REPURPOSING EXHAUSTED INDUSTRIAL MINING - WP Engine

REPURPOSING EXHAUSTED INDUSTRIAL MINING - WP Engine

REPURPOSING EXHAUSTED INDUSTRIAL MINING SITES THROUGH CENTRAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Ryan W. Kinports M.Arch / MBA, Southern Illinois University Carbonda...

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REPURPOSING EXHAUSTED INDUSTRIAL MINING SITES THROUGH CENTRAL INFRASTRUCTURE

by Ryan W. Kinports

M.Arch / MBA, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 2015

A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For The Master of Architecture

School of Architecture In the Graduate School Southern Illinois University Carbondale August 2015

Copyright by Ryan Kinports 2015 All Rights Reserved

AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Ryan William Kinports for the Master degree in Architecture, presented on 7/28/15 at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. TITLE: REPURPOSING EXHAUSTED INDUSTRIAL MINING SITES THROUGH CENTRAL INFRASTRUCTURE COMMITTEE CHAIR: Assistant Professor Shannon Sanders McDonald, AIA COMMITTEE MEMBERS: Instructor Adulsak Chanyakorn Associate Professor John K. Dobbins, AIA

Human civilization has progressed to the point where the demolition of enormous tracts of land in search of natural resources is common. These processes leave behind landscapes that are forever altered. Open pit mining is a centuries old method of extracting ore that leaves behind holes, sometimes miles wide, of terraced earth that are eventually abandoned. This paper will outline the creation of a reclamation plan at the Bingham Canyon Mine in Utah utilizing a central structure that may be applied to any large scale mining application. Industrial mining has become a business of mountain destroying. Huge swaths of land are altered in the search for minerals. As our species continues to populate, demand for minerals will cause the scale and scope of mining operations to increase exponentially. These mammoth openings are well suited for the green building aspirations in architecture. Several prominent successful examples exist now including: the Ereen Mine in Mongolia, the Welzow-South Coal Mine in Germany, and the Black Mesa Mine in Arizona.

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Earth’s caretakers have displayed a poor effort in preserving an irreplaceable habitat through extensive pollution. The material gains to society may be worth the damage done on the surface in a short term view but will ultimately cost humanity ecological stability. It is arguable that since many of these mines are in remote locations they are innocuous, but that should not preclude us from investigating if these sites hold any value beyond minerals extracted. This thesis proposes to demonstrate a master plan development model that provides zoning requirements, a suggested layout, and includes a detailed designed multi-use central building that will include necessary support infrastructure for a city of 100,000 people.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Mark Sarkisian PE, SE, LEED AP, Structural and Seismic Engineer for SOM

Vern Pfannenstiel Senior Manager of International Reclamation for Peabody Energy

My close friends and family who helped me to become what I am today.

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Table of Contents ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... iii CHAPTER ONE: Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1 Problem Statement .................................................................................................................................... 3 Initial Design Thoughts............................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER TWO: Precedence Studies ......................................................................................................... 6 Case Studies – Structural Focus ................................................................................................................ 6 Case Studies – Land Reclamation Focus ................................................................................................ 12 CHAPTER THREE: Architectural Program............................................................................................... 19 Regional History ..................................................................................................................................... 19 Mine Closure Process ............................................................................................................................. 20 Site Inventory .......................................................................................................................................... 23 Program ................................................................................................................................................... 27 CHAPTER FOUR: Design Concerns and Considerations.......................................................................... 29 Transportation ......................................................................................................................................... 29 Air Flow .................................................................................................................................................. 31 Egress ...................................................................................................................................................... 32 Dome Consideration ............................................................................................................................... 34 Structure .................................................................................................................................................. 35 CHAPTER FIVE: Architectural Design ..................................................................................................... 36 Concepts.................................................................................................................................................. 36 Floor Layouts .......................................................................................................................................... 41 CHAPTER SIX: Structural Design ............................................................................................................. 50 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................... 55 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................ 59 APPENDIX A Presentation Boards ........................................................................................................ 59 APPENDIX B Physical Model Photos ................................................................................................... 63 APPENDIX C Specified Products .......................................................................................................... 69 LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................... 70 VITA ........................................................................................................................................................... 73

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Industrial mining is an irremovable part of modern civilization. The gains from these activities provide all of the conveniences to which society has become accustomed, such as medical equipment derived from silica and inexpensive electricity from coal. As we continue to advance and require more materials the scars we inflict upon our habitats will become more common. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Aluminium production has been increasing by ~7% a year, Copper by ~14%, and Steel by ~6% (USGS, 2013). The problem is what to do with the enormous holes left over from these operations. Mining sites are in rural and urban areas, and range from hundreds of feet to miles in size such as the Chenbaerhuqi Prairie mine in Mongolia which covers 7.7 square miles (China Times, 2012). As these sites become more common, there will eventually be a need or desire to make use of them in meaningful ways. Bingham Canyon Mine is a suitable site in terms of access and scale to explore the potential for redevelopment within industrial mining. U.S. national growth constitutes a small percentage compared to the aggregate consumption potential of undeveloped countries. India for example has 1.2 billion people (India Census, 2012) compared to the United States with 321 million (U.S. Census, 2010). India consumes 3.2 million barrels of oil per day, or 1 barrel per 375 people. The U.S. consumes 18.8 million barrels per day, or 1 barrel per 17 people (CIA World Factbook, 2015). To match U.S. consumption, and by extension U.S. living standards, India would require an additional 67.4 million barrels per day. Now imagine all of the goods that would be produced in the new Indian

