Revising WHO guidelines on the management of children - Capgan

Revising WHO guidelines on the management of children - Capgan

Revising WHO guidelines on the management of children with severe malnutrition Commonwealth Association for Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ...

2MB Sizes 0 Downloads 2 Views

Recommend Documents

EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of
EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection q. European Association for the

ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular - ancissste
Authors/Task Force Members: Vera Regitz-Zagrosek (Chairperson) (Germany)*,. Carina Blomstrom Lundqvist (Sweden), Claudio

Children Who Bully - HSTA
Interventions that focus on building the self-esteem of children who bully probably will not be ineffective in stopping

WHO Guidelines on production, control and regulation of snake
5.4 Sea snake venoms . ... 7.1 Production of snake venoms for immunization . ...... It is composed of mineral oil, an em

Guidelines for the management of diabetes mellitus
Glipizide can be given as a single dose up to 15 mg/day orally before meals and .... levels are in mmol/L. FBS – fasti

Revising the Title - Pearsoncmg.com
book—like Toad by Ruth Brown or The Twits by Roald Dahl. Some refer to an event like Miss Nelson Is Missing! by James

WHO estimates of the causes of death in children - Rethinking
Mar 26, 2005 - estimates of the number of deaths in children younger than age 5 ..... We thank Gareth Jones for early in

Europe
Safety Bureau, Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution: Progress Report No.1. - Summary on the discussion

Children who exaggerate - Trauma Care
For many children, telling tall stories is just a part of growing up. According to David ... using the tall tales as a w

WHO guidelines for the treatment of Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
Overview of the guidelines for the prevention, treatment and management of STIs. 6. STI epidemiology .... Suzanne Garlan

Revising WHO guidelines on the management of children with severe malnutrition Commonwealth Association for Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition London, 21-23 July 2011

Revising WHO guidelines on the management of children with severe malnutrition Commonwealth Association for Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 21-23 July 2011, London

Metabolic changes while reversing reductive adaptation

Scientific paradigms

• • • • •

Protein paradigm Energy paradigm Hospital for case-management Free radical paradigm Micronutrient paradigm

1930-1970 1970 1970-2005 1987 1990

1999………………

Why is the management of severe malnutrition not visible in the international health agenda?

How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet 2003; 362: 13.

The GRADE approach Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation www.GradeWorking-Group.org

• Since 2007, WHO's process of producing guidelines have changed – The GRADE approach is a key component of this process.

• The aim is to ensure that WHO guidelines are consistent with internationally accepted best practices, including the appropriate use of evidence.

Developing recommendations: eminence and evidence • Judgments about evidence and recommendations in healthcare are complex and need to consider issues such as feasibility and cost in addition to clinical efficacy • Steps include – Framing the appropriate questions and deciding the relevant outcomes – Identifying evidence to address these questions – Assessing the quality of that evidence – Determining if a specific method does more good than harm compared with other existing methods

GRADE Process Evidence retrieval Assessment of its quality Risk/benefit analysis Acceptability cost and feasibility

Recommendation The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation www.gradeworkinggroup.org/

Preparation and evidence retrieval

The GRADE evidence profile Summary of findings Quality assessment

No of studies (Ref) Benefits: Outcome

Harms:

Outcome Footnotes:

Design

Limitations

Consistency

No of patients

Directness

Other considerations

Intervention

Control

Effect Baseline risk (without treatment) (95%CI)

Relative risk (95%CI)

NNT/NN H (95%CI)

Quality

Importanc e

Examples from the IOL Guidelines

GRADE – 4 levels of evidence The extent to which one can be confident that an estimate of the effect or association is correct.

