohen observed that we are in a "timeout" period, because we have to wait for the results of the commission of inquiry in Israel, and for a stabilized situation in Lebanon.

In the meantime, he sees no U.S. pressure on Is-

rael until the spring of 1983 when it becomes clearer what the status of the government there will be. Syria is extremely important at this time and the pre£ent situation is the best for pushing a Syrian-Israeli accommodation.

Syria is worried about being left out, especially

when it sees Jordan "coming in."

Also Israel may be thinking

more about negotiations involving the Golan and Bekaa. Lebanon also needs a period of "time-out."

Unlike

Bashir Gemayel, who had strong backing and was prepared for his role as President, Amin is not ready.

Furthermore, the fluid

situation in Lebanon is consistent with the U. S. desire to keep things under control and still fluid, until the right pieces fall into place·. The Christian ingathering theory ("Zionization") is a threat which Amin wields in order to bring the Moslems into line.

He would really like to consolidate the middle class and

invite greater Moslem participation within the country but not in setting the

~erms

of its foreign policy.

The Moslems have

in the past wanted closer ties with the Arabs, while the Christians want to maintain links with Israel and the West.

Amin also

wants to keep the Multinational Force for a longer period of time, in order to assure U. S. involvement.

-21 -

The PLO is completely disaffected with the Arab states. These states now want to use the Egyptian approach, which is to split the PLO and bring a politically-oriented, non-terrorist PLO into talks with the U. S.

The Paiestinians do not consider

Jordan or Syr.ia as better options, each of which needs certain elements of the Palestinians to go alohg with them. for its part is trying to maintain some unity.

The PLO

The result will

be either st alemate or an offer which will induce some party to get involved .

In thi s

~egard,

Reagan has given Jordan some good

cards to play , which balance the Syrian card, i. e., the PLO groups under the Syrian aegis.

Cohen feel s that Jordan remains

the best option for the U. S. and Israel because the Palestinians in the West Bank have a better understanding of their situation and are best able to think

prag~atically

and to reach an

accommodation with Jordan.

II.

'Implications for the ·American Jewish Community and IsraelU. S. Re lations Dr . Nathan Pelcovits commented that the next step of

the Reagan plan has been sidetracked.

Peacekeeping in Lebanon

has now become a core problem of American policy .

Earlier, the

U. S . had hoped to proceed simultaneously on two tracks -(1) the Reagan initiative for bringing in Jordan and resuming West Bank autonomy talks, and (2) the removal of foreign forces and the reconstruction of Lebanon. Israeli Foreign Minister Shamir has said: no multinational force and no UNIFIL in southern Lebanon within range

-22of Israel.

That is probably

almos~

non-negotiable.

Yet a

new multinational force (MNF) is necessary to help preserve peace and to restore Lebanon's sovereignty and authority in the areas north and east of Beirut. How many troops would be necessary?

Some public

figures have talked of 30,000 troops, others of 60,000.

In

Morocco, the f igure that . has been ment i oned is between 20,000 and 40, 000.

If I srae 1 is to withdraw , one has to- have some

kind of strengthened peacekeeping force.

In early November

there was word of an expansion : of the t asks of the U. S. marines and an extension of the MNF .

In Was h ington there is

a plan floating around - - a double partition "tryptic design" that would cover three areas· of Lebanon: A MNF to supervise disengagement in the southernmost part of Lebanon (including elements from Western Europe , Greece and possibly even Arab countries); a long - range MNF presence with the Lebanese army and some kind of role for Haddad ' s forces on the southern ·

strip. A middle strip - - the Beirut-Damascus highway -- to be patrolled by a . reconstituted UNIFIL .

And north of this, an

expanded MNF , similar to the one i n the Sinai, but without the political underpinnings. Pelcovi ts said that what was envisaged was something ten or twelve times bigger than the present size of the forces . The problem is . that Congress has to support this if it is to work. The Administration said that the U. S. forces will remain in Lebanon as long as it is necessary to police the foreign troop withdrawal, but earlier had said the -major mission would be ac-

-23-

complished by the end of the year. . The Administra.t ion has thus far skirted the need for Congressional Powers Act by first

~tressing

approv~l

under the

W~r

that the operation would be com-

plete.cl in less than 60 days and then by ·implying that the nature. of the U. S. peacekee_ping role was limited

~nd

any "imminent involvement in hostilities."

did not involve

If the scope and

duration of the U. S. involvement is expanded it will have to obtain Congressional backing. to be sensitive t6

~hat

The State Department is trying

it sees as a change in

p~licy

priorities

of sidetracking the Reagan in.itiative ·and concentrating on Leb·ano~

to

troop withdrawal.

They see this as a twofold issue~

How

momentum on the peace process, while bringing stabil-

~aintain

ity to Lebanon. Discussion Dr. George Gruen inquired what size of

~nd ~omposition

did the Administration envisage in the

forc~s

of Lebanon,

souther~

area

since Israel has made it abundantly clear that it

would not trust UNIFIL

a~ain

PLO incursions . in the past?

in view of its failure to prevent Dr . Pelcovits responded that no

design for the composition of the force has yet been put together. There is pressure from Gemayel to bring in as many other countries as possible, but Israel's objections will prevent any countrie s u~friendly

to Israel from .participating in the south.

Dr. Cohen remarked that we have an example here of how a strong person interacts with a weak administration.

The

MNF was a temporary measure used by Bashir Gemayel in agreement with Israel.

Bashir got along with the Lebanese army, but Amin

-24-

doesn 't have control of this army. in

·He wants to use the MNF

order to gain time and assert his authority over the Leb-

anese forces.

The

Re~gan

idea of what it wants.

Administration . doesn't have a clear

This might provide an opportunity for

Israel to come forward with an initiative for resolving the problem . Pelc ovit~

stated that UNIFIL was originally intended

to help stabil ize the situation and train the Lebanese army. Now the idea is that the MNF can help restore political stability.

The Lebanon reconstruction fund involves $10 to $15 bil-

lion including reconstituting the army.

Gemayel is looking to

the Arab states and friendly European countries, such as France, to join the U. S. in providing funds. The Reagan Administration is accepting Amin Gemayel's myth that you have to have many countries sharing the military responsibility.

Spain is interested, for example, because this

gives it a chance to operate in the Third World and provides

the Spanish army with a role.

Greece is also mentioned.

This wil l cause additional strains in American-Isr~eli

relations, not . only in terms of the make-up of forces

but also in terms of the U. S. need to be responsive to Gemayel's wishes.

There's a perception of a non-parallelism of interests

between Israel and America, at least in terms of priorities. The thinking of persons such as George Ball is that Israel has. caused this problem,: so "let's take the cost out .of its hide by cutting the Israeli appropriation by the amount allocated

-25-

for refugees in Lebanon." Or maybe Congress will say "let Israel do the dirty work for us in the south," deal with the 400,000 refugees, maintain security and undertake the reconstruction. The peace-keeping aspect highlights a change in the perception of the security needs and risks of Israel.

If one

had to pick a major point - of difference between Israel and the U. S. post-Lebanon, it would be the perception of whether Israel has become a Goliath or is still a David. Yitzhak Shamir says that Israel remains a small vulnerable country committed to defend itself.

This is a two-edged sword.

To the extent

that the Congress perceives a strong Israel as a strong ally that is good.

But if it is that strong it no longer needs the

kind of military aid we have been giving it in the

past~

Maynard Wishner inquired whether Congress might regard funding the U. S. force in Lebanon as contributing to Lebanon's stabilization rather than as securing Israel's frontier. Pelcovits said one could envisage the U. S. as the leading power in the south of Lebanon and France as the power in the north. He added that the concept of external security guarantees was again being revived.

This raised the possibility of Soviet in-

volvement which was undesirable from the U. S. standpoint.

AJC

shoilldpoint out as we did some years back that external guarantees are no substitute but only a supplement to security arrangements on the ground among the parties directly involved. Avner Yaniv said that everything hinges on whether Israel and Syria will withdraw from Lebanon.

Three conditions

-2 6-

have to be fu l fil l ed for the MNF p lan t o be c9ns i de r ed by Israel: I t wil l have to be a very long way fr om Israe l' s border, the ma jor ity of it s c omposi tion wi ll have to be American , and I s rael wi ll have to be confident t hat thereis a s t able Lebanese government t o deal with on the othe r s i de.

Nathan Pelcovit s

r esponded t o thi s las t point, s aying that it is not a matte r of a stable government .

The Israeli posiiion has been that t he

peacekeeping force has been ineffective.

A l ocal authority has

to evolve t h at will take the re sponsibility to prevent i errorism and main t ain stability.

Mrs. Hauser doubted whether any Leban -

ese government could control the entire country . we r e both a politic al and a financial proble m.

The refugees If I s r ael de-

cides to bu ild hou ses for them but Amin Gemayel want s to dr ive t he Pa l estin ians out, there will be no so lution.

It i s ques t ion -

able whether t he Saud i s are prepared to r esettle the Pal es t i n ian refugees .

The Saudi s ma y help rebuild Lebanon as a center of

capitalist e nterpr ise . Profe s sor I t amar Rab inov i ch s tressed that fo r the Syrians securit y ar r an gement s i n the The Shi'i

a r~

B ~ k aa

valley we r e vital .

an important e l ement in the s oc ial r ealit ies of

Lebanon , particu l arly i n t he sou th and east .

I n recen t mont hs

more than 40 , 000 have re t urned to Naba t iye.

As for the Pal e-

s t i n ian reftigees they are also s t rat ified .

Those who came a s

r efugees in 1.948-49 have interact ed we ll and been accepted by the local peopl e.

In . 1970 Palestinians wi th weapons came f r om

Jordan and formed an e l i t e .

Now those who have connection s

-27-

with Amin Gernayel will have influence. He added that the Commission of Inquiry and the s·erious debate in Israel as to the cost versus the benefits of the Lebanon operation will be an important political issue in the forthcoming elections .

Con·sequently, Begin will insist on strong security

and political arrangements with ·Lebanon to justify the war. Israel has inherited the problem of maintaining peace between the Druze and the Maronites.

He recalled that in 1975

Assad quoted Jumblatt (the late Druze leader) as having told him,. "this is all a blood vendetta going back 120 years." sequently there will be no neat solution for

Con-

The Is-

Le~anon.

raelis are likely to get the Americans angry over what appear to be !minor is sues. Prof.Perlmutter said. there are two sepa!ate issues: the

Syr~an-Israeli

and the

Jordanian-Palest~~ian.

Syrians the prime military problem is the is the soft underbelly of Syria and also i. e.

B~kaa "th~

For the

Valley.

It

bread basket;'

hashish srnµggling route for the Syrians.

For Israel,

whatever arrangements are made . in southern Lebanon, Israel will have a political and security influence there for the forseeable future and, it therefore

has to bear some of the

economic burden and concern for the refugees, etc. Isra~l's · interest Th~

It is in

to make a deal with Syria.

ctirvilinear view of the State Department

see this at all, but

focus~s

on the

det~ils

doesn~t

of the Reagan plan.

Israeli-American relations wili be on the rocks because pf minor

-28-

disputes, like the make-up of the MNF. ful that Hussein and the PLO would enter Camp David talks.

Perlmutter was doubt-

~ccept

the Reagan plan _and

As for Israeli politics, Sharon is

not out of the game, whatever the inquiry

comes out with, and

Sharon may head his own ticket and win s even or eight seats. III.

Discussion of

Co~clusions

and Recommendations

Rita Hauser commented that there is a difficult per iod ahead for American-Israeli relations in addition to differences of opinion stemming from the Reagan plan.

She ad-

ded that when she met Cheysson in Paris he was trying to put together an international consortium to help Lebanon and considered an Israeli-Syrian deal in Lebanon unacceptable to France. It wa s po ssi blethat we will have a status quo and a carving up

of s phe re s of influence in Lebanon with no real progres s toward peace.

What are the recommendations as to how the American

gove rnment s hould proceed? Abraham Karlikow asked whether there were any guideline s or me asuring rods to use in assessing proposals and policies regarding Lebanon.

Perlmutter respon ded that he pre-

ferred that Israel didn't

~lay

a role in trying to put Lebanon

together, s ince he did ·not believe there was a society or government in Lebanon. Haim Shaked pointed out that stability or instability in Lebanon were relative concepts.

Since World War II very

few countries have disappeared from the face of the map .

On

the other hand, for many years, Lebanon was fragmented, yet it

-29-

managed to function as a state.

It ' won't be Canada, but it can

be more stable than in the 1970's.

As for the Syrian option,

there's nothing new in that idea.

His guess was that a Syrian

option was only wishful thinking.

(Dayan at one time proposed

removing some settlements from the Golan, but Dayan is dead.) It's not easy to reach a solution if one Arab states as a given and . Israel as a variable.

~egards

all

·Israel is as

much a given as they in terms of its interests and policies. While there are problems, events in the Middle East have not been moving against basic Israeli interests of survival and ability to protect its interests.

We should address

ourselves to U. S.-Arab relations and actual policies, where we can have some influence. 1.

Concrete illustrations:

American Jewish support for the _rehabilitation

of Lebanon helps to strike a positive note

an~

is not detri-

mental to the long - term interests of Israel. 2.

We should keep reminding the peacemakers that

any time a policy relating to security addresses itself to only one or two actors, it will upset the whole system and result in counteraction.

One should not ignore the effect upon

Israel of deals with Saudi Arabia and Morocco.

Conversely,

one cannot look at Israel and Jordan in isolation from the broader system. 3. in Lebanon.

One should talk of "rehabilitation"

not "relief"

-30-

Prof.

R~'

a.n an said he was concerned with the in-

grained lack of patience in this country and the obsession with finding a quick fix or techhical solution to every problem.

One cannot have a peace.keeping force in heavily popu-

lated areas where there isn't a chartce of effective demili tari zat ion.