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economy made from mined materials. Nations with established industry will see an economic boom in the coming decades as demand for raw materials increases in burgeoning markets. Coal is a popular answer to electricity demands due to its low cost. In 2013 the U.S. exported 31,835,181 short tons1 of coal to mostly developed nations. Underdeveloped nation Mozambique has a population of 25.83 million, with only 20.2% having access to electricity in 2011 (The World Bank, 2013). Now imagine what would be produced and consumed if 90% had access to coal fired plants that relied on imported coal. Goods consumption, where many of these mined materials are used, also increases with economic stability. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services purchased by family units as a percent of gross domestic product. Generally, developed nations have a high percentage of household final consumption expenditure (Finland 56%, Lebanon 71%, and United Kingdom 66%) (The World Bank, 2013). Developing countries barely support consumer goods markets. The mining industry spent ~$15.19 billion in exploratory work in 2013. In 1993 it was ~$2.5 billion (SNL Metals and Mining, 2014). This should demonstrate that in spite of economic downturns, the demand for goods will need to be met. Open pit mining is a popular method to extract raw materials. The resultant holes in the earth may experience an eco-rehabilitation process upon mine closure, but there has not been an effort to expand the earthworks into built environments. The Bingham Canyon Mine in Utah is one of the largest open-pit mines in the world at 2.5 miles across, .6 miles deep and covering 1,900 acres. The goal of this work is to develop a master plan with a detailed focus on a central hub building and transportation infrastructure to serve the inhabitants.

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1 short ton = 2000 lbs. or 907.1847 kg

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Problem Statement Building inside of earthen monuments has been a part of human infrastructure since the earliest days of civilization. Until recently, the idea of building inside an open pit mine was overlooked. As our society has become more eco-conscious these large industrial sites have become more of a focus for development or habitat rehabilitation. Some of the potential benefits to utilizing these sites include: gravity assisted construction2, creative design freedom, a controllable environment, solid rock exposed for foundations, and ease of adaptation to green technologies such as enclosed farming. There are numerous projects that involve building in the earth that have been largely ignored due to the way society approaches housing. Taller buildings are currently the focus in international building. It seems nearly every architect wants to write their name in a city’s skyline. However, there is another solution that may prove a much more economical investment. The following are supporting reasons to investigate the potential in mining sites for redevelopment.

2

The use of downward sloped terrain to ease in the transport and installation of materials.

4

Contaminated Land: The earth is an expansive environment capable of supporting many more humans than it currently holds. Our problem is that industrial concerns have created situations where it is most favorable for a few to dispose of toxins in an irresponsible way. To provide a solution for humanity, the best option is to actively engage the problem and find a method to filter, contain, and/or remove the pollutants. Sunk Labor: This refers to the physical energy expended in the site since it opened in 1906. While this energy’s primary purpose was to facilitate precious metal extraction and thus has not wasted energy, for that purpose, it has left an enormous scar in the land. Finding a secondary use to further justify millions of man hours would be favorable. Reliance on Motor Vehicles: Urban sprawl is one of the more insidious problems with city planning. An appropriate way to prevent this issue is to ensure that cars are totally unneeded. By creating a living area where all necessities are accessible by foot, there would be a significant reduction in pollution, stress, and wasted time. A pedestrian-only city is a suitable response. Energy Efficiency: The opportunities for energy savings that a condensed living area presents are significant. Typically the sprawl and complexity of a city create a great deal of energy waste.

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Initial Design Thoughts Working with a mine of this scale impacts how the master plan would be implemented. The central structure would need to provide air flow for the pit in order to avoid the stagnant atmosphere that develops at the base of this pit. The structure would also provide a transportation and city services hub for residents. The structural requirements for a super tall tower that would have a hollow core to augment air flow, reach a ceiling of 3,200 feet, and provide transport over spans of more than 2,000 feet horizontally proved to be challenging. Working with costs was important in the design process as well, and it was clear that a modular plan would be the best option. This would allow both the tower occupancy to grow as population expands, as well as the livable area on the mine benches3. There would be a body of water in the base resulting from ground water collection that is typically pumped out during mining operations that could eventually be used for recreational purposes. An idea shown in Figure 1.1 was the inclusion of a dome over the mine. This was to create a sealed environment to allow further atmospheric conditioning, but was later deemed unfeasible. These support systems for transportation, air, and water were designed to promote an efficient city master plan that would scale with population.

Figure 1.1 - concept sketch

3

Terracing of mine walls

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CHAPTER TWO: PRECEDENCE STUDIES Case Studies – Structural Focus Eco-City 2020 - AB Ellis – Mirny, Yakutia, Siberia/Russia This was an open pit diamond mine that produced 2,000 kg of diamonds per year at its height and 400 kg near closure in 2004. Since then it has been abandoned and the adjacent mining town has seen severe economic depression. This project would create a home for 10,000 people arranged around three levels: forest, living sector, and recreational area. It is enclosed in a translucent dome that would allow climate control year round. The ultimate goal is to attract tourism and rebuild the failing local economy while providing a high quality living space so that the adjacent decaying city may be removed.

