Restoration Colonies New American colonies were founded in the late 17th century during period in English history known as the Restoration. The name Restoration refers to the restoration to power of an English monarch. Charles II, in 1660 following a brief period of Puritan rule under Oliver Cromwell The Carolinas As a reward for helping him gain the throne, Charles II granted a huge tract of land between Virginia and Spanish Florida to eight nobles, who in 1663 became the lord proprietors of the Carolinas. Eventually, in 1729, two royal colonies, South Carolina and North Carolina, were formed from the original proprietorship. South Carolina In 1670, in the southern Carolinas, a few colonists from England some planters from the island of Barbados founded a town named for their king. Initially, the southern economy was based on trading furs and providing food for the West Indies. By the middle of the 18th century, South Carolina's large rice-growing plantations worked by African slaves resembled the economy and culture of the West Indies. North Carolina The northern part of the Carolinas developed differently. There, farmers from Virginia and New England established small, selfsufficient tobacco farms. The region had few good harbors and poor transportation, therefore, compared to South Carolina, there were fewer large plantations less reliance on slavery. North Carolina in the 18th century earned a reputation for democratic views and autonomy from British control. New York Charles II wished to consolidate the crown's holdings along the Atlantic Coast and close the gap between the New England and the Chesapeake colonies. This required compelling the Dutch to give up their colony of New Amsterdam centered on Manhattan Island and the Hudson River Valley. In 1664, the king granted his brother, the Duke of York (the future James II), the lands lying between Connecticut and Delaware Bay. As the lord high admiral of the navy, James dispatched a force that easily took control of the Dutch colony from its governor, Peter Stuyvesant. James ordered his agents in the renamed colony of New York to treat the Dutch settlers well and to allow them freedom to worship as they pleased and speak their own language. James also ordered new taxes, duties, and rents without seeking the consent of a representative assembly. He insisted that no assembly should be allowed to form in his colony. Taxation without representation met strong opposition from New York's English-speaking settlers, most of whom were Puritans from New England. Finally, in 1683, James yielded by allowing New York's governor to grant board civil and political rights, including a representative assembly. New Jersey Believing that the territory of New York was too large to administer, James in 1664 gave to two friends, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, that section of the colony located between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay. In 1674, one proprietor received West New Jersey and the other East New Jersey. To attract settlers, both proprietors made generous land offers and allowed religious freedom and an assembly. Eventually, they sold their proprietary interests to various groups of Quakers. Land titles in the Jerseys changed hands repeatedly, and inaccurate property lines added to the general confusion. To settle matters, the crown decided in 1702 to combine the two Jerseys into a single royal colony called New Jersey
Pennsylvania To the west of New Jersey lay a broad expanse of forested land that was originally settled by a peace-loving Christian sect, the Quakers. Members of the Religious Society of Friends (popularly known as Quakers) believed in the equality of all men and women, nonviolence, and resistance to military service. They also believed that religious authority was found within each person's private soul and not in the Bible or any outside source. In the 17th century, such views seemed to pose a radical challenge to established authority. Therefore, the Quakers of England were widely persecuted and jailed for their beliefs. William Penn William Penn was a young convert to the Quaker faith. His father had been a victorious admiral in the service of the king. Although the elder Penn opposed his son's religious beliefs, he respected his sincerity and upon his death he left his son considerable wealth. In addition, the royal family owed the father a large debt, which was paid to William Penn in 1681 in the form of a grant of land in the Americas for a colony which he called Pennsylvania, or Penn's woods. "The Holy Experiment" Penn wanted to test ideas he had developed based on his Quaker beliefs. He wanted his new colony to achieve three purposes: provide a religious refuge for Quakers and other persecuted people, enact liberal ideas in government, and generate income and profits for himself. He provide the colony with a Frame of Government (1682), which guaranteed a representative assembly elected by landowners, and a written constitution, the Charter of Liberties (1701), which guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration. Unlike other colonial proprietors, who governed from afar in England, Penn crossed the ocean to supervise the founding of a new town no the Delaware River named Philadelphia. He brought with him a plan for a grid pattern of streets, which was later imitated by other American cities. Also unusual was Penn's attempt to treat the Native Americans fairly and not to cheat them when purchasing their land. To attract settlers to his new land, Penn hired agents and published notices throughout Europe, which promised political and religious freedom and generous land terms. Penn's lands along the Delaware River had previously been settled by several thousand Dutch and Swedish colonists, who eased the arrival of the newcomers attracted by Penn's promotion. Delaware In 1702, Penn granted the lower three counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly. This act created Delaware as a separate colony, even though its governor was the same as Pennsylvania's until the American Revolution. Georgia: The Last Colony In 1732, a 13th colony, Georgia, was chartered. It was both the last of the British colonies and also the only one to receive direct financial support from the home government in London. There were two principal reasons for British interest in starting a new southern colony. First, Britain wanted to create a defensive buffer to protect the prosperous South Carolina plantations from the threat of invasion from Spanish Florida. Second, thousands of people in London and other cities were being imprisoned for debt. Wealthy philanthropists thought it would relieve the overcrowded jails and prison ships if debtors could be shipped to an American colony to start life over. Given a royal charter for a proprietary colony, a group of philanthropists led by James Oglethorpe founded Georgia's first settlement, Savannah, in 1733. He acted as the colony's first governor and put into effect an elaborate plan for making the colony thrive. There were strict regulations, including an absolute ban on drinking rum and the prohibition of slavery. Partly because of the constant threat of Spanish attack, the colony did not prosper. By 1752, Oglethorpe and his group gave up their plan. Taken over by the British government, Georgia became a royal colony. Restrictions on rum and slavery were dropped. The colony grew slowly by adopting the plantation system of South Carolina. Even so, at the time of the American Revolution in the 1770s, Georgia was still the smallest and poorest of the 13 colonies.
Restoration Colonies The Carolinas 1. 2.
South Carolina 1. 2. 3.
North Carolina 1. 2. 3.
New York 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
New Jersey 1. 2. 3. 4.
Pennsylvania 1. 2. 3. 4.
William Penn 1. 2. 3.
"The Holy Experiment" 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Delaware 1. 2.
Georgia: The Last Colony 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.