The.se "solutions" will aggravate the s i tua-

t ion on the ground as well as relations between Israel and · America.

We are undermining the major point: the _peace camp

has always maintained that it's either peace or territory. And .here we are brushing aside a country like Lebanon and saying that it's not an integral unit -- yet, this is the one place where there isn't a territorial claim by one side against the other.

It is morally wrong to brush aside the

idea of a peace treaty between Israel and Lebanon. wise; we would in effect be ratifying the view of

OtherT~h~ya

that the exchange of territory for peace is not feasible since the Arabs are simply unprepared to make peace

under any

circumstances . In response to a question by Maynard Wishner as to whether the Begin settlements

policy foreclosed op-

portunities for future flexibility, Ra'anan noted that the Yamit and other Sinai settlers were evacuated even though both the Labor and Likud governments had been absolutely definite that these settlements would be permanent.

Yaniv

added that according to American estimates the total number of Israeli settlers in the territories was only 25,000.

-31- .

The vast bulk of these are ·in the · area that Labor would retain under a. territorial · compromise.

One should also disting-

uish between ·settlements in the Jordan Valley, those in the Etzion bloc -- which was on privately owned Jewish land already before 1948, and those in the built-up suburbs around Jerusalem. Mr. Wishner wondered whether the figure of 100,000 settlers by the end of the decade projected by Meron Benvenisti would constitute a critical mass. Prof . Yaniv sa i d that we should point out to Washington that the U. S. benefitted from Israel's action in Lebanon.

The U. S. should not p·ush Israel our of Lebanon to·o

soon for the result would be a heavier burden to the U. S. We can say to Israel that in the south, "Haddad can do it for you.

Say you want a peace treaty with Lebanon but don't

actually do it, it might foreclose an agreement with Syria," which will take time. Mt. Wishner said

th~t

Lebanon will resist

other than tents for the refugees .

~ny~hing

The American Jewish com-

munity has so far contributed $1 million t oward rehabilitation efforts in Lebanon.

The Lebanese are telling the world to

solve the refugee problem and too high a profile for Jewish efforts may be regarded as an indirect indictment of Israel. Walter Stern suggested that the U. S . should press the Saudis.

The American claim

that the Lebanese can't

sign a peace treaty because of fear of the Saudis doesn't hold water.

The Saudis don't want Syria or Iran to overtake

or undermine Lebanon.

.

are fearful of Khomeini. the Saudis and Iran.

.

Because or the Iran-Iraq war the Saudis Israel stands as a buiwark between

This is leverage.

We ought to be

-32-

pressing the U. S. to pressure the Arabs rather than Israel.

We should reinforce the positive aspects of the Reagan

plan and press for direct negotiations and talks with the Arabs. Mrs. Hauser said that everyone agrees

th~t.

there is

a difficult ·period for Israeli-American relations ahead. What should the AJC do in light of this? Alfred Moses said that while there would be some friction over Lebanon, the real tension between the U. S. Israel will only

~merge

once the Jordanians move.

~nd

He did not

think this was likely soon. Dr . Adam Garfinkle said that there was no political base for the reconstruction of Lebanon. As to the West Bank, Jordan will bite and try to

n~gotiate

by proxy as much as it

can -- it will not be able to get a final settlement but it will get the Hawk missiles, planes etc.

He wondered · if one

could make a distinction between the rehabilitation of Lebanon and relief for the Palestinian refugees.

He suggested

that we urge the Arabs that time was .running out and they had better enter negotiations with Israel if they hoped for any results. Prof . Stephen Cohen said one should tion to style.

als~

pay atten-

It is important to avoid the style of "mil-

itant alienation'' on the part of the American Jewish community from the U. S. government on the issues that will be coming up, e. g. the Jordanian arms deal, the composition of the MNF, or the specifics of the Reagan plan. should avoid becoming alienated from Israel.

Similarly, we The rehabilitation

-33-

of Lebanon is not only humanitarian, it has great political implications.

The present situation allows for the formation

of relations with important elements the-re .

For example, the

proposed rural development bank is a way of developing new conduits and all.iances.

There are important ele111ents in

Lebanon who want. to make relations with Israel organic,and Jews with international business connections may be · helpful in this regard . Cohen also urged that we must maintain a balance between Lebanon and West Bank issues.

There's a lesson to be

learned from the. transition. from the Carter administrat ion to that of

Reagan.

A positive approach to revitalize Camp

David will get Israel better dea l s on the other issues including those relating to Lebanon. If the Syrian option is seen as a way to avoid dealing with the Palestinian issue, it won't work.

If it is viewed

as a more successful way for a better dea l on the Golan Heights and the West Bank, then it creates competition between Jordan and Syria for the

~est

Bank.

The AJC should be the exception

to other Jewish organizations and

sh~uld

be ready to engage

in examining and presenting initiatives in regard to the West Bank . . Most of the American Jewish comrnuni ty will avoid that .

The AJC can be a voice .for the return to the Camp David

process from which everyone has run away.

Mrs. Hauser noted

that AJC had repeatedly done so. Abraham Karlikow pointed out that our . problem with the Camp David process is that if we .conclude that Israel

-34-

is violating it and say so we alienate Begin.

We have ·to

wait until Jordan moves forward and then can say something if Isra'e l fails to r.espond. · We should push for the rehabilitation of Lebanon

yes,. even if it's a myth.

We have

fai.led in pus·h ing. for a peace agreement between Is'r ael and Lebanon.

We should bring it up as a goal;

cate the teset tlement of the

Palestinian~

We should

advo~

in Lebanon as the

Jewish refugees from Arab . countries have been resettled in Israel and other c-0untries. Mrs .. Hauser added that the refugees were a worid problem but it was hard to get others · to take their fait share. Karlikow also advocated an early Israeli pullout from L·ebanon to avoid constant problems.

A Lebanese

army friendly to Is-

rael is the only logical solution. Mr. Jerome Goldstein said that he geherally endor$ed the analysis of Moses and Garfinkle.

He felt that the best

deal Israel will get is the Reagan plan, but that's a hard thing for Israel to

~ay~

Pr0f. · S.a ra R.eguer agreed that the issue of the West

Bank was the biggest potential· cla·sh between Israel and America.

She agreed that the Palestinian refugees should large-

ly be resettled in Lebanon. Dr . we can

~o

Pe~.~E_vits

said he was not. sure how much further

than · reiterating our faith in Camp .David and crit-

icizing Arab failure at Fez to join the process.

We ought

to make more distinct the emphasis on the Palestinians as a I

refugee problem.

The UN will continue to press "the inalien-

·~.

-35-

able rights of Palestinians."

Over · the. next month or two

we will have new efforts to renew and enlarge the mandate of UNIFIL?

Can one create a UNIFIL or MNF presence which will

be more acceptable to U. S. involvement?

Congre~s,

This is based, of course, on the premise

that Israel should disengage. pla~e

one that will entail less

Is Congress williµg to contem-

a long-term expensive U. S. involvement?

should come up with an alternative.

If not, Congress

We wi ll have to also be

concerned with the level of U. S. aid. and revival of "guarantees," as part of a search for soft options. Regarding sett l ement s, we should be more sympathetic to Israel's position on this, since their scope is not as grandiose as some have made it appear . Alfred Moses reported on his meetings last month in Jordan.

His conclusion was that the King won't be able

to come with a proposal that will excite the Israeli public. He may come back from Washington saying enough to move the ball from Jordan to the U. S. and ask the AmeriGans to pressure Israel to respond. ent on Saudi money.

The Saudis won't move as long as the

Pale.stinians won't agree. servient to Hussein. sein needs. keeping the

The Jordanians are heavily depend-

And Arafat won't agree to be sub-

There won't be the assurances that Hus-

We should shift from pressuring the Israelis to pr~ssure

on Hussein.

Until Hµssein responds

positively and adequately there is no point in our prodding Israel in view of the democratically elected government which enjoys majority support.

-36-

Yaniv noted that the Palestinians depend on Syrian support, which brings us back to the issue of Syrian-Israeli relations. Cohen noted that sometimes, as was the case with Egypt,

~he

objective

si t~ation

brings about a radical change

in policy even when there is strong ideological opposition to change. Mrs. Hauser adjourned the meeting at 4 p. m.

****** .

80-580-35

CENTRO

UNIO N •r

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FRATt DELL 'ATO N EM.ENT v1A

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PIAZZA

S. ONOFRIO. 2

00105 ROMA T!LEF ONO 656.44.9 8

Rome, December 20th, 1982 '

Rabbi Marc H. Tanenbaum National Director Interreligious Affairs American Jewish Conunittee 1 65 East 56 Street NEW YORK , N.Y. 1002i

• •

,

:. · •



,..

I

.. ~ Dear Marc, . Your welcome letter reached me just as I was leaving for -a week in Venice for the annual consultation .en the Week of Prayer for · - ···· Christian Unity in January. · I asked Sever Voicu, our librarian, to call your secretary to indicate my acceptance of your propos·a 1, and my agreement that the first week in May would be the better time for both of us. Thus I understand a general agreement on our part to look forward to: 1. A colloquium on the general subject of human rights, which will avoid entering into parti.cular political subjects · (which would · ;~nvolve diplomatic and jurisdictional probl ems for me here); _., ·2. the colloquium to be largely organized by you, with this office r esponding as far as possible to your initiatives; · · 3 . that this Centro is the site, and is free the entire first week of May , 1983, but that May first should be avoided because it is a l egal holiday when all transportation of the local sector ~s not in service; 4. that we could pay up to three hundred dollars towards the cost of simultaneous translation service if needed, . but beyond that point we . would either have to do without or find other funds: . 5 . that we would arrange for the translation service if neces.sary; 6. that the Centro would of·fer a reception as part of the .c olloquium; . ·1. that we ·would request a private ·papal audience during the program (and of course, ·that depends on. the disposition of the Vatican ); 8. that the program be jointly sponsored by the American Jewish Committee's Office . for Interreligious Affairs and the Centro Pro Unione, and if you think a good idea, possibly also -by SIDIC if they so desire; . ' . 9. that we would discuss how best"we can use publicity and/or publication of papers from the program. (We will be happy with publicity, as long as it observes our limitations as indicated in 1. above ). · · · I · hope that is helpful generally. A good time .to phone me, if necessary , is at the Convento (656-44-98) at 1 P.M. Rome time (dinner ) , or in the . evenings. I'm generally · at the office -(659-552) from 3 to 6 P .M. Rome time. I think this is the time for a human rights program here, as a heali!lg factor which would be· much appreciated by both Jewish

.

.~

. /.

. ~·

·.

~

·~

-· ~

CENTRO PRO UNIONE

RUIDfNZA t CONVlNTO S. ONOFR I O AL (;IAN ..COLO.. ·

FRAT.I DELL.ATONEMENT

PIAZZAS. ONO F RIO. 2 00165 ROMA TEU FONO 6!>6. •• . 98

VIA S. MARIA DELL•ANIMA. 30 IPIAZZA NAVONA> 00186 ROMA • TEL. 659.552

8t8LI OTECA ECUMENICA ' TEL.~

·Rabbi" Tanenbaum ·- 2/

..

:

'

· and Catholic constituencies, both locally and ·inte.r nationally. From .the personal standpoint, how happy I would be to entertain you at our house, M.a rc, and I hope ·you will want to · stay with us during your.. visit. In this day of women's lib, \'./hy . don't you bring . along you'r hard working-secretary and Inge? Ah .well, we can always dream. When you have further plans established, I'll get in touch with Jorge Mejia to see if he'll work with us. .· ~coking forward to hearing from you (and remember to send · a copy of a.n y communication by separate post in case of loss in · Italian mails), . . .

·~

Sincerely, Your friend,

~l~;-..\-~ (Rev.) Charles ~gell, S.A. Director

.i

. '

~=l · '

:

.. !-

:t.

THE JACOB BLAUSTEIN INSTITUTE FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS

A'nti=-Semitic Rhetoric at the United N"ations by Daniel Meron

.

·.·

.:.

'

o. (

~ THE·AMERICAN JEWISH COM ITTEE, Institute of Human Relations, 165 East ~6 Street, New Yort<, N.Y. 10022

The Jacob Blaustein Institute For The Advancement of Human Rights Through a wide variety of programs, the Jacob Blaustein Institute aims to narrow the gap between the promise of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights agreements - - and the realization of these rights in practice. Blaustein Institute projects fall roughly into four broad categories, _albeit with considerable overlapping: a)

scholarly endeavors designed to clarify basic human rights concepts or issues;

b)

educational and training programs to promote wider knowledge and use of international human rights principles and institutions, to develop a critical public constituency capable of extending and improving them, and to encourage young people to consider careers in this field;

c)

programs that nurture and strengthen human rights organizations and movements;

d)

the creation of a corpus of legal writings for use by human rights pleaders and advocates as they confront human righ~s violations.

In pursuing its objectives, the Blaustein Institute works with diverse academic institutions, foundations, national and international human rights organizations and legal groups.

!

THE JACOB BLAUSTEIN INSTITUTE FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS

Anti-=Semitic Rhetoric at the United Nations by.Daniel Meron

o.