Figure 2.1 - Mir mine in 1996 (Wikimedia commons, 2015) and Eco-city 2020 (AB Elise, 2015) One of the primary concerns with this site is the climate, which ranges from a high of 30 C in the short summer to -62 C in the long winter. The lowest level will be the vertical farm that produces food year round including housing livestock. Above that will be the forest containing parks and oxygen filtering plants. The residential area directly under the dome will provide a 300,000 m2 area for live/work activities. The controlled pleasant weather will be an incentive

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for tourism, especially in cold months. This rehabilitation will allow the region to recover both ecologically and economically.

Figure 2.2 - Eco-city 2020 (AB Elise, 2015)

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Above Below - Matthew Fromboluti, Washington U. St. Louis – Bisbee, Arizona This site is in a former open pit copper mine that closed in 1974. It is a 300 acre wide site that is 900 feet deep. The proposal is for an inverse skyscraper that generates all of its own power, recycles water, maintains an artificial climate through air purification and a sealed roof structure, and contains a light rail system connecting it to Bisbee proper. There are living spaces for hundreds as well as crop fields for food production. The central structure connects all of the terraces via suspended walkways. Over time the natural ecosystem will claim the roof and nearly completely conceal the massive structure underneath. The aim of this project is to erase the former site entirely and make use of the mine while creating no additional impact on the ecosystem.

Figure 2.3 - proposed site and tower (Fromboluti, 2010)

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Underground Metropolis - Fan Shuning, Zhang Xin – Wangjialing, China China produces 35% of the world’s coal and thus has thousands of underground mining sites that are abandoned. This ambitious project takes a particularly large underground complex of mines and collects them into a city below a city. The major difference from prior examples is that this project does not wait for the mine to be exhausted. The aim is to build a functioning miners’ economy where a worker mines coal and then returns to their underground home. All of the amenities afforded to the “surface dwellers” are present including, a transit system, water features, concert hall, theatres, civic center, schools, etc. Eventually, when coal resources are extinguished, a functioning city remains that has the industrial capacity to shift into other economic pursuits. The scope of this project makes it somewhat unrealistic though, as there does not seem to be much thought put into the toxic environment that underground coal mining creates. This is one major advantage for open pit mines as the air quality eventually returns to healthy levels due to exposure to natural airflow.

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Figure 2.4 - city design (Shuning, Xin, 2011)

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Central Government War Headquarters The Cold War spurred developments in numerous technology fields. The omnipresent threat of aerial bombardment immediately after WW2 was a concern for Europe. With the advent of the A-Bomb it became possible to destroy a central governing body with a single strike. Governments made plans to deal with this threat by designing fortified bunkers that would ensure continuity of government. First known as Subterfuge, but more notably as Burlington or CGWHQ, this facility was designed as a haven for the majority of critical central government employees in England and completed in 1962. It was built in a quarry in and designed to hold 4,000 people for three months. To accomplish this CGWHQ had to be self-sufficient. The facility included: a diesel power station, independent HVAC system, kitchen facilities including food storage, an underground lake, water treatment plant, governmental offices such as the Board of Trade, hospital, furniture store, bakery, post office, canteen, BBC studio, workshops, laundry, and fuel storage, among other amenities. The site comprises 240 acres, reaching .62 miles wide, and contains 60 miles of roadway.

Figure 2.5 - main road, and property map (Nettledon.com, 2013)

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Case Studies – Land Reclamation Focus Ereen Mine – Northern Steppes, Mongolia The Khangai mountain region has an elevation of 5,315 feet. The mine is located in grasslands and is utilized for cattle grazing. Peabody Energy and the Mongolian government ran the operation as a joint venture. This was the first complete reclamation project undertaken in Mongolia. In 2009 the mine was closed after 80,000 metric tons of coal had been removed, and a plan was developed by Peabody Energy for its reclamation. It addressed regional concerns having to do with soil composition, creating an appropriate plant seed mix, grading and surface preparation specifications, and material and equipment acquisition. Additionally, water wells were dug which provided domestic and livestock water supplies not previously available in the area (American Society of Mining and Reclamation, 2012).

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Figure 2.6 - Mongolia with Ereen Mine located as a red dot (JASMR Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2012)

Figure 2.7 – (qwqt.net, 2014)

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Figure 2.8 - Ereen Mine in: June '09, May '10, September '11 (JASMR Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2012)

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Welzow-South Coal Mine – Brandenburg, Germany This site has undergone a complete transformation from a toxic pit to a research-based artificial watershed spanning 14.8 acres. Cataloguing the birth of an ecosystem has been until recently prohibitive due to expansive variables that may interfere with data collection and growth. The Critical Zone4 is a new approach in scientific observation that attempts to focus on closed systems as research bases for understanding ecosystems. The Welzow site allows for observation of an ecosystem from inception to complete formation. The Swedish Vattenfall Europe Mining AG operated the mine and was responsible for the reclamation post use. A layer of regional sediment was laid down over the mine and graded. A body of water was allowed to form on part of the site. Beyond a fence, no further interaction was allowed and a number of scientific groups through institutions such as the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus began monitoring growth progress, producing some 70 papers based on their observation (Hydrol, 2009).

Figure 2.9 - mine location (Mining Atlas, 2015)

4

The interface between biotic and abiotic structures and can be regarded as the basis of life on Earth.