High

Further research unlikely to change the evidence

Moderate

Further research likely to have impact on the evidence

Low

Further research is very likely to have an impact on the evidence

Very low

Estimate of quality is very uncertain

Strength of recommendation

Strong vs. weak

• Patients: Most people in this situation would want the recommended course of action and only a small proportion would not • Clinicians: Most patients should receive the recommended course of action • Policy makers: The recommendation can be adapted as a policy in most situations

Differences • Process is more explicit • Uniform system of grading quality of evidence • Specifies strength of recommendations – Strong: Do it or don't do it – Weak: Probably do it or probably don't do it

• Makes it easier for users to assess judgements behind recommendations

Revising the guidelines for managing children with severe malnutrition • Review existing guidelines and determine potential areas for revisions • Identify issues to be addressed and formulate as PICOT questions (Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Timeline) • Systematic review with findings collated as GRADE tables • Draft recommendations formulated (by internal WHO group) • Guideline development group assesses draft recommendations according to: – systematic review – risk / benefit tables (incl. values, costing, feasibility)

• Confirm or revise draft recommendations – Allocate strength of recommendation

• Document and publish all materials and rationale for recommendations

NUGAG Work 2010-2011 Area acute malnutrition: SAM 1. Antibiotic treatment in children with SAM. 2. What are the implications of severe acute malnutrition on ART initiation and dosing? 3. Effectiveness and safety of vitamin A supplementation in children with SAM 4. Management of dehydration without shock due to diarrhoea ( and vomiting) in children with SAM 5. Management of shock with IV fluids. in children with SAM 6. Blood or plasma transfusion in children with shock after failure of intravenous fluid in children with SAM 7. Feeding inpatient children with SAM and diarrhoea 8. Feeding outpatient children with SAM and diarrhoea 9. Feeding children with SAM in transition phase 10. Feeding the severely malnourished infants less than 6 months of age 11. Support to the mother/wet nurse for children under 6 months with SAM 12. Admission and discharge criteria for infants less than 6 months with SAM 13. Screening criteria for SAM children to be treated as outpatient 14. Discharge criteria for children over 6 months with SAM

Southampton systematic review Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre (SHTAC)

• What methods are effective for treating SAM among infants less than six months old? • Which form of IV fluid administration is most effective for treating shock? • What are the best treatments for children with SAM who have diarrhoea? – Composition of ORS for Mx of acute diarrhoea – Nutritional Mx of persistent diarrhoea

• What methods are effective in treating infection? – Antibiotics in inpatient settings – Antibiotics and RUTF vs. RUTF alone

Question: How best to feed the SM infant less than 6 mo of age (breastfed or non-breastfed infants)? Settings: Inpatient SM infants less than 6 mo of age.

Question: Management of shock with intravenous fluids in children with SM Settings: All settings

Question: Feeding children with SM and persistent diarrhoea Settings: All settings

Question: Feeding children with SM and persistent diarrhoea Settings: All settings

Question: Antibiotic treatment in children with SM Settings: All settings

Other questions • Timing of when to give vitamin A • The role of blood transfusion if immediate resuscitation with crystalloids fails? • How to feed children with diarrhoea and uncomplicated SM (outpatient) • How to transition between feeds • The child with HIV / living in an HIV prevalent area

Limited data available on target population • Extrapolating from other settings

Vitamin A benefits children with severe malnutrition

Vitamin A benefits children with HIV

No particular concern to recommend vitamin A for HIV infected children with severe malnutrition

Limited data available on target population • Extrapolating from other settings

?

Problem areas •Fluid management •Infant less than 6 months

•Timing of initiation of antiretroviral treatment

Clinical care issues that are not amenable to comparative research but greatly influence care • How to assess and monitor fluid status in the malnourished child? • How to implement in local settings and maintain quality of care over time? • Linking with prevention, and care after discharge in poor communities

November 2011 – early 2012 • Guideline development group meeting to review Grade summaries and to consider whether the evidence supports proposed new recommendations Summary of updated recommendations

• List of key research questions/priorities What will not be sorted …… • Format and organization of guidelines to make them most useful when used by health workers • Suggestions other than formal recommendations that also guide clinical practices

Role of CAPGAN • Non-published programme data / practices that may inform guidelines • Participate in guideline development • Serve as an additional reference group after formulation of recommendations

Many thanks Zita Weise Prinzo – [email protected] Nigel Rollins – [email protected]