QjC

THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITIEE, Institute of Human Relations, 165 East 56.Street, New York, N.Y. 10022

FOREWORD

Particularly since 1975, when the General Assembly adopted a resolution equating Zionism with racism, some representatives of Arab and Soviet bloc governments have used UN bodies as platforms for ·anti-Jewish statements. Yet there has been little systemat.ic analysis of such speech. As part of our UN-related activity, the Jacob Blaust~ln Institute engaged Daniel Meron, a Harvard College undergraduate., as a summer intern to undertake as a case study a systematic survey of the records of one General Assembly and of selected Security Council sessions during 1982, to determine the extent and character of anti-Jewish manifestations during that session. Mr. Meron was confronted with the complex relationship between traditional, unequivocal anti-Semitism, newer anti-Zlonism, and attacks on Isra~l, as have been previou~ analysts of ant.i -Semtt·lsm at the UN. His research yielded re lat l vely few examples of crude, classical ant i-Seini t ism; anti-Zlon ist and · anti-Israel statements were much more pervasive. The research also showed that anti-Semitic speech was restricted mainly to a few Arab states and the PLd with some objectionable rhetoric coming from the Communi·s t bloc (including Cuba). It indicated that within the anti-Zionist rhetoric there was a discernible strain of traditional anti-Semttism. Mr. Heron also analyzed the principles in international legal dbcuments, mainly the Convention on Racial Discrimination and the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, that might be used to combat anti-Semitic rhetoric. Annexed to his paper ls a list of examples of the several types of statements: some unequivocally anti-Semitic, others antl-Z.ionlst .or anti-Israel with or without anti-Semitic overtones depending on interpretation. It is pleasing to bring this interesting research paper by a ·Blaustein Institute intern to your attention.

Si.dne.y L.Wk.o~.6fly -_P1tog1tam V.i.1te.c.to1t

ANTI-SEMITIC RHETORIC AT THE UNITED ·NATIONS

In recent months there has been renewed controversy over anti-Israel rhetoric in the United Nations. Representatives of Israel and Jewish groups in the United States have claimed that virulent anti-Israel statements made by delegates ·were also anti-Jewish. "In an effort to combat what they see as persistent anti-Semitism at the United Natlons, 11 1 American Jewish leaders met with Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar and urged him to do his utmost to try to put an end to outbursts2 such as the statement made by the representative of Libya, Mr. Treiki, who accused American Jews of being pornographer.s and of attempting to "debase" the American people.3 Many delegates, however, view even such ·outbursts as mere "diplomatic indiscretions"4 or as acceptable political criticism of Israel not directed against Jews in gen~ral.5 The que~tion is, which statements constitute ascceptable criticism of Israel, and which utterances should be condemned as anti-Semitic? For analytic purposes this paper distinguishes between three different types of rhetoric: those statements explicitly using the term "Jews" or "Jewish," those about "Zionism" or "Zionists," and those referring to I~rael. Anti-Jewish Speech .

.

Article 1 (1) of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (hereafter the Convention) defines ~racial discrimination" as "any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms. . • 1.'6 (emphasis added) Article 4 (a) prohibits "dissemination of id~as based on racial superiority or hatred, incitement to racial discrimination, as well as all acts of violence or incitement to such acts" against any group on grounds of race, colour or ethnic origin.7 The definition of racial discrimination prohibits distinctions which have "the purpose or effect" of impairing the equal enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms.8 The prohibition of racial propaganda in article 4 is broader and includes the dissemination of ideas based on racial superiority or which promote hatred. Thus, under article 4, it is not necessary to demonstrate adverse impact, or . even intent to promote racial discrimination or violence, in order to prohibit racist propaganda. Under this Convention, virtually any invidious distinction on the basis of race, either in law or in propaganda, is almost per se invalid. This conclusion is also supported by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 2 ( 1) of the Covenant requires a state to "ensure to all individuals within its territory •.. the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without

-2-

distinction of any kind, such as race, colour .•• religion, etc .. "9 Article 24( 1), discussing the rights of children, pr oh ibi ts any "discrimination on grounds of race, colour, religion, national origin, etc. 11 10 In short, the protections in the Racial Convention (and the Covenant) against racial discrimination, hatred and propaganda are so far-reaching that, according to some members of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Di~­ crimination, which implements the Convention, any st~tement insulting or maliciously ridlculing individual's belonging to ce rtain groups is punishable.11 Accordingly, it can be safely warranted that criticism of "Jews," the "Jewish lobby" and perhaps even invidious reference to Israel as the "J.ewish State" (as opposed to criticisms [of specific individuals or] of the policies of the Israeli·· govern·ment ) are prohibited by international human right s law. Anti-Zionist Rhetoric · There is controversy over whether virulent attacks on "Zionism" are anti-Semi.t'ic. The thesis that anti-Zionism as well as anti-Israel tirades are equivalent to anti-Semitism has been advanced .by Yehuda Z. Blum, former representative of Israel to the United Nations, in a letter to the Secretary General dated 16 January, 1984: Throughout all these years the State of Israel and the Jewish people have been under no illusions with regard to the true intent and purpose of the "anti-Zionist." and "anti-Israel" outbursts .at the United Nat io ns and · elsewhere. It has been wel l understood by decent people everywhere that behind the "anti-Zionist" and "anti-Israel" tirades there lurks anti-Semitism, pure and simple, and that "antiIsrael" and "anti-Zionist" slogans are being used by closet and crypto-anti-Semites to disguise their true intentions . • . . 12 Blum, here, argues that the "true intent" of "anti-Zionism" is to foster a·nti-Semitism, and that criticism of iionism, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, is in itself anti-Semitic . As noted above, article 4(1) of the Convention condemns "all propaganda • •• which attempt to justify or promote racial hatred or discrimination in any form. 11 13 Thus, under the Convention, anti-Zionist rhetoric intended to promote hostility towards Jews in general would be prohibited. But how does one demonstrate intent? The difficulty Of demonstrating such intent is compounded because some delegates who virulently criticize Zionism and Zionists deny any hostility towards Jews. Idi Amin, in an address to the General Assembly in 1975, for· example, said: 14 The United States of America has been coloniz.ed by the Zionists who hold all the tools of development and power. They own virtually all the banking institutions, the major manufacturing and processing industries and the major means of communication . . . I call upon the

-3-

people of the United States of America • • . to rid their society of ·the Zionists in order that the true citizens of this nation may control their own destiny and exploit the natural resources of their country to their own benefit. The similarity between this statement and the propaganda of the Nazis is quite striking. There can be little doubt that when Idi Amin speaks of Zionists owning all the banking institutions and not being true American citizens he is referring to Jews · and is intentionally using traditional Jewish stereotypes. Yet, just a few sentences lat~r he says: "I like the Jews but I do not approve of zionism [sic]. 11 15 Even though so invidious a statement might be considered to demonstrate intent despite the disclaimer, how does one prove this? Given the difficulty of proof it would appear that an argument based on intent is not helpful for. Blum's argument. Blum's second argument poses another difficulty: The. enemies of Israel, he implies, are engaging in "ideolqgical and po~itical anti-Semitism" by denying the ri.ght to Jewish self-determination, as by the expression "Zionism is racism" which defames the ideology of "Jewish peoplehood. 11 16 First of all, it is not· clear that the denial of the right to Jewish self-determi nation is equivalent to anti-Semitism. If it is, are Israelis who deny the Palestinians the right to their own state, racist? Secondly, not all Jews accept Zionism. In fact~ some feel that Jewish cultural and religious identity can best be maintained in the diaspora. Are those groups that are most vocal in their opposition to the state of Israel, such as Net.urei Karta, anti-Semitic? Rabbi Elmer Be~ger, a longstanding anti-Zionist activist, stated in a speech at the University of Kansas on October 21, 1982 that "the racist/theocratic character of Zionism complicates any process which contemplates peace through reasonable territorial adjustments. 11 17 Though Rabbi Berger may be misguided, should .one label him18 an anti - Semite? Thus, any flat equation of anti-Zionism with anti-Semitism is problematic. Again, perhaps the best approach would be one based on the Convention. As Jack Greenberg observes, the Convention distinguishes between purpose and effect when dealing ·with discrimination .19 An act or statement which has the effect of promoting racial hatred or discrimination, even if intent is lacking, would still be prohibited under · Article~ 1(1) and 4(1). This emphasis on effect ls not unique. Indeed, a number of Supreme Court decisions on discrimination have construed certain statutes as forbidding discriminatory effect irrespective of intent.20 Federal employment guidelines, moreover 1 also prohibit practices with discriminatory effect, regardless of intent.2 1 By this approach, · it would be enough to demonstrate that hostile criticism of Zionism in general, as opposed to specific policies of Israel, is likely to promote racial hatred, and thereby bring it within the prohibition of the Convention. It would be sufficient to show such a likelihood without d~monstrating a "clear and present danger."

-4-

.

If the assertio~ that "the Zionism equals rac1$m resolution has had ·the effect of promoting, sustaining and legitimizing anti-Semitism in various parts of the world"22 is correct, then not only ~hose who cite it but the resolution itself is condemnable under articles 1(1) and 4(1) of the Convention. Anti-Israel Statements As with anti-Zionist Statements, Ambassador Blum, in the letter quoted above, c~mplalned that anti-Israel "tirades" were reall}' "smoke-screens" for anti-Semitic slogans and as such should be prohibited.2J Unfortunately, any attempt at limitiQg anti-Israel criticism, no matter how virulent, on the grounds of anti-Semitism, rai_s es serious problems. It cou-ld be argued that the Convention's broad prohibition of propaganda whose effect ls to promote racial hatred, would prohibit the anti-Israel rhetoric Blum complains of. But· that would require proof of impact. . Surely some criticism of Israel, even harsh criticism, is legitimate. How, then, does one de.termine which statements constitute legitimate criticism and which should be prohibited? Because such statements would have to be addressed on a case by case basis, impact would be very difficult to measure. How can one demonstrate the effect of one statement? · One solution might be to prohibit not particular statements but certain types of statements. For example, statements denying Israel's very right to exist would be ruled anti-S~itic in effect and prohibited. Blum himself seems to do just that when quoting, as an example of an anti-Semitic rem.a rk, one by the Iranian Foreign Minister, referring to Israel as a "cancerous growth" that must be - removed.2~ However, if this remark is anti-Semitic, then is Neturei Karta also anti-Semitic, since it objects to the very existence of the State of Israel? Another type of prohibited statement might be one comparing Israel to the t-tazis, on the ground that this comparison is an intentional attempt to demean the atrocities committed by the Nazis by claiming that their crimes are no different from Israeli policies, and as such is intended to cause pain to all Jews. A statement such as that made by the representative of Syria, Mr. Khaddam~ that "Israel has • . • exceeded all the crimes perpetrated by the Nazis • • . 11 2::> would then be prohibited~ This is a weak argument, however, not only because of the difficulty of demonstrating 'that the use of Nazi metaphors are intended to have these effects, but because not only Israel is compared to the Nazis. Mr . Rajaie~Khorass~ni, the representative of Iran, for example, compared both Israel's and Iraq.'s leaders to the Nazis. He stated: "if Nazi criminals dese.rved--and of course they did--to be condemned and punished by international bodie~, why. then should not Saddam Hussein and Begin be punished in this Assembly for their war crimes? 11 26 These difficulties lead to the conclusion that anti-Israel criticism cannot be prohibited on the grounds of anti-Semitism. One must look elsewhere for a solution3 perhaps to Article 20(2) of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which states that "any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be

-5-

prohibited by law. 11 27 Statements · such as "the removed like a cancerous tumor, 11 28 therefore, could incitement to violence and advocating national even virulent criticism of Israel which could not still be prohibited as advocacy of national hatred

Zionist entity • • • should .be be prohibited as providing an hatred against Israel. Thus, be termed anti-Semitic, could against that state.

As this paper has shown international legal instnonents, if used properly, may provide an effective means to combat anti-Jewish rhetoric at the UN.

- 6-

ANTI - JEWISH, ANTI-ZIONIST ANO ANTI-ISRAEL SPEECH, 1982

Anti-Jewish Rhetoric Iraq Mr. Al-Hadawy A/37/PV 87, General Assembly "Jewish financial influence had increased in the United States because of war conditions and their aftermath, when the United States adopted an open-door policy towards Europe, which had. been destroyed by the war. The Jewish societies succeeded in lessening discrimination against Jews in some parts of the country and hastened to impose their absolute domination on finance, the mass media and various sectors of public opinion. They gained positions in the American Congress, the White House and the Department of State. Those who needed the support of the political personalities involved hovered around them, and the influential Jewish lobby appeared on the scene." Nicaragua Mr. Chamorro Mora A/37/PV. 96, General Assembly "It is difficult to believe that a people that suffered so much from the Nazi policy of extermination in the middle of the twentieth century would use the same fascist, genocidal arguments and methods against other people."

PLO Mr. Abdel Rahman S/PV. 2375, pp. 72 "Crime, drug taking, prostitution, are the trademarks of the society that he and his colleagues declare that they want to establish for the Jewish people." Syria Mr. El-F attal "Are not the forces of pressure -- that is, the Jewish Lobby in the United States -- the obstacle preve~ting the restoration of stability and security in Lebanon? • • •

-7-

The voice of Rabbi Schindler confirmed what we have statedJ that is, that the Jewish Lobby, in spite of its strength, is not the only giant beast imposing its will on the United States Ad~inistration . [Continues by explaining that Jewish Lobby is only successful b'ecause the of the U.S. are best served that way . ]

b~~t intere ~ts

Anti-Zionist Rhetoric Cuba Mr. Roa Kouri A/37/PV. 86, General Assembly "Once again the Zionist authorities have shown their racist sadism and their profound contempt for the most cherished values of mankind.'~ Cub~ .

Mr . Malmierca A/37/PV. 23 , General Assembly "Hitler would have had much to learn from the madness of Messrs. Sharon.

Begin and

The Zionist genocide in Beirut ls the direct result of the United States government's policy of force, . v.iolence and repression." DjlbouH Mr. Farah A/37/PV. 16, P. 106, General Assembly " During the first half of this "century the Nazis, in their • •• campaign for racial superior~ty, arrogated to themselves the right to determine who should live and who should be deprived of life. They institutionalized terror and mass

killi~g

as ·means of achieving

~hat

goal • .