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Figure 2.10 - mine in 2015 after 10 years of development (Krutka, 2015)

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Black Mesa Mine – Arizona, U.S. This site is located in the Navajo Nation and operated in conjunction with Navajo citizens. It is part of a group of mines that pull 11.7 million metric tons of coal from the Earth every year. Peabody Energy operates this mine and works to ensure that reclamation occurs as operations are continuing rather than only at the end mine life. 400 acres per year are damaged, and 400 – 600 acres per year are restored. The seeding includes native grasses and medicinal plants such as Hopi Tea (Matthews, 2003).

Figure 2.11 - Black Mesa Mine (theguardian.com, 2014)

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Kőbánya - Budapest, Hungary This limestone mine operated from the 13th century through 1890. After operations ceased it sat empty, eventually becoming a brewery after lower levels flooded with clean groundwater, and then becoming empty again after the brewery shut down. It is currently a recreational diving facility, allowing divers to descend 20 stories into the Earth.

Figure 2.12 - known mine plan (Iskola, 2015)

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CHAPTER THREE: ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM Regional History Copper ore was discovered near Bingham mine in 1848 by Mormon settlers ranching livestock in the area. The then-remote area was not yet prepared to take advantage of industrial mining. Extraction did not begin until 1864 when General Patrick Conner and his soldiers were stationed in Salt Lake City during the Civil War. After the war ended, population began to increase and Conner encouraged his men, many of whom had been 49ers, to prospect. Conner had hoped to attract non-Mormons to dilute Mormon influence in Utah. In 1873 the railroad brought more miners to the area, and additionally this made lode mining5 possible which significantly increased output. By 1898 it was clear that mine widening would need to take place to accommodate the eastern US demand for copper. In 1903 the Utah Copper Company began constructing a pilot mill at the mouth of the mine which began operating in 1906. This allowed on-site processing and substantially increased efficiency. The technologies used in porphyry copper mining here became a standard for open pit mining worldwide. By 1920 there were 15,000 workers living around the mine. This population was roughly 65% foreign born and was nicknamed the “League of Nations” due to its cultural diversity. Copperton was a small town at the mouth of the seven-mile-long Bingham Canyon where management of the mine lived in model homes utilizing copper extensively in their construction. The Great Depression saw a decrease in production of 4/5ths after the boom time demand during WWI. As mechanization of the mine increased the working mine population declined to 800 by 1980. Today the mine accounts for one billion USD in wages and local economic impact (Crump, 1994).

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Lode mining is a group of miners working to unearth established veins that produce long term. Placer mining can be done by a single man with a pan sifting for loose minerals in stream beds and is short lived.

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Mine Closure Process The working life of a mine is a determined figure based on the surveyed mineral composition of a particular site. Other determining factors can be the price of ore on the commodities market, or political interference. The shutdown process can take from 2 – 10 years depending on the scope and scale of operations, and longer if there is a long term concern pertaining to water or soil contamination (Natural Resources Canada, 2012). The process has four primary steps: Initial Steps:

Production is ceased while staff is reduced to a skeleton crew

Decommissioning:

Plant and equipment are taken offline, disassembled, sold, recycled, and waste is removed or stored

Reclamation:

Land is returned to as close to a pre-mining status as possible

Ongoing Care:

Long term effectiveness of cleanup efforts, particularly where water resources are involved, is monitored.

A primary threat to reclamation is Acid Rock Drainage, which is created when sulfide minerals mix with air and water to produce sulfuric acid. When sulfuric acid comes in contact with water, the pH is lowered and will result in Ferric Iron6 which may oxidize other metals such as lead and copper. This produces water with metal particles that are prone to consumption by local wildlife (Mills, 2012). As mines have become larger to meet demand, more sulfide minerals are exposed to oxygen and nearby water sources. Heavy metals are of particular concern to aquatic life, and interfere with the reclamation process as sulfide inhibits plant growth (Price, 1998). This can be mitigated by storing waste rock under water or clay where there is limited exposure to oxygen (Johnson, 2005). When prevention is unsuccessful, treatment of affected water is possible through adding alkaline materials such as sodium hydroxide, lime, or 6

Iron containing minerals resulting from Ferric Sulfate and low pH water mixing

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limestone to reduce the pH (Johnson, 2005). However, this will produce a sludge byproduct that currently has no mass application. Increasingly, prior to opening a new mine, financial assets must be set aside to deal with the eventual cleanup. Financial assurance varies by justification and may range from a small fraction of expected cost to 100% (EPA, 2015). Arkansas, for instance, requires 100% of expected costs to be guaranteed prior to mine opening (ADEQ, 2015). The overall closure plan will have been set up long before decommissioning. There are four parts (Finger, 2008) within the plan: Remediation:

Removal and isolation of tailings7, topping affected areas with uncontaminated soil, and treating Mining Water8.

Reclamation:

Physical return of the land to a useful purpose.

Restoration:

Usage of natural plants to rebuild an ecosystem over time.

Rehabilitation:

Successful establishment of an ecosystem.

While these extensive regulations exist to ensure proper operation, enforcement is another issue entirely. The EPA Abandoned Mine Site Characterization and Cleanup Handbook is 118 pages of regulations that should reasonably guarantee public health (epa.gov, 2000). The reality is that so many sites exist that the EPA is not able to monitor all of them, and that fines are so small in comparison to violations that it has become more cost effective for companies to pay the fines. For instance, in March of 2015 Newmont USA, one of the largest gold producers worldwide with a 2014 revenue of 7.2 billion (newmont.com, 2015), agreed to pay $395,000 in fines for seven years of mercury poisoning to local water tables outside Reno, Nevada (AP, 2015). That amounts to $56,000 per year in fines for a company that had an average of 9.2

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Contaminated waste ore Water that has come into contact with any mine workings (Lottermoser, 2012)

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billion USD in revenue per year (newmont.com, 2015), or 0.00000606% of their yearly revenue. Newmont was neither required to admit fault nor make any effort to address the spillages beyond paying the civil fine.