''ln "the second half of this century the Zionist neo-Nazis have espoused a similar concept, although more limited in scope • These Zionists have unf ottunately made us relive a tragedy which history wished to bury at Nuremburg and which ·we thought had been removed from our memories forever . "

-8-

Iraq Mr. Al-Hadawy A/37/PV. 87, General Assembly ''It [Zionism] is a racist, imperialist, political movement that distinguishes between Jews and non-Jews, be l ieves in the purity of the Jewish race and is based on terror ism, repression, treachery and expansion, ·just as Nazism distinguished between the Germans and the non - German races and resorted to terrorism, repression and expans ion. Since its inception in 1947 the Judenstadt has been guilty of putting into practice all th~se evils. " Jordan Mr. Nuseibeh S/PV. 2396, Security Council "This has been the incessant pattern of murder and destruction which the Zionist Nazi r acist gangs have been perpretrating against the Palestinian people ever since . • . Menachem Begin desecrated the hallowed soil of the Holy. Land when, in 1943, he arrived in Palestine as an immigrant." · Syria· Mr. Abouchaer A/SPEC/37/SR. 27 para. 20, Special Political Committee "Israel, acting froin the · hatred of humanity dictated by its Zionist ideology • • • " "The Zionist usurpers, the enemies of mankind. " Syria Mr. Khaddam A/37/PV. 8, pp. 84-85, General Assembly "Much sufferi ng and bleeding continue as a re s ult of the plots of world Zionism to establish a racist empire starting i n Pal esti ne and extending t·o other parts of the world, defined by Zionist doctrine as being from the Nfle to the Euphrates • . . " Syria Mr. Khaddam A/37/PV. 8, p. 83, General Assembly "The racist regime in Pretoria, like the racist Zionist regime in Palestine, has not only detonated explosive situations of conflict and tension, but its practices have always been an affront to humanity and a blot on its history ."

-9-

Syria Mr. El-Fattal A/37/PV. 93, General Assembly · " •. •• ·Zionism with · its rac~st, . expansionist ·nature arid its past and present crimes ·a gainst international peace .and security " Li by.a Hr. Treiki A/37/PV. 96, General Assembly

"The General Assembly has recognized that Zionism is a form of ·racism and that the fascist Nazi regime in power in occupied Palestine ls a racist regime."

Anti-Israel Rhetoric Angol.a . Mr. Jorge A/37/PV. 16, P. 92, Current Assembly "The brutal armed invasion carried 04t by the racist and fascist Tel Aviv regime, with the full and shameful conn! vance of the United States ·Administration " .. Cuba . Mr. Lopez. Del Amo· · A/.37 /P.V. 93, General Assembly· "In the course of. recent months the international· community has witnessed acts of barbaric behavior, acts of extermination by Israel, comparable only to Nazi-Fascist actions during the Second World War." Ira.ri Mr. Rajaie-Khorassani A/37/ PV. 41 p. 16, General .Assembly "If Nazi criminals deserved -- and of course they did -- to be condemned and punished by international bodies, why then should not Saddam Hussein and Begin be punished in this assembly for their war crifl'.les?" Iraq

". • • the innocent ·rraqi subjects and res-ident·s who had been expelled from • because of the Iraqi regimes' racist commitment."

-10-

Jordan Mr. Nuseibeh A/37/PV. 92. General Assembly "It [Israeli expansionism] is extremely reminiscent of the rise of Nazism in its theoretical conceptual creed of racism, expansion and hegemony, which subsequently erupted one of the most devastating wars of this century and the total breakdown of the League of Nations and international law as arbiters of relations among nations. That is not a vain and propagandist analogy, for while the motivating theoretical frameworks are identical in both movements· and cataclysmic culmination of one came with the massive deluge of the Second Worid War • • • the, second namely the Israeli-Zionist thrust, is in the middle stage of its un.folding, stupendous as the early st~ges have been." Jordan Mr. Nuseibeh. S/PV. 2388, p.7, Security Council " • • • the Israeli Nazis are at the present continuing to perp~trate their barbaric assault on and genocide against the capital of the independent sovereign state of Lebanon • • ." Mo.rocco Mr. Boucetta · A/37/PV. 17, p. 52, Gener·al Assembly •• • .r

"The abominable massacre planned by the Israeli army of occupation in the camps at Sabra and Shatila claimed more than 4,000 victims among innocent unarmed Palestinians, including women, children and old people. It reminds us of a similar massacre carried about by Menachem Begin in. the Palestine village of Deir Yassin in 1947, and it transcen.ds in atrocity and the· manner in which it was committed the deeds of the Nazis during the Second·World War." PLO Mr. Terzi S/PV. 2379, p. 87, Security Council "Did they provoke the attack in order to bring us back to a state of war? Is ·the criminal mentality of the Nazis· still there?" PLO Mr. Terzi S/PV. 2380, p. 22 Security Co.u ncil. the developments in Jiddah were answered by the neo-Nazis with " some savage attacks which caught unaware scores of Beirut civilians who had hoped to benefit from the relative calm to secure basic needs."

-11:..

PLO Mr. Terzi S/PV. 2388, Security Council "The. members of the Herut party ahd the Irgun Zval Leumi are known for thelt ide·n t iflcation with .Hitlerian doctrines and policies." Saudi Arabia Mr. Allagany S/PV 2325, pp. 13-14 Security Council •

"~t has constantly used the highly publicized Nazi practices against Jews as an excu.se for its excesses in Palestine but has failed to realize that its atrocities against .the Palestinian people •. . • were -~ot incomparable to the atrocjties attrib1.:1ted to the. Nazi regime duri~g ~he · Second Wor.ld War."

Syria· Mt. Khadd~m A/37/PV.8 . pp. 91-92? Cenerai Assembly "Are the Israelis committing .their crimin~l acts to serve their racist Zionist interests or on behalf of the United States ~nd its interests? If Israel's crimes against the .Arabs are not committed on behalf of the United States or its interests, wh_y ·does it provide this· S'Upport and backing to Israel?" Syria Mr. El-Fattal A/37/PV. 40, General Assembly "Foremost among such [racist] regimes are those of the governments of South Africa and Israel, which . are guilty of the most invidious and murderous acts against the people under the yoke of occupation." Syria Mr. Khaddaltl A/37/PV. 8, General. Assembly "No country in the world either in the ancient or in the modern world -has a record as dark as Israel's. It is a record abounding in raqist crimes, acts of aggression, wars and crimes against humanity. Israel has thus exceeded all the crimes perpetuated by the Nazis and the fascist forces during the first half qf this cent~ry • • • In spjt~ of ~11 this the . Israelis still claim that they want pea.ce. Is that any different from what · Hitler and the Nazis used to say when they were destroying towns · and villages and killing the civilian population, including women and children?"

-12-

Syria Mr. Khaddam A/37/PV. 8, General Assembly "In a notorious statement, reminiscent of the Nazi co.ncep~s Which were denounced by all mankind, the Israeli Minister of Defense [Sharon] states that he believes that Israel's lebensraum will stretch to include Pakistan in the East and North African countries in the West." Syria Mr. Khaddam A/37 /PV. 8; . pp. 88- 90 General Assembly "Then came the horrible massaqres perpetuated by the Israeli forces Qf occupation in the refugee camps of Sabra, Shatila and other localities . Israeli forces murdered, slaughtered and mutilated more than 1·,000 innocent Palestinian citizens, mostly women and children, in a bloodbath reminiscent of the mass~cre of Deir Yassin, perpetuated by Begin 6n 9 April 1947. This ~orrlble carnage, which exceeds Dir Yassin and all the crimes of Nazism; confinns that a genocidal war of extermination is being waged by Israel against th~ Palestinian ·and Labanese people before the very eyes of the whole ~rld." Sudan Mr. Osman A/C. 1/37/PV. 13, Government Committee my delegation cannot fail to express regret at the fact that the " two racist regimes in Pretoria and Tel Aviv have found the means to acquire and manufacture nuclear weapons." Uganda Mr. !rumba Security Council ". • • the twin brothers in the furtherance of racism and aggression --'namely, Israel and Apartheid South Africa - - have persistently and arrogantly flouted numerous resolutions of the security council and the General Assembly." Ukrainian, SSR Mr. Martynenko General Assembly .

.

"The tragedy of Beirut has brought back to the memory of mankind the darkest scenes from the past -- the bloody crimes of the Nazis in the second world war

-13-

Such brutal behavior by the aggressor would not have been possible without the political protection and extensive military and financial aid Israel has been receiving from its influential American benefactors." U.S.S.R. Mr. Gromyko General Assembly "Could Israel commit aggression and perpetuate genocide against the Palestinians but for its so-called "strategic consensus" with the United States?"

March 1985 85-900-16

;.

-15NOTES

1

Note: Throughout this paper the term "an.ti-Semitic" will refer to its commonly accepted meaning· of "anti-Jewish."

2 Richard Bernstein, "Jewish Groups Press UN Chief on Anti-Semitism," The New York Times, 19 June 1984~ 3 UN document, A/38/PV.88, PP~ 19-20. 4

The New York Times, 6.19.84.

5

The

6

International Convention on Discrimination, Article 1(1).

Ne~

York Times, 6.19.84. the Elimination of All Forms of. RaGial

7 Convention, Article 4(a). 8 Convention, article 1(1). 9

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 2(1).

10 Covenant, Article 24(1). 11 UN document, GAOR, Supp. no. 18 A/32/18, para. 84. 12 Letter addressed to the Secretary General by the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations,. Yehuda Blum, dated 16 January 1984. 13 Convention, Arti~le 4(1). 14 UN document, A/PV. 2370, pp.71-72. 15 Ibid • . 16 Letter circulated by Professor Irwin Cotler, dated March 6, 1984. 17 Amy Kaufman Goott and Steven .J. Rosen, eds., Th~ Ca~paign to Discredit Israel (Washington: AIPAC, 1983), p.100. 18 Ibid. 19 Jack Greenberg, "Race, Sex, and Religious Discrimination in International Law," in Human Right~ in International Law: Legal an~ Policy. Issue~ (T. Heron ed., 1984), vol. II, p.322. 20 See Board of Education of the Clty of

Ne~

York

v~

Harris, 444 U.S.130 {1979).

21 See Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 1607.3: "The. use of any selection . Procedure which has an adverse impact on the hiring, promotion, or other empioyment or membership opportunities of members of any race, sex, or ethnic

-,16-

group will. be considered discriminatory ••• " 29 CFR 153 (1978, rev. 1 July 1983). 22 Ibid. 23 Blum letter, p.4. 24 Blum letter, p.3. 25 UN document, A/37/PV.8. 26 UN document, A/37/PV. 41, p.16. 27 Covenant, article 20(2), (emphasis added ) . 28 UN document, _A/38/PV. 102.

-17-

Appendix RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

l

I. Choice of Research Period. The most accurate method of determining how prevalent is anti-Semitic rhetoric at the UN was to examine as thoroughly as possible, one complete year of meetings rather than random meetings covering a number of different years. After comparing .the sources available, both at the U~ited Nations library and a~ the N.Y.U. library, I chose the UN's 37th year, covening January 1 to December 31, 1982 and including the 37th session of the General Assembly. The reasons for this choice of this time span was the following: ( 1) The 37th year (1982) is the most recent for which re.a sonably complete records exist, and the most recent year for which a complete index exists. This index was important in that it greatly facilitated my research. Furthermore, a number of documents, such as the summary records of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, can only be obtained by requesting the records from the UN librarian using the exact call numbers which are identifiable only through the index.

.

.

Finally, the 37th year saw the invasion of Lebanon in June, as well as the siege of Beirut, the tragedy of Sabra and Shatila in September, and the shooting of Arab worshipers at the Temple Mount by Alan Goodman, incidents certain to. provoke sharp reactions at the .UN. Method of Research. Th~ first step was to read all debates lndex~d under the headings of "Isr·ael," "The Middle East," "The Palestinians," etc., using the index to proceedings of the General Assembly and the sepa rate index for the Security Council. I also read records of meetings which discussed South Africa and Apartheid, nuclear weapons in the Middle East and the debates on the Iran-Iraq war. In this research, I read the statements of all delegates, particularly though not exclusively, of the Arab countries a~d the Soviet bloc. These debates include discussions in ·committees that report to the plenary of the General Assembly, though (with the exception of the First Committee), no verbatim records exist for these bodies. On completing these records, I skimmed the records of all the other meetings of the General Assembly and Security Council in search of other discussions involving Israel. I found, indeed, a considerable number of relevant meetings which were not indexed, especially of the Security Council. By the time I had completed my research, I had read well over half the records of the General Assembly and the Security Council. My final step consisted in reading all of the records of meetings of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights· of the Palestinian People during 1982 that were available at the United Nations library. Choice of Library. In my research I used both the UN library and the N.Y.U. library. The N.Y.U. library is the more pleasant of the two, is quieter and stays open much later at night. It has complete records of the General Assembly plenary, the Security Council, and theoretically all the General Assembly committees . In practice, however, its records of committee meetings are not complete .

-1 8-

The United Nations library, on the other hand, has as complete records as. one can find, and its librarians are more knowledgeable than N.Y.U.'s. Its drawbacks, however, are its limited accessibility, which is . restricted to delegates, staff, relatives of staff, as well as selected doctoral and post doctoral students.

T

~E

JACOB BLAUSTEIN I NSTIT UTE is governed by an Administrative Council whose members include: Richard Maass, Chair Morris B. Abram Mimi Alperin Morton K. Blaustein Donald M. Blinken Thomas Buergenthal Howard I. Friedman Bertram H. Gold E. Robert Goodkind David M. Gordis Howard L. Greenberger Rita E. H auser Barbara Blaustein Hirschhorn David Hirschhorn Philip £. Hoffman Charlotte G. Holstein Robert S. Jacobs Rita D. Kaunitz Leo Nevas Robert S. Rifkind Arthur £. Roswell Eliiabeth Blaustein Roswell Jerome J . Shestack David Sidorsky John Slawson Jane Wallerstein Sidney Liskofsky, Program Director Phyllis Sherman, Coordinator Selma Hirsh, Special Consultant

ANIJ HISPANICS IN AMERICA . THE MEETING OF

TWO HISTORIC CULTURES , ~.... I

• • •

. A Report of The Houston Conferenee on Hispanic-jewish. Relations

a

UJ ~ l

THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE, Institute of Human Relations, 165 East 56 Street, New York, N. Y. 10022



• •

Edited by the Institute on Pluralism and Group Identity, American Jewish Committee. Tr~nscripts edited by Lori Santo.

OUTLINE I.

PREFACE

Il.

A GUIDE TO THE PARTICIPANTS

III.

INTRODUCTION: THE IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCE

IV.

A LOOK AT TWO IMMIGRANT GROUPS: JEWS AND HISPANICS Some Comparisons and Contrasts The Jewish Experience The Hispanic Experience

V.

ISSUES.IN THE ACCULTURATION/LIVE.S OF IMMIGRANTS · Homeland Language Education Family

VI.

IMMIGRATION TODAY

VII.. PLURALISM AND POLICY: IRVING LEVINE Introduction Professionalism and Ethnicity Ethnicity and Foreign Policy Language Policy Ethnicity and Economic Activity Strengths and Strategies

PREFACE

In April 1981, under the auspices of the Houston Chapter of the American Jewish Committee and the Immigrant Aid Society of the Americas, a two day HispanicJewish Conference on Immigration and Acculturation was held in Houston, Texas.

The unique dialogue which was carried on between scholars, leaders and laypersons from two of America's most prominent ethnic groups created a rare occasion for the kind of "ethnic sharing" that is much needed both. to recount the historical lessons of the past and to refuel faith in the possibility for problem solving today.

While the Hispanic-Jewish Conference featured presentations on the history of Hispanics and Jews in the settlement of Texas, the Conference also emphasized the total immigration and acculturation experience of the two groups.

Both Hispanics and Jews retain a commonality of experience in their strong desire to retain their unique cultural and historical.identity, _while at the same time they strive for absorption into the economic and cultural mainstream of American life. Both share religion as a foundation upon which they have built their values arid institutions in this country. So it is once again appropriate to take a closer look at what is happening in the two communities.

The Texas Committee · for the Humanities and the National Endowment for the Humanities funded this unique meeting. Their support for the conference is greatly appreciated. This

r~port

of the highlights of the conference was also made possible

Qy their generous grant.

Leonel Castillo Linda K. May Co-Chairpersons Hispanic-Jewish Conference ii '

A GUIDE TO THE PARTICIPANTS

1.

Dr. Lawrence Fuchs

Former Director of the Select Commission on

Immigration and Refugee Policy 2.

Roy Walter Chief Rabbi, Congregation Emanu-El, Houston

3.

Irving M. Levine

Director, Institute on Pluralism and Group Identity,

American Jewish Committee 4.

Dr. MSJ"g&rita Melville

Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of

Houston 5.

George

Val~

Deputy Director, Community Development Division of the

Mayor's office. 6.

Leonel Castillo Former Commissioner, U.S. Immigration

~nd

Naturalization

Service 7.

Cecelia Brodsky Older Jewish immigrant

, 8.

Manuel Crespo Older Hispanic participant

9.

Dr. Guadalupe Quintanilla

Assistant Provost and Associate Professor of

Spanish University of Houston

iii

:

INTRODUCTION: THB IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCE ·

Lawrence Fuchs: Migration is as old as human history.

.1

.

n· is~ part of our story

because human beings have the capacity to choose and to seek change. They have always chosen to improve their lot when they can. . . Today, migration is more extensive. than ever before µi history. In ttie United

States alone.last year, w.e · acc~pted over 200;000 refugees, approximately 500,000

.immigra_r:_~s, and . 1-~5·,ooo people who. ~riy_ed ~ · ~pecial. · inter.e~t category.

In

addition, there are a great many other people who come tO the U.S. outside of the regular immigration process.

Since its early beginning, the United States has

8Iway~ been a focal point. F~·rty million .persons' have . com~· here·, about 15 million . have -left, with periodic temporary flows back · and forth ac~C)ss the Canadian and Mexican borders. Indeed, it is a truism ·to· say that we are a nation of immigrants• . ., Until 1928, immigration 'to the U.S. wa5 relatively· op·en.' Ttie ·literacy ·reqllirement that was put into the law in 1917 was aimed at keeping out Jews, Greeks, Italians, Slavs-and Poles·- but s0me still came illegall:£.

'!!1. ~thnic groups~

including Jews,

entry as a. class by law in 1882.J . . .. ' The·· feeling of exciusfori from Society~ of not having a chance to control one's .

destiny is, by.and large;- the major mo'tivation which propels pe~ple to ·migrate. c::

Roy Walter: Sometimes the desire to ·leave is -deep-seated and planned for over time.

Sometimes, it is triggered by . an ev~nt which highlights th~ feelings of

cultural separateness. In all cas~s, it is a difficult ch~ice, as people do~;t just ~alk

away from their past. Even when they le8:ve a I.and of oppression, all immigrants leave with some degree of regret.

When immigrants arrive in their new land, there is a

n~w

building, instead of an old

familiar building; there is a new home instead of an old home; there are new

f~ces

if!.Stead of old faces; very often there is a new language instead of a very familiar one. Perhaps, hopefully, they will find a community of people .who hav~ come from . the same la1_1d as they . . __:_ and this will help make them

~eel

less . foreign in their new

land.

While immigrants leave a great many important bring with . them

~

th~ngs

behind, the fact is that they

great deE!} _f!lore than their physical possessions.

They bring

c.ultural baggage: a way of t~inking, a way· of deciding, a way of loving,_ a wnole

---

way of living.

Much of the sustenance of people in a new land is provided by -----~~~~----------~~..;._--...:.._~~_:___;__ ::_ continuing the old ways that they b~ing with them.

Fuchs:

-

Me"mbers of all immigrant groups find themselves caught between two .

cultures. Even as they seek comfort in

th~i~

own kind, and from their old culture,

their children venture out to meet others in school ot...E!1 the street.

One

immigrant historian has written, "Those who came simply sought security in a well defined group identity, Irish in Boston, German in Cincinnati, Scandinavian in

-

Minneapolis, Poles in Chicago. 11 For virtually every group there were

jm~IDigrant

banks, aid societies, na~iona.Ustic organizations, ·cooperative st:o res and foreign language churches and synru?ogues. JD every case, the mission was to help each ~

............._

immh~rant ~

~

group mainta.in a sense of ethnic identity and adjust to the new social . . ~ . . . .....-..

conditions of

Ameri~a..

There were many other organizations that served diverse

roles; to get a newcomer across the sea or to help him find lodging, to _give hi!TI

2

basic language training, or to · 16cate

a.· job · for· his · particular skill. or to :supply

support. Some were infoi:mal, s·uch as the ·Mexican · pateron1 ..syste·rn .. Others were . .. . ·.

public and institutional. :

A LOOK AT TWO IMMIGRANT GROUPS: . JEWS AND HISPANICS

Some Comparisons and Contrasts:. Fuchs:

Every immigr.a nt group has a special experience, depenqjng on what they

bring with them, and .on what the· setting is .when they come. Two of the most significant ethnic groups in the country; even· though

th~y

are not the largest, are

-

the Mexican-Americans, 8. 7· million and ·the Jews; of whom ·there are 5.8 million. ~

Both the Jews and . the Mexicans who came to· the U.S.: as immigrants have been _quite goor by U.S sta 0 dargs,

Mqst people .are · fairly, aware of .the statistfos on .

Mexican-American.s who have· been more .contemporary, . but I don't think many people realize just how poor the Eastern European Jews .._.,ere. , Eastern European Jews who came in the 1890's and the first decade of the twentieth century, when

------····-···-- - - - - -

U.S. migration was the heaviest, we!e .t.o a vel;'.y . ~onsider~e.1_~ : 9egree gauperized by the May laws ·o f 1882 i.n Russia. ·In 1901, at the. neight of .Jewish ii:nmigr.a tion, the averag~

l

earning of Bost.on's ·Jew:ish irnmiID"ants was

$~96 ~· year,

as qpposed to $515

a year for Irish immigrants, who were also poor. .

.

-

..

-· -

____,

. ,:_·, :· ~. :_;_

Disdain was .a common attitude .· toward both · Jews. anq Mexican-Americans·.

----

Persecution was a commqn experience too . . .The Jews di9 not .. complain about swegated But...

schog.I~ .

in those days; the¥·: were thrille9 just . .to ·have ·public schools.

th~y. ~Ud p_ro~est . ..

.police . brutality wnich ,

tb~y . exper:i~nced :

to

som~

extent in

every large city where they were located, although, not as extensively as that

3

experienced by Mexican-Americans.

They cor:nplained . too about immigration

officials who detained them for long periods of time at Ellis Island, where some were treated rather cruelly. Most of all, they complained about the _9UOtas, which kept their children out of certain colleges, or from being employed in some businesses. They were also exploited by employer( and s.o me of thos~ employers were Jewish, just as some Mexicans e.x ploit fellow Mexican nationals in this

country) The

~nion

movement was quite young and they were often _paid

substandard wages· and worked. i.n very bad conditions.

Jn these respects, the

experiences of the two groups were comparable. But perhaps from a human point of view, the

mos~

important similarity which e)!Cists among.almost all immigrants is

the sense of personal and familial estrangement, of being caught between cultures. Jewish

associatio~al

life was particularly s trong because it came out of a deep and

long tradition of communal action. That is

somethin~ that~.

ethnic group can quite expect to match.

Associations between .the immigrants

don't think any other

called ''landsleit" were drawn from the clusters of their fellow townsmen. · The landsleit met the immigrant's initial proolems of adjustment through mutual aid.

'I'.h~

-

Jews overwhelmingly migrated to the cities. There, they could develop more

easily and effectively whether through trade union ac~ivity or landsleit ..communal .. ... . . ... . .. . . . . ... organization_s. . ..Th~ey l!ad .Y.e~ -~h r.a tes of naturalizatjon because they had no .~.

place else to go.

The permanency of their migration was combined witlJ their

commitment to education. They had the opportunity to send their children to good schools and they. were able to send

th~m

full time, not part time, as so

do in agricultural communities regardless of their ethnicity.

-

settlement

encouraged

effective

participation. This encouraged

organizations

and

m~ny

Permanent urban

effectiv.e

educaponal ..

effective . ri~tu.r:alization

4

a

people

.i

ticipation.

l,.i The Jewish immigr8nt experience tbus .had a mor... perilianeilt charilcter !,han hlis \

been possible for Mexfoan immigrants up to now. .

{j) First, 'the economy was ..

There were three main keys to Jewish economic mobility:

shifting from an agricultural to· an industrial base, to commercial and service opportunities - the very things Jews had been forced to do in Europe where they had not been allowed to own· land, or permitted to work in many professions. .. Second :was

~ep ~~tural ~omm~tn:ient

to

education,~t a · time when ·education

was rapidly becoming a cultural. necessity)· Third, none of this would have been

the~oice to come to

nearly as significant if the Jews had been ambivalent about

the U.S., to become Americans, and to participate fully in American economic and politfoal life.

. ·

!

~mbivalent

To a large extent, Mex'ican migration has been

about coming here,

staying in and committing itself to the U.S., its values, and the ambiance of life here.. This ambivalence iS reinforced by the proximity of the couritry .of origin. Proximity not

only

encour~ges

ambivalence, ·but

it

encourages . language

maintenance, which is a good thing, . but which. ·inhibits acquisition

of

effe"-tive

English, which .is a bad thing, because it cuts down opportunities and it cuts dowrr_ choices, both in the economic and political realm.

To a large .extent, Mexican

migration has been agricultural migration, reinforcing the

tempor~ry

character of

-

migration; ·even ihter.nally. -=..people_fo]J.ow the seasons and the crops, which makes .

associational and

~pnpp!Jnal

life much more difficult· to sustain.

All of these

factors .ti11ye kept families .-... wive~ and children, from. migrating and.reinforce the . . -· · - •.. . .. ambiv~e!lce:

. And · the. resultant low rates o( naturalization,. the JliW.c.ultY of ..

'

committing kids full time school . .. to . .. . --- · · - ....-..... . Mexic~. ~e}Cpei'ierice

...

.

all of these factors have been .. . - ·a part- ..of the ..

.

..

. ..

.

.

.:':"- irLway~ _. tha~ : ~~re _n9t' tr.ue :·(or. .the. Jews~ · But. the

5

demographic facts are changing for Mexican-Americans.

It is a more urban

migration now, and families who intend to be perf11anent residents are coming here.

The Jewish Experience: Fuchs: Then, as now, foreigners were not always welcome. · T~e Jews' ways ·were very strange and Frederick Jackson Turner, the late 19th century American historian, expres.5ed a rather typical view after taking a walk through the Jewish ghetto in Boston's North End. Turner was repelled by tne foreignnes.5 of the J.ews: "I was in Jewry, the street consecrated to old clothes, pawn-brokers and similar follo~ers

of Abraham. It was fairly packed with swarthy sons and

d~ughters

of the

tribe of Israel. •. such noises, such smells, such spice. The street was filled with big Jew men, long bearded and carrying a staff as·you see in the pictures, and with young Jews and maidens, some of the latter

pretty~

as you sometimes see a lily on

a green_muddy slime."

Henry Pratt Fairfield said of the Jews that they "were particularly unassimilable because they as.5erted their nationality in the

mid~t

of other nationalities. Even

rabl;>is and promi_nent figures urged their people. to remain distinct... and aspire .to _become more Jewish. Such

p~rs9ns

constitute an undeniable menace to American

national stability."

HostOity to Jewish immigration was s6 ..:strong thet even ic 193s and 19.39, as the news of the brutality against" the Jews_ in N~i- Germany came to reach ·the American people, ·. public· ·opinion P.Olls still showe~. very large majorities of .

·.

Americans against accepting a single refugee, a single immigrant beyo_nd theJmall .

.

..