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Site Inventory This project is located in and will be designed for the Bingham Canyon Mine outside of Salt Lake City, Utah. The zoning regulations are industrial and commercial as this site is not within city limits. There is significant solar and wind exposure that will allow for renewable energy generation. The mine is currently in the end stages of production within the main pit which is .6 miles deep, 2.5 miles across, and four miles long. The closest urbanized location is the city of South Jordan, Utah. This may serve as a basis to assist in estimating land use requirement within the mine.

Figure 3.1 - South Jordan zoning map (sjc.utah.gov, 2015)

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Figure 3.2 - site with marked building location (Google Earth, 2015)

Figure 3.3 - site perspective (Wikimedia commons, 2015)

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Figure 3.4 – (citydata.com, 2015)

Figure 3.5 - (citydata.com, 2015)

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Figure 3.6 - (citydata.com, 2015)

Figure 3.7 - (citydata.com, 2015)

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Program The central building will comprise several critical city functions as well as being a visual centerpiece evident from every location in the city. The building must serve as a transportation mechanism for the population and so must contain appropriate services to ensure foot traffic. These are estimates based on a population of 100,000 spread out over the three square mile area. Estimated requirements for the tower are as follows: Space Description

QTY

SQFT

Transit Hub:

1

29,000

Node 1

1

Node 2

1

Node 3

1

Transit:

Government: Courthouse

1

3,800

Courtroom

2

7,600

Police – Central Station

1

3,800

City Monitoring

1

3,800

Transit Management

1

3,800

1

3,800

Utility Management Water Gas

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Electricity Refuse Town Hall Meeting Room

2

7,600

Hospital

1

156,000

Convention Center

1

89,000

Open Air Courtyard

1

51,000

10 Pods

142,800

Recreational:

Residential: Support: Mechanical / Electrical

8%

Circulation

30%

Total Building Square Feet

1,753,500

OCCUPANCY Space Convention Entry Entry Offices Administration Administration Common Medical Courtyard Nodes

Load 50 200 100 100 200 100 11 200

Sq/ft Occupancy 89000 1780 29000 145 10500 105 21000 210 32000 156000 51000 1365000

160 1560 4636.363636 6825

1753500

15422

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CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN CONCERNS AND CONSIDERATIONS Transportation Facilitating vehicles in an urban space introduces a number of requirements beyond surface streets that reduce usable area greatly. Parking lots and garages, gas stations, service centers, dealerships, and inspection structures are a few examples. This car-less design utilizes nearly all of the available space for human habitation, losing only small tracts to light rail. The central tower provides a convenient method of transit for any inhabitant to move between benches or across the mine expanse. The tower has three upper nodes in addition to the ground level hub which allow the four means of 24-hour automated mass transit to converge. Light Rail: The four lines provide a mode of transit horizontally every 10 benches of the mine. This distribution was chosen to ensure enough population spread on rail lines to prevent crowding, and minimal impact on living areas by transit systems. Bridge Monorail: 12 lines provide rapid transit between mine benches and the central tower via cable stayed suspension bridges. Funicular: These diagonal transit systems provide access from bench to bench. Vertical Elevator: These 12 units span 2,400’ from the base of the tower to Node 3.

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Figure 4.1 – transit network

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Figure 4.2 – bridge monorail meets horizontal light rail at mine bench

Aside from the benefits to space utilization, focusing on mass transit systems allows cultural hubs to form. The majority of residents that live in a particular area of the mine will need to pass through specific points on a daily basis such as in Figure 4.2. This will result in light retail, eateries, and recreational facilities forming around transportation hubs rather than being spread out over great distances. Air Flow Atmospheric circulation in a hole .6 miles deep may lead to stagnant air if not exchanged properly. The central tower is hollow and provides a fan assisted draft that will circulate air down the benches and out of the mine. This mechanical process ensures both high air quality and a comfortable humidity and temperature for residents.

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Figure 4.3

Egress The central tower is a transit conduit that sits in water roughly 1000 feet from the nearest walkable ground. In the event of an emergency where, by some means, all service walkways running adjacent to monorail lines are obstructed, there must be another form of exit. Maritime lifeboats provide enclosed reinforced egress. In this case a Schat Harding CRV55 370 person lifeboat affixed to six racks of three units at the base of the tower will provide sufficient capacity in an emergency.

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Figure 4.4 - lifeboat (rina.org.uk, 2015)

Figure 4.5

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Figure 4.6 – rack location space at base

Dome Consideration Initially this design included a geodesic dome that would cover the entire site to create a controlled environment. Due to the scale involved, it was unclear if such a dome could feasibly be constructed. As the design progressed, it became clear that the difficulty and cost associated with construction would be prohibitive. The decision to remove this aspect became final after a phone conference with Structural and Seismic Engineer Mark Sarkisian. While the underlying technology to build a dome of such scale exists, the project costs and time requirements would nullify any potential reclamation successes for the foreseeable future. The original intent was to create a sealed environment so that individual living quarters need not be air tight. This was meant to allow more open and pleasant living spaces that could

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take advantage of green space. Inspiration for this particular feature came from the Hanging Gardens of Babylon which heavily employed green space to create an endless garden.