-Congf~s.5, --· .....

number limited by the National Origins Quota system. In-1_939

-

.

urging, refused to admit to. this· country 20,000 Jewish orphans for whom had already been found. 6

-··- .

d~ite

spon~ors

. . Today, Jews are thought to be well to . do, and many ·of them ·are. But when

t_~.ey

came, most were very poor. Today, Jews are thought to be very apt practitioners ..- .- -...- - -... ·- ......._ of birth control, and most of them are. But when they first came, they had very large families. Today, Jews are

tho~ght

to be extremely well educated and most of

them are, but in 1919, one of the last years of very heavy migration of Jews from Eastern Europe, 22% of the heads of Jewish .immigrant houser.iolds were

iIJiter~te.

This was despite the fact that literacy was hig~ly prized,.especially for the men, . ,,. . •.. . 4 . .. who were expected to read Torah.

One effect of their poverty was that the

J~ws

lived in extremely ci:o\ovded li\E.ing

.

.

conditions. ·in 1910, 540,000 Jews lived in a

l.~ i;qu~re

mile

are~

of N.Y.'s Lower

East Side. A 1908 survey of 25.0 families frqm that area showed that 50% of those families slept three ·Or four to a roon:i , nearly 25% had · five or more to a room.

II

Only 2596 had two to a t~day

room.) There is no major black neighborhood in the U.S.

that has anything close to that density.

Once the Jews came, they knew they were here to stay. This was a force for strength in terms of t)le next generation. It made the break with the past very strong and it made the chil.Q.I;'en _of the immigrants want . desperately to be what u~d

to be termed "10096 American''°

- ·· .. . ·-·. Irving M. Levine: When the Jews came, the idea was not to use the public schools for ~ the expression of their culture.

That was done communally through the ·

creation of the after-school Hebrew schools. They felt that they could do it more .. ---------· - . . . .·- . - .. . -· . . ... .. . ... appropriately that way. Besides, they were intimidated,- actually frightened of . .. ··- - - -----· ~ entering into the American system and making too many demands. Today, we have .. a different sense of the possibilities of cultural pluralism, which makes their ~.-:: .-:: _,...-:.

-

-

7

extreme fears l_lard to understand. Ironically, although the Jc::.ws like Horace Kallen gave birth to the concept of cultural pluralism in the U.S., Je·ws still had great dif_fi.culty in

l?.ressin~

for . recognition of Jewish identity in

the ~

Instead, they adapted as well as they could to American ·norms, and

Fuchs·: · Probably nq group ii:!

Am.~rican

public arena.

le~t

it at that.

hi:;tory has been a.S captivated, as romanced

by American ideal.S a.S' the ·Jews in ·the II,S. Probably no immigrant populatfon has put in as much time reading about it,, writing about it, talking about it+Ynd reinterpreting the American ideal in the light of their own exper'ience here.

Levine: We need ·to understand that the U.S. has had a strong pull for Jews.around the world - in that sense it is like Israel for Jews. In fact, even with a tremendous affinity and loyalty to Israel and the concept of a Jewish homeland there, many Soviet Jews ar~ choosing the _u.s., and not only Soviet Jews, but Jews from · many nations are still choosing the U.S.

The Hispanic Experience: · Dr. Margarita Melville:

Spaniards and Me'x icans ·settled in ·the Southwest even

before some of the settlers came from the Eastern coasts. For two hundred years Mexicans and Spaniards lived in what is r:iow the U.S. Southwest, acquired in the War with Mexico in 1848. Ih that sense, Mexicans

hav~

a very early beginning in

America. . .

~

-:-·

A. treaty was signed that stated there would be respect for the property, language and religion of the inhabitants of this territory. In a sense,{when we speak about M:xican

migra~ion: we speak .of a ~~ople who were aiready. s~~ed in an are~ whose

territory reverted not too long ago to a different nationality) This is a component

of Mexican history that really affects the concept of the pUn of the home country. Immigration began, _properly speaking, ~ people of ·Mexican · desceJ!_t, who were

--

residents of both Mexico and the U.S. began to tra~el from one side of the border to the other. The pull is experienced some.t imes from one side and sometimes from the other.

The river tends to draw people together, rather than to se·p arate them~ _The Rio Grande River drew. people ".t o both sides. Then pe~ple began to go back and fo~h in .a constant ·now without any ·sense of "which side do ·I belong tq?" The cqn~ept of immigration blurs whe.n you look· at it that way. People go back to sleep in Mexico .'!_nd come over to work in the U.S.

Until the late 1920's, the border b'e tween Mexico and the' u.s.· was open, much

as

the Canadian border is today. . The border Was closed wherf the Depression began.

-

Because of severe unemployment, the· U.S. decided to close the border and put up border guards~

Mexican 18bor has been welcome in tfre U.S. most of the time,

fitting ih when we need it, getting rid of it when we don't need it. In Mexican migrat.ion the constant is ..the movement back arid forth. ·

Today, th._e reason we continue to tolerate undocumented workers at a certain level is simply because th.ey are needed here. · They are needed so th~t U.S. citizens can continue a certain

ecan·amjc

I'!ll - not .suggesting that .it's an even

5tSndArd

exchange, or that it couid be co.ntrolled.

It is a very gifficult problem.- · Many

Mexicans. want fo come to this country legally and there are m·any.workers who are here with residence permitS who want their fa~ilies . to join them. Thus, many of t.he undocumented i;)eople who are··h~re . .

are . sirnply the wi\i~ and children of legal .

c

9

~

residents_ who come here to be

~

whole family unit. The waiting periqd in this

country for becoming legal from _ M~xico, is from . ·. .depending on yoµr qua~ifications, . . · f~ve

to seven years. Sometimes undocumented P!=?Ople who are worki_i:ig here are . . si_ .mply waiting for legality to take place. No. Mexican wants. to be here without papers. They all would like to be resident aliens, but that's d.ifficult.

'I_'he majority of Mexi.cans YfhO have been .here for a wt:iile. _aspire to permanent resident status, .because that

a~t,1res

them of a lack of

as an -jobs, and access to basic services,. such .. ~

.

h~rassn:ient, ~vailability

of

education for their children and .

-

health care. for themselves and their families. But they qo not understand why they . . . should go to the trouble to gain citizenship. The only advantage is the right .to vote, and that, for many of these people, doesn't make any difference at all. They feel, "Why go through the r~sident

status

~

h~le

of being naturalized?"

sufficient. Besides, there is a

t}~tor~

Th.~y

think that permanent

of_deportation o_f Mexicans.

In 1929 and 1930, half a million. Mexican~, some of them having always lived there, . . were put on trains and put over_to the other side. During Operation Wetback in 1954, <;>ver a

millio~

people \Yere sent back

citizens but were not able

~o

~o

prove it. They

Mexico, including some who were U.S. ~id

not have a lawyer ~nd they didn't

have the ability to say, "I have a right to be in this country."

Leonel Castillo: Mexicans take longer than other groups _to become. U.S. citizens up to

thirt~en

~~t to

years on the average. Mexicans have strong national pride. They

die Mexican. (There is a myth that if .. you

~~- t~ b·e~o~e . ~ A,m~r~can

citizen, you will have to spit on t!1e Mexican flag. . Of course this is not . tru~, b.ut it . . . is stijl believed in the Mexican

~ommunity.). 1he M_ e~i~an _has the additional

. proplem of facing a very unrespons_ive f ed~ral bureaucrac¥. _. Unlike what happ_e ned 10

with the Irish and some of. the

oth~r

groups, there is . no effort · .i~. ·the U.S. to

A_mericanize Mexicans. Today, if someone· from Houstqn for example; wants to become an Amer.i can citizen, ·it will take approximately twenty-two months. This

-

is because there is no staff to process applications, ·and there are no political .

machines in the Southwest, that

pu~h

to naturalize the Mexicans, such as those . .

which existed in Mayor Daley's Chicago and in New York years agg. And so, they

·---

.

do not get pulled into the naturalization process.

-,

It is easy to get into the U.S. and it is relatively difficult to be deported. If you have no lawyer to defend you, you might stay at Deportation for a long time. From there, it's relatively hard. to get- naturalized. As a result, the population of people in limbo is growing rapidly. This situation has never happened to this extent in our history, and this is very important. We have a large group of people coming in who aren't coming in through the natural immigration process. ..

We have to build an enormous network of social services, information services, --. p.oli tical action . groups, advocacy groups - and all very soon because .many of the people who are coming are already in line. The waiting periqd in ·Mexico is already seven years long. Unless we change ·the ·law, there are some people who will not be able to come for seven years.

Until very recently there was not one Mexican

immigi:{l!lt aid gr9UP in the U.S•. that sp9ke on a ·national level. That's all to be •

~?

created.



It'.~ ..al~o f~s~inati_ng· tha~ ~~e . Hi~panic. Im migrant Ai9 gr~mps tJ:lat are

foi:mil).g are usually adjuncts · of. something. else ·- some. group that had . . just·. .littl~ ... . .. many other agendas, : SO it. becomes difficult to separate out immigration issues from the other issues.

11

Melville:

An essential ingredient of self-de'(elopm·enf and productivity has to do

with self-image and feeling good about oneself, knowing that you can, that there is hope, _that there is

po~ibility.

There are so ma"ny elements within our society that

make Hispanic people feel inferior. It is something that we have to work very ·hard to overcome so that people begin to. feel good about themselves and say "I am somebody; I can_-_do it." We have to try to transmit to our Mexican .children the. feeling that "I got where I was in grade school - · that being an American is thing." Then as they are incorporated into American

so~iety,

~

great

they will feel good

about themselv_e s anq become productive citizens who are part of :the society.

~UES

IN THE ACCULTURATION/~ OF IMMIGRANTS

Homeland: Melville: There is a pull from· both sides •. The pull that the U.S·•..exerts that brings people from so many nations is jobs, and the pay level of those jobs. The U.S. has one... of the highest standards of living in the· world• . Me:l!C.ico, even though..it is an industrialized nation, stands in contrast to ·the ,U.S. as a consumer society. For ~ ·

example, until . recently· one could own a car .in this country for $500; How much would you have to pay for an equal car in Mexico? It's an. impossibility.

-

What is the pull of Mexico? The pull of the home. cmmtry is a sense of belonging,

avoiding discriminatioo, being able to. live according to your tradition, and very

=

important, being· able to make yourself understood by speaking your own ·la!"lguage. One can survive in the U.S. without speaking English; but it is very difficult. It is difficult to learn English because there isn't a lot of opportunity. Besides, it takes a lot of time and commitment and. it is not a comfortable thing to do. always much nicer to go back to Mexico.

12

So it's

Another pull toward Mexico is our common history. Tradition, the whole process of gaining one's culture means thaf you learn· certain values and certain goals, from your ·parents which become. part of your subconscious. T·his is a very definite pull to the homeland.

Levine: There has been nothing comparable to the emergence of Israel, except the tragedy of the Holocaust, in terms of building. contemporary ·Jewish identity•. One

-

must take the Holocaust. and· the emergence of. Israel .together as the two most -

significant forces· in the building of . contemporary Jewish. identity.

· ·The

identification with the survival of Israel is visceral l;lnd physical; it is personal, not just political. This creates a very strong identificati.on, including guilt of not being there and all the issues that

emerg~

for many ethnic groups a!'out

d~~

loyalty. In

the U.S., we really don't have to resolve that loyalty·o.ne ·way or the other. We can have all kinds of loyalties. We may have a dominant ioyalty as citizens of the U.S., and a cultural, religious and personal identification with our own people wherever they· are around the world. I believe that Jews, if they had to make the choice,

-

~

·would choose to be citizens of the U.S. They don't. want to make the choice; they don't think anybody ought to make them make the choice, and they hope that it will never happen that way. But there are all kinds of identifications· that people make throughout their lives and I think it is ·.unfair to ·face people· with · dichatomov,s choices. That's not.really the way life is.

Walter: Whether .they come to this country ·in their young years or are born here, the children of immigrants have no· real touch with the · homeland itself. It is a vicarious ·old world experience which is passed on to them, and they ·quickly discover that they live in two worlds. The two worlds m_ay sometimes overlap; very 13

often they conflict. The second generation, the children of th.e immigrants become the focus of the conflict b.e tween the old world arid the new . world. The generation which ha,s come has a lot of bright precious memories. . The second generation has only the memories of Qther pe9ple.

Language: Brodsky:

We could not get into the mainstream of American life when we did not

speak English.

We could not read

t~e ._

no~ ·

newspapers;. we could

express our

opinions about anything. After we mastered the English language, then life was much easier.

Crespo: I made up. my mind I was going to

sp~ak

English•. ~and

~

say .that anyone

that makes up his mind to do. something can do it. It may be har.d; but you can do .it. I didn't. attend school in this country. I went to one class, but l was so ashamed that I never went

back~

Levine: L_inguiStic relationships ·are among-the most

su~tle

and complicated -of all

interpersonal contacts, yet public policy and attitudes towards foreign · speakers

hardly take this into consi~eration.. In ·order to understand the . crucial impact that language has on people's sense · of. themselves and others, we must. gain greater •'

familiarity with research on this subject.

Most. current policy discussions on

language assume that speech serves merely as. a convenient vehicle for describing the objective world.

It makes little difference in .this ·conception whether this

. descr.ibing is done in English, Spanish or Vietnamese.. Teaching immigr1mts and refilgees English is viewed as nothing more than giving them a new . way to articulate the s~me · thoughts they conveyed in their native .: tongue. 14

Linguistic

study will argue against this assumption. The· thrust of scholarship in this field has proposed that language serves as more than a passive method of ·expressing ideas. On the contrary, 1t plays a key role in changing· attitudes and perceptions. Language creates our world as well as reflects it.

Dr. Quintanilla: When we talk about presence, the way people speak and look at each other, that itseU is language. This changes as one learns from one's culture. For example, most Hispanics speak very loudly and frequently. They all speak at the same time. In different societies, when somebody asks a question, the person waits to respond to that question•. That can tend to create misunderstandings ·as one attempts to acculturate into the other community. .Language itself and the way on·e is taught to· expre8s oneseU in one culture affects one's performance in the other culture.

Language is the most important component of the acculturation process. In the schools, for example, many children are tested .as· they are·being acculturated into the school system, and the kinds of questions asked, combined with the confusion of language comprehension, sometimes i'esUlt in placing these children in classes for the mentally retarded or for the slow learrier. Generally, the problem is that there · is confusion in terms of meanfog and · the transposition of meaning through the language.

The new langllage (English) plays tricks on the children. Gesture, or

body language, is quite different in different societies. The :same gesture._can_mean

-

one thing in_QD.e g\:lltttre S:Rd

8:R

entirely diffePeRt thing in anether GAe.-'fftere is a

lot of mi~ynderstani:Ung of body larigiwge fr6ni one · culture to anothe~-an~this body language has ·a very important impact on· the learning process of people in the acculturation process.

15

There

are

linguisticaUy.

many

examples

of

conceptual cultural

differe11ces

expre.ssed

For example, time is al) importai:it concepi in all contemporary

societies. When my watch is working, we say it -is running. In Spanish, we say, ,1-~y watch is walking." In German it marches.

Eve~y

language

refl~cts

that culture's

concept of time, and different time concepts create a conflict in the acculturation process. To Hispanics, tir:ne is there to use globally and to be enjoyed. Time in this society is to be moved by. ·

The concept of health is another component of the acculturation process which has a language component. In the process of dealing with physicians in the society, many Hispanics have problems explaining what the situation is in terms of the care that they ·ttave received in ·.the community and fr.om the so-called "faith-healers." There is also a big problem here in Houston because of the large

numb~rs

of people

who corne to the Medical Center who do not speak English.

In the interaction

between nurses, patients· and p_hysicians difficuJ.ty with. wor9s and difficulty wiih body. language and

~ultural

process are easily revealed.

Let me just touch some of the .points relating to the co!lcept . of ethics . . Ethical . values, the concepts of religion, the conc.e pt of sex roles, ·wtio's a hero and who's not - all are important ideas that are learned through the taboos. of our society -

wha,t is t8J?oo to

acculturated through the language. all of these important

com,ponent~

~ow

the

about and what is not -

is

we feel, how. we own things,

of living,

when an imll)igrant moves into another

ta~

~o

!~nguage.

on~ lea~ns

cu~tµre, .we

-thro!Jgh language.

need to

un¢1e~~t.and

words, but the message he gives ·through his own expression culture. 16

~eremony

-

And

not only his

through his own

Melville: I think the problem is that from the very beglririing there has been such a m!sunderstanding about billngual educa.tiort. In practical terms \ve don't r~ally have a ~ilingual educat.ion ..:;;,. · we have _a transmissio~ · prograin ·fr.om ·m6tiolingu8.l in Spanish to monolingual in "'English.·· The· idea·· ·k · ·to - try to· make · the children understand what the teacher is saying, so they have someone to translate for them. During the first year, they hear. more SpMish, and they gradually rriove into an all English classroom. The thrust of bilingual education has been an early exit from it.

Levine: The growth of Hebrew· has been phenomenal in the Jewish comrriunfry in the last twenty-five years, primariiy because

o~

the emergence of Israet

A

language which had been a dead language was revived after thousands of years, and it inspired peopie. There is a Jewish r~vival among young people, arid Hebre~ has become one of the symbols of that revival.

When- you take a look at the Jewish community, and its attitude towards contemporary bilingualism, which they interpret to be p~imarily for Hispanics, there is surprisingly little sympathy. There is a contemporary hostility

t~at

we

find am_gng educated Jews toward bilingusdjsm even though in political cehters such . as the American Jewish bilingual policy.

C~mmittee,

we have a very moderate to

\

I have studied this attitude · because Jews are liberal on most

issues and one wonders why ·on this issue they assimilationist.

p~gressive·

seem~d

to be classically

I have come to the · conclusion, along with many ·o·f my other

colleagues, th~t it relates to a sense of loss - to the fact ·that we so.quickly gave up Y_iddish and played such a

lit~le

role in this country in the restoration of Hebrew.

Language is tied into the psyche of the Jewish people in the most intensive ways.

~n a sense, we bought the assimilat_ionist ·model - we wo~ld outdo the Americans in 17

...J

the mastery .of their language, literature and culture. . There a . rapid . .. .. . was . •

disint~gration

1

of. our owp capacjty . . to hold on .to. our



lan~age .·

.



. and. have.

it survive. ' .

There more re<;!enUy arr.ivep will .try to do with . is resentment . that others whp: have . . . . their home language what we failed .to do with ours. This. feeling of. loss does not . . always operate <;>n the most . Gonsci. .I dp think that will . . . . . ous level; but . . . .t his attitU<;le. ... shift among younger Jews heritage

i~

- ~hose

~ultl,lral

interest in .their own

ard lii:iguisti.c .

growing.

Education: Levine: We know that the educational . between _t_h e school.

c~ture

syst~m

does .

of the home, the culture of the

no~

m_ake the

s_tree~

prop~r cqnta~ts



.

.

~f

and the cult1:1re

the

Faced with successive and. . serious failures, our. schools. still find . . .it .

9ifficult to acknowledge that different peoples learn in different ways, and that . . i . . . t'







••

-

schools must tune in to cultural differences and make adjustments in their teaching sty_le~.

There need t!=l be

.

children.

differenti~ ana~yses .. . . .

of individual children and .

~oups

·.

of

And they need to be taught to their strength_s a.nd not to their

weaknesses. With

contempor~ry

tecl:mology and

ps~chology

that.

we should be able to _do . ... ..

Brodsky: When _we

r~ached

New York, the first thing I asked . ..

w~,

"Do you have a

bookstore around here? I don't know how to speak l;:nglish, because they. did not . . . . . . ~

teach En~lish in Russian sch.001. 11 bo_ught .

~n

They took me to a bookstore.

Engli_sh grammar book and_ an English dictionary . .

a~d

With pride, I

I armed ..m¥seU w~th . . . .

knowledge•. '

I was educated Qy my fath_e r who

w~

a very broad-minded person. H_is

.

philosoph~

.. . .

was that you should talk honestly, keep your ethnic identity without any shame, and

18

if necessary, speak out for the rights of people. I have kept this philosophy all my life.

Valdez:

When we were growing up, a decision was

mad~

to work in the fields

because we really couldn't make it anymore on what ·my father was earning. This · was quite an adjustment for · all of us in the family. But we had a goal - that we were going to make it in this country one way. or ~other, .and that we were going to emphasize education. When we had to .travel 'North,"(we. would .leave in April) we would leave school before it ended. We would come back iri. November and the first semester of the school year was already closing. So you ask, if you were emphasizing education how come· you were taking all thi.S· time to wor!
We stayed after school, and we ~ked - the

teachers to give us extra work so that we could. catch up with the other students. We were "A" students after we came back: ~ ·

The schools iri Texas were not aware of the needs of migrant childi-en, much less the needs of students who did not speak ·English. The ·teachers ·were:t.tftft.W.8re that I did not speak English, and for the first two

I went through the school system . with the teachers-not ·knowing·tha:t ·1-did ·not 's·peak English. This was really very year~,

.

-· . th~$e ·- children, -Since they

very sad. The mentality was, "Why should we worry..at!out ~

are going·to

lea'?~

to_q9 .IJlim:ant labor?"

19

Family: Walter: It seems to me to be 8,1.most a given both for Jews and Hispanics that one

----

.

of the things that ·they bring with them is their concept of family. It is a close ·family structure in an extended family grouping. Although they m~y have left t~eir

their families. behind, . they bring system in which there



~

in the same trade, in the elders.

.

ideas about. family wit}l

them~ .

Th.is

a matriarchal or a patriarchal head. It means sam~ ho~se.

.

a

generation~

· ·- - It means .a certain kind of respect for your .

.

~eans

.

.

It means that .you are_ very much a part of your fam.Uy; .it shapes .your

identity. Then they. come to_this C(?untry and all those ideas of what family is ve.rsus what fomily has to ~omething

bec~me

that exists now in. . ~

ne~

in the

contempor~ry . .

country ere.ate problem.s. . There is

America that did .not exist when Jews . .

first i1J1migrated to this country, and that is ethnic. pride. .At the turn of tile . . ... <:ent~ry

an9 for. many decades thereafter, the pr:ev~iling

p~ilosophy ~as

of

Americ~

as a melting pot, with an of a uniform American character,. and a unifprm . idea . . Americ~

w.ay of

that .this country

doin~

things. Today, . we

w~ founded _ ~n

ar~ muc~

than was true .at

a desire to maintain differences, even

tho~~h

trl,ler to the pluralistic

t~e

turn of

we identify

soci~ty

th~ cen~ury. The~e

our~elves ~s

is

one nation.

This does not totally eliminate t he problem of the second generation of being cal,lght between the old ackno~le~g~

that it

worl~ .an~ ~he

do~s .~ften

new but I think in aJl . fair!'less, we must

it .j ust a bit. .

America today has a strong non'"'religious nature c-

Both

.

~ispanic$ and

Jews eome

- ---..

f.pom very strong religious ties. What happens is that the secular society-diffuses . . ~ . ' .. . .. both traditional and religious values. In a sense, it der~li~ionizes the~ou shalt not kill; thou sl)alt not steal are all part of the value g)r"s tem ·of America, but identified as secular values much more than as religious vall\es. The good person is independent of the religious person in this society;

20

therefor~,

not only is

attendance at the synagogue or church challenged by the ·s ociety, but

th~

whole

lifestyle pulls away from religion. The cel!ir~. ~ris~itution of the second generation, the institution of the pub_lic school, does ~ot limit itself to five days a week anymore.

Now they have weekend activities, pulling children away from the

church · and· synagogue and .the opportunity. to be exposed ·; to religious values. Society's emphasis is set in terms of money, power, and popularity.. rather than in terms of the quality of the humal) being.

Although this certainly exists in all

cultures, we cannot overlook· the power and succes5 of these values in American society. I should not overlook the particular importance of television which has been so

succe~ful

in presenting this point of view. For people who come from

·religious societies, where the very nature of life is defined in religious terms, this . . becomes an enormously volatile issue. Children feel they can get t.h eir values from a secular society, b·u t when they come from .a. religio.us ~ocLety, this creates turmoil. The secular society pulls against the family itself. The

percentag~

of

activity which the secular society offers apart from the family iS enormous. It makes enormous demands on people's time - business as well as social. Because success is so important, you will go where the job is, where the money is, and family traditions of centuries, of working in a particular trade are ended. mqbility

dissip~tes_ ~he

High

({l.mily. Formerly, families were tised to living in the same

region for ·generations, surrounded by their extended family, grandmother .and grandfattier; ·uncle and cousin.

But our highly moblle society changes that, as

family members. must· leave the group and 'settle. elsewhere. . This breaks up the very dreams upon which the move to America ·w&S forged·; · They came to establish new homes in greater opportunity, only oppo~tµnity, the family- falls

apart.

~o

find that here, in grasping that

Thus, ·the concept of what family is and how it

operates is destroyed to a ·great extent by the fabric of the.society. 21

When people come from a. culture that is .highly traditional to a culture that is quite non- traditional, . .one which by its nature casts off . old customs and. takes on new ones, from. a culture where

~m~thing

old is sacred and

won~erful

because it

endures, to a society where customs are cast off because they are old - then. they will fpcus

~h~ir

problems in the family because that's where the alp comes into

..conflict with the new.

... The fact is that the children will parents. So by

child.r~n loo~

proba~ly bec~me

much m.o re educated than

down on their parents; they

a~e

t~ejr

em_barrasseq by accents,

ol~. ways of doing things, and while this is ~ess true to~ay because of cultural

~ride) think nonetheless i.t ~ still an issue. Th.e .secor:id generation wants: to become Americanized; they want to be part of the Great Society and they this can only be done

~y

tuming. away.

Th~y

are a generation of

here and not there. They don't have that memory and

ye~

fe~l

that

tr~sitio11;

not

they keep being told that

they do have that 111emory - in a way they want it and in away they don't.

IMMIGRATIQN TODAY

Levine: .w e have more diversity in our immigration today than we have ever had before .in American history. While

prio~

tc;> 1970, nearly 3/4 of .our immigrants came

from Europe, at present over. a third come from Asia and more than 40% from Latin America. Never before has the. nation had to deal with something like the unpreced~nted

level of racial, .ethnic ·and linguistic plyralism with immigrants

coming.from so many different continents.

Fuchs: I tl)ir:ik

tha~

we are livi.ng in a time of growing xenophobia. At least for the

next few years (and I woul_d not

pred~ct

beyond that

22

p~riod)

we are going to

he~r

people talk against immigrants and refugees somewhat more than they did in the seventies.

One of the· reasons is that ou.r economic·· situation is' difficult and

uncertain for many people.,_ Ther~

iS a mistaken idea tfiat .jmmigrants are .~TQ.P_!y

mouths to feed, that they-!_ake something from the

u,.s.

·T here is a feeling that thg_

economic pie is fixed; there are only so many jobs1 and immigrants take away jobs from Americans.

It is not realistic or accurate, but . it is . there.