Figure 4.7 - Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Wikimedia commons, 2015)

Structure The tower uses a square HSS twisting exoskeleton in a triangular pattern which passes load to a series of six large concrete masses at the base. The central building mass at the base is a separate structure due to its proximity to the ground. The overall effect is significantly reduced load on the exoskeleton. The three nodes are affixed to the exoskeleton through concrete beams. Each of the nine cable stayed fan pattern monorail bridges are pinned at both the tower and bench face. The remaining three bridges use concrete pillars attached to the mine floor. The funicular that runs diagonally on the mine face is suspended from concrete columns that lead to a main entry building at ground level. For detailed structural calculations, see Appendix A.

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CHAPTER FIVE: ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Concepts The initial design process began with an exploration of the environment that a potential building would be exposed to. The chosen site consisted of extremes in dimensions and accessibility. The issues of airflow, transit, and height were quickly distinguished as the most significant hurdles. For a project such as this to be feasible, a modular design would need to be chosen that relied on sound design principles. Airflow requirements also dictated that the central core would need to be hollow to accommodate an adequate volume of airflow. A triangular steel exoskeleton would allow internal components to hang off the exterior frame. The shape of the form then went through several iterations, eventually producing three distinct concept masses. The twisting motion of the structure was chosen for its inherent structural stability. Origin was chosen as the name for this tower as it represents a new beginning, allowing civilization to reclaim the barren landscape.

Figure 5.1 - initial central building shape design

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Figure 5.2 - initial central building plan concept A

Figure 5.3 - initial central building perspective concept A

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Figure 5.4 - initial central building plan concept B

Figure 5.5 - initial central building perspective concept B

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Figure 5.6 - initial central building plan concept C

Figure 5.7 - initial central building perspective concept C

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Concept B proved promising in early structural calculations for strength, which was to be expected from a spiraling hexagonal design. Initially this concept had each tower function (such as a city hall, or waste treatment) compartmentalized into separate structures. In the end, this gave way to the modular focus of the overall design. Numerous smaller variants of the primary structure would mean a more complex construction process. Next, the connections to the mine walls were oriented at 800' or every 10 benches to maximize distribution. Bridges were designed to span the 12 distances established by the exoskeleton orientation.

Figure 5.8 - refined exterior building structure

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Floor Layouts The modular floor plate design allowed the same pattern to be used throughout the tower despite the rotating exoskeleton design. The emergency stairwells and elevator shafts are be the only static design objects. The three upper nodes are visible in Figure 5.9.

Air Flow Habitable Spaces

Figure 5.9 – tower section

42

Residential

Figure 5.10 – residential and node section

43

Courtyard Medical Administrative Transit Hub Convention Air Intake Egress

Figure 5.11 – tower base section

44

Figure 5.12 – egress plan

Figure 5.13 – intake plan

45

Figure 5.14 – convention plan

Figure 5.15 – transit hub plan

46

Figure 5.16 – administrative plan

Figure 5.17 – medical plan

47

Figure 5.18 – courtyard plan

Figure 5.19 – residential plan

48

Figure 5.20 – node one plan

Figure 5.21 – node two plan

49

Figure 5.22 – node three plan

50

CHAPTER SIX: STRUCTURAL DESIGN SUBSTRUCTURE

Q 4 4 1 2 1

Area H (sqft) (ft) CF 480 40 76800 340 70 95200 1030 70 72100 310 110 68200 675 140 94500

Total PCF CF 406800 165

Group # Groups 67122000 6

Total Group (#) LRFD 402732000 1.4

Total (#) 563824800

The base of this tower serves to transfer load from the steel exoskeleton to the ground. It is a series of six groups of castin-place concrete masses, one group for each corner of the hexagonal structure. The above formula stipulates that by taking the total cubic feet we can know the weight in pounds of these masses is 402,732,000 lbs. The Load and Resistance Factor Design method provides the final weight of 563,824,800 lbs.

Figure 6.1 – tower base

51

STRUCTURE

Shape HSS

Outside (in) 24

Inside in^3 Per (in) in^2 1 ft 20 176 2112

in^3 / ft^3 ft^3 1728 1.222222

H (ft) ft^3 3400 4155.556

Steel (#) # Members # LRFD # 490 2036222 54 109956000 1.4 153938400

The twisting steel HSS (Hollow Structural Section) exoskeleton of this structure provides all of the support for the upper nodes and residential spaces. 24” x 24” was chosen for the outside dimension because it had the correct aesthetic properties for the tower. The steel itself is only 2” thick, leaving an interior hollow space 20” x 20”. Then the cubic feet of steel per foot is found to be 1.222222. The total building height is factored in to find the total cubic feet of steel for one of the 54 members to be 4,155.556. This is then multiplied by the weight of steel per cubic foot, and then by the 54 members that make up the exoskeleton. Finally LRFD is applied.

Figure 6.2 – inside view down

BRIDGES

Figure 6.3 – inside view out

52

Shallow Bridge 20' Tube Tube Per Bridge Track Per Total Bridge Total Bridge (#) / 20' Sections (LF) Sections (LF) (#) Bridge (#) (#) in (#) ∠ 1860 93 40473.6 757463.424 141360 898823.4240 124862.5672 23 2090 104.5 45478.4 851128.256 158840 1009968.2560 111121.7105 21 1950 97.5 42432 794114.88 148200 942314.8800 119099.6795 22 3400 170 73984 1384610.56 258400 1643010.5600 68307.1691 13 2675 133.75 58208 1089362.72 203300 1292662.7200 86820.3271 17 2630 131.5 57228.8 1071036.992 199880 1270916.9920 88305.8460 17 2325 116.25 50592 946829.28 176700 1123529.2800 99890.0538 19 2900 145 63104 1180991.36 220400 1401391.3600 80084.2673 15 4200 210 91392 1710401.28 319200 2029601.2800 55296.2798 11 Bridge Total #

Area Stainless Sin (in^2) 319561.3508 3.9945 310077.1447 3.8760 317932.6835 3.9742 303653.474 3.7957 296951.8791 3.7119 302032.8048 3.7754 306817.643 3.8352 309421.8481 3.8678 289799.1243 3.6225

⌀ (in) 2.5 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25

100' Spacing 624312.8361 555608.5527 595498.3975 341535.8456 434101.6356 441529.2301 499450.2689 400421.3363 276481.3989

in^2 7.8039 6.9451 7.4437 4.2692 5.4263 5.5191 6.2431 5.0053 3.4560

⌀ Replacement ⌀ (in) (in) 3.25 4.5 3 4.25 3.25 4.5 2.5 3.5 2.75 3.75 2.75 3.75 3 4 2.75 3.75 2.25 3

11612218.75

Nine of the 12 bridges used for monorail transit are supported by the tower. The remaining three support themselves on concrete piers. The bridges are designed as 20’ modules that contain 435.2 linear feet of 4” diameter tube steel with a 3” diameter hollow core. This provides the total weight in lbs. of tube steel per bridge, which is added to the weight of the monorail track required to give the total bridge weight. The second portion provides what diameter of steel cable is required for each bridge. A fan pattern cable stayed connection was chosen for aesthetic reasons. This means that each cable will be a different diameter. By using the shallowest angle of the cables, which is taken from the inside angle of the longest cable, the diameter required is obtained. Finally each cable must be able to support roughly twice what it initially is able to so that the bridge will still stand when cables must eventually be replaced.

Figure 6.4 – view up

53

RESIDENTIAL

LL DL

Adjusted Sq/ft Per PSF Per Total Per Pod Initial As Presented Maximum Maximum PSF LRFD PSF Floor Floor Floors (#) Pods (#) Pods (#) 40 1.6 64 11400 1413600 14 19790400 3 59371200 10 197904000 50 1.2 60 124

Figure 6.5 – residential pod

The residential pods are simple repeating floorplates. The calculations start with finding the adjusted live (people, furniture) and dead structural load total of 124 lbs. per square foot. Then the PSF per floor is found and multiplied by 14 floors to get the total weight per pod. The tower as built will have three pods, and may accommodate a total of 10.

MONORAIL 2 Car Train (#) People 33340 120

Median (#) 180

2 Car Train At Total Capacity (#) Lines (#) 54940 9 494460

This used the weight specified for the Disney World monorail system. A median weight per passenger of 180 lbs. was used.

Figure 6.6 – transit station

54

CHECK Structure Bridge (#) (#) 153938400 11612218.75

Residential (#) 197904000

Monorail Total Total (#) (#) (K) 494460 363949078.8 363949.0788

Maximum Design Capacity (K) Excess 528000 164050.9212

Pass Yes

HSS Area 1.222222222 F=P/A 8800 Members 54

This is the overall check to ensure the structure is adequate. It combines the weight of all components and compares that number to the overall design capacity. The structure is capable of supporting 164,050,000 lbs. more than it will encounter.

Figure 6.7 - pass

55

REFERENCES

AB Elise. (2015) Eco-city 2020. Retrieved from http://www.el-ab.ru AP. (2015) 2Huge Gold Mines Paying $591K in Fines for Nevada Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/aponline ADEQ. (2015) Solid Waste Financial Responsibility. Retrieved from https://www.adeq.state.ar.us CIA World Factbook. (2015) North America :: United States. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov China Times. (2012) Roaming the dangerous surface of the Moon in Inner Mongolia. Retrieved from http://www.wantchinatimes.com Citydata.com. (2015) South Jordan City – Zoning. Retrieved from http://southjordancity.maps.arcgis.com Crump. (1994) Bingham Canyon. Retrieved http://www.uen.org EPA. (2015) Financial Assurance for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov Finger, Church. Guerard. (2008). Potential for Successful Ecological Remediation, Restoration, and Monitoring. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov Fromboluti. (2010) Above Below. Retrieved from http://www.evolo.us/architecture/

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Google Earth ( 2015) 40.5224° N, 112.1528° W Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps/ Guadrian, The (2014). Black Mesa mines: Native Americans demand return of their ancestors’ bones. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com Hydrol. (2009) The artificial water catchment “Chicken Creek” as an observatory for critical zone processes and structures. Retrieved from http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net Iskola. (2015) Diving in the flooded cellars of “Kőbánya”, Budapest. Retrieved from http://www.titanbuvar.hu JASMR. (2012) Journal of The American Society of Mining and Reclamation Vol. 1 Iss. 1. Retrieved from http://www.asmr.us/Publications/Journal/JASMR-Issue%201.pdf Johnson, Hallberg. (2005) Acid Mine Drainage Remediation Options: A Review. Retrieved from ttp://www.miningfacts.org Krutka, Jingfeng. (2005) Case Studies of Successfully Reclaimed Mining Sites. Retrieved from http://cornerstonemag.net Lottermoser. (2012) Mine Wastes: Characterization, Treatment and Environmental Impacts. Retrieved from http://www.miningfacts.org Mills. (2012) An Introduction to Acid Rock Drainage. Retrieved from http://www.miningfacts.org Mining Atlas. (2015) Welzow South. Retrieevd from https://mining-atlas.com/