That is why,

particularly among the unemployed or among those who are entry level workers, there· is the most skepticism and most hostility toward immigration. There is not a sufficient appreciation of the 's trengths that immigrants bring to this country - not only cillturally but in terms of their spirit. 'They bring much as contributors to economic growth and development of society. . . . The scale of.illegal immi~ation c·onti'ibutes to the problem. There iS a large group

of people who are in fear of the authorities, ·and they are living as if under glass. They are exploitable ·anci ·many are exi>loit~d. There ~ fear. and anxiety on· the part of others that the scale will get .even

larger~

and this· is not only· perpetuating an

underclass which is bad for ·them, and -bag f9r. Aineri~~n~, .but it is. illso setting up. a severe disregard for the law - immigration law specifically - casting a cloud over ... ~

legal immigration.___

Castillo: The new immigrant groups are different because they can ·coine in and if they wish to, they

can live here .for 'teri or twenty

years without ever learning a

word of. English. They can maneuver much more easily iri many ·placffi in Spanish. That wafil!'t as true in the past;-you-had · to learn English. The· new immigrants all have radios and hear 1n Spanish what's happening in the U.S.·· They-also have-access to telephones, which means ·that th.e iininigr.a nt is able to stf.!y ·in touc _ -· . . _ on~

23

anywhere. Qn the other hand, they

~r~_riot

.highly literate no!,' d(),.they read a .lot.

Their news comes from radio. The .new immigrant groups,

especi~lly.

those from

..

Latin America, are not as eager to l;>ecoro~ U.S. citizens. . . . .

Despit~ ·.

.

bejng eligible for ·. .

·. .

citizenship, many of them do not be.c o.m e citizens.

Fuchs: Americanization has become a di.r ty word - it ought. tq be not _have to be a bad word, . if in

~>ne's.

reviveq ~ . It

does

concept of Ame_ricar:i.i zation, one i.ncludes

respect for the person,. as weU . .a~. respect for the qual,ity liuman . being, . . . of each ' . . equal dignity for every person, Then . . . opportunity and freedom for those persons. . . . •,

Am~ri.canization is s?r:nethjng tQ be proud of. .~ssimilation ~ no~ something that

excludes or cuts off, but adds on · -

that's : the

groups today as compared to when the Jews Jews. h~d bargain

.~~

w~.th

get . ~>Ut.

~eat

fi~st

opportunity for. immi~ant

came. In order to get in, the

Dual. Joyalties were not accepted . .

America. It doesn't have

to . .be

The~

had to make a

that way today. But a •' . . . . tt:iere's. .

gr~at

need for transitionai help.. to ma,ke the most of the . An:ieric_aniz_at~on prqcess. The. . .. . :. J~ws.

gave .up more than

th~

qeen. stru!S&'ling in the . third

Mexican ~n.d

Americ~ hav~

to give up, and the J~ws have

fourth . generations to

recap.~ur~.

things. that. were

lost. .' .

· Levine: I think we have some good new studies about what happens to new people . who come and are separa.ted from their .own

-.

~o.m m.unit~

as opposed

t~

being

clustered. People who are clustered have a m·uch healthier acculturation. The U.S. policy to take

Vi~tnamese: . .: . .

and. set.He them around .ttie country as . . .. . . . . . .. .

sing~e ~

families .is

a disaster. All of those f an:iilies suffered terribly from the sense of. distanc~. They. eventually

c~uster

anyway -

t.hey

~ove

from

4

individualistic approach to people that. we 24

~verly

hav~

isolate9 situations.

evolved ii) this

<:oun~ry

The

doesn't

work.

It is well motivated; and carried out by good people but it is not what's

needed. The barrio, the ghetto, is preferable a.S a support system for people· who are trying to make it in a new land.

PLURALISM AND POIJCY: IRVING LEVINE

Introduction: While there has been strong arid justifiable demands· by blacks · and other nonwhites, white ethnic groups did not have ethniC agendas that s9ught much from the government.

They were looking for little but recognition. It was not in their

traditi~n to look to government for help.

When cultural recognition finally came,

through the Ethnic Heritage Studies Act of 197 4, it only provided $1.5 million nationally for some programming in schools. Within e 30-day period, one thousand organizations applied for that $1.5 million.

What was really interesting is that

the~e formerly "invisible" organizations used thiS little bit of inoriey to create an

ethnic renaissance ·especially in the creation of.new school curriculums. In the past teri years, white ethnic interests·joined those of non-white ethnics in a panoply .of activities.

Despite criticism· and fear, despite those who said, "You're creating

fractionalis·m, separatism, balkanization of the society,;' nothing quite like that actually happened. What ·really happened was

a celebration of pluralism.

One result of this hew pluralism is the boost it gave to "neighborhoodness." We had thought integration was solely a . matter ·of numbers alone, that the goal of integration was a designated mix even though the neighborhood or the school might be destroyed in the process.

We should be more realistic today.

The word

integration should mean - a modicum of separatism, a · modicum of mixing and giving choice to previously discriminated and excluded peoples. 25

We know that

th~re

is a psychological and even an clµ~t~ring

in some cases

is

~conomic ne~q

surv_iv~l.

.We

al~o

to

cl.ust.~i:-.

know that

W~

ther~

eve_n know that

is -a need for open

communities and anti-discrimination, and a capacity for. people to move. out of what they often think is the mobility trap. There are some people who do not want to be touched by their: ethnic associati
~<;>

do :SO is not as promising

as moving out into the general society. Truthfully, a theory of integr!ltion should incorporate .all

~hose

sense· to people

~d

pr
an~way_.

categories which ·h ave

we . get . into trouble wher:i

~othing

~dea th~t

not any one abstract

~e

d.oesn't make any

try _to ·fit people into

to do with·_ the - r~ality of American history, .or the

realities 9f their lives~ W~ m~an well, but W~'re no~ very smart when it comes to ~he n:i~n~gi_ng

of American pluralism.

This notion .of pluralism is very

complicate~.

It is.based on ·a reaiistic .view-of: what

this country is. about. Our;· co.u ntry is not only abol,lt indiv_i_dualism._ One of the essential .i ngredients in the way that this coµntry, was . formec;3 was by groups crea,ting a community.

o~

.must .get away

fro~ . thi.s

the ., c.o~cep~ ~f perso11~

indi_vidualism and .understaJ?d within the _core

W~

the community. . We must.

.r~aj~z_e

coh~sive

concept of extreme

identity as the individual ,t hat grm1p

id~ntity

is as

important as indivjdual identity. You cannot be a. healthy personality unle_ss .you •







J

.





:

can recoup your tradition - your racial, ethnic, communaj tradition, and integrate a_ll ttiat into. yoµr perso.n ality. You_must know about Y
witho~t

$hame.

Identity means m.uch

mor~

t_han

ii:t9iv.id~al

self.,..

actualization alone, which -.can lead. tq ,narciss_ism. _-.Identity is_always . . . .• . . . . related· . . .. to ,.'

one's family, community·,. and

~

history~ -

26

Professionalism and Ethnicity: We hav~_ ...fotJnd that. profe~IQ.nalism too often _. _did 1'0t allow. for ethnicity. Professionals may begin as ethnics but often in the past moved out of their group to be~ome middle class professionals. The abstract training of professionalism is designed.. to eliminate a_ sense ·.of rootedness. professional

~ades

It. Js ._ a · trad~in, whereby the

in ethr)ic baggf!ge for professional pr.estige,. prQf~ional style

ahd professional techniques.

Ethnicity and Foreign Polic_y: It is often difficult for an ethnic group to get a clear mes5age acro5s. It is often distorted and seen as a special plea. In matters of U.S. foreign affairs, Washington views ethnic lobbying efforts with st.ispicion. Yet; foreign policy in the the beginning of the republic h~~en been det~rmined an~!_her

bY

U~S . .Jrom

the needs of one_Qr

domestic interest groups. Humane foreign policy often grows out of the

prophetic understanding of groups in this country that are ·in better touch with events overseas. American blacks understood more clearly than whites· did ·what the African Lib,e ration Movement was abput. Mexican Americans really understand the nature of relationships with Mexico.

Jews are ·knowledgeable advocates on

Middle East issues. If the U.S. is successful in world diplomacy; it will' be because of the kind of sensitivity that is· transmitted from special ethnic interests to the general public.

Language Policy: Regrettably the 'bilingual strategy in the Hispanic community is in trouble. Since Hispanics. are b~coming isolated

an

this vital issue and are·· experiencing heavy

attacks by both liberals and conservatives on bilingualism, a different .strategy has 27

to be created, seeking new coalitional partners. Bilingu_f1.1ism ought to become part of a

-~oader

drive · to · create a more widespread ."language. competency" in this

~.ount.ry.

For

ex~TQple,

it. is often a m_a tter o(

the field_s of heal.t h, welfare

~d

~fe

mental

and death tp h~alt~.

h~ve

Tl1i$ is no

an issue as it once was. Thus the need for language

language competenc.x_ in longe~

as controversial

compe~ency

in these areas

should make for allies who may not be too supportive on the public education front but see the practical need for language skills in their. own .fields of practice. Another consensus point in the language area . is the compete. iri world markets if our businesspeople are one

bei~g tim.~,

beaten out constantlY. by the

sho~

Ja~anese,

rec9gnitio~

that we cannqt

language incompetence. We

Germans and others because at

when American imperialism reigned, we could , say, "Speak to us in

English or don't . speak to .

~s

at all." Today with tt}e . Third World rising, they're . ... . . .. saying_, "Speak to us in our langu_age or you don'.t get our _oil ·or ~ur copp~r." . Our business people are the worst trained in the world, linguistically_•

.. Those who demand

b~lingu~

.

approach should be: "if ~~u as

muc~ Sp~_ish

programs should be a litt.le. more pluralis~ic. Their . teach our cl:t.il.dr~n to be Iar:iguage_.competent, .retaining

or as much _of the

na~iv~ ~anguage

and we will join you in a drive for a national

as

poss~ble,

l~n~age

we will be.satisfied,

policy that takes int9

account other needs for language competency. We will do it in a way that will cost you the least amount of money rather than the most amount. of approach, which

rec~gnizes

money.~'

financial realities today, has a chance.

bilingualism will lose.

28

Such an

Otherwise,

It ~ight also be a mistake to have the single strategy·of focusing only on the public

schools. A lot of language maintenance ought to be by voluntary ·action of the groups

themselv~s.

A ·group that shows· itself to be interested in·preserving its own

culture through private means has a better chance ·of mobilizing its people to push

..

it into the public sphere. A group that moves only in the public sphere to achieve its goals is.not going to prevail 'in the long run. There has always been· a very close relationship between how much volunteerism took place in this society and how much· public acceptance followed.

The Jewish commur:iity has a heed for Soviet · and other immigrant Jews to get . . language training. Most communities have agencies that specialize· in this field. They ought to be brought into multi-et.hnic alliances around the issue ·or language

...-..

competency. There is a lot of potential advocacy on · the language issue provided that it is broad enough in its goals.

We ought to also offer whatever linguistic competence we have to the ·society as a whole. Young people who fiow up in homes where languages other than Engli~h· are spoken, should be trained to enter into our diplomatic corps and for international business careers. We have a wealth of talent of untapped people who coine from the various ethnic groups ·who should be in the foreign affairs field, both in the government and private enterprise.

Ethnicity and Economic Activity: There are vast differences iri the capacities of the ·various ethnic · groups tp generate small business activity.

The qu~stion · is, "Cari we · devise the kind of

support programs that would help people make up for certain kinds of communal 29

1.

----·-·····. ....

deficienciesJ"

'they're not really .communal

in the sense that they

defic~encies,

were natural to the system tha.t the people lived under _in the old country. They become deficiencies in this . sqcjety.

EtJ:mic group achievement in this country

develops unevenly. Certain groups seem lag.

t~

leap ahead

~nd

other groups seem . to

Those who lag do so largely because .t hey are rural groups who .are not

accustomed to l,lrbanism • . The -. kind of urbanism that they face i.n the. U.S. is so extreme in its

demand~,

that it destroys the morale

o~

many and puts some .in more

or less a permanent state of depression. People become culturally

a~i.e~a~ed

from

their surroundings; their children are being educated in what appears tp them to be an . unnatural way. One of the highest correlations for poverty is ,psycho.l ogical depression; people who just can't mobilize the~selves because . they'~e lit.e rally depressed in a clinical way. One of the biggest problems in our society is . ~ultural in~ensitivity,-

and we've got to do something about it because .we're hurting a lot of

people who need not be hurt.

This country does not need ze.ro

popul~tion

growth. We need a slow, steady grow.t h

of population. Growth means dynamism; growth means consumers; growth means producers;

gr~wth

'"!1eans that as hungry people come in

fro~

overseas with many

talents they can put to W?rk .to produce at a. level that others who have been here for three or four generations, will not. It may be that we are getting a better day's work at a lower pay from recent immigrants than we g:et from many young people who've grown up in the suburbs. Perhaps the reason the economy in this country has not declined as much as it should have, is that

the~~

people who . work hard and spend ev.erything they make. proven witt:i ottier

immigr~tions

are a

~ot

of prodµctive

Perhaps, as has been

they are less a burden than they are

an . asse~.

does not mean that we should qountenance promiscuous and illegal 30

This

immi~ation,

4

but "it does mean that we should put this issue in balance. Bringing in 800,000 people in this country each year, many of whom are refugees, whose lives were in danger~

means that this country is still a haven, and as long as the world knows it,

our national posture ·as a beacon of liberty has some credibility.

.

Strength and Strategies: We are still not adequately using the strengths of ethnic organizations. The history of immigration indicates that while the government, voluntary organizations and ethnic organizatio.ns must work together, there is less emphasis· on the role of ethnic self-help groups than there should be.

These groups may not have the

financial resources, but they create a necessary communalism for new immigrants that no other institution can achieve. Not every group will work in the same way. There are strengths and weaknes.5es· in each group. But we ought. to be in a position to .teach people to diagnose the .strengths and weaknesses of their own groups, so they themselves can make up the deficits. There is no more nob.le work in the world than the bringing of your own people into this country and resettling them. For this country to lose that spirit would be a blow to one of the great· purposes for wh.ich this country still exists.

83-695-5

31

(.

·'

Additional copies available from

Houston Chapter Pall 1982 ISBN:

~87495-047-3

American Jewish Committee 2600 S.W. Freeway, Suite 1030 · Houston, Texas 77098