57

Natural Resources Canada. (2011) Mine Closure, Mining Sequence: Mining Information for Aboriginal Communities. Retrieved from http://www.nrcan.gc.ca Nettledon.com. (2013) Burlington Bunker. Retrieved from http://www.nettleden.com Newmont. (2014) 2014 Annual Report and Form 10-K. Retrieved from http://www.newmont.com Pfannenstiel, Tumenjargal. (2012) Achieving Reclamation Success Globally – Peabody Energy’s Experience in Mongolia. Retrieved from http://www.asmr.us/Publications/Journal/Pfannenstiel-AZ.pdf Price, Errington. (1998) Guidelines For Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage at Minesites in British Columbia Retrieved from http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca Qwqt.net. (2014) Sinkholes - 直击近年"天坑"不断:吞噬房屋 阻断道路吞汔车(组图). Retrieved from http://www.qwqt.net Rina.org.uk. (2015) Mega Lifeboat. Retrieved from http://www.rina.org.uk Shuning, Xin. (2011) Underground Metroplois. Retrieved from http://www.evolo.us/architecture Sjc.utah.gov. (2015) South Jordan Zoning Map. Retrieved from Sjc.utah.gov SNL Metals and Mining. (2014) Exploration. Retrieved from http://www.snl.com

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USGS. (2013) Commodity Statistics and Information. Retrieved from http://minerals.usgs.gov U.S. Census. (2010) Data. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov Wikimedia Commons. (2015) Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page World Bank (The). (2013) Data. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/

59

APPENDICES APPENDIX A PRESENTATION BOARDS

Presentation one board

60

Presentation two board

61

Presentation three board

62

Final presentation board

63

APPENDIX B PHYSICAL MODEL PHOTOS

64

65

66

67

68

69

APPENDIX C SPECIFIED PRODUCTS Elevator Cable KONE Ultrarope Elevator Otis Skyrise 3000 lbs. 1,200 fpm Fan Big Ass Fans Powerfoil X2.0 - modified Monorail Bombardier INNOVIA 300 Plastic Sheeting American Plastic ½” White Plastic

70

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1

Concept Sketch

5

Figure 2.1

Mir Mine

6

Figure 2.2

Eco-city 2020

7

Figure 2.3

Above Below

8

Figure 2.4

Underground Metropolis

10

Figure 2.5

Central Government War Headquarters

11

Figure 2.6

Ereen mine location

13

Figure 2.7

Ereen mine damage

13

Figure 2.8

Ereen mine rehabilitation

14

Figure 2.9

Welzow South mine location

15

Figure 2.10

Welzow South mine rehabilitation

16

Figure 2.11

Black Mesa Mine

17

Figure 2.12

Kőbánya Mine map

18

Figure 3.1

South Jordan zoning map

23

Figure 3.2

Site Overhead

24

Figure 3.3

Site perspective

24

Figure 3.4

Average Temperature

25

Figure 3.5

Sunshine

25

Figure 3.6

Wind Speed

26

Figure 3.7

Precipitation

26

Figure 4.1

Transit network diagram

30

Figure 4.2

Bridge monorail diagram

31

71

Figure 4.3

Air flow diagram

32

Figure 4.4

Lifeboat

33

Figure 4.5

Egress diagram

33

Figure 4.6

Egress render

34

Figure 4.7

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

35

Figure 5.1

Initial building design sketch

36

Figure 5.2

Concept A plan

37

Figure 5.3

Concept A perspective

37

Figure 5.4

Concept B plan

38

Figure 5.5

Concept B perspective

38

Figure 5.6

Concept C plan

39

Figure 5.7

Concept C perspective

39

Figure 5.8

Refined concept

40

Figure 5.9

Tower Section

41

Figure 5.10

Residential tower section

42

Figure 5.11

Tower base section

43

Figure 5.12

Egress plan

44

Figure 5.13

Intake plan

44

Figure 5.14

Convention plan

45

Figure 5.15

Transit Hub plan

45

Figure 5.16

Administrative plan

46

Figure 5.17

Medical plan

46

Figure 5.18

Courtyard plan

47

72

Figure 5.19

Residential plan

47

Figure 5.20

Node One plan

48

Figure 5.21

Node Two plan

48

Figure 5.22

Node Three plan

49

73

VITA Graduate School Southern Illinois University Ryan Kinports [email protected] Education: Drake University BSBA, May 2010 Southern Illinois University Carbondale Master of Architecture, August 2015 Master of Business Administration, May 2015 Thesis Title: Master Plan for Repurposing Exhausted Industrial Mining Sites Through Central Infrastructure Major Professor:

Shannon McDonald

Experience: 2013 – 2015

June – August SIUC School of Architecture AutoCAD and Revit Graduate Assistant

2014

January – August SIUC School of Architecture design build program Founding Member

2013

June – July Historic shotgun home reconstruction in Cairo Illinois